Society for Ambulatory Assessment

Fourth quarter 2015 (October to December)

Bamberger, Katharine T. (2015): The application of intensive longitudinal methods to investigate change: Stimulating the field of applied family research. In: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review. DOI: 10.1007/s10567-015-0194-6.

The use of intensive longitudinal methods (ILM)—rapid in situ assessment at micro timescales—can be overlaid on RCTs and other study designs in applied family research. Particularly, when done as part of a multiple timescale design—in bursts over macro timescales—ILM can advance the study of the mechanisms and effects of family interventions and processes of family change. ILM confers measurement benefits in accurately assessing momentary and variable experiences and captures fine-grained dynamic pictures of time-ordered processes. Thus, ILM allows opportunities to investigate new research questions about intervention effects on within-subject (i.e., within-person, within-family) variability (i.e., dynamic constructs) and about the time-ordered change process that interventions induce in families and family members beginning with the first intervention session. This paper discusses the need and rationale for applying ILM to family intervention evaluation, new research questions that can be addressed with ILM, example research using ILM in the related fields of basic family research and the evaluation of individual-based interventions. Finally, the paper touches on practical challenges and considerations associated with ILM and points readers to resources for the application of ILM.

Band, Rebecca; Barrowclough, Christine; Emsley, Richard; Machin, Matthew; Wearden, Alison J. (2015): Significant other behavioural responses and patient chronic fatigue syndrome symptom fluctuations in the context of daily life: An experience sampling study. In: British Journal of Health Psychology. DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12179.

Objective Significant other responses to patients’ symptoms are important for patient illness outcomes in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS/ME); negative responses have been associated with increased patient depression, whilst increased disability and fatigue have been associated with solicitous significant other responses. The current study aimed to examine the relationship between significant other responses and patient outcomes within the context of daily life. Design Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM). Method Twenty‐three patients with CFS/ME and their significant others were recruited from specialist CFS/ME services. Sixty momentary assessments, delivered using individual San Francisco Android Smartphones, were conducted over a period of 6 days. All participants reported on affect, dyadic contact, and significant other responses to the patient. Patients reported on symptom severity, disability, and activity management strategies. Results Negative significant other responses were associated with increased patient symptom severity and distress reported at the same momentary assessment; there was evidence of a potentially mediating role of concurrent distress on symptom severity. Patient‐perceived solicitous responses were associated with reduced patient activity and disability reported at the same momentary assessment. Lagged analyses indicate that momentary associations between significant other responses and patient outcomes are largely transitory; significant other responses were not associated with any of the patient outcomes at the subsequent assessment. Conclusion The results indicate that significant other responses are important influences on the day‐to‐day experience of CFS/ME. Further research examining patient outcomes in association with specific significant other behavioural responses is warranted and future interventions that target such significant other behaviours may be beneficial. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? The existing literature has identified that significant other responses are important with respect to patient outcomes in CFS/ME. In particular, when examined cross‐sectionally and longitudinally, negative and solicitous significant other responses are associated with poorer illness outcomes. This study is the first to examine the momentary associations between negative and solicitous responses, as reported by the patient and significant other, and patient‐reported outcomes. An ESM paradigm was used to assess these temporal relationships within the context of participants’ daily life. What does this study add? Negative responses were associated with increased momentary patient distress and symptoms. Perceived solicitousness was associated with activity limitation but less perceived disability. The impact of significant other responses on patient outcomes was found to be transitory.

Barnes, Christopher M.; Lucianetti, Lorenzo; Bhave, Devasheesh P.; Christian, Michael S. (2015): ‘You wouldn’t like me when I’m sleepy’: Leaders’ sleep, daily abusive supervision, and work unit engagement. In: Academy of Management Journal 58 (5), S. 1419–1437. DOI: 10.5465/amj.2013.1063.

We examine the daily sleep of leaders as an antecedent to daily abusive supervisory behavior and work unit engagement. Drawing from ego depletion theory, our theoretical extension includes a serial mediation model of nightly sleep quantity and quality as predictors of abusive supervision. We argue that poor nightly sleep influences leaders to enact daily abusive behaviors via ego depletion, and these abusive behaviors ultimately result in decreased daily subordinate unit work engagement. We test this model through an experience sampling study spread over 10 workdays with data from both supervisors and their subordinates. Our study supports the role of the indirect effects of sleep quality (but not of sleep quantity) via leader ego depletion and daily abusive supervisor behavior on daily subordinate unit work engagement.

Bell, Sarah L.; Phoenix, Cassandra; Lovell, Rebecca; Wheeler, Benedict W. (2015): Seeking everyday wellbeing: The coast as a therapeutic landscape. In: Social Science & Medicine 142, S. 56–67. DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.08.011.

Recent research suggests coastal environments may promote human health and wellbeing. This article explores the diverse coastal experiences sought out by residents of two towns in south west England to promote and preserve their personal wellbeing in the context of their everyday lives. It draws on the findings of an in-depth interpretive study conducted from May to November 2013 that examined the relative contribution of varied green and blue space experiences to individual wellbeing through the life course. Personalised activity maps produced using accelerometer and Global Positioning System (GPS) data were used to guide in-depth geo-narrative interviews with a purposive sample of 33 participants. This was combined with a subset of nine case study go-along interviews in places deemed therapeutic by the participants themselves, offering deeper insight into the lived experiences and relationships playing out within such places. Situated in a novel adaptation of the therapeutic landscapes framework, this article explores how symbolic, achievement-oriented, immersive and social experiences contributed to participants’ sense of wellbeing in their local coastal areas. Participants expressed particularly strong and often enduring connections to the local coastline, with different coastal stretches perceived to cater for varied therapeutic needs and interests, at multiple scales and intensities. The findings suggest the need for greater acknowledgement of people’s emotional, deeply embodied and often shared connections to the coast within coastal management policy and practice, both nationally and internationally. Importantly, such efforts should recognise the fluid, dynamic nature of this land-sea boundary, and the valued therapeutic experiences linked to this fluidity.

Benoit Allen, Kristy; Silk, Jennifer S.; Meller, Suzanne; Tan, Patricia Z.; Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Sheeber, Lisa B. et al. (2015): Parental autonomy granting and child perceived control: Effects on the everyday emotional experience of anxious youth. In: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. DOI: 10.1111/jcpp.12482.

Background Childhood anxiety is associated with low levels of parental autonomy granting and child perceived control, elevated child emotional reactivity and deficits in child emotion regulation. In early childhood, low levels of parental autonomy granting are thought to decrease child perceived control, which in turn leads to increases in child negative emotion. Later in development, perceived control may become a more stable, trait‐like characteristic that amplifies the relationship between parental autonomy granting and child negative emotion. The purpose of this study was to test mediation and moderation models linking parental autonomy granting and child perceived control with child emotional reactivity and emotion regulation in anxious youth. Methods Clinically anxious youth (N = 106) and their primary caregivers were assessed prior to beginning treatment. Children were administered a structured diagnostic interview and participated in a parent–child interaction task that was behaviorally coded for parental autonomy granting. Children completed an ecological momentary assessment protocol during which they reported on perceived control, emotional reactivity (anxiety and physiological arousal) and emotion regulation strategy use in response to daily negative life events. Results The relationship between parental autonomy granting and both child emotional reactivity and emotion regulation strategy use was moderated by child perceived control: the highest levels of self‐reported physiological responding and the lowest levels of acceptance in response to negative events occurred in children low in perceived control with parents high in autonomy granting. Evidence for a mediational model was not found. In addition, child perceived control over negative life events was related to less anxious reactivity and greater use of both problem solving and cognitive restructuring as emotion regulation strategies. Conclusion Both parental autonomy granting and child perceived control play important roles in the everyday emotional experience of clinically anxious children.

Bieg, Madeleine; Goetz, Thomas; Wolter, Ilka; Hall, Nathan C. (2015): Gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicts girls’ and boys’ trait-state discrepancy in math anxiety. In: Frontiers in psychology 6, S. 1404. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01404.

Mathematics is associated with anxiety for many students; an emotion linked to lower well-being and poorer learning outcomes. While findings typically show females to report higher trait math anxiety than males, no gender differences have to date been found in state (i.e., momentary) math anxiety. The present diary study aimed to replicate previous findings in investigating whether levels of academic self-concept was related to this discrepancy in trait vs. state anxiety measures. Additionally, mathematics-related gender stereotype endorsement (mathematics is a male domain) was investigated as an additional predictor of the trait-state discrepancy. The sample included 755 German 9th and 10th graders who completed self-report measures of trait math anxiety, math self-concept, and gender stereotype endorsement, in addition to state measures of anxiety after math classes by use of a standardized diary for 2-3 weeks (N within = 6207). As expected, females reported higher trait math anxiety but no gender differences were found for state math anxiety. Also in line with our assumptions, multilevel analyses showed the discrepancy between trait and state anxiety to be negatively related to students’ self-concept (i.e., a lower discrepancy for students with higher self-concepts). Furthermore, gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicted the trait-state discrepancy: When controlling for self-concept in mathematics, females who endorsed the gender stereotype of math being a male domain more strongly overestimated their trait math anxiety as compared to their state anxiety whereas this effect was not significant for males. The present findings suggest that gender stereotype endorsement plays an important role in explaining gender differences in math anxiety above and beyond academic self-concept. Implications for future research and educational practice are discussed.

Bigal, Marcelo E.; Dodick, David W.; Rapoport, Alan M.; Silberstein, Stephen D.; Ma, Yuju; Yang, Ronghua et al. (2015): Safety, tolerability, and efficacy of TEV-48125 for preventive treatment of high-frequency episodic migraine: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2b study. In: The Lancet Neurology 14 (11), S. 1081–1090. DOI: 10.1016/S1474-4422(15)00249-5.

Background: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a validated target for the treatment of episodic migraine. Here we assess the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of TEV-48125, a monoclonal anti-CGRP antibody, in the preventive treatment of high-frequency episodic migraine. Methods: In this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2b study, we enrolled men and women (aged 18–65 years) from 62 sites in the USA who had migraine headaches 8–14 days per month. Using a randomisation list generated by a central computerised system and an interactive web response system, we randomly assigned patients (1:1:1; stratified by sex and use of concomitant preventive drugs) after a 28 day run-in period to three 28 day treatment cycles of subcutaneous 225 mg TEV-48125, 675 mg TEV-48125, or placebo. Investigators, patients, and the funder were blinded to treatment allocation. Patients reported headache information daily using an electronic diary. Primary endpoints were change from baseline in migraine days during the third treatment cycle (weeks 9–12) and safety and tolerability. The secondary endpoint was change relative to baseline in headache-days during weeks 9–12. Efficacy endpoints were analysed for the intention-to-treat population. Safety and tolerability were analysed using descriptive statistics. This trial is registered at, number NCT02025556. Findings: Between Jan 8, 2014, and Oct 15, 2014, we enrolled 297 participants: 104 were randomly assigned to receive placebo, 95 to receive 225 mg TEV-48125, and 96 to receive 675 mg TEV-48125. The least square mean (LSM) change in number of migraine-days from baseline to weeks 9–12 was −3·46 days (SD 5·40) in the placebo group, −6·27 days (5·38) in the 225 mg dose group, and −6·09 days (5·22) in the 675 mg dose group. The LSM difference in the reduction of migraine-days between the placebo and 225 mg dose groups was −2·81 days (95% CI −4·07 to −1·55; p<0·0001), whereas the difference between the placebo and 675 mg dose group was −2·64 days (−3·90 to −1·38; p<0·0001). LSM differences in the reduction of headache-days were −2·63 days (−3·91 to −1·34; p<0·0001) between the placebo group and 225 mg dose group and −2·58 days (−3·87 to 1·30; p <0·0001) between the placebo group and the 675 mg dose group. Adverse events occurred in 58 (56%) patients in the placebo group, 44 (46%) patients in the 225 mg dose group, and 57 (59%) patients in the 675 mg dose group; moderate or severe adverse events were reported for 29 (27%) patients, 24 (25%) patients, and 26 (27%) patients, respectively. Interpretation: TEV-48125, at doses of 225 mg and 675 mg given once every 28 days for 12 weeks, was safe, well tolerated, and effective as a preventive treatment of high-frequency episodic migraine, thus supporting advancement of the clinical development programme to phase 3 clinical trials.

Black, Anne C.; Cooney, Ned L.; Justice, Amy C.; Fiellin, Lynn E.; Pietrzak, Robert H.; Lazar, Christina M.; Rosen, Marc I. (2016): Momentary assessment of PTSD symptoms and sexual risk behavior in male OEF/OIF/OND Veterans. In: Journal of affective disorders 190, S. 424–428. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2015.10.039.

BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Veterans is associated with increased sexual risk behaviors, but the nature of this association is not well understood. Typical PTSD measurement deriving a summary estimate of symptom severity over a period of time precludes inferences about symptom variability, and whether momentary changes in symptom severity predict risk behavior. METHODS: We assessed the feasibility of measuring daily PTSD symptoms, substance use, and high-risk sexual behavior in Veterans using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Feasibility indicators were survey completion, PTSD symptom variability, and variability in rates of substance use and sexual risk behavior. Nine male Veterans completed web-based questionnaires by cell phone three times per day for 28 days. RESULTS: Median within-day survey completion rates maintained near 90%, and PTSD symptoms showed high within-person variability, ranging up to 59 points on the 80-point scale. Six Veterans reported alcohol or substance use, and substance users reported use of more than one drug. Eight Veterans reported 1 to 28 high-risk sexual events. Heightened PTSD-related negative affect and externalizing behaviors preceded high-risk sexual events. Greater PTSD symptom instability was associated with having multiple sexual partners in the 28-day period. LIMITATIONS: These results are preliminary, given this small sample size, and multiple comparisons, and should be verified with larger Veteran samples. CONCLUSIONS: Results support the feasibility and utility of using of EMA to better understand the relationship between PTSD symptoms and sexual risk behavior in Veterans. Specific antecedent-risk behavior patterns provide promise for focused clinical interventions.

Blake, Grant A.; Ferguson, Stuart G.; Palmer, Matthew A.; Shiffman, Saul (2015): Development and Psychometric Properties of the Smoking Restraint Questionnaire. In: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors. DOI: 10.1037/adb0000134.

Restraint is a component of self-control that focuses on the deliberate reduction of an undesired behavior and is theorized to play a role in smoking reduction and cessation. However, there exists no instrument to assess smoking restraint. This research aimed to develop the Smoking Restraint Questionnaire (SRQ) to meet this need. Participants were 406 smokers (48% female; 52.2% nondaily) with a mean age of 38.83 years (SD = 12.05). They completed a baseline questionnaire designed to assess smoking restraint. They also completed 21 days of ecological momentary assessment (EMA), during which they recorded each cigarette smoked and answered questions related to planned restraint every morning, and restraint attempts every evening. The 4-item questionnaire of smoking restraint was found to fit a single factor (root mean square error of approximaiton = .038, comparative fit index = .99, Tucker-Lewis index = .99), and the resulting composite was reliable (composite reliability = 0.74). The questionnaire contains items that assess the setting of weekly restraint goals and attempts at not lighting up when tempted to smoke. Participant SRQ scores positively correlated with EMA data on plans to restrain (p < .001) and frequency of restraint attempts (p < .001). These correlations suggest that the SRQ has good predictive validity in relation to the intention and behaviors of smoking reduction. The SRQ is promising as a measure of smoking restraint and may enable further research and insights into smoking reduction and cessation.

Blalock, Dan V.; Kashdan, Todd B.; Farmer, Antonina S. (2015): Trait and daily emotion regulation in social anxiety disorder. In: Cognitive Therapy and Research. DOI: 10.1007/s10608-015-9739-8.

Emotion regulation strategies vary widely in use and effectiveness across psychological diagnostic categories. However, little data exists on (1) the use of these strategies in social anxiety disorder (SAD), and (2) how trait measures compare with actual daily use of emotion regulation strategies. We collected trait and daily assessments of emotion suppression, cognitive reappraisal, and positive and negative emotions from 40 adults with SAD and 39 matched healthy controls. Participants with SAD reported greater trait suppression and less cognitive reappraisal than healthy controls, and exhibited this same pattern of emotion regulation in daily life. Participants overall reported worse emotional experiences when suppressing positive (vs. negative) emotions, and better emotional experiences when reappraising to feel more positive (vs. less negative) emotions. However, SAD participants exhibited greater benefits (specifically increased positive emotions) from reappraising to feel less negative than healthy controls. These findings highlight the importance of positive emotion regulation strategies, particularly for individuals with SAD.

Blechert, Jens; Peyk, Peter; Liedlgruber, Michael; Wilhelm, Frank H. (2015): ANSLAB: Integrated multichannel peripheral biosignal processing in psychophysiological science. In: Behavior research methods. DOI: 10.3758/s13428-015-0665-1.

Psychophysiological science employs a large variety of signals from the human body that index the activity of the peripheral nervous system. This allows for studying interactions of psychological and physiological processes that are relevant for understanding cognition, emotion, and psychopathology. The multidimensional nature of the data and the interactions between different physiological signals represent a methodological and computational challenge. Analysis software in this domain is often limited in its coverage of the signals from different physiological systems, and therefore only partially addresses these challenges. ANSLAB (short for Autonomic Nervous System Laboratory) is an integrated software suite that supports data visualization, artifact detection, data reduction, automated processing, and statistical analysis for a large range of autonomic, respiratory, and muscular measures. Analysis modules for cardiovascular (e.g., electrocardiogram, heart rate variability, blood pressure wave, pulse wave, and impedance cardiography), electrodermal (skin conductance level and responses), respiratory (respiratory pattern, timing, and volume variables, as well as capnography), and muscular (eye-blink startle, facial and bodily electromyography) systems are complemented by specialized modules (e.g., body temperature and accelerometry, cross-spectral analysis of respiratory and cardiac measures, signal averaging, and statistical analysis) and productivity-enhancing features (batched processing, fully automatized analyses, and data management). ANSLAB also facilitates the analysis of long-term recordings from ambulatory assessment studies. The present article reviews several analysis modules included in ANSLAB and describes how these address some of the current needs and methodological challenges of psychophysiological science.

Bleidorn, Wiebke; Denissen, Jaap J. A. (2015): Virtues in action—The new look of character traits. In: British Journal of Psychology 106 (4), S. 700–723. DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12117.

The present study aimed to take fresh look at the nature and psychological meaning of consistency in character traits and virtuous behaviour as manifested in everyday life. To this end, a 10‐day experience‐sampling study was conducted. Using smartphone technology, a sample of 83 working mothers and fathers provided a total of 4,342 momentary behavioural reports while being in the role of the parent versus being in the job role. Consistent with recent research on personality traits, the findings of the present study showed that people express a wide range of virtue states in their everyday lives. Within‐person changes in virtue states were not random but were contingent on people’s current role context and also meaningfully related to their momentary affective experiences. At the same time, people’s average level of virtue states, their degree of variation in virtue states, and their signature ways of reacting to role contexts turned out to be stable, trait‐like individual difference characteristics. Discussion focuses on the implications for the conception of character traits in scientific psychology and beyond.

