Society for Ambulatory Assessment

SECOND QUARTER 2016 (APRIL TO JUNE)

Alshamsi, Aamena; Pianesi, Fabio; Lepri, Bruno; Pentland, Alex; Rahwan, Iyad (2016): Network diversity and affect dynamics: The role of personality traits. In: PloS one 11 (4).

Abstract:

People divide their time unequally among their social contacts due to time constraints and varying strength of relationships. It was found that high diversity of social communication, dividing time more evenly among social contacts, is correlated with economic well-being both at macro and micro levels. Besides economic well-being, it is not clear how the diversity of social communication is also associated with the two components of individuals’ subjective well-being, positive and negative affect. Specifically, positive affect and negative affect are two independent dimensions representing the experience (feeling) of emotions. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between the daily diversity of social communication and dynamic affect states that people experience in their daily lives. We collected two high-resolution datasets that capture affect scores via daily experience sampling surveys and social interaction through wearable sensing technologies: sociometric badges for face-to-face interaction and smart phones for mobile phone calls. We found that communication diversity correlates with desirable affect states–e.g. an increase in the positive affect state or a decrease in the negative affect state–for some personality types, but correlates with undesirable affect states for others. For example, diversity in phone calls is experienced as good by introverts, but bad by extroverts; diversity in face-to-face interaction is experienced as good by people who tend to be positive by nature (trait) but bad for people who tend to be not positive by nature. More broadly, the moderating effect of personality type on the relationship between diversity and affect was detected without any knowledge of the type of social tie or the content of communication. This provides further support for the power of unobtrusive sensing in understanding social dynamics, and in measuring the effect of potential interventions designed to improve well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Badra, M.; Schulze, L.; Becker, E. S.; Vrijsen, J. N.; Renneberg, B.; Zetsche, U. (2016): The association between ruminative thinking and negative interpretation bias in social anxiety. In: Cognition & emotion, S. 1–9. DOI: 10.1080/02699931.2016.1193477.

Abstract:

Cognitive models propose that both, negative interpretations of ambiguous social situations and ruminative thoughts about social events contribute to the maintenance of social anxiety disorder. It has further been postulated that ruminative thoughts fuel biased negative interpretations, however, evidence is rare. The present study used a multi-method approach to assess ruminative processing following a social interaction (post-event processing by self-report questionnaire and social rumination by experience sampling method) and negative interpretation bias (via two separate tasks) in a student sample (n = 51) screened for high (HSA) and low social anxiety (LSA). Results support the hypothesis that group differences in negative interpretations of ambiguous social situations in HSAs vs. LSAs are mediated by higher levels of post-event processing assessed in the questionnaire. Exploratory analyses highlight the potential role of comorbid depressive symptoms. The current findings help to advance the understanding of the association between two cognitive processes involved in social anxiety and stress the importance of ruminative post-event processing.

 

Bajaj, A.; John-Henderson, N. A.; Cundiff, J. M.; Marsland, A. L.; Manuck, S. B.; Kamarck, T. W. (2016): Daily social interactions, close relationships, and systemic inflammation in two samples: Healthy middle-aged and older adults. In: Brain, behavior, and immunity. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbi.2016.06.004.

Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: Systemic inflammation is thought to be a biological mediator between social relationship quality and premature mortality. Empirical work has yielded mixed support for an association of social relationship variables with systemic inflammation, perhaps due to methodological limitations. To date, research in this literature has focused on global perceptions of social relationships, with limited attention to the covariance of characteristics of daily social interactions with inflammation. Here, we examine whether daily interactions, as assessed by ecological momentary assessment (EMA), associate with peripheral markers of inflammation among midlife and older adults. METHODS: Global social support and integration were measured using the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL) and the Social Network Index (SNI), respectively, in older adults from the Pittsburgh Healthy Heart Project (PHHP), and in middle-aged adults from the Adult Health and Behavior Project-II (AHAB-II). Using time-sampled EMA, we assessed the proportion of the day spent in positive and negative social interactions. Systemic markers of inflammation were interleukin (IL)-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP). RESULTS: Global measures of support and integration did not associate with inflammation in either sample. In older adults, relative frequency of total positive interactions, those with close others (i.e. spouse, friends, family), and those with coworkers predicted lower concentrations of IL-6 in fully adjusted models, accounting for age, sex, race, education, BMI, smoking and alcohol. In middle-aged adults, relative frequency of positive interactions with close others was also inversely associated with IL-6 level and relative frequency of negative marital interactions was unexpectedly inversely associated with CRP level. CONCLUSIONS: Characteristics of daily social interactions among midlife and older adults associate with markers of systemic inflammation that are known to predict risk for cardiovascular disease. Ambulatory measures may better capture health-relevant social processes in daily life than retrospective, global self-report measures.

 

Baumert, Anna; Halmburger, Anna; Rothmund, Tobias; Schemer, Christian (2016): Everyday dynamics in generalized social and political trust. In: Journal of Research in Personality. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrp.2016.04.006.

Abstract:

We applied the traits as density distributions of states approach to generalized expectations of trustworthiness, namely, social trust and trust in politicians. Using an experience sampling study (N=47), we assessed state social trust and trust in politicians four times a day for 2weeks. Within-person variability was found to be low but meaningful as it was predicted by variations in affect, interactional trust, and prior experiences. There was high stability in interindividual differences in the mean levels of state trustworthiness expectations and in the levels of within-person variability. Our study provides a comprehensive understanding of stability and variability in generalized expectations of trustworthiness and indicates broad applicability of the traits as density distributions of states approach. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Beute, F.; Kort, Y. de; IJsselsteijn, W. (2016): Restoration in Its Natural Context: How Ecological Momentary Assessment Can Advance Restoration Research. In: International journal of environmental research and public health 13 (4). DOI: 10.3390/ijerph13040420.

Abstract:

More and more people use self-tracking technologies to track their psychological states, physiology, and behaviors to gain a better understanding of themselves or to achieve a certain goal. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) also offers an excellent opportunity for restorative environments research, which examines how our physical environment (especially nature) can positively influence health and wellbeing. It enables investigating restorative health effects in everyday life, providing not only high ecological validity but also opportunities to study in more detail the dynamic processes playing out over time on recovery, thereby bridging the gap between laboratory (i.e., short-term effects) and epidemiological (long-term effects) research. We have identified four main areas in which self-tracking could help advance restoration research: (1) capturing a rich set of environment types and restorative characteristics; (2) distinguishing intra-individual from inter-individual effects; (3) bridging the gap between laboratory and epidemiological research; and (4) advancing theoretical insights by measuring a more broad range of effects in everyday life. This paper briefly introduces restorative environments research, then reviews the state of the art of self-tracking technologies and methodologies, discusses how these can be implemented to advance restoration research, and presents some examples of pioneering work in this area.