Boker, Steven M.; Brick, Timothy R.; Pritikin, Joshua N.; Wang, Yang; Oertzen, Timo von; Brown, Donald et al. (2015): Maintained Individual Data Distributed Likelihood Estimation (MIDDLE). In: Multivariate behavioral research 50 (6), S. 706–720. DOI: 10.1080/00273171.2015.1094387.

Maintained Individual Data Distributed Likelihood Estimation (MIDDLE) is a novel paradigm for research in the behavioral, social, and health sciences. The MIDDLE approach is based on the seemingly impossible idea that data can be privately maintained by participants and never revealed to researchers, while still enabling statistical models to be fit and scientific hypotheses tested. MIDDLE rests on the assumption that participant data should belong to, be controlled by, and remain in the possession of the participants themselves. Distributed likelihood estimation refers to fitting statistical models by sending an objective function and vector of parameters to each participant’s personal device (e.g., smartphone, tablet, computer), where the likelihood of that individual’s data is calculated locally. Only the likelihood value is returned to the central optimizer. The optimizer aggregates likelihood values from responding participants and chooses new vectors of parameters until the model converges. A MIDDLE study provides significantly greater privacy for participants, automatic management of opt-in and opt-out consent, lower cost for the researcher and funding institute, and faster determination of results. Furthermore, if a participant opts into several studies simultaneously and opts into data sharing, these studies automatically have access to individual-level longitudinal data linked across all studies.

Bold, Krysten W.; McCarthy, Danielle E.; Minami, Haruka; Yeh, Vivan M.; Chapman, Gretchen B.; Waters, Andrew J. (2015): Independent and interactive effects of real-time risk factors on later temptations and lapses among smokers trying to quit. In: Drug and Alcohol Dependence. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.10.024.

PURPOSE: The current study sought to expand our understanding of relapse mechanisms by identifying the independent and interactive effects of real-time risk factors on temptations and the ability to resist temptations in smokers during a quit attempt. PROCEDURES: This study was a secondary analysis of data from 109 adult, treatment-seeking daily smokers. Ecological momentary assessment data was collected 4 times a day for 21 days following a quit attempt and was used to assess affect, urge, impulsiveness, recent cigarette exposure, and alcohol use as predictors of temptations to smoke and smoking up to 8h later. All smokers received nicotine replacement therapy and smoking cessation counseling. FINDINGS: In multinomial hierarchical linear models, there were significant main (agitation odds ratio (OR)=1.22, 95% CI=1.02–1.48; urge OR=1.60, 95% CI=1.35–1.92; nicotine dependence measured by WISDM OR=1.04, 95% CI=1.01–1.08) and interactive effects (agitation×urge OR=1.12, 95% CI=1.01–1.27; urge×cigarette exposure OR=1.38, 95% CI=1.10–1.76; positive affect×impulsiveness OR=2.44, 95% CI=1.02–5.86) on the odds of temptations occurring, relative to abstinence without temptation. In contrast, prior smoking (OR=3.46, 95% CI=2.58–4.63), higher distress (OR=1.30, 95% CI=1.06–1.60), and recent alcohol use (OR=3.71, 95% CI=1.40–9.89) predicted smoking versus resisting temptation, and momentary impulsiveness was related to smoking for individuals with higher baseline impulsiveness (OR=1.12, 95% CI=1.04–1.22). CONCLUSIONS: The risk factors and combinations of factors associated with temptations and smoking lapses differ, suggesting a need for separate models of temptation and lapse.

Bos, Fionneke M.; Schoevers, Robert A.; aan het Rot, Marije (2015): Experience sampling and ecological momentary assessment studies in psychopharmacology: A systematic review. In: European Neuropsychopharmacology 25 (11), S. 1853–1864. DOI: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2015.08.008.

Experience sampling methods (ESM) and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) offer insight into daily life experiences, including symptoms of mental disorders. The application of ESM/EMA in psychopharmacology can be a valuable addition to more traditional measures such as retrospective self-report questionnaires because they may help reveal the impact of psychotropic medication on patients’ actual experiences. In this paper we systematically review the existing literature on the use of ESM/EMA in psychopharmacology research. To this end, we searched the PsycInfo and Medline databases for all available ESM/EMA studies on the use of psychotropic medication in patients with DSM-III-R and DSM-IV disorders. Dissertations were excluded. We included 18 studies that applied ESM/EMA to study the effects of medication on patients with major depressive disorder, substance use disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, psychotic disorder, and anxiety disorder. We found that ESM/EMA may allow researchers and clinicians to track patients during different phases of treatment: before treatment to predict outcome, during treatment to examine the effects of treatment on symptoms and different aspects of daily life experience, and after treatment to detect vulnerability for relapse. Moreover, ESM/EMA can potentially help determine how long and in what contexts medications are effective. Thus, ESM/EMA may benefit both researchers and clinicians and might prove to be an effective tool for improving the treatment of psychiatric patients.

Brown, David B.; Bravo, Adrian J.; Roos, Corey R.; Pearson, Matthew R. (2015): Five facets of mindfulness and psychological health: Evaluating a psychological model of the mechanisms of mindfulness. In: Mindfulness 6 (5), S. 1021–1032. DOI: 10.1007/s12671-014-0349-4.

There has been an increasing focus on determining the psychological mechanisms underlying the broad effects of mindfulness on psychological health. Mindfulness has been posited to be related to the construct of reperceiving or decentering, defined as a shift in perspective associated with decreased attachment to one’s thoughts and emotions. Decentering is proposed to be a meta-mechanism that mobilizes four psychological mechanisms (cognitive flexibility, values clarification, self-regulation, and exposure), which in turn are associated with positive health outcomes. Despite preliminary support for this model, extant studies testing this model have not examined distinct facets of mindfulness. The present study used a multidimensional measure of mindfulness to examine whether this model could account for the associations between five facets of mindfulness and psychological symptoms (depressive symptoms, stress, anxiety symptoms, alcohol-related problems) in a sample of college students (N = 944). Our findings partially support this model. We found significant double-mediated associations in the expected directions for all outcomes (stress, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms) except alcohol-related problems, and for each of the facets of mindfulness except observing. However, decentering and the specific mechanisms did not fully mediate the associations among mindfulness facets and psychological health outcomes. Experimental and ecological momentary assessment designs are needed to understand the psychological processes that account for the beneficial effects of mindfulness.

Carlson, Eve B.; Field, Nigel P.; Ruzek, Josef I.; Bryant, Richard A.; Dalenberg, Constance J.; Keane, Terrence M.; Spain, David A. (2015): Advantages and psychometric validation of proximal intensive assessments of patient-reported outcomes collected in daily life. In: Quality of Life Research: An International Journal of Quality of Life Aspects of Treatment, Care & Rehabilitation. DOI: 10.1007/s11136-015-1170-9.

Objectives: Ambulatory assessment data collection methods are increasingly used to study behavior, experiences, and patient-reported outcomes (PROs), such as emotions, cognitions, and symptoms in clinical samples. Data collected close in time at frequent and fixed intervals can assess PROs that are discrete or changing rapidly and provide information about temporal dynamics or mechanisms of change in clinical samples and individuals, but clinical researchers have not yet routinely and systematically investigated the reliability and validity of such measures or their potential added value over conventional measures. The present study provides a comprehensive, systematic evaluation of the psychometrics of several proximal intensive assessment (PIA) measures in a clinical sample and investigates whether PIA appears to assess meaningful differences in phenomena over time.Methods: Data were collected on a variety of psychopathology constructs on handheld devices every 4 h for 7 days from 62 adults recently exposed to traumatic injury of themselves or a family member. Data were also collected on standard self-report measures of the same constructs at the time of enrollment, 1 week after enrollment, and 2 months after injury.Results: For all measure scores, results showed good internal consistency across items and within persons over time, provided evidence of convergent, divergent, and construct validity, and showed significant between- and within-subject variability.Conclusions: Results indicate that PIA measures can provide valid measurement of psychopathology in a clinical sample. PIA may be useful to study mechanisms of change in clinical contexts, identify targets for change, and gauge treatment progress.

Chen, Yu-Wei; Bundy, Anita; Cordier, Reinie; Chien, Yi-Ling; Einfeld, Stewart (2015): The experience of social participation in everyday contexts among individuals with autism spectrum disorders: An experience sampling study. In: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. DOI: 10.1007/s10803-015-2682-4.

This study explored the everyday life experiences of individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Fourteen Australians and 16 Taiwanese (aged 16–45 years) with Asperger syndrome/high functioning autism recorded what they were doing, level of interest/involvement, emotional reactions and preference for being alone 7 times/day for 7 days. Multilevel analyses showed that ‘solitary/parallel leisure’ and ‘social activities’ were positively associated with interest and involvement. Engaging in these two activities and interacting with friends were positively associated with enjoyment. However, engaging in ‘social activities’ and having less severe ASD symptoms were associated with in-the-moment anxiety. Severity of ASD and social anxiety moderated experience in social situations. The findings highlight the importance of considering the in-the-moment experience of people with ASD.

Christensen, Claire G.; Bickham, David; Ross, Craig S.; Rich, Michael (2015): Multitasking With Television Among Adolescents. In: Journal of broadcasting & electronic media 59 (1), S. 130–148. DOI: 10.1080/08838151.2014.998228.

Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, we explored predictors of adolescents’ television (TV) multitasking behaviors. We investigated whether demographic characteristics (age, gender, race/ethnicity, and maternal education) predict adolescents’ likelihood of multitasking with TV. We also explored whether characteristics of the TV-multitasking moment (affect, TV genre, attention to people, and media multitasking) predict adolescents’ likelihood of paying primary versus secondary attention to TV. Demographic characteristics do not predict TV multitasking. In TV-multitasking moments, primary attention to TV was more likely if adolescents experienced negative affect, watched a drama, or attended to people; it was less likely if they used computers or video games.

Chun, Charlotte A.; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Sheinbaum, Tamara; Kwapil, Thomas R. (2015): Expression of Schizophrenia-Spectrum Personality Traits in Daily Life. In: Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment. DOI: 10.1037/per0000141.

The present study examined the expression of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM–5) schizotypal, schizoid, and paranoid personality disorder (PD) traits in daily life using experience sampling methodology in 206 nonclinically ascertained Spanish young adults oversampled for risk for schizophrenia-spectrum psychopathology. This study examined the overlap and differentiation of pathological personality traits in daily life settings, according to both diagnostic and multidimensional models. Daily life outcomes differentiated among schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. The assignment of Cluster A personality traits to positive, negative, paranoid, and disorganized dimensions provided an alternative to the traditional PD diagnoses. Positive, disorganized, and paranoid schizotypy were associated with elevated stress reactivity, whereas negative schizotypy was associated with diminished reactivity in daily life. The current diagnostic model is limited by the considerable overlap among the PD traits. Nonetheless, experience sampling methodology is sensitive enough to detect differences in day-to-day impairment and can be a powerful research tool for the examination of dynamic constructs such as personality pathology.

Dewitte, Marieke; van Lankveld, Jacques; Vandenberghe, Sjouke; Loeys, Tom (2015): Sex in its daily relational context. In: Journal of Sexual Medicine. DOI: 10.1111/jsm.13050.

Introduction The present study measured the daily correlates of sexual behavior in an ecologically valid context by relying on a daily diary approach. Aim Examining the dyadic and multicomponent nature of sexual behavior is essential to create valid models of sexual responding that are better aligned with the day‐to‐day context of having sex in a relationship. Methods and Main Outcome Measures During 3 weeks, heterosexual couples completed, two times a day, an electronic diary to report on mood, own and perceived partner behavior, relational feelings (in the evening), sexual activity, physical intimacy, and masturbation (in the morning). This design allowed testing bidirectional temporal associations between daily context and different types of sexual behavior. Results Positive mood, displays of positive partner behavior, perceived positive partner behavior, and positive relational feelings predicted more sexual activity and intimacy in men, which then further increased their positive mood, perceived positive partner behavior, and positive feelings about the relationship on the following day. Women showed a similar pattern of predictors regarding sexual activity as men, though the effect of sexual behavior on next‐day feelings and behavior was more relationship‐oriented rather than affecting personal mood. Intimacy was related to almost all daily variables in women, but related only to own and perceived positive partner behavior and positive relational feelings the next day. Several partner effects also reached significance, and these were more influential in predicting male than female intimacy. Solitary sexual activity showed a different pattern of results than dyadic sexual activity, with men experiencing masturbation as negatively in the context of their relationship. Conclusion These results confirm the regulatory function of sex and intimacy in maintaining a positive relational climate and indicate that the quality of the everyday relational context is important to get partners in the mood to act in a sexual way. Dewitte M, Van Lankveld J, Vandenberghe S, and Loeys T. Sex in its daily relational context. J Sex Med **;**:**–**.

Dunton, Genevieve; Dzubur, Eldin; Li, Marilyn; Huh, Jimi; Intille, Stephen; McConnell, Rob (2015): Momentary Assessment of Psychosocial Stressors, Context, and Asthma Symptoms in Hispanic Adolescents. In: Behavior modification. DOI: 10.1177/0145445515608145.

The current study used a novel real-time data capture strategy, ecological momentary assessment (EMA), to examine whether within-day variability in stress and context leads to exacerbations in asthma symptomatology in the everyday lives of ethnic minority adolescents. Low-income Hispanic adolescents (N = 20; 7th-12th grade; 54% male) with chronic asthma completed 7 days of EMA on smartphones, with an average of five assessments per day during non-school time. EMA surveys queried about where (e.g., home, outdoors) and with whom (e.g., alone, with friends) participants were at the time of the prompt. EMA surveys also assessed over the past few hours whether participants had experienced specific stressors (e.g., being teased, arguing with anyone), asthma symptoms (e.g., wheezing, coughing), or used an asthma inhaler. Multilevel models tested the independent relations of specific stressors and context to subsequent asthma symptoms adjusting for age, gender, and chronological day in the study. Being outdoors, experiencing disagreements with parents, teasing, and arguing were associated with more severe self-reported asthma symptoms in the next few hours (ps < .05). Being alone and having too much to do were unrelated to the experience of subsequent self-reported asthma symptoms. Using a novel real-time data capture strategy, results provide preliminary evidence that being outdoors and experiencing social stressors may induce asthma symptoms in low-income Hispanic children and adolescents with chronic asthma. The results of this preliminary study can serve as a basis for larger epidemiological and intervention studies.

Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Liao, Yue; Intille, Stephen; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam (2015): Momentary assessment of contextual influences on affective response during physical activity. In: Health Psychology 34 (12), S. 1145–1153. DOI: 10.1037/hea0000223.

Objective: Higher positive and lower negative affective response during physical activity may reinforce motivation to engage in future activity. However, affective response during physical activity is typically examined under controlled laboratory conditions. This research used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to examine social and physical contextual influences on momentary affective response during physical activity in naturalistic settings. Method: Participants included 116 adults (mean age = 40.3 years, 73% female) who completed 8 randomly prompted EMA surveys per day for 4 days across 3 semiannual waves. EMA surveys measured current activity level, social context, and physical context. Participants also rated their current positive and negative affect. Multilevel models assessed whether momentary physical activity level moderated differences in affective response across contexts controlling for day of the week, time of day, and activity intensity (measured by accelerometer). Results: The Activity Level × Alone interaction was significant for predicting positive affect (β = −0.302, SE = 0.133, p = .024). Greater positive affect during physical activity was reported when with other people (vs. alone). The Activity Level × Outdoors interaction was significant for predicting negative affect (β = −0.206, SE = 0.097, p = .034). Lower negative affect during physical activity was reported outdoors (vs. indoors). Conclusions: Being with other people may enhance positive affective response during physical activity, and being outdoors may dampen negative affective response during physical activity.

E F Graves, Lee; C Murphy, Rebecca; Shepherd, Sam O.; Cabot, Josephine; Hopkins, Nicola D. (2015): Evaluation of sit-stand workstations in an office setting: a randomised controlled trial. In: BMC public health 15 (1), S. 1145. DOI: 10.1186/s12889-015-2469-8.

BACKGROUND: Excessive sitting time is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease mortality and morbidity independent of physical activity. This aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a sit-stand workstation on sitting time, and vascular, metabolic and musculoskeletal outcomes in office workers, and to investigate workstation acceptability and feasibility. METHODS: A two-arm, parallel-group, individually randomised controlled trial was conducted in one organisation. Participants were asymptomatic full-time office workers aged >/=18 years. Each participant in the intervention arm had a sit-stand workstation installed on their workplace desk for 8 weeks. Participants in the control arm received no intervention. The primary outcome was workplace sitting time, assessed at 0, 4 and 8 weeks by an ecological momentary assessment diary. Secondary behavioural, cardiometabolic and musculoskeletal outcomes were assessed. Acceptability and feasibility were assessed via questionnaire and interview. ANCOVA and magnitude-based inferences examined intervention effects relative to controls at 4 and 8 weeks. Participants and researchers were not blind to group allocation. RESULTS: Forty-seven participants were randomised (intervention n = 26; control n = 21). Relative to the control group at 8 weeks, the intervention group had a beneficial decrease in sitting time (-80.2 min/8-h workday (95 % CI = -129.0, -31.4); p = 0.002), increase in standing time (72.9 min/8-h workday (21.2, 124.6); p = 0.007) and decrease in total cholesterol (-0.40 mmol/L (-0.79, -0.003); p = 0.049). No harmful changes in musculoskeletal discomfort/pain were observed relative to controls, and beneficial changes in flow-mediated dilation and diastolic blood pressure were observed. Most participants self-reported that the workstation was easy to use and their work-related productivity did not decrease when using the device. Factors that negatively influenced workstation use were workstation design, the social environment, work tasks and habits. CONCLUSION: Short-term use of a feasible sit-stand workstation reduced daily sitting time and led to beneficial improvements in cardiometabolic risk parameters in asymptomatic office workers. These findings imply that if the observed use of the sit-stand workstations continued over a longer duration, sit-stand workstations may have important ramifications for the prevention and reduction of cardiometabolic risk in a large proportion of the working population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02496507 .

Fischer, Susanne; Doerr, Johanna M.; Strahler, Jana; Mewes, Ricarda; Thieme, Kati; Nater, Urs M. (2016): Stress exacerbates pain in the everyday lives of women with fibromyalgia syndrome-The role of cortisol and alpha-amylase. In: Psychoneuroendocrinology 63, S. 68–77. DOI: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.09.018.

OBJECTIVE: Although fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic condition, its cardinal symptom pain is known to fluctuate over the day. Stress has often been claimed to exacerbate pain; however, there is barely any evidence on whether or not this is true on a day-to-day basis (and, alternatively, on whether pain leads to increased stress levels). Using an ecologically valid measurement design, we tested whether and how stress and pain are intertwined in participants with FMS. We additionally examined the role of the two major stress-responsive systems, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the autonomic nervous system, as potential mediators of this relationship. METHODS: An ambulatory assessment study was conducted over the course of 14 days. On each day, 32 females with FMS provided six diary entries on momentary stress and pain levels. Saliva samples were collected at the same time points to determine cortisol and alpha-amylase as indicators of stress-responsive systems. RESULTS: Higher stress at a given measurement time point was associated with higher reported pain levels at the subsequent time point (UC=1.47, p<0.001), but not vice versa (UC<0.01, p=0.179). The stress-pain relationship was neither mediated by momentary cortisol nor by alpha-amylase; however, momentary cortisol was independently associated with momentary pain (UC=0.27, p=0.009). CONCLUSION: Stress seems to be a powerful exacerbating factor for pain as experienced by patients with FMS in their everyday lives. Cortisol may be involved in the diurnal fluctuation of pain levels in patients with FMS. Future studies should identify relevant daily stressors in persons with FMS and scrutinize the mechanisms underlying the cortisol-pain relationship.

Fitzsimmons‐Craft, Ellen E.; Ciao, Anna C.; Accurso, Erin C. (2015): A naturalistic examination of social comparisons and disordered eating thoughts, urges, and behaviors in college women. In: International Journal of Eating Disorders. DOI: 10.1002/eat.22486.

Objective We examined the effects of body, eating, and exercise social comparisons on prospective disordered eating thoughts and urges (i.e., restriction thoughts, exercise thoughts, vomiting thoughts, binge eating urges) and behaviors (i.e., restriction attempts, exercising for weight/shape reasons, vomiting, binge eating) among college women using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Method Participants were 232 college women who completed a 2‐week EMA protocol, in which they used their personal electronic devices to answer questions three times per day. Generalized estimating equation models were used to assess body, eating, and exercise comparisons as predictors of disordered eating thoughts, urges, and behaviors at the next report, adjusting for body dissatisfaction, negative affect, and the disordered eating thought/urge/behavior at the prior report, as well as body mass index. Results Body comparisons prospectively predicted more intense levels of certain disordered eating thoughts (i.e., thoughts about restriction and exercise). Eating comparisons prospectively predicted an increased likelihood of subsequent engagement in all disordered eating behaviors examined except vomiting. Exercise comparisons prospectively predicted less‐intense thoughts about exercise and an increased likelihood of subsequent vomiting. Discussion Social comparisons are associated with later disordered eating thoughts and behaviors in the natural environment and may need to be specifically targeted in eating disorder prevention and intervention efforts. Targeting body comparisons may be helpful in terms of reducing disordered eating thoughts, but eating and exercise comparisons are also important and may need to be addressed in order to decrease engagement in actual disordered eating behaviors. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2015).

Fleeson, William; Law, Mary Kate (2015): Trait enactments as density distributions: The role of actors, situations, and observers in explaining stability and variability. In: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 109 (6), S. 1090–1104. DOI: 10.1037/a0039517.

The purposes of this article were to determine (a) whether the high consistency of individual differences in average aggregated behavior is because of actors’ personalities or because of the consistency in the situations those actors encounter; and (b) whether the surprisingly high within-person variability in trait enactment is a real phenomenon corroborated by observers, or merely in individuals’ heads. Although traits are supposed to describe what individuals are like in everyday life, little evidence exists about the enactment of trait content in everyday life. Past experience-sampling studies have found both highly variable and highly consistent trait enactment, but were restricted to self-report data and to naturally occurring situations. The current study used experience-sampling in controlled lab environments with 97 targets and 183 observers to address these shortcomings. Targets attended hour-long lab sessions 20× each and observers rated targets’ behavior. Parameters of distributions were highly consistent (rs ∼ .80), revealing that actors were responsible for consistency, not situations. Nonetheless, observer ratings revealed that most variability in trait enactment was within-person, confirming that even when people put it on the line in ways that affected others, they still varied rapidly in the traits they enacted. In the face of 2 historically vexing objections to traits, this article supports the density distributions model of traits and argues that trait conceptualizations must accommodate large within-person variability.

Furnari, Melody; Epstein, David H.; Phillips, Karran A.; Jobes, Michelle L.; Kowalczyk, William J.; Vahabzadeh, Massoud et al. (2015): Some of the people, some of the time: Field evidence for associations and dissociations between stress and drug use. In: Psychopharmacology 232 (19), S. 3529–3537. DOI: 10.1007/s00213-015-3998-7.

Rationale: Stress’s role in drug use is supported by retrospective interview and laboratory studies, but prospective data confirming the association in daily life are sparse.Objectives: This study aims to assess the relationship between drug use and stress in real time with ambulatory monitoring. Methods: For up to 16 weeks, 133 outpatients on opiate agonist treatment used smartphones to report each time they used drugs or felt more stressed than usual. They rated stress-event severity on a 10-point scale and as a hassle, day spoiler, or more than a day spoiler. For analysis, stress reports made within 72 h before a reported use of cocaine or opioid were binned into 24-h periods. Results: Of 52 participants who reported stress events in the 72-h timeframe, 41 reported stress before cocaine use and 26 before opioid use. For cocaine use, the severity of stressors, rated numerically (reffect = 0.42, CL95 0.17–0.62, p = 0.00061) and percent rated as “more than a day spoiler” (reffect = 0.34, CL95 0.07–0.56, p = 0.0292)], increased linearly across the three days preceding use. The number of stressors did not predict cocaine use, and no measure of stress predicted opioid use. In ecological momentary assessment (EMA) from the whole sample of 133, stress and drug use occurred independently and there was no overall relationship. Conclusions: EMA did not support the idea that stress is a necessary or sufficient trigger for cocaine or heroin use after accounting for the base rates of stress and use. But EMA did show that stressful events can increase in severity in the days preceding cocaine use.

Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Moitra, Ethan; Ellenberg, Stacy; Armey, Michael F. (2015): The Promises and Challenges of Ecological Momentary Assessment in Schizophrenia: Development of an Initial Experimental Protocol. In: Healthcare (Basel) 3 (3), S. 556–573. DOI: 10.3390/healthcare3030556.

Severe mental illnesses, including schizophrenia and other psychotic-spectrum disorders, are a major cause of disability worldwide. Although efficacious pharmacological and psychosocial interventions have been developed for treating patients with schizophrenia, relapse rates are high and long-term recovery remains elusive for many individuals. Furthermore, little is still known about the underlying mechanisms of these illnesses. Thus, there is an urgent need to better understand the contextual factors that contribute to psychosis so that they can be better targeted in future interventions. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) is a dynamic procedure that permits the measurement of variables in natural settings in real-time through the use of brief assessments delivered via mobile electronic devices (i.e., smart phones). One advantage of EMA is that it is less subject to retrospective memory biases and highly sensitive to fluctuating environmental factors. In the current article, we describe the research-to-date using EMA to better understand fluctuating symptoms and functioning in patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders and potential applications to treatment. In addition, we describe a novel EMA protocol that we have been employing to study the outcomes of patients with schizophrenia following a hospital discharge. We also report the lessons we have learned thus far using EMA methods in this challenging clinical population.

Gidlow, Christopher J.; Randall, Jason; Gillman, Jamie; Silk, Steven; Jones, Marc V. (2016): Hair cortisol and self-reported stress in healthy, working adults. In: Psychoneuroendocrinology 63, S. 163–169. DOI: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.09.022.

Chronic stress can be important in the pathology of chronic disease. Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are proposed to reflect long term cortisol secretion from exposure to stress. To date, inconsistencies in the relationship between HCC and self-reported stress have been attributed to variation and limitations of perceived stress measurement. We report data from employees of two large public sector worksites (n=132). Socio-demographic, health, lifestyle, perceived stress scale (PSS), and work-related effort reward imbalance (ERI) were collected at baseline. Participants were asked to respond to mobile text messages every two days, asking them to report current stress levels (Ecological momentary assessment, EMA), and mean stress was determined overall, during work hours, and out of work hours. At 12 weeks, the appraisal of stressful life events scale (ALES) was completed and 3cm scalp hair samples were taken, from which HCC was determined (to reflect cortisol secretion over the past 12 weeks). Mean response rate to EMA was 81.9+/-14.9%. Associations between HCC and the various self-reported stress measures (adjusted for use of hair dye) were weak (all<.3). We observed significant associations with HCC for EMA measured stress responses received out of work hours (rho=.196, p=.013) and ALES Loss subscale (rho=.241, p=.003), and two individual items from ERI (relating to future work situation). In regression analysis adjusting for other possible confounders, only the HCC-ALES Loss association remained significant (p=.011). Overall, our study confirms that EMA provides a useful measurement tool that can gather perceived stress measures in real-time. But, there was no relationship between self-reported stress collected in this way, and HCC. The modest association between HCC and stress appraisal does however, provide some evidence for the role of cognitive processes in chronic stress.

Gu, Dian; Huang, Niwen; Zhang, Maoxin; Wang, Fang (2015): Under the dome: Air pollution, wellbeing, and pro-environmental behaviour among Beijing residents. In: Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology 9 (2), S. 65–77. DOI: 10.1017/prp.2015.10.

The conflict between economic development and environmental protection has been made salient by increasingly severe air pollution in China, a visible consequence of the costs of rapid economic progress. How does air pollution affect people’s psychological experiences? How are newly rich Chinese beginning to think about this social dilemma and are they willing to take any action to deal with the problem? Are there individual differences that contribute to the effect of air pollution on mental experience and concern for environmental protection? The present work explores answers to these questions through two studies among convenience samples of participants residing in Beijing, which is the capital of China and plagued by toxic haze. Study 1 recruited 50 undergraduates and applied a 10-day experience sampling method. Results revealed that the real-time objective air pollution index was negatively associated with immediate subjective wellbeing (SWB) but positively associated with eudaimonic wellbeing (EWB). Study 2 investigated a sample of 288 working adults living in Beijing for their perceptions of air quality, wellbeing, pro-environmental behaviour (PEB) intentions, future orientation, and place attachment. Results revealed that perceived air pollution could not predict general SWB but improved the sense of purpose and meaning in life (i.e., EWB). Furthermore, this association was heightened in individuals who were future-orientated. In addition, perceived air pollution increased PEB intentions, partially through the promotion of EWB, and this effect was stronger in those who were more emotionally attached to Beijing.

Haaren, Birte von; Ottenbacher, Joerg; Muenz, Julia; Neumann, Rainer; Boes, Klaus; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich (2015): Does a 20-week aerobic exercise training programme increase our capabilities to buffer real-life stressors? A randomized, controlled trial using ambulatory assessment. In: European journal of applied physiology. DOI: 10.1007/s00421-015-3284-8.

PURPOSE: The cross-stressor adaptation hypothesis suggests that regular exercise leads to adaptations in the stress response systems that induce decreased physiological responses to psychological stressors. Even though an exercise intervention to buffer the detrimental effects of psychological stressors on health might be of utmost importance, empirical evidence is mixed. This may be explained by the use of cross-sectional designs and non-personally relevant stressors. Using a randomized controlled trial, we hypothesized that a 20-week aerobic exercise training does reduce physiological stress responses to psychological real-life stressors in sedentary students. METHODS: Sixty-one students were randomized to either a control group or an exercise training group. The academic examination period (end of the semester) served as a real-life stressor. We used ambulatory assessment methods to assess physiological stress reactivity of the autonomic nervous system (heart rate variability: LF/HF, RMSSD), physical activity and perceived stress during 2 days of everyday life and multilevel models for data analyses. Aerobic capacity (VO2max) was assessed pre- and post-intervention via cardiopulmonary exercise testing to analyze the effectiveness of the intervention. RESULTS: During real-life stressors, the exercise training group showed significantly reduced LF/HF (beta = -0.15, t = -2.59, p = .01) and increased RMSSD (beta = 0.15, t = 2.34, p = .02) compared to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Using a randomized controlled trial and a real-life stressor, we could show that exercise appears to be a useful preventive strategy to buffer the effects of stress on the autonomic nervous system, which might result into detrimental health outcomes.

Hager, E. R.; Tilton, N. A.; Wang, Y.; Kapur, N. C.; Arbaiza, R.; Merry, B. C.; Black, M. M. (2015): The home environment and toddler physical activity: an ecological momentary assessment study. In: Pediatric obesity. DOI: 10.1111/ijpo.12098.

BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) promotion/obesity prevention in toddlerhood should include home environments. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine social/physical home environment factors associated with toddler PA using ecological momentary assessment (EMA, real-time data collection). METHODS: Low-income mother-toddler dyads were recruited and given a handheld EMA device (53 random beeps followed by social/physical environment survey over 8 d). Simultaneously, PA was assessed via accelerometry (data extracted 15 min before/after response, average activity counts per minute). Linear mixed-effects models were used, adjusting for toddler age, urban/suburban residence and time of day; covariate moderating effects were examined; within-subjects and between-subjects findings were reported. PA was hypothesized to be greater when toddlers are outside (vs. inside), children are nearby (vs. alone), toddlers are interacting with their mothers (vs. not) and TV is off (vs. on). RESULTS: The final count was 2454 EMA/PA responses for 160 toddlers (mean age 20 months, range 12-31; 55% male, 66% Black and 54% urban). Associations with PA include (within subjects) the following: outside location (212 additional counts min-1 ), children nearby (153 additional counts min-1 ) and interacting with mother (321 additional counts min-1 ), compared with alternatives. Age was moderated by outside location/PA association (within subjects), with 90 additional counts min-1 per 3-month age group outside vs. inside. No between-subjects or television/PA associations were found. CONCLUSIONS: Home environment factors were associated with PA, including outside location, children nearby and mother interaction. EMA is a novel method, allowing identification of contextual factors associated with behaviours in natural environments.

Hare, Dougal Julian; Gracey, Carolyn; Wood, Christopher (2015): Anxiety in high-functioning autism: A pilot study of experience sampling using a mobile platform. In: Autism : the international journal of research and practice. DOI: 10.1177/1362361315604817.

Anxiety and stress are everyday issues for many people with high-functioning autism, and while cognitive-behavioural therapy is the treatment of choice for the management of anxiety, there are challenges in using it with people with high-functioning autism. This study used modified experience sampling techniques to examine everyday anxiety and stress in adults with high-functioning autism and to explore the feasibility of delivering real-time stress management techniques using a mobile platform. High levels of anxiety were found to be characterised by worry, confusing thoughts and being alone but was not associated with internal focus, imagery or rumination. Participants reported improved mood and less worry and anxious thinking in the active phase of the study. These results support previous studies indicating that people with high-functioning autism differ in their experience of anxiety and provided preliminary data on the feasibility of real-time stress management. The limitations of this approach are discussed together with considerations for future work in the area of developing clinical interventions on mobile platforms.

Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M. (2015): Intraindividual Covariation Between E-Cigarette and Combustible Cigarette Use in Korean American Emerging Adults. In: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors. DOI: 10.1037/adb0000141.

Critical gaps exist in understanding the patterns and correlates of dual use of electronic cigarettes (ECs) and combustible cigarettes (CCs), particularly in ethnic minority populations. In this study, we assessed CC and EC use in the naturalistic environment using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). We hypothesized that within-subject variation in EC use (yes/no each day) would be inversely associated with within-subject variation in number of CCs consumed and craving during that same day. We also examined gender and nicotine dependence as moderators of the EC-CC and EC-craving covariations. Korean American emerging adult (KAEA; 18–25 years old) smokers (N = 78) completed 7 days of EMA. Participants completed EMA surveys throughout the day, which assessed CC craving, and end-of-day surveys, which assessed EC use and the number of CCs smoked that day. Generalized linear mixed models were used to predict day-level EC use, with number of CCs smoked and craving during that same day, gender, and nicotine dependence as predictors (n = 501). We found that within-subject variation in CC use was not associated with same-day EC use; neither was within-subject variation in craving (ps > .27). Gender moderated the relationship between craving and EC use on a given day (p = .03); only for females, on the days with higher craving, the likelihood of their EC use that day was significantly heightened. This study does not suggest that EC use is linked with lower CC smoking quantity, at least at the day level and among KAEA smokers. CC craving may play a role in dual EC-CC use for KAEA female smokers.

Huntley, Geoffrey; Treloar, Hayley; Blanchard, Alexander; Monti, Peter M.; Carey, Kate B.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Miranda, Robert, JR. (2015): An event-level investigation of hangovers’ relationship to age and drinking. In: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 23 (5), S. 314–323. DOI: 10.1037/pha0000037.

Animal and human data suggest that adolescents experience hangover effects that are distinct from adults. The present study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods to examine the temporal relationships between drinking and hangovers, and how this varied by age and sex. We hypothesized that alcohol’s dose-dependent effects on hangover severity are more pronounced among adolescents and young adults than older drinkers. We also explored whether greater hangover severity would lead to a lower likelihood and volume of alcohol use later the same day. Data were pooled from 4 studies of drinkers (N = 274; ages 15 to 66 years) who completed a 4- to 14-day (M = 7.46, SD = 1.13) EMA monitoring period. Each morning, participants recorded how much alcohol they consumed the day before and rated their hangover severity. Participants who consumed a greater quantity of alcohol the prior day reported more severe hangover symptoms; however, there was an interaction between drinking volume and age, such that hangover was more severe among younger drinkers, especially at higher drinking levels. More severe hangover symptoms did not predict the likelihood of drinking later that day; however, on drinking days, more severe hangover symptoms predicted lower quantities of alcohol use later that day. This event-level effect did not vary as a function of age. Study outcomes did not vary by sex. Our findings suggest that younger drinkers experience more severe hangovers, and that greater hangover results in lighter drinking later that same day regardless of age.

Hurlburt, Russell T.; Alderson-Day, Ben; Fernyhough, Charles; Kuhn, Simone (2015): What goes on in the resting-state? A qualitative glimpse into resting-state experience in the scanner. In: Frontiers in psychology 6, S. 1535. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01535.

The brain’s resting-state has attracted considerable interest in recent years, but currently little is known either about typical experience during the resting-state or about whether there are inter-individual differences in resting-state phenomenology. We used descriptive experience sampling (DES) in an attempt to apprehend high fidelity glimpses of the inner experience of five participants in an extended fMRI study. Results showed that the inner experiences and the neural activation patterns (as quantified by amplitude of low frequency fluctuations analysis) of the five participants were largely consistent across time, suggesting that our extended-duration scanner sessions were broadly similar to typical resting-state sessions. However, there were very large individual differences in inner phenomena, suggesting that the resting-state itself may differ substantially from one participant to the next. We describe these individual differences in experiential characteristics and display some typical moments of resting-state experience. We also show that retrospective characterizations of phenomena can often be very different from moment-by-moment reports. We discuss implications for the assessment of inner experience in neuroimaging studies more generally, concluding that it may be possible to use fMRI to investigate neural correlates of phenomena apprehended in high fidelity.

Jakubowski, Kelly; Farrugia, Nicolas; Halpern, Andrea R.; Sankarpandi, Sathish K.; Stewart, Lauren (2015): The speed of our mental soundtracks: Tracking the tempo of involuntary musical imagery in everyday life. In: Memory & Cognition 43 (8), S. 1229–1242. DOI: 10.3758/s13421-015-0531-5.