 

Blalock, Dan V.; Kashdan, Todd B.; Farmer, Antonina S. (2016): Trait and daily emotion regulation in social anxiety disorder. In: Cognitive Therapy and Research 40 (3), S. 416–425. DOI: 10.1007/s10608-015-9739-8.

Abstract:

Emotion regulation strategies vary widely in use and effectiveness across psychological diagnostic categories. However, little data exists on (1) the use of these strategies in social anxiety disorder (SAD), and (2) how trait measures compare with actual daily use of emotion regulation strategies. We collected trait and daily assessments of emotion suppression, cognitive reappraisal, and positive and negative emotions from 40 adults with SAD and 39 matched healthy controls. Participants with SAD reported greater trait suppression and less cognitive reappraisal than healthy controls, and exhibited this same pattern of emotion regulation in daily life. Participants overall reported worse emotional experiences when suppressing positive (vs. negative) emotions, and better emotional experiences when reappraising to feel more positive (vs. less negative) emotions. However, SAD participants exhibited greater benefits (specifically increased positive emotions) from reappraising to feel less negative than healthy controls. These findings highlight the importance of positive emotion regulation strategies, particularly for individuals with SAD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Bollich, K. L.; Doris, J. M.; Vazire, S.; Raison, C. L.; Jackson, J. J.; Mehl (2016): Eavesdropping on Character: Assessing Everyday Moral Behaviors. In: Journal of Research in Personality 61, S. 15–21. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrp.2015.12.003.

Abstract:

Despite decades of interest in moral character, comparatively little is known about moral behavior in everyday life. This paper reports a novel method for assessing everyday moral behaviors using the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR)-a digital audio-recorder that intermittently samples snippets of ambient sounds from people’s environments-and examines the stability of these moral behaviors. In three samples (combined N = 186), participants wore an EAR over one or two weekends. Audio files were coded for everyday moral behaviors (e.g., showing sympathy, gratitude) and morally-neutral comparison language behaviors (e.g., use of prepositions, articles). Results indicate that stable individual differences in moral behavior can be systematically observed in daily life, and that their stability is comparable to the stability of neutral language behaviors.

 

Borzekowski, Dina L. G.; Chen, Julia Cen (2016): Tobacco cues in India: An ecological momentary assessment. In: Tobacco induced diseases 14, S. 16. DOI: 10.1186/s12971-016-0081-z.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Tobacco use in India is a major health concern; however, little is known about the influence of tobacco-related social and environmental cues on tobacco use. This study uses ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to examine real-time tobacco use and exposure to social and environmental cues. METHODS: In Hyderabad and Kolkata, participants were recruited, and an EMA application was installed on their mobile phones. Momentary prompts (MP) were randomly used to collect real-time information and end-of-day (EOD) prompts gathered retrospective information on daily basis. Besides personal tobacco use, the surveys asked about exposure to social (e.g., presence of others using tobacco) and environmental cues (e.g., visual and olfactory stimuli). Using the data aggregation approach, bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to examine the association of tobacco use and cue exposure. Moderating roles of participants’ socio-demographic characteristics were also tested to gain an in-depth understanding of the relationship. RESULTS: Among the 205 participants, around a third (MP, 33.7 %; EOD, 37.6 %) used tobacco at least once during the study period. Tobacco-related social and environmental cues related were commonly reported. In the bivariate models, tobacco use was associated with gender, age, and all the examined social and environmental cues except for seeing restrictions on tobacco use. In the multivariate models, tobacco use was associated with age, gender, seeing others using tobacco, and seeing restrictions on tobacco use. Seeing others in one’s immediate group using tobacco was the strongest predictor of tobacco use in both MP and EOD assessments. Gender and age did not moderate the relationship between cue exposure and tobacco use, although males reported higher tobacco use and cue exposure in general. CONCLUSIONS: This research provides data on the ubiquity of social and environmental tobacco cues in India. The EMA approach was feasible and informative. Future cessation interventions and advocacy efforts should address the high prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to pro-tobacco use cues especially among Indian males. Health education campaigns for promoting tobacco use restrictions in private places as well as changing the norms of tobacco use in social settings are recommended.

 

Bricteux, Céline; Navarro, Jose; Ceja, Lucía; Fuerst, Guillaume (2016): Interest as a moderator in the relationship between challenge/skills balance and flow at work: An analysis at within-individual level. In: Journal of Happiness Studies. DOI: 10.1007/s10902-016-9755-8.

Abstract:

Considering flow as a non-ergodic process (i.e. non-homogeneous across individuals and non-stationary over time) that happens at the within-individual level, in this research we work with Bakker’s model that propose flow as made up by three components: intrinsic motivation, enjoyment, and absorption. Taking into account that flow theory can be considered as an intrinsic motivation theory, and the recent proposals about the need to distinguish between pre-conditions of flow and the flow experience itself, we look at interest as a moderator between the challenge/skills balance and the experience of flow, rather than a component of the flow experience. A total of 3640 recordings were collected from a sample of 58 workers using an experience sampling method (several registers a day, during 21 working days). The data was analyzed using regression techniques in each participant (i.e. at within-individual level). Our work tries to respond to the following two research questions: Will interest play a moderating role in the relationship between challenge/skills balance and flow? Will a non-linear model (cusp catastrophe model) better explain the relationship among challenge/skills balance, interest, and flow? The results suggest that our hypotheses were correct: including interest as moderator better explains the relationship between challenge/skills balance and flow in comparison to a model without moderation (R2 values change from 0.33 to 0.50). Additionally, carrying out the analysis following non-linear techniques explained more variance as well (R2 = 0.67), and this increment was significant. These results support the idea that interest should be considered as a key precondition for the appearance of flow, and this relationship is non-linear. We could say that these findings are exemplary in the field and brings up questions for their application in further research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Bromberg, Maggie H.; Connelly, Mark; Anthony, Kelly K.; Gil, Karen M.; Schanberg, Laura E. (2016): Prospective mediation models of sleep, pain, and daily function in children with arthritis using ecological momentary assessment. In: The Clinical Journal of Pain 32 (6), S. 471–477. DOI: 10.1097/AJP.0000000000000298.

Abstract:

Objectives: Sleep is an emerging area of concern in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Research shows the presence of poor sleep quality and related adverse outcomes in pediatric pain populations, including JIA, but few studies have examined the prospective patterns of association between sleep and associated outcomes. This prospective study evaluated the direction and magnitude of associations between subjective sleep characteristics (sleep quality, difficulty initiating sleep, and sleep duration), pain intensity, and functional limitations in children with JIA. We hypothesized that pain intensity would partially mediate the relationship between sleep and functional limitations. Methods: Children and adolescents with JIA (n = 59; age range, 8 to 18 y) recruited during clinic visits, completed smartphone-based diaries for 1 month. Subjective sleep characteristics were reported each morning; pain and functioning were assessed 3 times daily. Results: As hypothesized, the associations between sleep quality and functional limitations and between difficulty initiating sleep and functional limitations were partially mediated by pain intensity, at any given moment (z = -3.27, P = 0.001, z = 2.70, P < 0.05). Mediation was not detected in a model testing the association between sleep duration, pain intensity, and functional limitations (z = -0.58, P = 0.56). Discussion: Results suggest that sleep is integral to understanding the momentary association between pain intensity and functioning in children with JIA. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Buckner, Julia D.; Langdon, Kirsten J.; Jeffries, Emily R.; Zvolensky, Michael J. (2016): Socially anxious smokers experience greater negative affect and withdrawal during self-quit attempts. In: Addictive Behaviors 55, S. 46–49. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2016.01.004.