The study of spontaneous and everyday cognitions is an area of rapidly growing interest. One of the most ubiquitous forms of spontaneous cognition is involuntary musical imagery (INMI), the involuntarily retrieved and repetitive mental replay of music. The present study introduced a novel method for capturing temporal features of INMI within a naturalistic setting. This method allowed for the investigation of two questions of interest to INMI researchers in a more objective way than previously possible, concerning (1) the precision of memory representations within INMI and (2) the interactions between INMI and concurrent affective state. Over the course of 4 days, INMI tempo was measured by asking participants to tap to the beat of their INMI with a wrist-worn accelerometer. Participants documented additional details regarding their INMI in a diary. Overall, the tempo of music within INMI was recalled from long-term memory in a highly veridical form, although with a regression to the mean for recalled tempo that parallels previous findings on voluntary musical imagery. A significant positive relationship was found between INMI tempo and subjective arousal, suggesting that INMI interacts with concurrent mood in a similar manner to perceived music. The results suggest several parallels between INMI and voluntary imagery, music perceptual processes, and other types of involuntary memories.

Jaque, S. Victoria; Karamanukyan, Isabel H.; Thomson, Paula (2015): A Psychophysiological Case Study of Orchestra Conductors. In: Medical problems of performing artists 30 (4), S. 189–196.

The psychological and physiological effects of performance were investigated in two professional orchestral conductors, with data collected prior to, during, and after a rehearsal and a public performance. The participants were given a battery of psychological self-report tests (anxiety, dissociation, health inventory, fantasy proneness, shame, and flow). Ambulatory physiological monitoring (Vivometric LifeShirt(R) system) was conducted during both a rehearsal and public performance to gather information about the autonomic nervous system and heart rate variability (HRV). One conductor had a history of asthma and anxiety, and the second conductor had coronary artery disease. The results revealed within-subject and between-subject differences in autonomic nervous system responses and HRV during several conditions (pre-performance rest, stair-climbing, rehearsal, and performance). Based on heart rate, the physiological demands of professional conducting are reflective of work intensities considered “hard.” Both conductors experienced high flow states. Anxiety and coronary artery disease may have attenuated HRV resilience in this study. It is recommended that noninvasive methods be implemented to assess cardiac autonomic activity in professional conductors, particularly during engagement in their professional activities. The findings suggest a need to further study anxiety, respiratory conditions, and cardiovascular risks for conductors.

Jarnecke, Amber M.; Miller, Michelle L.; South, Susan C. (2015): Daily Diary Study of Personality Disorder Traits: Momentary Affect and Cognitive Appraisals in Response to Stressful Events. In: Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment. DOI: 10.1037/per0000157.

Difficulties in emotional expression and emotion regulation are core features of many personality disorders (PDs); yet, we know relatively little about how individuals with PDs affectively respond to stressful situations. The present study seeks to fill this gap in the literature by examining how PD traits are associated with emotional responses to subjective daily stressors, while accounting for cognition and type of stressor experienced (interpersonal vs. noninterpersonal). PD features were measured with the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality-2 (SNAP-2) diagnostic scores. Participants (N = 77) completed a 1-week experience sampling procedure that measured affect and cognition related to a current stressor 5 times per day. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to examine whether and how baseline PD features, momentary cognitions, and type of stressor predicted level of affect. Results demonstrated that paranoid, borderline, and avoidant PD traits predicted negative affect beyond what could be accounted for by cognitions and type of stressor. No PD traits predicted positive affect after accounting for the effects of cognitive appraisals and type of stressor. Findings have implications for validating the role of affect in PDs and understanding how individuals with PDs react in the presence of daily hassles.

Johnston, Derek; Bell, Cheryl; Jones, Martyn; Farquharson, Barbara; Allan, Julia; Schofield, Patricia et al. (2015): Stressors, appraisal of stressors, experienced stress and cardiac response: A real-time, real-life investigation of work stress in nurses. In: Annals of Behavioral Medicine. DOI: 10.1007/s12160-015-9746-8.

Background: Stress in health care professionals may reflect both the work and appraisal of work and impacts on the individuals, their patients, colleagues and managers.Purpose: The purpose of the present study is to examine physiological and psychological effects of stressors (tasks) and theory-based perceptions of work stressors within and between nurses in real time.Methods: During two work shifts, 100 nurses rated experienced stress, affect, fatigue, theory-based measures of work stress and nursing tasks on electronic diaries every 90 min, whereas heart rate and activity were measured continuously.Results: Heart rate was associated with both demand and effort. Experienced stress was related to demand, control, effort and reward. Effort and reward interacted as predicted (but only within people). Results were unchanged when allowance was made for work tasks.Conclusions: Real-time appraisals were more important than actual tasks in predicting both psychological and physiological correlates of stress. At times when effort was high, perceived reward reduced stress.

Jones, Kelly K.; Zenk, Shannon N.; McDonald, Ashley; Corte, Colleen (2015): Experiences of African-American Women with Smartphone-Based Ecological Momentary Assessment. In: Public health nursing (Boston, Mass.). DOI: 10.1111/phn.12239.

OBJECTIVE: Smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment (EMA), or real-time, repeated sampling of participants’ states, behaviors, or experiences over time, is a promising approach to understanding obesity-related behaviors in African-American women-a population with the highest obesity prevalence. In this study, we explored participants’ experiences with this methodology. DESIGN AND SAMPLE: In this secondary analysis of data, 100 African-American women participated in seven consecutive days of EMA data collection. MEASURES: Measures related to acceptability (technical challenges, daily burden, emotional responses, willingness to participate in future studies) and data quality (reporting accuracy, behavior reactivity, adherence), as well as demographics, were collected. RESULTS: While there were few demographic differences, women who were unemployed, had the lowest educational levels, or had the lowest per capita income reported the greatest enjoyment with mobile technology-based EMA, while at the same time reporting the highest levels of challenge with use of the equipment. Participants consistently indicated willingness to participate in future EMA studies and indicated that the study method was acceptable. EMA methodology produced data of sufficient quality. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest future studies using smartphone-based EMA with African-American women are feasible.

Kohling, Johanna; Moessner, Markus; Ehrenthal, Johannes C.; Bauer, Stephanie; Cierpka, Manfred; Kammerer, Annette et al. (2015): Affective Instability and Reactivity in Depressed Patients With and Without Borderline Pathology. In: Journal of personality disorders, S. 1–20. DOI: 10.1521/pedi_2015_29_230.

The quality of depression in borderline personality disorder (BPD) was reported to differ from that in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) only. However, little is known about affect dynamics in “borderline-depression.” The authors assessed affective instability and reactivity in 20 MDD patients with BPD and in 21 MDD patients without BPD by Ambulatory Assessment. Participants reported on current affect, daily events, and attribution of affective states to events five times per day over a 7-day period. The results do not indicate higher affective instability in MDD patients with BPD comorbidity. Depressed patients with BPD reported less subjectively perceived affective reactivity, while observed associations between events and affect were not different between groups, except for one finding: In depressed patients with BPD, overall mood was lower after being alone. These findings suggest impaired attribution of mood changes and less tolerance of being alone as specific for depression in BPD.

Koval, Peter; Brose, Annette; Pe, Madeline L.; Houben, Marlies; Erbas, Yasemin; Champagne, Dominique; Kuppens, Peter (2015): Emotional inertia and external events: The roles of exposure, reactivity, and recovery. In: Emotion 15 (5), S. 625–636. DOI: 10.1037/emo0000059.

Increased moment-to-moment predictability, or inertia, of negative affect has been identified as an important dynamic marker of psychological maladjustment, and increased vulnerability to depression in particular. However, little is known about the processes underlying emotional inertia. The current article examines how the emotional context, and people’s responses to it, are related to emotional inertia. We investigated how individual differences in the inertia of negative affect (NA) are related to individual differences in exposure, reactivity, and recovery from emotional events, in daily life (assessed using experience sampling) as well as in the lab (assessed using an emotional film-clip task), among 200 participants commencing their first year of tertiary education. This dual-method approach allowed us to assess affective responding on different timescales, and in response to standardized as well as idiographic emotional stimuli. Our most consistent finding, across both methods, was that heightened NA inertia is related to decreased NA recovery following negative stimuli, suggesting that higher levels of inertia may be mostly driven by impairments in affect repair following negative events.

Kwasnicka, Dominika; Dombrowski, Stephan U.; White, Martin; Sniehotta, Falko F. (2015): Data-prompted interviews: Using individual ecological data to stimulate narratives and explore meanings. In: Health Psychology 34 (12), S. 1191–1194. DOI: 10.1037/hea0000234.

Objective: An emerging trend in qualitative research is to use individual participant data to stimulate narratives in interviews. This article describes the method of the data-prompted interview (DPI) and highlights its potential benefits and challenges. Method: DPIs use personal ecological data gathered prior to the interview to stimulate discussion during the interview. Various forms of data can be used including photographs, videos, audio recordings, graphs, and text. This data can be gathered by the researcher or generated by the participant and may utilize ecological momentary assessment. Results: Using individual data in DPIs can stimulate visual and auditory senses, enhance memory, and prompt rich narratives anchored in personal experiences. For the researcher, DPIs provide an opportunity to explore the meaning of the data and to explain data patterns. For the participant, presented stimuli give guidance for discussion and allow them to reflect. The challenges associated with conducting DPIs include practical issues such as data selection and presentation. Data analyses require narratives to be interpreted together with the data. Ethical challenges of DPI include concerns around data anonymity and sensitivity. Conclusions: Combining various sources of data to stimulate the interview provides a novel opportunity to enhance participants’ memories and to meaningfully assess and analyze data patterns. In the context of health promotion and illness prevention, DPI offers a unique opportunity to explore reasons, opinions, and motivations for health-related behaviors in the light of previously gathered data.

Langdon, Kirsten J.; Farris, Samantha G.; Overup, Camilla S.; Zvolensky, Michael J. (2015): Associations Between Anxiety Sensitivity, Negative Affect, and Smoking During a Self-Guided Smoking Cessation Attempt. In: Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. DOI: 10.1093/ntr/ntv253.

INTRODUCTION: Anxiety sensitivity (AS), defined as the extent to which individuals believe anxiety and internal sensations have harmful consequences, is associated with the maintenance and relapse of smoking. Yet, little is known about how AS interplays with negative affect during the quit process in terms of smoking behavior. To address this gap, the current study examined the dynamic interplay between AS, negative affect, and smoking lapse behavior during the course of a self-guided (unaided) quit attempt. METHODS: Fifty-four participants (33.3% female; M age = 34.6, SD = 13.8) completed ecological momentary assessment procedures, reporting on negative affect and smoking status via a handheld computer device, three times per day for the initial 14 days of the self-guided cessation attempt. RESULTS: As expected, a significant interaction was observed, such that participants characterized by high levels of AS were at a higher risk of smoking on days when negative affect was high (relative to low). Results also revealed a significant interaction between AS and daily smoking lapse behavior in terms of daily change in negative affect. Participants characterized by high levels of AS reported significant increases in same-day negative affect on days when they endorsed smoking relative to days they endorsed abstinence. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides novel information about the nature of AS, negative affect, and smoking behavior during a quit attempt. Results suggest there is a need for specialized intervention strategies to enhance smoking outcome among this high-risk group that will meet their unique “affective needs.” IMPLICATIONS: The current study underscores the importance of developing specialized smoking cessation interventions for smokers with emotional vulnerabilities.

Lavender, Jason M.; Utzinger, Linsey M.; Cao, Li; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Engel, Scott G.; Mitchell, James E.; Crosby, Ross D. (2015): Reciprocal Associations Between Negative Affect, Binge Eating, and Purging in the Natural Environment in Women With Bulimia Nervosa. In: Journal of Abnormal Psychology. DOI: 10.1037/abn0000135.

Although negative affect (NA) has been identified as a common trigger for bulimic behaviors, findings regarding NA following such behaviors have been mixed. This study examined reciprocal associations between NA and bulimic behaviors using real-time, naturalistic data. Participants were 133 women with bulimia nervosa (BN) according to the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders who completed a 2-week ecological momentary assessment protocol in which they recorded bulimic behaviors and provided multiple daily ratings of NA. A multilevel autoregressive cross-lagged analysis was conducted to examine concurrent, first-order autoregressive, and prospective associations between NA, binge eating, and purging across the day. Results revealed positive concurrent associations between all variables across all time points, as well as numerous autoregressive associations. For prospective associations, higher NA predicted subsequent bulimic symptoms at multiple time points; conversely, binge eating predicted lower NA at multiple time points, and purging predicted higher NA at 1 time point. Several autoregressive and prospective associations were also found between binge eating and purging. This study used a novel approach to examine NA in relation to bulimic symptoms, contributing to the existing literature by directly examining the magnitude of the associations, examining differences in the associations across the day, and controlling for other associations in testing each effect in the model. These findings may have relevance for understanding the etiology and/or maintenance of bulimic symptoms, as well as potentially informing psychological interventions for BN.

Law, Mary Kate; Furr, R. Michael; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Mneimne, Malek; Jaquett, Caroline; Fleeson, William (2015): Does assessing suicidality frequently and repeatedly cause harm? A randomized control study. In: Psychological Assessment 27 (4), S. 1171–1181. DOI: 10.1037/pas0000118.

Assessing suicidality is common in mental health practice and is fundamental to suicide research. Although necessary, there is significant concern that such assessments have unintended harmful consequences. Using a longitudinal randomized control design, the authors evaluated whether repeated and frequent assessments of suicide-related thoughts and behaviors negatively affected individuals, including those at-risk for suicide-related outcomes. Adults (N = 282), including many diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD), were recruited through psychiatric outpatient clinics and from the community at large, and were randomly assigned to assessment groups. A control assessment group responded to questions regarding negative psychological experiences several times each day during a 2-week main observation phase. During the same observation period, an intensive suicide assessment group responded to the same questions, along with questions regarding suicidal behavior and ideation. Negative psychological outcomes were measured during the main observation phase (for BPD symptoms unrelated to suicide and for BPD-relevant emotions) and/or at the end of each week during the main observation phase and monthly for 6 months thereafter (for all outcomes, including suicidal ideation and behavior). Results revealed little evidence that intensive suicide assessment triggered negative outcomes, including suicidal ideation or behavior, even among people with BPD. A handful of effects did reach or approach significance, though these were temporary and nonrobust. However, given the seriousness of some outcomes, the authors recommend that researchers or clinicians who implement experience sampling methods including suicide-related items carefully consider the benefits of asking about suicide and to inform participants about possible risks.

Linnemann, Alexandra; Ditzen, Beate; Strahler, Jana; Doerr, Johanna M.; Nater, Urs M. (2015): Music listening as a means of stress reduction in daily life. In: Psychoneuroendocrinology 60, S. 82–90. DOI: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.06.008.

The relation between music listening and stress is inconsistently reported across studies, with the major part of studies being set in experimental settings. Furthermore, the psychobiological mechanisms for a potential stress-reducing effect remain unclear. We examined the potential stress-reducing effect of music listening in everyday life using both subjective and objective indicators of stress. Fifty-five healthy university students were examined in an ambulatory assessment study, both during a regular term week (five days) and during an examination week (five days). Participants rated their current music-listening behavior and perceived stress levels four times per day, and a sub-sample (n =25) additionally provided saliva samples for the later analysis of cortisol and alpha-amylase on two consecutive days during both weeks. Results revealed that mere music listening was effective in reducing subjective stress levels (p =0.010). The most profound effects were found when ‘relaxation’ was stated as the reason for music listening, with subsequent decreases in subjective stress levels (p ≤0.001) and lower cortisol concentrations (p ≤0.001). Alpha-amylase varied as a function of the arousal of the selected music, with energizing music increasing and relaxing music decreasing alpha-amylase activity (p =0.025). These findings suggest that music listening can be considered a means of stress reduction in daily life, especially if it is listened to for the reason of relaxation. Furthermore, these results shed light on the physiological mechanisms underlying the stress-reducing effect of music, with music listening differentially affecting the physiological stress systems.

Livingston, Nicholas A.; Hargrove, Tannis; Greiman, Lillie; Myers, Andrew; Ipsen, Catherine; Ravesloot, Craig (2015): An investigation into the temporal scaling of community participation measurement. In: Rehabilitation Psychology 60 (4), S. 367–375. DOI: 10.1037/rep0000062.

Purpose: Community participation remains fundamental to contemporary models of disability. However, the effect of temporal scaling on the measurement of participation has not been explored. This study examined the similarities and differences between two different temporal scales (i.e., seven-day recall vs. in situ) on participation measurement. Research Method: We collected seven-day retrospective recall data using a self-report paper-and-pencil measure (i.e., the Brief Community Engagement Questionnaire) from a community-based sample (N = 525) of individuals who endorsed one or more items of the American Community Survey disability screening questions. A subset of these participants (n = 148) completed an ancillary ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study, which involved repeated, in situ, daily measurements of participation for two weeks. Corresponding participation items from each method were compared. Results: Survey and EMA participation data were relatively consistent over repeated measurements, suggesting reliability across methods and temporal scaling. Consistency across activities was most evident for major activities that tend to require regular behavior (e.g., work and volunteering). Conversely, lower base rate behavior demonstrated less stability regardless of temporal resolution. Conclusion: Understanding the implications of temporal resolution for participation measures is valuable for advancing ecological participation models. Future research is needed to develop consensus on participation measurement and provide a solid basis for developing ecological models of participation.

Lu, Ji; Pan, Junhao; Zhang, Qiang; Dube, Laurette; Ip, Edward H. (2015): Reciprocal Markov Modeling of Feedback Mechanisms Between Emotion and Dietary Choice Using Experience-Sampling Data. In: Multivariate behavioral research 50 (6), S. 584–599. DOI: 10.1080/00273171.2015.1033510.

With intensively collected longitudinal data, recent advances in the experience-sampling method (ESM) benefit social science empirical research, but also pose important methodological challenges. As traditional statistical models are not generally well equipped to analyze a system of variables that contain feedback loops, this paper proposes the utility of an extended hidden Markov model to model reciprocal the relationship between momentary emotion and eating behavior. This paper revisited an ESM data set (Lu, Huet, & Dube, 2011 ) that observed 160 participants’ food consumption and momentary emotions 6 times per day in 10 days. Focusing on the analyses on feedback loop between mood and meal-healthiness decision, the proposed reciprocal Markov model (RMM) can accommodate both hidden (“general” emotional states: positive vs. negative state) and observed states (meal: healthier, same or less healthy than usual) without presuming independence between observations and smooth trajectories of mood or behavior changes. The results of RMM analyses illustrated the reciprocal chains of meal consumption and mood as well as the effect of contextual factors that moderate the interrelationship between eating and emotion. A simulation experiment that generated data consistent with the empirical study further demonstrated that the procedure is promising in terms of recovering the parameters.

Luong, Gloria; Wrzus, Cornelia; Wagner, Gert G.; Riediger, Michaela (2015): When Bad Moods May Not Be So Bad: Valuing Negative Affect Is Associated With Weakened Affect–Health Links. In: Emotion. DOI: 10.1037/emo0000132.

Bad moods are considered “bad” not only because they may be aversive experiences in and of themselves, but also because they are associated with poorer psychosocial functioning and health. We propose that people differ in their negative affect valuation (NAV; the extent to which negative affective states are valued as pleasant, useful/helpful, appropriate, and meaningful experiences) and that affect–health links are moderated by NAV. These predictions were tested in a life span sample of 365 participants ranging from 14–88 years of age using reports of momentary negative affect and physical well-being (via experience sampling) and assessments of NAV and psychosocial and physical functioning (via computer-assisted personal interviews and behavioral measures of hand grip strength). Our study demonstrated that the more individuals valued negative affect, the less pronounced (and sometimes even nonexistent) were the associations between everyday experiences of negative affect and a variety of indicators of poorer psychosocial functioning (i.e., emotional health problems, social integration) and physical health (i.e., number of health conditions, health complaints, hand grip strength, momentary physical well-being). Exploratory analyses revealed that valuing positive affect was not associated with the analogous moderating effects as NAV. These findings suggest that it may be particularly important to consider NAV in models of affect–health links.

Marshall, Simon; Kerr, Jacqueline; Carlson, Jordan; Cadmus-Bertram, Lisa; Patterson, Ruth; Wasilenko, Kari et al. (2015): Patterns of weekday and weekend sedentary behavior among older adults. In: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity 23 (4), S. 534–541. DOI: 10.1123/japa.2013-0208.

The purpose of this study was to compare estimates of sedentary time on weekdays vs. weekend days in older adults and determine if these patterns vary by measurement method. Older adults (N = 230, M = 83.5, SD = 6.5 years) living in retirement communities completed a questionnaire about sedentary behavior and wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for seven days. Participants engaged in 9.4 (SD = 1.5) hr per day of accelerometer-measured sedentary time, but self-reported engaging in 11.4 (SD = 4.9) hr per day. Men and older participants had more accelerometer-measured sedentary time than their counterparts. The difference between accelerometer-measured weekday and weekend sedentary time was nonsignificant. However, participants self-reported 1.1 hr per day more sedentary time on weekdays compared with weekend days. Findings suggest self-reported but not accelerometer-measured sedentary time should be investigated separately for weekdays and weekend days, and that self-reports may overestimate sedentary time in older adults.

Martino, Steven C.; Kovalchik, Stephanie A.; Collins, Rebecca L.; Becker, Kirsten M.; Shadel, William G.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J. (2016): Ecological Momentary Assessment of the Association Between Exposure to Alcohol Advertising and Early Adolescents’ Beliefs About Alcohol. In: The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine 58 (1), S. 85–91. DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.08.010.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the momentary association between exposure to alcohol advertising and middle-school students’ beliefs about alcohol in real-world settings and to explore racial/ethnic differences in this association. METHODS: Middle-school students (N = 588) carried handheld data collection devices for 14 days, recording their exposures to all forms of alcohol advertising during the assessment period. Students also responded to three investigator-initiated control prompts (programmed to occur randomly) on each day of the assessment period. After each exposure to advertising and at each control prompt, students reported their beliefs about alcohol. Mixed-effects regression models compared students’ beliefs about alcohol between moments of exposure to alcohol advertising and control prompts. RESULTS: Students perceived the typical person their age who drinks alcohol (prototype perceptions) more favorably and perceived alcohol use as more normative at times of exposure to alcohol advertising than at times of nonexposure (i.e., at control prompts). Exposure to alcohol advertising was not associated with shifts in the perceived norms of black and Hispanic students, however, and the association between exposure and prototype perceptions was stronger among non-Hispanic students than among Hispanic students. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to alcohol advertising is associated with acute shifts in adolescents’ perceptions of the typical person that drinks alcohol and the normativeness of drinking. These associations are both statistically and substantively meaningful.

Mason, Michael; Mennis, Jeremy; Way, Thomas; Lanza, Stephanie; Russell, Michael; Zaharakis, Nikola (2015): Time-varying effects of a text-based smoking cessation intervention for urban adolescents. In: Drug and Alcohol Dependence. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.10.016.

INTRODUCTION: Craving to smoke is understood as an important mechanism for continued smoking behavior. Identifying how smoking interventions operate on craving with particular populations is critical for advancing intervention science. This study’s objective was to investigate the time-varying effect of a text-delivered smoking cessation intervention. METHODS: Toward this end, we used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) data collected from a five-day, automated text-messaging smoking cessation randomized clinical trial with 200 urban adolescents. We employed a time-varying effect model (TVEM) to estimate the effects of stress (time-varying covariate) and baseline nicotine dependence level (time-invariant covariate) on craving over six months by treatment condition. The TVEM approach models behavioral change and associations of coefficients expressed dynamically and graphically represented as smooth functions of time. RESULTS: Controlling for gender, age, and current smoking, differences in trajectories of craving between intervention and control conditions were apparent over the course of the study. During months 2 to 3, the association between stress and craving was significantly stronger among the control group, suggesting treatment dampens this association during this time period. The intervention also reduced the salience of baseline dependence among treatment adolescents, with craving being reduced steadily over time, while the control group increased craving over time. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide insight into the time-varying nature of treatment effects for adolescents receiving a text-based smoking cessation intervention. The ability to specify when in the course of an intervention the effect is strongest is important in developing targeted and adaptive interventions that can adjust strategically with time.

Mason, Michael J.; Mennis, Jeremy; Zaharakis, Nikola M.; Way, Thomas (2015): The Dynamic Role of Urban Neighborhood Effects in a Text-Messaging Adolescent Smoking Intervention. In: Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. DOI: 10.1093/ntr/ntv254.

INTRODUCTION: Neighborhood features such as the density of tobacco outlets relative to one’s home and evaluations of safety of one’s activity space (routine locations), are known to influence health behaviors. Understanding the time-varying nature of these aspects of the urban ecology provides unique insights into the dynamic interactions of individuals and their environments. METHODS: The present study tested the time-varying effects of tobacco outlets and perceived safety within a randomized controlled trial of an adolescent text-messaging smoking intervention. We used ecological momentary assessment data (EMA) from an automated text-messaging smoking cessation randomized trial with 197 primarily African American urban adolescents. We employed a time-varying effect model to estimate the effects of density of tobacco outlets within one-half mile of participants’ home locations (time-invariant covariate) and evaluations of safety of their activity space (time-varying covariate) on momentary smoking over 6 months by treatment condition. The time-varying effect model approach models behavioral change and associations of coefficients expressed dynamically and graphically represented as smooth functions of time. RESULTS: Differences in trajectories of smoking between treatment conditions were apparent over the course of the study. During months 2 and 6, the association between tobacco outlet density and smoking was significantly stronger in the control condition, suggesting treatment dampens this association during these time periods. The intervention also significantly reduced the association of perceived safety and smoking among the treatment condition during months 3 through 6. CONCLUSIONS: Results support testing the time-varying effects of urban ecological features and perceptions of safety among adolescents in text-based smoking cessation interventions. IMPLICATIONS: This study makes a unique contribution towards understanding the time-varying effects of urban neighborhoods on adolescent tobacco use within the context of a text-delivered intervention. Helping to adjust the long-held conceptualization of intervention effects as a static outcome, to that of a dynamic, time-varying process, is an important contribution of this study. The ability to specify when behavioral change occurs within the context of a randomized control trial provides understanding into the time-varying treatment effects of text-based smoking intervention. For example, researchers can modify the intervention to have strategically timed booster sessions that align with when the odds of smoking begin to increase in order to provide more precise treatment. The current study results show that increasing support to participants during months 2 and 4 may help suppress smoking over the course of a 6-month intervention.

Matthews, Russell A.; Ritter, Kelsey-Jo (2015): A Concise, Content Valid, Gender Invariant Measure of Workplace Incivility. In: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. DOI: 10.1037/ocp0000017.

The authors present a short, valid, gender invariant measure of workplace incivility that should have a high degree of utility in a variety of research designs, especially those concerned with reducing participant burden such as experience sampling and multiwave longitudinal designs. Given ongoing concerns about the psychometric properties of workplace mistreatment constructs, they validated a 4-item measure of experienced incivility based on series of 3 independent field studies (N = 2,636). In addition to retaining items on the basis of employee rated conceptual alignment (i.e., judgmental criteria) with a standard incivility definition (i.e., ambiguous intent to harm), items were also chosen based on external criteria in terms of their ability to explain incremental variance in outcomes of interest (e.g., role overload, interpersonal deviance). Items with large systematic relationships with other mistreatment constructs (i.e., abusive supervision, supervisor undermining) were excluded. In turn, the authors demonstrated that the 4-item measure is gender invariant, a critical issue that has received limited attention in the literature to date. They also experimentally investigated the effect of recall window (2 weeks, 1 month, 1 year) and found a differential pattern of effect sizes for various outcomes of interest. A fourth independent field study was conducted as a practical application of the measure within a longitudinal framework. An autoregressive model examining experienced incivility and counterproductive work behaviors was tested. Data was collected from a sample of 278 respondents at 3 time points with 1 month between assessments. Implications of these findings are discussed.

McIntyre, Teresa M.; McIntyre, Scott E.; Barr, Christopher D.; Woodward, Phillip S.; Francis, David J.; Durand, Angelia C. et al. (2015): Longitudinal Study of the Feasibility of Using Ecological Momentary Assessment to Study Teacher Stress: Objective and Self-Reported Measures. In: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. DOI: 10.1037/a0039966.

There is a lack of comprehensive research on Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) feasibility to study occupational stress, especially its long-term sustainability. EMA application in education contexts has also been sparse. This study investigated the feasibility of using EMA to study teacher stress over 2 years using both objective compliance data and a self-reported feasibility survey. It also examined the influence of individual and school factors on EMA feasibility. Participants were 202 sixth through eighth grade teachers from 22 urban middle schools in the southern United States. EMA was implemented via an iPod-based Teacher Stress Diary (TSD). Teachers recorded demands, stress responses, and resources during 12 days (6 waves) over 2 years. Feasibility was assessed via compliance data generated by the TSD (e.g., entry completion) and an EMA Feasibility Survey of self-reported user-friendliness and EMA interference. The results showed high compliance regarding entry and item completion, and completion time, which was sustained over time. User-friendliness was appraised as very high and EMA interference as low. Initial difficulties regarding timing and length of assessments were addressed via EMA method refinement, resulting in improved feasibility. Teachers’ ethnicity, age, marital status, grade/course taught, class size, class load, and daily workload impacted feasibility. The results supported the feasibility of using EMA to study work stress longitudinally and the value of continued feasibility monitoring. They also support EMA use to study teacher stress and inform EMA implementation in schools. Some teacher and school factors need to be taken into consideration when deciding on EMA implementation in education contexts.

Milyavskaya, Marina; Inzlicht, Michael; Hope, Nora; Koestner, Richard (2015): Saying ‘no’ to temptation: Want-to motivation improves self-regulation by reducing temptation rather than by increasing self-control. In: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 109 (4), S. 677–693. DOI: 10.1037/pspp0000045.

Self-regulation has been conceptualized as the interplay between controlled and impulsive processes; however, most research has focused on the controlled side (i.e., effortful self-control). The present studies focus on the effects of motivation on impulsive processes, including automatic preferences for goal-disruptive stimuli and subjective reports of temptations and obstacles, contrasting them with effects on controlled processes. This is done by examining people’s implicit affective reactions in the face of goal-disruptive “temptations” (Studies 1 and 2), subjective reports of obstacles (Studies 2 and 3) and expended effort (Study 3), as well as experiences of desires and self-control in real-time using experience sampling (Study 4). Across these multiple methods, results show that want-to motivation results in decreased impulsive attraction to goal-disruptive temptations and is related to encountering fewer obstacles in the process of goal pursuit. This, in turn, explains why want-to goals are more likely to be attained. Have-to motivation, on the other hand, was unrelated to people’s automatic reactions to temptation cues but related to greater subjective perceptions of obstacles and tempting desires. The discussion focuses on the implications of these findings for self-regulation and motivation.

Moeller, Julia (2015): A word on standardization in longitudinal studies: don’t. In: Frontiers in psychology 6, S. 1389. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01389.

This article discusses the risks of standardization and ipsatization in longitudinal studies. First, it summarizes some common purposes of standardization in psychological studies. Second, it explains why and when standardization and ipsatization are problematic in the analysis of longitudinal data and profiles. Third, it shows alternative ways to achieve similar purposes while avoiding the risks.

Papp, Lauren M.; Blumenstock, Shari M. (2016): Momentary affect and risky behavior correlates of prescription drug misuse among young adult dating couples: An experience sampling study. In: Addictive Behaviors 53, S. 161–167. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2015.10.016.

Although published research based on retrospective survey designs has established prescription drug misuse as a serious health issue for individuals and society, misuse behavior has not been investigated as it occurs in daily life and important relationships. To address this gap, young adult romantic couples were recruited from the community to participate in an experience sampling study. Participants were identified through phone screen procedures as having engaged in recent prescription drug misuse behavior. Participants (n=46 couples) completed electronic diary reports throughout the day for 10days, tapping momentary affect, sexual experiences, prescription drug misuse, and alcohol and other drug use. Dyadic multilevel modeling revealed a more consistent pattern of associations between prescription drug misuse and problematic affective and behavioral outcomes for female partners than male partners. Specifically, during epochs of females’ prescription drug misuse, they experienced relatively higher levels of negative affect and sexual regret. Also, females who misused prescriptions more during the study period evidenced lower levels of sexual enjoyment and engaged in more unprotected sex, alcohol use, and heavy alcohol use in daily life. Males’ in-the-moment prescription drug misuse was not associated with their concurrent outcomes, though males with relatively more misuse across the reporting period were more likely to engage in heavy drinking. Couples’ time together emerged as a moderator of prescription drug misuse in daily life: Females who spent relatively more time with their partner across the study were less likely to engage in misuse, and proportion of time spent together moderated several of the momentary misuse-outcome linkages. This study supports the use of ecologically-valid sampling methods for characterizing young adults’ prescription drug misuse in daily life and relationship contexts.

Pavani, Jean-Baptiste; Vigouroux, Sarah; Kop, Jean-Luc; Congard, Anne; Dauvier, Bruno (2015): Affect and affect regulation strategies reciprocally influence each other in daily life: The case of positive reappraisal, problem-focused coping, appreciation and rumination. In: Journal of Happiness Studies. DOI: 10.1007/s10902-015-9686-9.

Feelings of positive or negative affect are not restricted to temporary states. They can also determine future affective experiences, by influencing the building of an individual’s personal resources. The present study was designed to understand the daily fluctuations in positive and negative affect more fully. To this end, we examined the involvement of a variety of affect regulation strategies in these fluctuations. The affect regulation strategies we explored included positive reappraisal, problem-focused coping, appreciation and rumination. We adopted an experience sampling method, consisting of five daily assessments over a 2-week period. As expected, within a few hours of experiencing more positive affect, participants engaged in greater positive reappraisal, problem-focused coping and appreciation. In turn, greater use of each of these three strategies was followed by more intense experiences of positive affect. We observed analogous reciprocal influences between rumination and the experience of negative affect, within the same time interval. Changes in affective experience over several hours were also directly influenced by concurrent use of these strategies. More specifically, greater positive reappraisal, problem-focused coping and appreciation accelerated the rise in positive affect that follows low feelings of positive affect, and slowed the decline in positive affect that follows high feelings. Rumination had an analogous influence on change in negative affect. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

Peimani, Maryam; Rambod, Camelia; Omidvar, Maryam; Larijani, Bagher; Ghodssi-Ghassemabadi, Robabeh; Tootee, Ali; Esfahani, Ensieh Nasli (2015): Effectiveness of short message service-based intervention (SMS) on self-care in type 2 diabetes: A feasibility study. In: Primary care diabetes. DOI: 10.1016/j.pcd.2015.11.001.

AIM: The objective of the current study is to assess the effectiveness of Mobile Short Message Service (SMS) intervention on education of basic self-care skills in patients with type 2 diabetes. Moreover, we aimed to determine whether delivering individually-tailored educational messages can be more effective than general educational messages. METHODS: A total of 150 patients with diabetes type 2 were randomized into three groups: tailored SMS group, non-tailored SMS group, and the control group. Biochemical parameters including HbA1c, FBS, lipid profile were evaluated for the three groups at baseline and after 12 weeks. Moreover, self-care Inventory (SCI), Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy Scale (DMSES) and Diabetes Self-Care Barriers assessment scale for Older Adults (DSCB-OA) were completed. In the tailored SMS group, each person received 75% of their messages based on the top two barriers to adherence that they had experienced and reported in their scale. In the non-tailored SMS group, random messages were sent to every patient. RESULTS: After 12 weeks, although HgA1c levels did not significantly change, significant decline was observed in FBS and mean BMI in both intervention groups. Mean SCI-R scores significantly increased and mean DSCB and DMSES scores significantly decreased in both tailored and non-tailored SMS groups. In the control group, mean SCI-R scores decreased and mean DSCB and DMSES scores significantly increased (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Sending short text messages as a method of education in conjunction with conventional diabetes treatment can improve glycemic control and positively influence other aspects of diabetes self-care. According to our findings, sending SMS regularly in particular times appears to be as effective as sending individually tailored messages.

Pfaeffli Dale, Leila; Dobson, Rosie; Whittaker, Robyn; Maddison, Ralph (2015): The effectiveness of mobile-health behaviour change interventions for cardiovascular disease self-management: A systematic review. In: European journal of preventive cardiology. DOI: 10.1177/2047487315613462.

BACKGROUND: Mobile wireless devices (mHealth) have been used to deliver cardiovascular disease self-management interventions to educate and support patients in making healthy lifestyle changes. This systematic review aimed to determine the effectiveness of mHealth interventions on behavioural lifestyle changes and medication adherence for cardiovascular disease self-management. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted from inception through to 3 March 2015 using MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library. Eligible studies used an experimental trial design to determine the effectiveness of an mHealth intervention to change lifestyle behaviours in any cardiovascular disease population. Data extracted included intervention and comparison group characteristics with a specific focus on the use of behaviour change techniques. RESULTS: Seven studies met our inclusion criteria and were included in the qualitative synthesis. All interventions were delivered in part by mobile phone text messaging. Three studies were effective at improving adherence to medication and two studies increased physical activity behaviour. No effects were observed on dietary behaviour or smoking cessation, measured in one study each. Simple text messaging interventions appeared to be most effective; however, no clear relationships were found between study findings and intervention dose, duration or behaviour change techniques targeted. CONCLUSIONS: Our review found mHealth has the potential to change lifestyle behaviour. Results are still limited to a small number of trials, inconsistent outcome measures and ineffective reporting of intervention characteristics. Large scale, longitudinal studies are now warranted to gain a clear understanding of the effects of mHealth on behaviour change in the cardiovascular disease population.

Pfaeffli Dale, Leila; Whittaker, Robyn; Jiang, Yannan; Stewart, Ralph; Rolleston, Anna; Maddison, Ralph (2015): Text Message and Internet Support for Coronary Heart Disease Self-Management: Results From the Text4Heart Randomized Controlled Trial. In: Journal of medical Internet research 17 (10), S. e237. DOI: 10.2196/jmir.4944.