Abstract:

Despite evidence of a strong and consistent relation between smoking and elevated social anxiety, strikingly little empirical work has identified mechanisms underlying the smoking-social anxiety link. Persons with elevated social anxiety may rely on smoking to cope with more severe nicotine withdrawal and post-quit negative mood states; yet, no known studies have investigated the relation of social anxiety to withdrawal severity. The current study examined the relation of social anxiety to post-quit nicotine withdrawal severity among 51 (33.3% female, Mage = 34.6) community-recruited smokers during the first two weeks following an unaided (i.e., no treatment) cessation attempt. Ecological momentary assessment was used to collect multiple daily ratings of withdrawal and negative mood states. Baseline social anxiety was related to increases in negative affect during the monitoring period and remained significantly related to post-quit withdrawal after controlling for negative affect, gender, lapses, and substance use. Persons with elevated social anxiety experience more severe post-quit withdrawal symptoms and increases in negative affect during a cessation attempt and may therefore benefit from intervention and treatment strategies geared toward helping them learn to cope with withdrawal and negative affect to improve cessation rates among these vulnerable smokers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Burgess, Emilee E.; Sylvester, Maria D.; Morse, Kathryn E.; Amthor, Frank R.; Mrug, Sylvie; Lokken, Kristine L. et al. (2016): Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on binge-eating disorder. In: The International journal of eating disorders. DOI: 10.1002/eat.22554.

Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on food craving, intake, binge-eating desire, and binge-eating frequency in individuals with binge-eating disorder (BED). METHOD: N = 30 adults with BED or subthreshold BED received a 20-min 2 milliampere (mA) session of tDCS targeting the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC; anode right/cathode left) and a sham session. Food image ratings assessed food craving, a laboratory eating test assessed food intake, and an electronic diary recorded binge variables. RESULTS: tDCS versus sham decreased craving for sweets, savory proteins, and an all-foods category, with strongest reductions in men (p < 0.05). tDCS also decreased total and preferred food intake by 11 and 17.5%, regardless of sex (p < 0.05), and reduced desire to binge eat in men on the day of real tDCS administration (p < 0.05). The reductions in craving and food intake were predicted by eating less frequently for reward motives, and greater intent to restrict calories, respectively. DISCUSSION: This proof of concept study is the first to find ameliorating effects of tDCS in BED. Stimulation of the right DLPFC suggests that enhanced cognitive control and/or decreased need for reward may be possible functional mechanisms. The results support investigation of repeated tDCS as a safe and noninvasive treatment adjunct for BED. (c) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2016).

 

Busby Grant, Janie; Walsh, Erin (2016): Exploring the use of experience sampling to assess episodic thought. In: Applied Cognitive Psychology 30 (3), S. 472–478. DOI: 10.1002/acp.3215.

Abstract:

Mental time travel is the ability to mentally relive events in one’s own past (episodic recall) and pre‐live potential personal future events (episodic foresight). Recent research has used experience sampling to reveal when and how often we think about the past and future in everyday life; however, it remains unclear how much of thought is episodic, involving the sense of self that underpins mental time travel. In this study, we investigate the use of experience sampling to assess the frequency of episodic past and future thought in everyday life. Participants (n = 214) were exposed to 20 short message service prompts over 1 or 2 days. Half of thoughts were sited in the present; of the remainder, future‐oriented thoughts were more frequent than past‐oriented thoughts. Participants reported 20% of thoughts as episodic. This study suggests that experience sampling methodology can provide a means of assessing episodic thought during everyday activities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Chen, Yu-Wei; Bundy, Anita C.; Cordier, Reinie; Chien, Yi-Ling; Einfeld, Stewart L. (2016): A cross-cultural exploration of the everyday social participation of individuals with autism spectrum disorders in Australia and Taiwan: An experience sampling study. In: Autism : the international journal of research and practice. DOI: 10.1177/1362361316636756.

Abstract:

Individuals with an autism spectrum disorder commonly have limited social participation. This study aimed to examine the similarities and differences of everyday participation among males and females with autism spectrum disorder in Australia and Taiwan, using an experience sampling methodology. A total of 14 Australians (4 males, aged 16-43 years) and 16 Taiwanese (12 males, aged 19-45 years) with autism spectrum disorder who are cognitively able were asked to carry a device which prompted them seven times per day for 7 days, to record everyday participation: where they were, what they were doing, and who they were with. Multilevel analyses were used to identify the relationships between everyday participation and associated factors including gender, country of residence, clinical severity of autism spectrum disorder, and social anxiety. The results showed that Taiwanese participants were more likely to stay at home than Australian participants. However, female participants were more likely to engage in social situations than males. Furthermore, participants with fewer autism spectrum disorder symptoms and those with higher levels of social anxiety were less likely to engage in social interactions. This study sheds light on ways that culture and gender affect social participation and highlights the relationship of social anxiety to social participation. The findings have implications for interventions for social participation.

 

Chen, Yu-Wei; Bundy, Anita; Cordier, Reinie; Chien, Yi-Ling; Einfeld, Stewart (2016): The experience of social participation in everyday contexts among individuals with autism spectrum disorders: An experience sampling study. In: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 46 (4), S. 1403–1414. DOI: 10.1007/s10803-015-2682-4.

Abstract:

This study explored the everyday life experiences of individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Fourteen Australians and 16 Taiwanese (aged 16–45 years) with Asperger syndrome/high functioning autism recorded what they were doing, level of interest/involvement, emotional reactions and preference for being alone 7 times/day for 7 days. Multilevel analyses showed that ‘solitary/parallel leisure’ and ‘social activities’ were positively associated with interest and involvement. Engaging in these two activities and interacting with friends were positively associated with enjoyment. However, engaging in ‘social activities’ and having less severe ASD symptoms were associated with in-the-moment anxiety. Severity of ASD and social anxiety moderated experience in social situations. The findings highlight the importance of considering the in-the-moment experience of people with ASD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Collins, R. L.; Martino, S. C.; Kovalchik, S. A.; Becker, K. M.; Shadel, W. G.; D’Amico, E. J. (2016): Alcohol Advertising Exposure Among Middle School-Age Youth: An Assessment Across All Media and Venues. In: Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs 77 (3), S. 384–392.

Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to quantify middle school youth’s exposure to alcohol advertisements across media and venues, determine venues of greatest exposure, and identify characteristics of youth who are most exposed. METHOD: Over a 10-month period in 2013, 589 Los Angeles-area youth ages 11-14 from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds completed a short paper-and-pencil survey assessing background characteristics and then participated in a 14-day ecological momentary assessment, logging all exposures to alcohol advertisements on handheld computers as they occurred. RESULTS: African American and Hispanic youth were exposed to an average of 4.1 and 3.4 advertisements per day, respectively, nearly two times as many as non-Hispanic White youth, who were exposed to 2.0 advertisements per day. Girls were exposed to 30% more advertisements than boys. Most exposures were to outdoor advertisements, with television advertisements a close second. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to alcohol advertising is frequent among middle school-age youth and may put them at risk for earlier or more frequent underage drinking. Greater restrictions on alcohol advertising outdoors and on television should be considered by regulators and by the alcohol industry and should focus particularly on reducing exposure among minority youth.

 

Cook, Paul F.; Hartson, Kimberly R.; Schmiege, Sarah J.; Jankowski, Catherine; Starr, Whitney; Meek, Paula (2016): Bidirectional relationships between fatigue and everyday experiences in persons living with HIV. In: Research in Nursing & Health 39 (3), S. 154–163. DOI: 10.1002/nur.21718.

Abstract:

Fatigue symptoms are very common among persons living with HIV (PLWH). Fatigue is related to functional and psychological problems and to treatment nonadherence. Using secondary data from ecological momentary assessment, we examined fatigue as a predictor of PLWH everyday experiences. In bidirectional analyses based on the shape shifters model, we also examined these experiences as predictors of fatigue. Data were examined from 67 PLWH who completed daily surveys on a handheld computer. Brief validated scales were used to assess participants’ control beliefs, mood, stress, coping, social support, experience of stigma, and motivation. At the beginning and end of the study, fatigue was measured with two CES‐D items that have been used in past HIV symptom research. Multilevel models and logistic regression were used to test reciprocal predictive relationships between variables. Moderate to severe fatigue affected 45% of PLWH in the study. Initial fatigue predicted PLWH subsequent overall level of control beliefs, mood, stress, coping, and social support, all p < .05. These state variables remained relatively constant over time, regardless of participants’ initial fatigue. In tests for reciprocal relationships with 33 PLWH, average daily stress, OR = 4.74, and stigma, OR = 4.86, also predicted later fatigue. Fatigue predicted several daily survey variables including stress and social support. Stress and support in turn predicted fatigue at a later time, suggesting a self‐perpetuating cycle but also a possible avenue for intervention. Future studies should examine daily variation in fatigue among PLWH and its relation to other everyday experiences and behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Crescenzo, Franco de; Licchelli, Serena; Ciabattini, Marco; Menghini, Deny; Armando, Marco; Alfieri, Paolo et al. (2016): The use of actigraphy in the monitoring of sleep and activity in ADHD: A meta-analysis. In: Sleep Medicine Reviews 26, S. 9–20. DOI: 10.1016/j.smrv.2015.04.002.

Abstract:

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral disorder of childhood. There is an increasing need to find objective measures and markers of the disorder in order to assess the efficacy of the therapies and to improve follow-up strategies. Actigraphy is an objective method for recording motor activity and sleep parameters that has been used in many studies in ADHD. Our meta-analysis aimed to assess the current evidence on the role of actigraphy in both the detection of changes in motor activity and in sleep patterns in ADHD. A systematic review was carried out to find studies comparing children with unmedicated ADHD versus controls, using actigraphic measures as an outcome. The primary outcome measures were “sleep duration” and daytime “activity mean”. As secondary outcome measures we analyzed “sleep onset latency”, “sleep efficiency” and “wake after sleep onset”. Twenty-four studies comprising 2179 children were included in this review. We show evidence that ADHD compared to typically developing children present a higher mean activity during structured sessions, a similar sleep duration, and a moderately altered sleep pattern. This study highlights the role of actigraphy as an objective tool for the ambulatory monitoring of sleep and activity in ADHD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Cristobal-Narvaez, P.; Sheinbaum, T.; Ballespi, S.; Mitjavila, M.; Myin-Germeys, I.; Kwapil, T. R.; Barrantes-Vidal, N. (2016): Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Psychotic-Like Symptoms and Stress Reactivity in Daily Life in Nonclinical Young Adults. In: PloS one 11 (4), S. e0153557. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0153557.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in elucidating the association of different childhood adversities with psychosis-spectrum symptoms as well as the mechanistic processes involved. This study used experience sampling methodology to examine (i) associations of a range of childhood adversities with psychosis symptom domains in daily life; (ii) whether associations of abuse and neglect with symptoms are consistent across self-report and interview methods of trauma assessment; and (iii) the role of different adversities in moderating affective, psychotic-like, and paranoid reactivity to situational and social stressors. METHOD: A total of 206 nonclinical young adults were administered self-report and interview measures to assess childhood abuse, neglect, bullying, losses, and general traumatic events. Participants received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times daily for one week to complete questionnaires about current experiences, including symptoms, affect, and stress. RESULTS: Self-reported and interview-based abuse and neglect were associated with psychotic-like and paranoid symptoms, whereas only self-reported neglect was associated with negative-like symptoms. Bullying was associated with psychotic-like symptoms. Losses and general traumatic events were not directly associated with any of the symptom domains. All the childhood adversities were associated with stress reactivity in daily life. Interpersonal adversities (abuse, neglect, bullying, and losses) moderated psychotic-like and/or paranoid reactivity to situational and social stressors, whereas general traumatic events moderated psychotic-like reactivity to situational stress. Also, different interpersonal adversities exacerbated psychotic-like and/or paranoid symptoms in response to distinct social stressors. DISCUSSION: The present study provides a unique examination of how childhood adversities impact the expression of spectrum symptoms in the real world and lends support to the notion that stress reactivity is a mechanism implicated in the experience of reality distortion in individuals exposed to childhood trauma. Investigating the interplay between childhood experience and current context is relevant for uncovering potential pathways to the extended psychosis phenotype.

 

Cundiff, Jenny M.; Kamarck, Thomas W.; Manuck, Stephen B. (2016): Daily interpersonal experience partially explains the association between social rank and physical health. In: Annals of Behavioral Medicine. DOI: 10.1007/s12160-016-9811-y.

Abstract:

Background: Socioeconomic position is a well-established risk factor for poor physical health.Purpose: This study examines whether the effects of lower social rank on physical health may be accounted for by differences in daily social experience.Methods: In a large community sample (N = 475), we examined whether subjective social rank is associated with self-rated health, in part, through positive and negative perceptions of daily interpersonal interactions, assessed using ecological momentary assessment.Results: Higher social rank was associated with higher average perceived positivity of social interactions in daily life (e.g., B = .18, p < .001), but not with perceived negativity of social interactions. Further, the association between social rank and self-rated physical health was partially accounted for by differences in perceived positivity of social interactions. This effect was independent of well-characterized objective markers of SES and personality traits.Conclusions: Differences in the quality of day-to-day social interactions is a viable pathway linking lower social rank to poorer physical health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Damaske, Sarah; Zawadzki, Matthew J.; Smyth, Joshua M. (2016): Stress at work: Differential experiences of high versus low SES workers. In: Social Science & Medicine 156, S. 125–133. DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.03.010.