BACKGROUND: Mobile technology has the potential to deliver behavior change interventions (mHealth) to reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) at modest cost. Previous studies have focused on single behaviors; however, cardiac rehabilitation (CR), a component of CHD self-management, needs to address multiple risk factors. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate the effectiveness of a mHealth-delivered comprehensive CR program (Text4Heart) to improve adherence to recommended lifestyle behaviors (smoking cessation, physical activity, healthy diet, and nonharmful alcohol use) in addition to usual care (traditional CR). METHODS: A 2-arm, parallel, randomized controlled trial was conducted in New Zealand adults diagnosed with CHD. Participants were recruited in-hospital and were encouraged to attend center-based CR (usual care control). In addition, the intervention group received a personalized 24-week mHealth program, framed in social cognitive theory, sent by fully automated daily short message service (SMS) text messages and a supporting website. The primary outcome was adherence to healthy lifestyle behaviors measured using a self-reported composite health behavior score (>/=3) at 3 and 6 months. Secondary outcomes included clinical outcomes, medication adherence score, self-efficacy, illness perceptions, and anxiety and/or depression at 6 months. Baseline and 6-month follow-up assessments (unblinded) were conducted in person. RESULTS: Eligible patients (N=123) recruited from 2 large metropolitan hospitals were randomized to the intervention (n=61) or the control (n=62) group. Participants were predominantly male (100/123, 81.3%), New Zealand European (73/123, 59.3%), with a mean age of 59.5 (SD 11.1) years. A significant treatment effect in favor of the intervention was observed for the primary outcome at 3 months (AOR 2.55, 95% CI 1.12-5.84; P=.03), but not at 6 months (AOR 1.93, 95% CI 0.83-4.53; P=.13). The intervention group reported significantly greater medication adherence score (mean difference: 0.58, 95% CI 0.19-0.97; P=.004). The majority of intervention participants reported reading all their text messages (52/61, 85%). The number of visits to the website per person ranged from zero to 100 (median 3) over the 6-month intervention period. CONCLUSIONS: A mHealth CR intervention plus usual care showed a positive effect on adherence to multiple lifestyle behavior changes at 3 months in New Zealand adults with CHD compared to usual care alone. The effect was not sustained to the end of the 6-month intervention. A larger study is needed to determine the size of the effect in the longer term and whether the change in behavior reduces adverse cardiovascular events. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTRN 12613000901707; true (Archived by WebCite at

Possemato, Kyle; Maisto, Stephen A.; Wade, Michael; Barrie, Kimberly; McKenzie, Shannon; Lantinga, Larry J.; Ouimette, Paige (2015): Ecological momentary assessment of PTSD symptoms and alcohol use in combat veterans. In: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 29 (4), S. 894–905. DOI: 10.1037/adb0000129.

Despite high rates of comorbid hazardous alcohol use and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the nature of the functional relationship between these problems is not fully understood. Insufficient evidence exists to fully support models commonly used to explain the relationship between hazardous alcohol use and PTSD including the self-medication hypothesis and the mutual maintenance model. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) can monitor within-day fluctuations of symptoms and drinking to provide novel information regarding potential functional relationships and symptom interactions. This study aimed to model the daily course of alcohol use and PTSD symptoms and to test theory-based moderators, including avoidance coping and self-efficacy to resist drinking. A total of 143 recent combat veterans with PTSD symptoms and hazardous drinking completed brief assessments of alcohol use, PTSD symptoms, mood, coping, and self-efficacy 4 times daily for 28 days. Our results support the finding that increases in PTSD are associated with more drinking within the same 3-hr time block, but not more drinking within the following time block. Support for moderators was found: Avoidance coping strengthened the relationship between PTSD and later drinking, while self-efficacy to resist drinking weakened the relationship between PTSD and later drinking. An exploratory analysis revealed support for self-medication occurring in certain times of the day: Increased PTSD severity in the evening predicted more drinking overnight. Overall, our results provide mixed support for the self-medication hypothesis. Also, interventions that seek to reduce avoidance coping and increase patient self-efficacy may help veterans with PTSD decrease drinking.

Reininghaus, Ulrich; Depp, Colin A.; Myin-Germeys, Inez (2015): Ecological Interventionist Causal Models in Psychosis: Targeting Psychological Mechanisms in Daily Life. In: Schizophrenia bulletin. DOI: 10.1093/schbul/sbv193.

Integrated models of psychotic disorders have posited a number of putative psychological mechanisms that may contribute to the development of psychotic symptoms, but it is only recently that a modest amount of experience sampling research has provided evidence on their role in daily life, outside the research laboratory. A number of methodological challenges remain in evaluating specificity of potential causal links between a given psychological mechanism and psychosis outcomes in a systematic fashion, capitalizing on longitudinal data to investigate temporal ordering. In this article, we argue for testing ecological interventionist causal models that draw on real world and real-time delivered, ecological momentary interventions for generating evidence on several causal criteria (association, time order, and direction/sole plausibility) under real-world conditions, while maximizing generalizability to social contexts and experiences in heterogeneous populations. Specifically, this approach tests whether ecological momentary interventions can (1) modify a putative mechanism and (2) produce changes in the mechanism that lead to sustainable changes in intended psychosis outcomes in individuals’ daily lives. Future research using this approach will provide translational evidence on the active ingredients of mobile health and in-person interventions that promote sustained effectiveness of ecological momentary interventions and, thereby, contribute to ongoing efforts that seek to enhance effectiveness of psychological interventions under real-world conditions.

Reynolds, Grace L.; Fisher, Dennis G.; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Fortenberry, J. Dennis (2015): An electronic daily diary study of anal intercourse in drug-using women. In: AIDS and Behavior 19 (12), S. 2325–2332. DOI: 10.1007/s10461-015-1045-7.

Women (N = 138) with histories of illicit drug use were recruited into an electronic diary study that used Android smartphones for data collection. The diary was to be completed each day for 12 weeks using an “app” created in HTML5 and accessed over the Internet via smartphone. Data collection included information on sexual behaviors with up to 10 partners per day and contextual factors surrounding sexual behavior such as drug use before/after, type of sexual behavior (oral, vaginal, anal), and other activities such as using condoms for vaginal and anal intercourse and use of sexual lubricants. The sample was predominantly African American (58 %); 20 % Latina, 20 % White and 2 % reported as Other. Most women reported either less than a high school education (33 %) or having a high school diploma (33 %). The mean age was 39 years (SD = 11.78). Anal intercourse occurred on days when women also reported using illicit drugs, specifically methamphetamine and cocaine. Anal intercourse was not an isolated sexual activity, but took place on days when vaginal intercourse and giving and receiving oral sex also occurred along with illicit drug use. Anal intercourse also occurred on days when women reported they wanted sex. HIV prevention interventions must address the risks of anal intercourse for women, taking into account concurrent drug use and sexual pleasure that may reduce individual harm-reduction behaviors.

Roane, Brandy M.; van Reen, Eliza; Hart, Chantelle N.; Wing, Rena; Carskadon, Mary A. (2015): Estimating sleep from multisensory armband measurements: Validity and reliability in teens. In: Journal of Sleep Research 24 (6), S. 714–721. DOI: 10.1111/jsr.12317.

Given the recognition that sleep may influence obesity risk, there is increasing interest in measuring sleep parameters within obesity studies. The goal of the current analyses was to determine whether the SenseWear® Pro3 Armband (armband), typically used to assess physical activity, is reliable at assessing sleep parameters. The armband was compared with the AMI Motionlogger® (actigraph), a validated activity monitor for sleep assessment, and with polysomnography, the gold standard for assessing sleep. Participants were 20 adolescents (mean age = 15.5 years) with a mean body mass index percentile of 63.7. All participants wore the armband and actigraph on their non‐dominant arm while in‐lab during a nocturnal polysomnographic recording (600 min). Epoch‐by‐epoch sleep/wake data and concordance of sleep parameters were examined. No significant sleep parameter differences were found between the armband and polysomnography; the actigraph tended to overestimate sleep and underestimate wake compared with polysomnography. Both devices showed high sleep sensitivity, but lower wake detection rates. Bland–Altman plots showed large individual differences in armband sleep parameter concordance rates. The armband did well estimating sleep overall, with group results more similar to polysomnography than the actigraph; however, the armband was less accurate at an individual level than the actigraph.

Roberts, Megan E.; Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; Colby, Suzanne M.; Gwaltney, Chad J. (2015): With others or alone? Adolescent individual differences in the context of smoking lapses. In: Health Psychology 34 (11), S. 1066–1075. DOI: 10.1037/hea0000211.

Objective: Although a great deal of adolescent smoking research has investigated predictors of initiation, much less has focused on predictors of lapsing during a quit attempt. In particular, the role of social context may deserve greater attention in models of adolescent smoking cessation. Therefore, the present investigation aimed to use ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to examine individual differences in social lapsing—the extent to which lapses occur around others versus when alone. Methods: Analyses focused on 179 adolescent smokers (aged 14–18 years) engaged in an unassisted quit attempt. There were 2 general EMA assessment intervals: prequit (1 week) and postquit (2 weeks). Participants reported every time that they smoked a cigarette and at random, nonsmoking times; in each assessment, participants responded to questions about their current environment, behaviors, and psychological state. A 3-month follow-up assessed longer-term smoking-related outcomes. Results: Consistent with other adolescent research, the overall rate of lapsing was very high (93%). Social lapsing rates were likewise high (among those who lapsed, 73% reported their first lapse was social), but they also varied continuously across individuals. We computed a social lapsing coefficient for each youth and found that it related to smoking factors at baseline (e.g., lower smoking intensity and dependence) and follow-up (e.g., lower cotinine levels). Conclusions: These results suggest that higher rates of social lapsing are associated with being a lighter, less dependent smoker and having better eventual cessation prospects. Findings provide evidence that accounting for variability in social lapsing may improve theory and treatment.

Roekel, Eeske; Bennik, Elise C.; Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A.; Verhagen, Maaike; Ormel, Johan; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J. (2015): Depressive symptoms and the experience of pleasure in daily life: An exploration of associations in early and late adolescence. In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. DOI: 10.1007/s10802-015-0090-z.

Although loss of pleasure (i.e., anhedonia) is one of the two core symptoms of depression, very little research has examined the relation between depressive symptoms and the experience of pleasure in daily life. This exploratory study in two population-based adolescent samples aimed to examine how depressive symptoms and anhedonia specifically were related to (1) the proportion and intensity of positive events, (2) mean and variability of positive affect (PA), (3) reactivity to positive events, and (4) reactivity to PA (i.e., whether PA elicits positive events). We used Experience Sampling to measure positive events and PA several times a day during 6 to 14 days in early (N = 284) and late (N = 74) adolescents. Results showed that depressive symptoms were related to a lower proportion and intensity of positive events, lower mean PA, and higher variability in PA regardless of sex and stage of adolescence. No clear evidence was found for differential reactivity to positive events or to PA. Anhedonia was not associated with most daily life experiences of pleasure. Our findings, though preliminary, suggest that although adolescents with many depressive symptoms experience less positive events and lower PA, they are able to enjoy pleasurable events to the same extent as individuals with fewer depressive symptoms.

Roekel, Eeske; Ha, Thao; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Verhagen, Maaike (2015): Loneliness in the daily lives of young adults: Testing a socio‐cognitive model. In: European Journal of Personality. DOI: 10.1002/per.2028.

A socio‐cognitive model of loneliness states that lonely people are characterized by two characteristics, hypersensitivity to social threat and hyposensitivity to social reward. However, these characteristics have not yet been examined in the daily lives of young adults. Therefore, the main aim of the present study was to examine these two characteristics in young adults and whether relationship status, living situation, and type of company moderated the relationship between sensitivity to threat and reward and feelings of loneliness. The Experience Sampling Method was used, and data were collected among 219 first‐year college students (M age = 19.60, 91% female). Participants filled out questionnaires on their smartphone at five random time points per day, on 11 consecutive days. Multilevel analyses showed support for hypersensitivity to social threat, in that students high in loneliness were more negatively affected by negative perceptions of company. Results for hyposensitivity to social reward were in the opposite direction; students high in loneliness were more positively affected by positive perceptions of company than students low in loneliness. These relations were not moderated by relationship status or living situation. Our findings may indicate that loneliness serves as a motivational state that increases susceptibility to the environment in order to restore social relationships. Copyright © 2015 European Association of Personality Psychology

Ruggiero, Jeanne S.; Avi-Itzhak, Tamara (2015): Sleep Patterns of Emergency Department Nurses on Workdays and Days Off. In: The journal of nursing research : JNR. DOI: 10.1097/jnr.0000000000000121.

BACKGROUND: Shift workers, particularly night workers, are prone to disrupted circadian rhythms and sleep deprivation resulting in fatigue and sleepiness, thereby endangering patient safety. Little is known about the sleep patterns of emergency nurses who work highly variable around-the-clock schedules to meet the demands of fluctuating patient census and acuities throughout the 24-hour period. PURPOSE: The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether there are shift-related sleep pattern differences in emergency department nurses over seven consecutive 24-hour periods that include both workdays and days off. METHODS: A New Jersey mailing list (1514 members) was rented from the Emergency Nurses’ Association. Three hundred on this list were systematically sampled and invited by mail to participate. The final sample consisted of 35 emergency nurses. Participants wore actigraphs for 24 hours each day for 7 days and completed sleep diaries upon awakening from their daily main sleep periods. Queries included caffeine and hypnotics usage. The nurses also completed the Standard Shiftwork Index General Biographical Information Section for demographic and scheduling data. Participants received a $50 honorarium upon completion of the protocol. The actigraph data were downloaded into a personal computer using Act Millennium and analyzed with Action W software (Ambulatory Monitoring, Inc., Ardsley, NY, USA). RESULTS: Sleep durations ranged from 6.6 to 8.1 hours on workdays and from 6.2 to 8.1 hours on days off. There were no significant shift- or workday-related differences in sleep patterns. However, trends indicated that, regardless of shift, workday sleep became more disturbed and less efficient toward the end of the week. Daily caffeine usage was reported by 85.9% of the sample. CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Shift working nurses need to obtain adequate and consistent sleep on workdays and days off throughout the work week to reduce fatigue and to provide safe patient care. Understanding the sleep patterns of emergency nurses and their schedules is critical to facilitating the development of shift-specific sleep promotion interventions to enhance sleep and thereby counteract fatigue.

Russell, Michael A.; Smith, Timothy W.; Smyth, Joshua M. (2015): Anger Expression, Momentary Anger, and Symptom Severity in Patients with Chronic Disease. In: Annals of behavioral medicine : a publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine. DOI: 10.1007/s12160-015-9747-7.

BACKGROUND: Anger expression styles are associated with physical health, and may affect health by modulating anger experience in daily life. Research examining this process in the daily lives of clinically relevant populations, such as patients with chronic disease, is needed. METHOD: Community adults with asthma (N = 97) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA; N = 31) completed measures of trait-level anger expression styles (anger-in and anger-out), followed by ecological momentary assessments of anger and physical health five times daily for 7 days. RESULTS: High anger-in predicted greater momentary anger, physical limitations, and greater asthma symptoms. High anger-out predicted reduced RA symptoms. Momentary anger was robustly associated with more severe symptoms in daily life. Three-way interactions showed that anger-in moderated these momentary anger-symptom associations more consistently in men. CONCLUSIONS: Anger expression styles, particularly anger-in, may affect the day-to-day adjustment of patients with chronic disease in part by altering the dimensions of everyday anger experience, in ways that appear to differ by gender.

Russell, Michael A.; Wang, Lin; Odgers, Candice L. (2015): Witnessing substance use increases same-day antisocial behavior among at-risk adolescents: Gene-environment interaction in a 30-day ecological momentary assessment study. In: Development and psychopathology, S. 1–16. DOI: 10.1017/S0954579415001182.

Many young adolescents are embedded in neighborhoods, schools, and homes where alcohol and drugs are frequently used. However, little is known about (a) how witnessing others’ substance use affects adolescents in their daily lives and (b) which adolescents will be most affected. The current study used ecological momentary assessment with 151 young adolescents (ages 11-15) to examine the daily association between witnessing substance use and antisocial behavior across 38 consecutive days. Results from multilevel logistic regression models indicated that adolescents were more likely to engage in antisocial behavior on days when they witnessed others using substances, an association that held when substance use was witnessed inside the home as well as outside the home (e.g., at school or in their neighborhoods). A significant Gene x Environment interaction suggested that the same-day association between witnessing substance use and antisocial behavior was significantly stronger among adolescents with, versus without, the dopamine receptor D4 seven repeat (DRD4-7R) allele. The implications of the findings for theory and research related to adolescent antisocial behavior are discussed.

Saeb, Sohrab; Zhang, Mi; Kwasny, Mary M.; Karr, Christopher J.; Kording, Konrad; Mohr, David C. (2015): The Relationship between Clinical, Momentary, and Sensor-based Assessment of Depression. In: International Conference on Pervasive Computing Technologies for Healthcare : [proceedings]. International Conference on Pervasive Computing Technologies for Healthcare 2015. DOI: 10.4108/icst.pervasivehealth.2015.259034.

The clinical assessment of severity of depressive symptoms is commonly performed with standardized self-report questionnaires, most notably the patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9), which are usually administered in a clinic. These questionnaires evaluate symptoms that are stable over time. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods, on the other hand, acquire patient ratings of symptoms in the context of their lives. Today’s smartphones allow us to also obtain objective contextual information, such as the GPS location, that may also be related to depression. Considering clinical PHQ-9 scores as ground truth, an interesting question is to what extent the EMA ratings and contextual sensor data can be used as potential predictors of depression. To answer this question, we obtained PHQ-9 scores from 18 participants with a variety of depressive symptoms in our lab, and then collected their EMA and GPS sensor data using their smartphones over a period of two weeks. We analyzed the relationship between GPS sensor features, EMA ratings, and the PHQ-9 scores. While we found a strong correlation between a number of sensor features extracted from the two-week period and the PHQ-9 scores, the other relationships remained non-significant. Our results suggest that depression is better evaluated using long-term sensor-based measurements than the momentary ratings of mental state or short-term sensor information.

Schuster, Randi Melissa; Mermelstein, Robin J.; Hedeker, Donald (2015): Acceptability and feasibility of a visual working memory task in an ecological momentary assessment paradigm. In: Psychological Assessment 27 (4), S. 1463–1470. DOI: 10.1037/pas0000138.

Neuropsychological performance has historically been measured in laboratory settings using standardized assessments. However, these methods may be inherently limited in generalizability. This concern may be mitigated with paradigms such as ecological momentary assessment (EMA). We evaluated the initial feasibility and acceptability of administering a visual working memory (VWM) task on handheld computers across 1 EMA study week among adolescents/young adults (N = 39). Participants also completed standardized laboratory neurocognitive measures to determine the extent to which EMA VWM performance mapped onto scores obtained in traditional testing environments. Compliance with the EMA protocol was high as participants responded to 87% of random prompts across the study week. As expected, EMA VWM performance was positively associated with laboratory measures of auditory and VWM, and these relationships persisted after adjusting for predicted intelligence. Further, discriminant validity tests showed that EMA VWM was not linked with laboratory scores of verbal abilities and processing speed. These data provide initial evidence on the convergent and discriminant validity of interpretations from this novel, ecologically valid neurocognitive approach. Future studies will aim to further establish the psychometric properties of this (and similar) tasks and investigate how momentary fluctuations in VWM correspond with contextual influences (e.g., substance use, mood) and clinical outcomes.