Abstract:

This paper asks whether workers with higher socioeconomic status (SES) experience different levels of stress at work than workers with lower SES and, if so, what might explain these differences. We collected innovative assessments of immediate objective and subjective measures of stress at multiple time points across consecutive days from 122 employed men and women. We find that in comparison to higher SES individuals, those with lower SES reported greater happiness at work, less self-reported stress, and less perceived stress; cortisol, a biological marker of stress, was unrelated to SES. Worker’s momentary perceptions of the workplace were predicted by SES, with higher SES individuals more commonly reporting feeling unable to meet work demands, fewer work resources, and less positive work appraisals. In turn, perceptions of the workplace had a generally consistent and robust effect on positive mood, subjective stress, and cortisol. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Daniels, Kevin; Beesley, Nick; Cheyne, Alistair; Wimalasiri, Varuni (2016): Safety climate and increased risk: The role of deadlines in design work. In: Human Relations 69 (5), S. 1185–1207. DOI: 10.1177/0018726715612900.

Abstract:

Although much research indicates positive safety climate is associated with reduced safety risk, we argue this association is not universal and may even be reversed in some contexts. Specifically, we argue that positive safety climate can be associated with increased safety risk when there is pressure to prioritize production over safety and where workers have some detachment from the consequences of their actions, such as found in engineering design work. We used two indicators of safety risk: use of heuristics at the individual level and design complexity at the design team level. Using experience sampling data (N = 165, 42 design teams, k = 5752 observations), we found design engineers’ perceptions of team positive safety climate were associated with less use of heuristics when engineers were not working to deadlines, but more use of heuristics when engineers were working to deadlines. Independent ratings were obtained of 31 teams’ designs of offshore oil and gas platforms (N = 121). For teams that worked infrequently to deadlines, positive team safety climate was associated with less design complexity. For teams that worked frequently to deadlines, positive team safety climate was associated with more design complexity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Debusscher, Jonas; Hofmans, Joeri; Fruyt, Filip de (2016): Do personality states predict momentary task performance? The moderating role of personality variability. In: Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 89 (2), S. 330–351. DOI: 10.1111/joop.12126.

Abstract:

We investigated how state neuroticism and state conscientiousness related to momentary task performance and tested whether these relationships were affected by the extent to which a person varies in his level of state neuroticism/conscientiousness across situations. We hypothesized that state neuroticism relates negatively, while state conscientiousness relates positively to momentary task performance. Moreover, for both personality dimensions, we expected the state personality–momentary task performance relationship to be stronger for employees who behave, feel, and think more consistently across situations. These hypotheses were tested using a 10‐day experience sampling study in a large financial institution. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that state neuroticism related negatively and state conscientiousness positively to momentary task performance. Moreover, the relationship between state conscientiousness and momentary task performance was stronger for people lower in situational within‐person conscientiousness variability. From a theoretical point of view, our findings suggest that personality states relate to momentary task performance and that this relationship is stronger for people low in situational within‐person variability. From a practical point of view, they emphasize the importance of taking into account an employee’s state personality levels and the variability herein, in addition to assessing his/her overall trait level of personality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Debusscher, Jonas; Hofmans, Joeri; Fruyt, Filip de (2016): The multiple face(t)s of state conscientiousness: Predicting task performance and organizational citizenship behavior. In: Journal of Research in Personality. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrp.2016.06.009.

Abstract:

Previous studies have shown that conscientiousness facets incrementally predict performance above and beyond trait conscientiousness. In the present paper we investigate whether this finding also holds at the daily level. We conducted a ten-day experience sampling study assessing state conscientiousness in the morning and task performance and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) in the afternoon. Using multilevel bi-factor modeling we show that general state conscientiousness positively predicts both task performance and OCB. Moreover, self-discipline and deliberation showed incremental predictive validity above and beyond overall state conscientiousness in the prediction of daily task performance, whereas none of the state conscientiousness facets uniquely predicted daily OCB levels. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Dedert, Eric A.; Hicks, Terrell A.; Dennis, Paul A.; Calhoun, Patrick S.; Beckham, Jean C. (2016): Roles of inter-individual differences and intra-individual acute elevations in early smoking lapse in people with posttraumatic stress disorder. In: Addictive Behaviors 60, S. 171–176. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2016.04.007.

Abstract:

Existing models of the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and smoking have almost exclusively examined mean symptom levels, rather than the acute elevations that might trigger smoking lapse immediately or increase risk of a smoking lapse in the next few hours. We examined ecological momentary assessments (EMA) of PTSD symptom clusters and smoking in the first week of a quit attempt in 52 people with PTSD. In multilevel models including PTSD symptom means, acute elevations, and lagged acute elevations together as simultaneous predictors of odds of smoking in the same models, pre-quit smoking occasions were significantly related to acute elevations in symptoms, including PTSD totals (OR=1.20; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.31), PTSD re-experiencing symptoms (OR=1.16; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.27), PTSD avoidance symptoms (OR=1.20; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.31), PTSD numbing symptoms (OR=1.14; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.24), and PTSD hyperarousal symptoms (OR=1.20; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.31). In contrast, post-quit smoking was related to lagged acute elevations in PTSD re-experiencing (OR=1.24, 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.50) avoidance (OR=1.27, 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.53), and numbing symptoms (OR=1.24, 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.51). During a quit attempt, individuals with PTSD delayed smoking in response to acute elevations in PTSD re-experiencing and Avoidance. This period presents an opportunity to use mobile health interventions to prevent smoking lapse and to use coping skills acquired in trauma-focused therapy to respond to acute PTSD symptom elevation.

 

Dennis, Paul A.; Dedert, Eric A.; van Voorhees, Elizabeth E.; Watkins, Lana L.; Hayano, Junichiro; Calhoun, Patrick S. et al. (2016): Examining the Crux of Autonomic Dysfunction in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Whether Chronic or Situational Distress Underlies Elevated Heart Rate and Attenuated Heart Rate Variability. In: Psychosomatic medicine. DOI: 10.1097/PSY.0000000000000326.

Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been linked to elevated heart rate (HR) and reduced heart rate variability (HRV) in cross-sectional research. Using ecological momentary assessment and minute-to-minute HRV/HR monitoring, we examined whether cross-sectional associations between PTSD symptom severity and HRV/HR were due to overall elevations in distress levels or to attenuated autonomic regulation during episodes of acute distress. METHODS: Two hundred nineteen young adults (18-39 years old), 99 with PTSD, underwent 1 day of Holter monitoring and concurrently reported distress levels via ecological momentary assessment. Using multilevel modeling, we examined the associations between momentary distress and the 5-minute means for low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) HRV and HR immediately following distress ratings, and whether PTSD symptom severity moderated these associations. RESULTS: Compared with the controls, participants with PTSD recorded higher ambulatory distress (mean [standard deviation] = 1.7 [0.5] versus 1.2 [0.3], p < .001) and HR (87.2 [11.8] versus 82.9 [12.6] beats/min, p = .011), and lower ambulatory LF HRV (36.9 [14.7] versus 43.7 [16.9 ms, p = .002) and HF HRV (22.6 [12.3] versus 26.4 [14.6] milliseconds, p = .043). Overall distress level was not predictive of HR or HRV (p values > .27). However, baseline PTSD symptom severity was associated with elevated HR (t(1257) = 2.76, p = .006) and attenuated LF (t(1257) = -3.86, p < .001) and HF (t(1257) = -2.62, p = .009) in response to acute momentary distress. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that PTSD is associated with heightened arousal after situational distress and could explain prior findings associating PTSD with HR/HRV. Implications for treatment and cardiovascular risk are discussed.

 

Dennis, P. A.; Kimbrel, N. A.; Dedert, E. A.; Beckham, J. C.; Dennis, M. F.; Calhoun, P. S. (2016): Supplemental nicotine preloading for smoking cessation in posttraumatic stress disorder: Results from a randomized controlled trial. In: Addictive Behaviors 59, S. 24–29. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2016.03.004.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are more likely to smoke and more likely to relapse following a quit attempt than individuals without PTSD. Thus, there is a significant need to study promising interventions that might improve quit rates for smokers with PTSD. One such intervention, supplemental nicotine patch-preloading, entails the use of nicotine replacement therapy prior to quitting. Objective The objective of this study was to conduct a randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of supplemental nicotine patch-preloading among smokers with PTSD. We hypothesized that, relative to participants in the placebo condition, participants in the nicotine patch-preloading condition would: (1) smoke less and experience reduced craving for cigarettes during the nicotine patch-preloading phase; (2) experience less smoking-associated relief from PTSD symptoms and negative affect during the preloading phase; and (3) exhibit greater latency to lapse, and higher short- and long-term abstinence rates. METHODS: Sixty-three smokers with PTSD were randomized to either nicotine or placebo patch for three weeks prior to their quit date. Ecological momentary assessment was used to assess craving, smoking, PTSD symptoms, and negative affect during the preloading period. RESULTS: Nicotine patch-preloading failed to reduce smoking or craving during the preloading phase, nor was it associated with less smoking-associated relief from PTSD symptoms and negative affect. Moreover, no differences were observed between the treatment conditions for time to lapse, 6-week abstinence, or 6-month abstinence. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from the present research suggest that supplemental nicotine patch-preloading is unlikely to substantially enhance quit rates among smokers with PTSD.

 

Dunton, G. F.; Dzubur, E.; Intille, S. (2016): Feasibility and Performance Test of a Real-Time Sensor-Informed Context-Sensitive Ecological Momentary Assessment to Capture Physical Activity. In: Journal of medical Internet research 18 (6), S. e106. DOI: 10.2196/jmir.5398.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Objective physical activity monitors (eg, accelerometers) have high rates of nonwear and do not provide contextual information about behavior. OBJECTIVE: This study tested performance and value of a mobile phone app that combined objective and real-time self-report methods to measure physical activity using sensor-informed context-sensitive ecological momentary assessment (CS-EMA). METHODS: The app was programmed to prompt CS-EMA surveys immediately after 3 types of events detected by the mobile phone’s built-in motion sensor: (1) Activity (ie, mobile phone movement), (2) No-Activity (ie, mobile phone nonmovement), and (3) No-Data (ie, mobile phone or app powered off). In addition, the app triggered random (ie, signal-contingent) ecological momentary assessment (R-EMA) prompts (up to 7 per day). A sample of 39 ethnically diverse high school students in the United States (aged 14-18, 54% female) tested the app over 14 continuous days during nonschool time. Both CS-EMA and R-EMA prompts assessed activity type (eg, reading or doing homework, eating or drinking, sports or exercising) and contextual characteristics of the activity (eg, location, social company, purpose). Activity was also measured with a waist-worn Actigraph accelerometer. RESULTS: The average CS-EMA + R-EMA prompt compliance and survey completion rates were 80.5% and 98.5%, respectively. More moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity was recorded by the waist-worn accelerometer in the 30 minutes before CS-EMA activity prompts (M=5.84 minutes) than CS-EMA No-Activity (M=1.11 minutes) and CS-EMA No-Data (M=0.76 minute) prompts (P’s<.001). Participants were almost 5 times as likely to report going somewhere (ie, active or motorized transit) in the 30 minutes before CS-EMA Activity than R-EMA prompts (odds ratio=4.91, 95% confidence interval=2.16-11.12). CONCLUSIONS: Mobile phone apps using motion sensor-informed CS-EMA are acceptable among high school students and may be used to augment objective physical activity data collected from traditional waist-worn accelerometers.

 

Dvorak, Robert D.; Pearson, Matthew R.; Sargent, Emily M.; Stevenson, Brittany L.; Mfon, Angel M. (2016): Daily associations between emotional functioning and alcohol involvement: Moderating effects of response inhibition and gender. In: Drug and alcohol dependence 163 Suppl 1, S. S46-53. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.09.034.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Research has linked tonic and variable mood to problematic alcohol use, both between- and within-subjects. Indices of behavioral control have moderated these links, at least at the between-subjects level. The current study examines daily associations between indices of emotional functioning and alcohol involvement as a function of response inhibition. METHODS: College student drinkers (n=74; 58.11% female) were enrolled in a study on emotion and alcohol use. Participants completed a stop-signal task as an index of response inhibition. They then carried a personal data device for 21 days, reporting daily on mood, alcohol use, and acute alcohol use disorder symptoms. Mood instability was the mean square of successive differences from daily mood assessments. RESULTS: There were 1309 person days (622 drinking days) available for analysis. Pre-drinking mood instability was positively associated the likelihood of drinking and drinks consumed on drinking days. The former association was diminished among women with high response inhibition. Pre-drinking positive mood was positively associated the likelihood of drinking and drinks consumed on drinking days. The latter association was diminished among women with high response inhibition. Pre-drinking negative mood was positively associated with drinks consumed on drinking days among women with low response inhibition. Finally, pre-drinking positive mood was associated with acute alcohol use disorder symptoms among those with low response inhibition. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that interventions targeting positive mood may be particularly important. Further, developing ways to improve response inhibition control may broadly influence negative drinking outcomes by affecting multiple mood-drinking associations.

 

Eatough, Erin; Shockley, Kristen; Yu, Peter (2016): A review of ambulatory health data collection methods for employee experience sampling research. In: Applied Psychology: An International Review 65 (2), S. 322–354. DOI: 10.1111/apps.12068.

Abstract:

Experience sampling research can offer unique insight into state conditions of employee health. Over the past several years, there has been a surge of popularity for such designs in work and organisational psychology, especially with regard to employee health measurement. Experience sampling health measurement can be executed using a variety of different methods including various objective health metrics such as cardiovascular activity measurement, cortisol response tracking, and actigraphy. Furthermore, recent innovations with personal fitness tracking devices open up many possibilities for researchers to continuously monitor activity and health patterns over many days. Technological advances in self‐reporting methods, especially in combination with innovations in objective health measurement, can offer modern researchers richer sets of data. We summarise and describe these methods, offering insight into their advantages and disadvantages for contemporary health researchers interested in experience sampling designs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Faedda, Gianni L.; Ohashi, Kyoko; Hernandez, Mariely; McGreenery, Cynthia E.; Grant, Marie C.; Baroni, Argelinda et al. (2016): Actigraph measures discriminate pediatric bipolar disorder from attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing controls. In: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 57 (6), S. 706–716. DOI: 10.1111/jcpp.12520.

Abstract:

Background: Distinguishing pediatric bipolar disorder (BD) from attention‐deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be challenging. Hyperactivity is a core feature of both disorders, but severely disturbed sleep and circadian dysregulation are more characteristic of BD, at least in adults. We tested the hypothesis that objective measures of activity, sleep, and circadian rhythms would help differentiate pediatric subjects with BD from ADHD and typically developing controls. Methods: Unmedicated youths (N = 155, 97 males, age 5–18) were diagnosed using DSM‐IV criteria with Kiddie‐SADS PL/E. BD youths (n = 48) were compared to typically developing controls (n = 42) and children with ADHD (n = 44) or ADHD plus comorbid depressive disorders (n = 21). Three‐to‐five days of minute‐to‐minute belt‐worn actigraph data (Ambulatory Monitoring Inc.), collected during the school week, were processed to yield 28 metrics per subject, and assessed for group differences with analysis of covariance. Cross‐validated machine learning algorithms were used to determine the predictive accuracy of a four‐parameter model, with measures reflecting sleep, hyperactivity, and circadian dysregulation, plus Indic’s bipolar vulnerability index (VI). Results There were prominent group differences in several activity measures, notably mean 5 lowest hours of activity, skewness of diurnal activity, relative circadian amplitude, and VI. A predictive support vector machine model discriminated bipolar from non‐bipolar with mean accuracy of 83.1 ± 5.4%, ROC area of 0.781 ± 0.071, kappa of 0.587 ± 0.136, specificity of 91.7 ± 5.3%, and sensitivity of 64.4 ± 13.6%. Conclusions Objective measures of sleep, circadian rhythmicity, and hyperactivity were abnormal in BD. Wearable sensor technology may provide bio‐behavioral markers that can help differentiate children with BD from ADHD and healthy controls. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Ford, J. L.; Boch, S. J.; McCarthy, D. O. (2016): Feasibility of Hair Collection for Cortisol Measurement in Population Research on Adolescent Health. In: Nursing research 65 (3), S. 249–255. DOI: 10.1097/NNR.0000000000000154.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Black-White disparities in adolescent health are widespread and thought to be explained, in part, by exposure to chronic stress. Cortisol assayed from hair is increasingly recognized as a valid and reliable measure for chronic physiological stress, but the feasibility of collecting hair among large probability samples of diverse adolescents is unknown. PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate participation in hair collection for cortisol analyses in a probability sample of racially and socioeconomically diverse adolescents, including the extent to which sociodemographic factors and adverse exposures were associated with participation. METHODS: The study included a probability sample of 516 adolescents conducted in conjunction with a prospective cohort study on adolescent health. Data were collected over 1 week via in-home interviews, ecological momentary assessment, global positioning system methods, and in-home hair collection at the end of the week. RESULTS: Of the 516 eligible youth, 471 (91.3%) participated in the hair collection. Of the 45 youth who did not provide hair samples, 18 had insufficient hair, 25 refused, and 2 did not participate for unknown reasons. Multivariable logistic regression results indicated that non-Hispanic Black youth were less likely than their non-Hispanic White peers to participate due to insufficient hair or refusal (OR = 0.24, 95% CI [0 .09, 0.60]). Despite lower rates of participation, the proportion of Black youth in the participating sample was representative of the study area. No significant differences in participation were found by other sociodemographic characteristics or adverse exposures. CONCLUSIONS: Hair collection for cortisol measurement is feasible among a probability sample of racially and socioeconomically diverse adolescents. Hair cortisol analyses may accelerate research progress to understand the biological and psychosocial bases of health disparities.

 

Forman, Evan M.; Shaw, Jena A.; Goldstein, Stephanie P.; Butryn, Meghan L.; Martin, Lindsay M.; Meiran, Nachshon et al. (2016): Mindful decision making and inhibitory control training as complementary means to decrease snack consumption. In: Appetite 103, S. 176–183. DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.04.014.

Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: Obesity is largely attributable to excess caloric intake, in particular from “junk” foods, including salty snack foods. Evidence suggests that neurobiological preferences to consume highly hedonic foods translate (via implicit processes) into poor eating choices, unless overturned by inhibitory mechanisms or interrupted by explicit processes. The primary aim of the current study was to test the independent and combinatory effects of a computerized inhibitory control training (ICT) and a mindful decision-making training (MDT) designed to facilitate de-automatization. METHODS: We randomized 119 habitual salty snack food eaters to one of four short, training conditions: MDT, ICT, both MDT and ICT, or neither (i.e., psychoeducation). For 7 days prior to the intervention and 7 days following the intervention, participants reported on their salty snack food consumption 2 times per day, on 3 portions of their days, using a smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment system. Susceptibility to emotional eating cues was measured at baseline. RESULTS: Results indicated that the effect of MDT was consistent across levels of trait emotional eating, whereas the benefit of ICT was apparent only at lower levels of emotional eating. No synergistic effect of MDT and ICT was detected. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide qualified support for the efficacy of both types of training for decreasing hedonically-motivated eating. Moderation effects suggest that those who eat snack foods for reasons unconnected to affective experiences (i.e., lower in emotional eating) may derive benefit from a combination of ICT and MDT. Future research should investigate the additive benefit of de-automization training to standard weight loss interventions.

 

Gerteis, A. K.; Schwerdtfeger, A. R. (2016): When rumination counts: Perceived social support and heart rate variability in daily life. In: Psychophysiology 53 (7), S. 1034–1043. DOI: 10.1111/psyp.12652.