Schuz, Benjamin; Schuz, Natalie; Ferguson, Stuart G. (2015): It’s the power of food: individual differences in food cue responsiveness and snacking in everyday life. In: The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 12, S. 149. DOI: 10.1186/s12966-015-0312-3.

BACKGROUND: Discretionary eating behaviour (“snacking”) is dependent on internal and external cues. Individual differences in the effects of these cues suggest that some people are more or less likely to snack in certain situations than others. Previous research is limited to laboratory-based experiments or survey-based food recall. This study for the first time examines everyday snacking using real-time assessment, and examines whether individual differences in cue effects on snacking can be explained by the Power of Food scale (PFS). METHODS: Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) study with 53 non-clinical participants over an average of 10 days. Multiple daily assessments: Participants reported every snack and responded to randomly timed surveys during the day. Internal and external cues were measured during both types of assessment. Demographic data and PFS scores were assessed during a baseline lab visit. Data were analysed using multilevel linear and multilevel logistic regression with random intercepts and random slopes as well as cross-level interactions with PFS scores. RESULTS: Higher individual PFS scores were associated with more daily snacking on average (B = 0.05, 95% CI = 0.02,0.08, p < .001). More average daily snacking was associated with higher BMI (B = 1.42, 95% CI = 0.19,2.65, p = .02). Cue effects (negative affect, arousal, activities, company) on snacking were significantly moderated by PFS: People with higher PFS were more likely to snack when experiencing negative affect, high arousal, engaging in activities, and being alone compared to people with lower PFS scores. CONCLUSIONS: PFS scores moderate the effects of snacking cues on everyday discretionary food choices. This puts people with higher PFS at higher risk for potentially unhealthy and obesogenic eating behaviour.

Schwartz, Stefani; Schultz, Summer; Reider, Aubrey; Saunders, Erika F. H. (2016): Daily mood monitoring of symptoms using smartphones in bipolar disorder: A pilot study assessing the feasibility of ecological momentary assessment. In: Journal of affective disorders 191, S. 88–93. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2015.11.013.

BACKGROUND: Personal device technology has facilitated gathering data in real-time using Ecological momentary assessment (EMA). We hypothesized that using smartphones to measure symptoms in auto-generated surveys twice a day would be feasible in a group with bipolar disorder (BD). A second exploratory objective of this study was to compare potential differences in core symptoms between BD and healthy control (HC) groups. METHODS: A two-arm, parallel group, observational study was designed to measure completion rates of surveys of symptoms of mood, energy, speed of thought, impulsivity, and social stress in BD (N=10) and HC (N=10) participants. The surveys were auto-generated twice a day for fourteen days, and subjects could also perform self-generated surveys. Completion rates were compared between BD and HC groups. Scores were averaged for each participant over the 14 day period, and group medians were compared. RESULTS: Median completion rates did not differ between groups: 95% in BD, 88% in HC (p=0.68); the median completion rate of auto-generated surveys in the BD group was 79% and in the HC group was 71% (p=0.22). The BD group had significantly lower median mood score (p=0.043) and energy score (p=0.007) than the HC group. Median scores of speed of thoughts (p=0.739), impulsivity (p=0.123) and social stress (p=0.056) did not significantly differ between BD and HC. The BD group had significantly higher range of variability of group median mood (p=0.043), speed of thoughts (p=0.002) and impulsivity (p=0.005) scores over the course of 14 days than HC, while range of variability of energy (p=0.218) and social stress (p=0.123) scores did not differ. Results were not significantly different between auto-generated and self-generated surveys for BD or HC. LIMITATIONS: This pilot study was conducted for a short time and with a small sample. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates feasibility of using EMA with a smartphone to gather data on BD symptoms.

Sherman, Ryne A.; Rauthmann, John F.; Brown, Nicolas A.; Serfass, David G.; Jones, Ashley Bell (2015): The independent effects of personality and situations on real-time expressions of behavior and emotion. In: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 109 (5), S. 872–888. DOI: 10.1037/pspp0000036.

The joint influence of persons and situations on behavior has long been posited by personality and social psychological theory (Funder, 2006; Lewin, 1951). However, a lack of tools for real-time behavioral and situation assessment has left direct investigations of this sort immobilized. This study combines recent advances in situation assessment and experience sampling methodology to examine the simultaneous effects of personality traits and situation characteristics on real-time expressions of behavior and emotion in N = 210 participants. The results support an additive model such that both personality traits and situation characteristics independently predict real-time expressions of behavior and emotion. These results have implications for several prominent theoretical perspectives in personality, including both trait and cognitive theories.

Shiffman, Saul (2015): Commentary on McCarthy et al. (2015): Ecological momentary assessment—Reactivity? Intervention? In: Addiction 110 (10), S. 1561–1562. DOI: 10.1111/add.13050.

Comments on an article by D. E. McCarthy et. al. (see record [rid]2015-33935-001[/rid]). Ecological Momentary Assessment(EMA) methods are used increasingly in addiction science, making it useful to assess reactivity, or how the assessments might affect the very behavior being studied. Technological and methodological developments are feeding an explosion of interest in Ecological Momentary Interventions (EMI) that can deliver interventions in individual’s daily lives, ideally just when they are needed. EMA methods are seldom used to assess mean levels of mood or craving, which might be affected by reactivity. Almost always, EMA methods are used to understand relationships among variables, rather than their mean levels.

Shiffman, Saul; Dunbar, Michael S.; Ferguson, Stuart G. (2015): Stimulus control in intermittent and daily smokers. In: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 29 (4), S. 847–855. DOI: 10.1037/adb0000052.

[Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 29(4) of Psychology of Addictive Behaviors (see record [rid]2015-33590-001[/rid]). There was an error in the reported value in the Discussion section. The second sentence of the second paragraph should have read, “Notably, DS also showed strong stimulus control in this analysis, implying 85% accuracy in identifying smoking situations.” This was a result of a transcription error. All versions of this article have been corrected.]  Many adult smokers are intermittent smokers (ITS) who do not smoke daily. Prior analyses have suggested that, compared with daily smokers (DS), ITS smoking was, on average, more linked to particular situations, such as alcohol consumption. However, such particular associations assessed in common across subjects may underestimate stimulus control over smoking, which may vary across persons, due to different conditioning histories. We quantify such idiographic stimulus control using separate multivariable logistic regressions for each subject to estimate how well the subject’s smoking could be predicted from a panel of situational characteristics, without requiring that other subjects respond to the same stimuli. Subjects were 212 ITS (smoking 4–27 days/month) and 194 DS (5–30 cigarettes daily). Using ecological momentary assessment, subjects monitored situational antecedents of smoking for 3 weeks, recording each cigarette in an electronic diary. Situational characteristics were assessed in a random subset of smoking occasions (n = 21,539), and contrasted with assessments of nonsmoking occasions (n = 26,930) obtained by beeping subjects at random. ITS showed significantly stronger stimulus control than DS across all context domains: mood, location, activity, social setting, consumption, smoking context, and time of day. Mood and smoking context showed the strongest influence on ITS smoking; food and alcohol consumption had the least influence. ITS smoking was under very strong stimulus control; significantly more so than DS, but DS smoking also showed considerable stimulus control. Stimulus control may be an important influence on maintaining smoking and making quitting difficult for all smokers, but especially among ITS.

Simons, C. J. P.; Hartmann, J. A.; Kramer, I.; Menne-Lothmann, C.; Hohn, P.; van Bemmel, A. L. et al. (2015): Effects of momentary self-monitoring on empowerment in a randomized controlled trial in patients with depression. In: European psychiatry : the journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists 30 (8), S. 900–906. DOI: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2015.09.004.

BACKGROUND: Interventions based on the experience sampling method (ESM) are ideally suited to provide insight into personal, contextualized affective patterns in the flow of daily life. Recently, we showed that an ESM-intervention focusing on positive affect was associated with a decrease in symptoms in patients with depression. The aim of the present study was to examine whether ESM-intervention increased patient empowerment. METHODS: Depressed out-patients (n=102) receiving psychopharmacological treatment who had participated in a randomized controlled trial with three arms: (i) an experimental group receiving six weeks of ESM self-monitoring combined with weekly feedback sessions, (ii) a pseudo-experimental group participating in six weeks of ESM self-monitoring without feedback, and (iii) a control group (treatment as usual only). Patients were recruited in the Netherlands between January 2010 and February 2012. Self-report empowerment scores were obtained pre- and post-intervention. RESULTS: There was an effect of groupxassessment period, indicating that the experimental (B=7.26, P=0.061, d=0.44, statistically imprecise) and pseudo-experimental group (B=11.19, P=0.003, d=0.76) increased more in reported empowerment compared to the control group. In the pseudo-experimental group, 29% of the participants showed a statistically reliable increase in empowerment score and 0% reliable decrease compared to 17% reliable increase and 21% reliable decrease in the control group. The experimental group showed 19% reliable increase and 4% reliable decrease. CONCLUSIONS: These findings tentatively suggest that self-monitoring to complement standard antidepressant treatment may increase patients’ feelings of empowerment. Further research is necessary to investigate long-term empowering effects of self-monitoring in combination with person-tailored feedback.

Simons, Jeffrey S.; Wills, Thomas A.; Emery, Noah N.; Marks, Russell M. (2015): Quantifying alcohol consumption: Self-report, transdermal assessment, and prediction of dependence symptoms. In: Addictive Behaviors 50, S. 205–212. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2015.06.042.

Research on alcohol use depends heavily on the validity of self-reported drinking. The present paper presents data from 647days of self-monitoring with a transdermal alcohol sensor by 60 young adults. We utilized a biochemical measure, transdermal alcohol assessment with the WrisTAS, to examine the convergent validity of three approaches to collecting daily self-report drinking data: experience sampling, daily morning reports of the previous night, and 1-week timeline follow-back (TLFB) assessments. We tested associations between three pharmacokinetic indices (peak concentration, area under the curve (AUC), and time to reach peak concentration) derived from the transdermal alcohol signal and within- and between- person variation in alcohol dependence symptoms. The WrisTAS data corroborated 85.74% of self-reported drinking days based on the experience sampling data. The TLFB assessment and combined experience sampling and morning reports agreed on 87.27% of drinking days. Drinks per drinking day did not vary as a function of wearing or not wearing the sensor; this indicates that participants provided consistent reports of their drinking regardless of biochemical verification. In respect to self-reported alcohol dependence symptoms, the AUC of the WrisTAS alcohol signal was associated with dependence symptoms at both the within- and between- person level. Furthermore, alcohol dependence symptoms at baseline predicted drinking episodes characterized in biochemical data by both higher peak alcohol concentration and faster time to reach peak concentration. The results support the validity of self-report alcohol data, provide empirical data useful for optimal design of daily process sampling, and provide an initial demonstration of the use of transdermal alcohol assessment to characterize drinking dynamics associated with risk for alcohol dependence.

Skorka-Brown, Jessica; Andrade, Jackie; Whalley, Ben; May, Jon (2015): Playing Tetris decreases drug and other cravings in real world settings. In: Addictive Behaviors 51, S. 165–170. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2015.07.020.

Most research on cognitive processes in craving has been carried out in the laboratory and focuses on food craving. This study extends laboratory findings to real world settings and cravings for drugs or activities as well as food. Previous laboratory research has found that playing Tetris reduces craving strength. The present study used an ecological momentary assessment protocol in which 31 undergraduate participants carried iPods for a week and were prompted 7 times each day, by SMS message, to use their iPod to report craving. Participants reported craving target and strength (0–100), whether they indulged their previous craving (yes/no), and whether they were under the influence of alcohol (yes/no). Those randomly assigned to the intervention condition (n = 15) then played Tetris for 3 min and reported their craving again. Those in the monitoring-only control condition (n = 16) provided baseline craving data to test if Tetris reduced the incidence and strength of spontaneous cravings across the week. Playing Tetris decreased craving strength for drugs (alcohol, nicotine, caffeine), food and drink, and activities (sex, exercise, gaming), with a mean reduction of 13.9 percentage points, effect size f² = 0.11. This effect was consistent across the week. This is the first demonstration that visual cognitive interference can be used in the field to reduce cravings for substances and activities other than eating.

Snippe, Evelien; Simons, Claudia J. P.; Hartmann, Jessica A.; Menne-Lothmann, Claudia; Kramer, Ingrid; Booij, Sanne H. et al. (2015): Change in Daily Life Behaviors and Depression: Within-Person and Between-Person Associations. In: Health Psychology. DOI: 10.1037/hea0000312.

Objective: This study examined associations between daily physical, sedentary, social, and leisure behaviors and depressive symptoms (a) at a macrolevel, over the course of an Experience Sampling (ESM) self-monitoring intervention, and (b) at a microlevel, by examining daily within-person associations. Second, we examined the effects of the ESM self-monitoring intervention on these daily life behaviors. Methods: Individuals with a diagnosis of depression (N = 102) receiving pharmacological treatment were randomized to 1 of 2 six-week ESM intervention conditions or a control condition. Physical, sedentary, social, and leisure behaviors as well as depressive symptoms were assessed prospectively in every-day life at baseline, postintervention, and during the ESM interventions. Results: Change in physical activity and talking from baseline to postintervention was associated with change in depressive symptoms from baseline to postintervention. Within-person daily fluctuations in talking, physical activity, doing nothing/resting, and being alone predicted end-of-day depressive symptoms over and above depressive symptoms at the previous day. The ESM interventions contributed to change in talking, doing nothing/resting, and being alone over time in comparison with the control group. The analyses revealed individual differences in the amount of behavioral change over time and in the within-subject associations between daily behaviors and depressive symptoms. Conclusions: The findings suggest that physical, sedentary, and social behaviors have affective implications for daily mental health of individuals with depression. Self-monitoring using ESM may be a useful add-on tool to achieve behavioral change and to gain personalized insight in behaviors that improve daily depressive symptoms.

Solinger, Omar N.; Hofmans, Joeri; van Olffen, Woody (2015): The dynamic microstructure of organizational commitment. In: Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 88 (4), S. 773–796. DOI: 10.1111/joop.12097.

In this study, we examine how the classic elements of affect, cognition, and behaviour combine to form within‐person trajectories of organizational commitment. We test several key features of this ‘dynamic microstructure’ of commitment in an experience sampling setting (25 weekly measurements) among 72 organizational entrants and 23 exiters. We find support for the idea that within‐person change in affect is slower than within‐person change in cognition and behaviour. We find no support for the notion that affect would influence cognition and behaviour at the within‐person level. In fact, we have strong indications that the episodes of committing (organizational entry) and uncommitting (organizational exit) are mainly cognition driven. We discuss the implications of our study for tripartite attitude theory and commitment theory. Practitioner points: 1. Organizational commitment can generally best be fostered via rational appeals. If a long‐term investment and sustained commitment is called for, emotional appeals work best. 2. Alumni officers may suffice with focusing purely on emotive appeals in upholding residual commitments of their alumni.

Stavrakakis, Nikolaos; Booij, Sanne H.; Roest, Annelieke M.; Jonge, Peter de; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Bos, Elisabeth H. (2015): Temporal dynamics of physical activity and affect in depressed and nondepressed individuals. In: Health Psychology 34 (Suppl), S. 1268–1277. DOI: 10.1037/hea0000303.

Objective: The association between physical activity and affect found in longitudinal observational studies is generally small to moderate. It is unknown how this association generalizes to individuals. The aim of the present study was to investigate interindividual differences in the bidirectional dynamic relationship between physical activity and affect, in depressed and nondepressed individuals, using time-series analysis. Method: A pair-matched sample of 10 depressed and 10 nondepressed participants (mean age = 36.6, SD = 8.9, 30% males) wore accelerometers and completed electronic questionnaires 3 times a day for 30 days. Physical activity was operationalized as the total energy expenditure (EE) per day segment (i.e., 6 hr). The multivariate time series (T = 90) of every individual were analyzed using vector autoregressive modeling (VAR), with the aim to assess direct as well as lagged (i.e., over 1 day) effects of EE on positive and negative affect, and vice versa. Results: Large interindividual differences in the strength, direction and temporal aspects of the relationship between physical activity and positive and negative affect were observed. An exception was the direct (but not the lagged) effect of physical activity on positive affect, which was positive in nearly all individuals. Conclusion: This study showed that the association between physical activity and affect varied considerably across individuals. Thus, while at the group level the effect of physical activity on affect may be small, in some individuals the effect may be clinically relevant.

Teicher, Martin H.; Ohashi, Kyoko; Lowen, Steven B.; Polcari, Ann; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M. (2015): Mood dysregulation and affective instability in emerging adults with childhood maltreatment: An ecological momentary assessment study. In: Journal of psychiatric research 70, S. 1–8. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2015.08.012.

Childhood maltreatment increases risk for mood, anxiety, substance use and personality disorders and is associated with alterations in structure, function and connectivity of brain regions involved in emotional regulation. We sought to assess whether maltreatment was specifically associated with disturbances in positive or negative mood regulation. Ecological momentary ratings were collected with a wristwatch-like device with joy-stick (Seiko ecolog) approximately six times per day over a week in 60 unmedicated participants (22 control, 38 maltreated, 18-25 years old). Forty-five percent of maltreated subjects had a history of major depression but all were currently euthymic. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation was used to provide orthogonal measures of positive and negative valence, which were analyzed for indices of variability, circadian rhythmicity and persistence, using linear and non-linear hierarchical modeling and Hurst analysis. Groups did not differ in mean levels of positive or negative affect. Maltreated subjects had increased variability and circadian and hemicircadian abnormalities in ratings of positive but not negative affect. Conversely, they had higher estimated Hurst exponents for negative but not positive affect ratings indicating a greater degree of persistence. Abnormalities in variability, rhythmicity and persistence were present in both maltreated subjects with and without histories of major depression. These findings suggest that both positive and negative valence systems may be dysregulated in individuals with childhood maltreatment. However the nature of the dysregulation appears to differ fundamentally in these domains, as positive mood ratings were more variable and negative ratings more persistent.

Thompson, Renee J.; Kuppens, Peter; Mata, Jutta; Jaeggi, Susanne M.; Buschkuehl, Martin; Jonides, John; Gotlib, Ian H. (2015): Emotional clarity as a function of neuroticism and major depressive disorder. In: Emotion 15 (5), S. 615–624. DOI: 10.1037/emo0000067.

Investigators have begun to document links between emotional clarity and forms of negative emotionality, including neuroticism and major depressive disorder (MDD). Researchers to date have relied almost exclusively on global self-reports of emotional clarity; moreover, no studies have examined emotional clarity as a function of valence, although this may prove to be crucial in understanding the relation of emotional clarity to maladjustment. In 2 studies, we used experience-sampling methodology and multilevel modeling to examine the associations between emotional clarity and 2 constructs that have been linked theoretically with emotional clarity: neuroticism and depression. In Study 1 we assessed 95 college students who completed a self-report measure of neuroticism. In Study 2 we examined 53 adults diagnosed with MDD and 53 healthy adults. Reaction times to negative and positive emotion ratings during the experience-sampling protocols were used as an indirect measure of emotional clarity. Neuroticism was related to lower clarity of negative, but not of positive, emotion. Similarly, compared with the healthy controls, individuals with MDD had lower clarity of negative, but not of positive, emotion. It is important to note, findings from both studies held after controlling for baseline RTs and current levels of negative and positive emotion. These findings highlight the importance of assessing valence when examining emotional clarity and increase our understanding of the nature of the emotional disturbances that characterize neuroticism and MDD.

To, March L.; Fisher, Cynthia D.; Ashkanasy, Neal M. (2015): Unleashing angst: Negative mood, learning goal orientation, psychological empowerment and creative behaviour. In: Human Relations 68 (10), S. 1601–1622. DOI: 10.1177/0018726714562235.

Emotion researchers have found that negative mood may either enhance or inhibit employee creativity. Little is known about this conundrum, however, and in particular when and why each effect occurs. To address this concern, we formulate and test hypotheses about likely moderators of the relationship between negative mood and creative process engagement. Results from an experience sampling study with 556 real-time reports from 68 employees support our hypothesis that negative mood is most strongly and positively related to concurrent creative process engagement among employees who (a) have high trait learning goal orientation and (b) perceive that they are empowered. Our hypotheses and findings help to resolve the ongoing controversy surrounding the nature of the negative mood–creativity nexus.

Triantafyllopoulos, Dimitrios; Korvesis, Panagiotis; Mporas, Iosif; Megalooikonomou, Vasileios (2016): Real-Time Management of Multimodal Streaming Data for Monitoring of Epileptic Patients. In: Journal of medical systems 40 (3), S. 45. DOI: 10.1007/s10916-015-0403-3.

New generation of healthcare is represented by wearable health monitoring systems, which provide real-time monitoring of patient’s physiological parameters. It is expected that continuous ambulatory monitoring of vital signals will improve treatment of patients and enable proactive personal health management. In this paper, we present the implementation of a multimodal real-time system for epilepsy management. The proposed methodology is based on a data streaming architecture and efficient management of a big flow of physiological parameters. The performance of this architecture is examined for varying spatial resolution of the recorded data.

Trujillo, Matthew D.; Garcia, Randi L.; Shelton, J. Nicole (2015): ‘I thought you were Japanese’: Ethnic miscategorization and identity assertion. In: Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology 21 (4), S. 507–516. DOI: 10.1037/cdp0000016.

Across 2 studies we examined how ethnic minorities respond to ethnic miscategorization. Using a 21-day experience sampling procedure (Study 1), we found that ethnic minorities exhibited greater ethnic identity assertion when they had reported being ethnically miscategorized the previous day. Similarly, we found that ethnic minorities who were ethnically miscategorized (vs. not) by a White partner in the laboratory exhibited greater ethnic identity assertion and expressed greater dislike of their partner (Study 2). In both studies, these effects were stronger for individuals whose ethnic identity was central to their self-concept. The implications of these findings for ethnic identity development and intergroup relations are discussed.

van Roekel, Eeske; Ha, Thao; Verhagen, Maaike; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C M E (2015): Social stress in early adolescents’ daily lives: Associations with affect and loneliness. In: Journal of adolescence 45, S. 274–283. DOI: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2015.10.012.

Adolescence is characterized by increased social stress due to changes in interpersonal relationships, but little is known about daily experiences of social stress. The aim of the present study was to examine daily life predictors of increases in social stress, how these increases affected adolescents’ mood, and whether loneliness moderated these relations. The Experience Sampling Method was used to measure positive and negative affect and increases in social stress in 278 early adolescents from the Netherlands. Results showed that adolescents were most likely to experience increases in social stress when they were with classmates, during week days, and in the morning. Lonely adolescents showed higher increases in social stress and responded more negatively to increases in social stress, compared to non-lonely adolescents.

Verkuil, Bart; Brosschot, Jos F.; Gebhardt, Winifred A.; Korrelboom, Kees (2015): Goal linking and everyday worries in clinical work stress: A daily diary study. In: British Journal of Clinical Psychology 54 (4), S. 378–390. DOI: 10.1111/bjc.12083.

Objectives: In this study, we tested whether high levels of daily worrying are associated with linking, a tendency to overvalue the attainment of specific lower level goals for attaining higher level goals, and more specifically the attainment of experiencing happiness. Methods: Thirty‐two patients suffering from work stress complaints and awaiting a stress management treatment and 31 healthy adults, who formed the comparison group, filled in a goal linking questionnaire and two widely used trait worry questionnaires. Subsequently, they reported the frequency and duration of worry during 14 consecutive days and nights. Results: The patients suffering from work stress complaints scored higher on the linking questionnaire and worried almost twice as much as the healthy comparison group, especially during the night‐time. Furthermore, goal linking was a stronger predictor of the frequency and duration of worry in daily life than the trait worry questionnaires and this was independent of the observed group differences in daily worry. Conclusions: These findings provide evidence that people who believe that their happiness is strongly dependent on the attainment of specific lower level goals worry frequently in daily life. Linking seems to be at least partly responsible for the excessive worry found in high work stress. Practitioner points: 1. Worry is elevated in patients seeking professional help for work stress complaints, compared to healthy controls. 2. The higher levels of worry in the patient group were related to elevated tendencies to overvalue the attainment of specific lower level goals as a means to attain higher level goals (‘linking’). 3. It could be beneficial for high worriers to learn how to reduce linking tendencies. 4. No strong inferences on the direction of the association between worry and linking can be made, as we relied on correlational data in which a linking questionnaire predicted worry in daily life.

Wang, Ligang; Tao, Ting; Fan, Chunlei; Gao, Wenbin; Wei, Chuguang (2015): The Influence of Chronic Ego Depletion on Goal Adherence: An Experience Sampling Study. In: PloS one 10 (11), S. e0142220. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0142220.

Although ego depletion effects have been widely observed in experiments in which participants perform consecutive self-control tasks, the process of ego depletion remains poorly understood. Using the strength model of self-control, we hypothesized that chronic ego depletion adversely affects goal adherence and that mental effort and motivation are involved in the process of ego depletion. In this study, 203 students reported their daily performance, mental effort, and motivation with respect to goal directed behavior across a 3-week time period. People with high levels of chronic ego depletion were less successful in goal adherence than those with less chronic ego depletion. Although daily effort devoted to goal adherence increased with chronic ego depletion, motivation to adhere to goals was not affected. Participants with high levels of chronic ego depletion showed a stronger positive association between mental effort and performance, but chronic ego depletion did not play a regulatory role in the effect of motivation on performance. Chronic ego depletion increased the likelihood of behavior regulation failure, suggesting that it is difficult for people in an ego-depletion state to adhere to goals. We integrate our results with the findings of previous studies and discuss possible theoretical implications.

Webster, Gregory D.; DeWall, C. Nathan; Pond, Richard S., JR.; Deckman, Timothy; Jonason, Peter K.; Le, Bonnie M. et al. (2015): The Brief Aggression Questionnaire: Structure, validity, reliability, and generalizability. In: Journal of Personality Assessment 97 (6), S. 638–649. DOI: 10.1080/00223891.2015.1044093.

In contexts that increasingly demand brief self-report measures (e.g., experience sampling, longitudinal and field studies), researchers seek succinct surveys that maintain reliability and validity. One such measure is the 12-item Brief Aggression Questionnaire (BAQ; Webster et al., 2014), which uses 4 3-item subscales: Physical Aggression, Verbal Aggression, Anger, and Hostility. Although prior work suggests the BAQ’s scores are reliable and valid, we addressed some lingering concerns. Across 3 studies (N = 1,279), we found that the BAQ had a 4-factor structure, possessed long-term test–retest reliability across 12 weeks, predicted differences in behavioral aggression over time in a laboratory experiment, generalized to a diverse nonstudent sample, and showed convergent validity with a displaced aggression measure. In addition, the BAQ’s 3-item Anger subscale showed convergent validity with a trait anger measure. We discuss the BAQ’s potential reliability, validity, limitations, and uses as an efficient measure of aggressive traits.

Welz, Annett; Huffziger, Silke; Reinhard, Iris; Alpers, Georg W.; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich; Kuehner, Christine (2015): Anxiety and rumination moderate menstrual cycle effects on mood in daily life. In: Women & health, S. 1–21. DOI: 10.1080/03630242.2015.1101739.

Evidence for menstrual cycle-related mood fluctuations in the general population of women has been mixed. While most previous research has relied on retrospective self-report and did not consider possible moderators, the present study aimed to examine cycle-related mood variations in daily life and possible moderating effects of anxiety and trait rumination. Fifty-nine women with natural menstrual cycles, aged 18-44 years, were examined between January and October, 2012. Mood components of calmness, positive valence, energetic-arousal, and irritability were assessed, using smartphones, by ambulatory assessment ten times per day on eight days across the cycle. The menstrual, follicular, ovulatory, and late luteal phases were each covered by two consecutive assessment days. Moderators were assessed with questionnaires. Hierarchical linear models (HLMs) revealed higher calmness in the luteal and menstrual than in the follicular and ovulatory phase, while the menstrual cycle did not exhibit significant main effects on other mood components. Anxiety and ruminative self-reflection moderated the association between menstrual cycle and all mood variables. Specifically, highly anxious and ruminative women showed an increase in irritability, while women with lower anxiety and lower rumination were protected against mood deterioration toward the end of the cycle. Further research could examine whether reducing anxiety and rumination helps to prevent premenstrual syndrome-related syndromes.

White, Emily K.; Warren, Cortney S.; Cao, Li; Crosby, Ross D.; Engel, Scott G.; Wonderlich, Stephen A. et al. (2015): Media exposure and associated stress contribute to eating pathology in women with an: Daily and momentary associations. In: International Journal of Eating Disorders. DOI: 10.1002/eat.22490.

Objective We examined whether media exposure and media‐induced stress contributed to eating disorder behaviors immediately and over the course of a day in women with anorexia nervosa (AN). Method Women with AN (N = 118) completed a 2‐week ecological momentary assessment protocol during which they reported on exposure to food, shape, or weight‐related media, associated stress, and eating behaviors. Results Food, weight, or shape‐related media exposure alone did not predict more frequent daily eating disorder behaviors. However, stress associated with media exposure was prospectively associated with a greater likelihood of binge eating and vomiting at the next assessment point. In addition, media‐induced stress increased the probability of restrictive eating and fluid intake, vomiting, and laxative abuse across the day. Discussion Media‐induced stress may contribute to increased eating disorder behaviors in women with AN, as women who saw a media image and reported this experience as stressful were more likely to engage in momentary binge eating or vomiting. Reducing stress associated with viewing media images could be a potential target for therapeutic intervention with disordered eating. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2015).

Willner‐Reid, Jessica; Whitaker, Damiya; Epstein, David H.; Phillips, Karran A.; Pulaski, Amber R.; Preston, Kenzie L.; Willner, Paul (2015): Cognitive‐behavioural therapy for heroin and cocaine use: Ecological momentary assessment of homework simplification and compliance. In: Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice. DOI: 10.1111/papt.12080.

Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of homework‐task difficulty and electronic‐diary reminders on written homework completion during cognitive‐behavioural therapy (CBT) for addiction. Completion of homework is an important element in CBT that may affect outcome. Design All participants received all combinations of our two interventions in a factorial 2 × 2 counterbalanced Latin‐square design. Methods Methadone‐maintained cocaine and heroin users were given homework between each of 12 weekly CBT sessions and carried electronic diaries that collected ecological momentary assessment (EMA) data on craving and exposure to drug‐use triggers in four 3‐week blocks assessing two levels of homework difficulty and prompted and unprompted homework. Results Neither simplified (picture‐based) homework nor electronic reminders increased homework completion. In EMA reports, standard but not simplified homework seemed to buffer the craving that followed environmental exposure to drug cues. EMA recordings before and after the CBT intervention confirmed a decrease over time in craving for cocaine and heroin. Conclusions These findings demonstrate the utility of EMA to assess treatment effects. However, the hypothesis that simplified homework would increase compliance was not supported. Practitioner points Our simplifications of homework assignments for cognitive‐behavioural therapy were mostly ineffective, or even counterproductive, perhaps because they did not engage sufficient depth of processing or because they were perceived as too simplistic. Our reminder beeps for homework were mostly ineffective, or even counterproductive, suggesting that mobile electronic interventions for substance‐use disorders may need to be more interactive.

Wong, Jennifer H. K.; Kelloway, E. Kevin (2015): What Happens at Work Stays at Work? Workplace Supervisory Social Interactions and Blood Pressure Outcomes. In: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. DOI: 10.1037/a0039900.

We investigated the relationship between workplace supervisory social interactions and blood pressure outcomes using hourly diary entries and ambulatory blood pressure data from an experience sampling study of 55 long-term care employees. After accounting for relevant cardiovascular controls, significant effects of supervisory interactions on cardiovascular reactivity and recovery were found. Multilevel analyses revealed that negatively perceived supervisory interactions predicted higher systolic blood pressure at work (B = −1.59, p < .05, N observations = 422). Using time-lagged hierarchical regression analyses, the average perceived valence of supervisory interactions at work predicted average systolic blood pressure recovery after work (B = −14.52, p < .05, N = 33). Specifically, negatively perceived supervisory interactions at work predicted poorer cardiovascular recovery after work. Suggestions for improving practices in organizations and in experience sampling research are discussed.

Wu, Yu-Hsiang; Stangl, Elizabeth; Zhang, Xuyang; Bentler, Ruth A. (2015): Construct Validity of the Ecological Momentary Assessment in Audiology Research. In: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology 26 (10), S. 872–884. DOI: 10.3766/jaaa.15034.

BACKGROUND: Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is a methodology involving repeated assessments/surveys to collect data describing respondents’ current or very recent experiences and related contexts in their natural environments. The use of EMA in audiology research is growing. PURPOSE: This study examined the construct validity (i.e., the degree to which a measurement reflects what it is intended to measure) of EMA in terms of measuring speech understanding and related listening context. Experiment 1 investigated the extent to which individuals can accurately report their speech recognition performance and characterize the listening context in controlled environments. Experiment 2 investigated whether the data aggregated across multiple EMA surveys conducted in uncontrolled, real-world environments would reveal a valid pattern that was consistent with the established relationships between speech understanding, hearing aid use, listening context, and lifestyle. RESEARCH DESIGN: This is an observational study. STUDY SAMPLE: Twelve and twenty-seven adults with hearing impairment participated in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: In the laboratory testing of Experiment 1, participants estimated their speech recognition performance in settings wherein the signal-to-noise ratio was fixed or constantly varied across sentences. In the field testing the participants reported the listening context (e.g., noisiness level) of several semicontrolled real-world conversations. Their reports were compared to (1) the context described by normal-hearing observers and (2) the background noise level measured using a sound level meter. In Experiment 2, participants repeatedly reported the degree of speech understanding, hearing aid use, and listening context using paper-and-pencil journals in their natural environments for 1 week. They also carried noise dosimeters to measure the sound level. The associations between (1) speech understanding, hearing aid use, and listening context, (2) dosimeter sound level and self-reported noisiness level, and (3) dosimeter data and lifestyle quantified using the journals were examined. RESULTS: For Experiment 1, the reported and measured speech recognition scores were highly correlated across all test conditions (r = 0.94 to 0.97). The field testing results revealed that most listening context properties reported by the participants were highly consistent with those described by the observers (74-95% consistency), except for noisiness rating (58%). Nevertheless, higher noisiness rating was associated with higher background noise level. For Experiment 2, the EMA results revealed several associations: better speech understanding was associated with the use of hearing aids, front-located speech, and lower dosimeter sound level; higher noisiness rating was associated with higher dosimeter sound level; listeners with more diverse lifestyles tended to have higher dosimeter sound levels. CONCLUSIONS: Adults with hearing impairment were able to report their listening experiences, such as speech understanding, and characterize listening context in controlled environments with reasonable accuracy. The pattern of the data aggregated across multiple EMA surveys conducted in a wide range of uncontrolled real-world environment was consistent with the established knowledge in audiology. The two experiments suggested that, regarding speech understanding and related listening contexts, EMA reflects what it is intended to measure, supporting its construct validity in audiology research.

Zedelius, Claire M.; Broadway, James M.; Schooler, Jonathan W. (2015): Motivating meta-awareness of mind wandering: A way to catch the mind in flight? In: Consciousness and Cognition: An International Journal 36, S. 44–53. DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2015.05.016.

Given the negative effects of mind wandering on performance, it may be profitable to be aware of task-unrelated thoughts (TUTs) as they occur. The present study investigated whether motivating people to catch TUTs increases meta-awareness. We offered incentives for increased self-catching during reading. To enhance the veracity of these self-reports, we used a “bogus-pipeline” procedure; we convinced participants that their mental states were being covertly monitored using physiological measures. In reality, mind wandering was assessed covertly by a secondary task (“gibberish detection”), and overtly by experience sampling. The results showed that incentives increased the number of self-catches without increasing overall mind wandering. Moreover, both the bogus pipeline and the opportunity for incentives increased the validity of self-reports, evidenced by significantly increased correlations between self-caught and behaviorally assessed mind wandering. We discuss the relevance of this methodological approach for research on mind wandering and research building on introspective reports more generally.

Zhu, Fengcai; Hu, Yuemei; Liang, Qi; Young, Mariano, JR; Zhou, Xin; Chen, Zhangjing et al. (2015): Safety and tolerability of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in healthy Chinese adults, children and infants. In: Therapeutic advances in drug safety 6 (6), S. 206–211. DOI: 10.1177/2042098615613985.

OBJECTIVE: Pneumococcal disease is a global problem, including in China. The objective of this study was to provide safety data for single-dose 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in Chinese subjects, needed to begin a phase III safety and immunogenicity study in Chinese infants. METHODS: Healthy Chinese adults (18-55 years), children (3-5 years), and infants (42-98 days) received a single dose of PCV13 in this open-label safety study. Local reactions and systemic events were collected for 7 days via an electronic diary; adverse events were recorded for 1 month after vaccination. RESULTS: All 72 (24 per group) screened subjects (58.3% males; mean +/- standard deviation [SD] age: 43.3 +/- 9.1 years [adults], 4.5 +/- 0.7 years [children], and 79.6 +/- 15.2 days [infants]) were enrolled, received vaccine, and completed the study. The most frequently reported local reactions per group were pain at the injection site (n = 23 adults [95.8%]), tenderness (n = 18 children [75%]), and swelling (n = 6 infants [25%]), none of which were severe. The mean duration of each local reaction was 2.0 days in infants and 2.4 days in children but in adults was 3.3 days for pain at the injection site and 9 days each for redness and swelling. Systemic events in adults were muscle pain (n = 5), fatigue (n = 3), and headache and joint pain (n = 1 each). One child and seven infants had disturbed sleep (increased or decreased). One adult and one child had mild fever (37.7-38.5 degrees C, as per China Food and Drug Administration guidelines). No subject used antipyretic medication. One adverse event (bronchopneumonia in an infant) was reported, which was serious, severe, and unrelated to vaccination. There were no deaths. CONCLUSIONS: A single dose of PCV13 was safe and well tolerated in healthy Chinese adults, children, and infants. This study provided the safety data to enable a phase III safety and immunogenicity registration trial in Chinese infants to proceed.


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