Abstract:

Rumination and social support could modulate cardiac activity. Although both variables are somehow interrelated, they are often studied independently, and their interplay is seldom considered. We aimed to analyze the interaction of rumination and perceived social support on vagally mediated heart rate variability (HRV) in daily life. The sample consisted of 117 healthy participants (57% female, mean age = 27.9, SD = 5.5 years). Ambulatory HRV (root mean squared successive differences), respiration, body position, and body movements were recorded continuously on three consecutive weekdays. Momentary social, situational, and cognitive-affective variables (affect, ruminative thoughts, perceived social support) were assessed using a computerized diary. There was a significant interaction between momentary rumination and perceived social support on ambulatory HRV: When participants were involved in social interactions with low social support, concurrent rumination was associated with attenuated HRV. However, when rumination was accompanied by a strong sense of support, HRV significantly increased. The quality of social interactions and rumination seem to interact in daily life to predict cardiac autonomic control. The results stress the necessity to consider the interplay of psychological and social factors in order to evaluate beneficial or adverse effects on cardiac health.

 

Giffin, Nicola J.; Lipton, Richard B.; Silberstein, Stephen D.; Olesen, Jes; Goadsby, Peter J. (2016): The migraine postdrome: An electronic diary study. In: Neurology. DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000002789.

Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: To report migraine postdrome symptoms in patients who report nonheadache symptoms as part of their attacks. METHODS: A prospective daily electronic diary study was conducted over 3 months in 120 patients with migraine. Nonheadache symptoms before, during, and after headache were collected on a daily basis. Visual analogue scales were used to capture the overall level of functioning and the severity of the headache. The postdrome was defined as the time from resolution of troublesome headache to return to normal. RESULTS: Of 120 evaluable patients, 97 (81%) reported at least one nonheadache symptom in the postdrome. Postdrome symptoms, in order of frequency, included feeling tired/weary and having difficulty concentrating and stiff neck. Many patients also reported a mild residual head discomfort. In most attacks (93%), there was return to normal within 24 hours after spontaneous pain resolved. There was no relationship between medication taken for the headache and the duration of the postdrome. The severity of the migraine was not associated with the duration of the postdrome. Overall state of health scores remained low during the postdrome. CONCLUSION: Nonheadache symptoms in the postdrome were common and may contribute to the distress and disability in the patients studied. Postdrome symptoms merit larger observational studies and careful recording in clinical trials of acute and preventive migraine treatments.

 

Goldstein, Abby L.; Vilhena-Churchill, Natalie; Munroe, Melanie; Stewart, Sherry H.; Flett, Gordon L.; Hoaken, Peter N. S. (2016): Understanding the effects of social desirability on gambling self-reports. In: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. DOI: 10.1007/s11469-016-9668-0.

Abstract:

Gambling self-reports may be subject to several types of bias, including social desirability bias, which may undermine their utility for capturing gambling behaviour in both research and clinical practice. Retrospective self-reports of gambling are frequently used to assess patterns of behaviour over specific periods of time, but may not be as reliable as experience sampling (ES) methods, which involve multiple assessments of gambling over the course of several days. The purpose of the current study was to examine the impact of two aspects of social desirability, impression management (IM) and self-deceptive enhancement (SDE), on the correspondence between reports of gambling assessed via ES and retrospective recall using the Gambling Timeline Followback (G-TLFB; Weinstock et al. Psychological Assessment, 16, 72–80, 2004). Participants were 81 emerging adult gamblers who completed a 30-day ES study and a retrospective assessment of their gambling. Although the overall association between social desirability and gambling reports was minimal, the correspondence between retrospective and ES reports was lower for those with higher scores on IM (for money won-lost) and SDE (for money intended to risk). Gamblers who wish to present themselves in a favourable way – either intentionally (IM) or unintentionally (SDE) – may be less reliable in their reports of gambling when asked to reflect on an extended period of time compared to when asked to provide an in-the-moment account of their gambling behaviour. These findings have important implications for understanding the circumstances under which individuals bias their retrospective self-reports of gambling and highlight the utility of more fine-grained assessments of gambling behaviour. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Gotink, Rinske A.; Hermans, Karlijn S.F.M.; Geschwind, Nicole; Nooij, Reinier; Groot, Wouter T.; Speckens, Anne E.M. (2016): Mindfulness and mood stimulate each other in an upward spiral: A mindful walking intervention using experience sampling. In: Mindfulness. DOI: 10.1007/s12671-016-0550-8.

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility and effectiveness of mindful walking in nature as a possible means to maintain mindfulness skills after a mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) or mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) course. Mindful walking alongside the river Rhine took place for 1, 3, 6, or 10 days, with a control period of a similar number of days, 1 week before the mindful walking period. In 29 mindfulness participants, experience sampling method (ESM) was performed during the control and mindful walking period. Smartphones offered items on positive and negative affect and state mindfulness at random times during the day. Furthermore, self-report questionnaires were administered before and after the control and mindful walking period, assessing depression, anxiety, stress, brooding, and mindfulness skills. ESM data showed that walking resulted in a significant improvement of both mindfulness and positive affect, and that state mindfulness and positive affect prospectively enhanced each other in an upward spiral. The opposite pattern was observed with state mindfulness and negative affect, where increased state mindfulness predicted less negative affect. Exploratory questionnaire data indicated corresponding results, though non-significant due to the small sample size. This is the first time that ESM was used to assess interactions between state mindfulness and momentary affect during a mindfulness intervention of several consecutive days, showing an upward spiral effect. Mindful walking in nature may be an effective way to maintain mindfulness practice and further improve psychological functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Griffith, Sandra D.; Shiffman, Saul; Li, Yimei; Heitjan, Daniel F. (2016): Model‐based imputation of latent cigarette counts using data from a calibration study. In: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 25 (2), S. 112–122. DOI: 10.1002/mpr.1468.

Abstract:

In addition to dichotomous measures of abstinence, smoking studies may use daily cigarette consumption as an outcome variable. These counts hold the promise of more efficient and detailed analyses than dichotomous measures, but present serious quality issues—measurement error and heaping—if obtained by retrospective recall. A doubly‐coded dataset with a retrospective recall measurement (timeline followback, TLFB) and a more precise instantaneous measurement (ecological momentary assessment, EMA) serves as a calibration dataset, allowing us to predict EMA given TLFB and baseline factors. We apply this model to multiply impute precise cigarette counts for a randomized, placebo‐controlled trial of bupropion with only TLFB measurements available. To account for repeated measurements on a subject, we induce correlation in the imputed counts. Finally, we analyze the imputed data in a longitudinal model that accommodates random subject effects and zero inflation. Both raw and imputed data show a significant drug effect for reducing the odds of non‐abstinence and the number of cigarettes smoked among non‐abstainers, but the imputed data provide efficiency gains. This method permits the analysis of daily cigarette consumption data previously deemed suspect due to reporting error and is applicable to other self‐reported count data sets for which calibration samples are available. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Hand, Rosa K.; Perzynski, Adam T. (2016): Ecologic Momentary Assessment: Perspectives on Applications and Opportunities in Research and Practice Regarding Nutrition Behaviors. In: Journal of nutrition education and behavior. DOI: 10.1016/j.jneb.2016.05.004.

Abstract:

Retrospective self-reported data have limitations, making it important to evaluate alternative forms of measurement for nutrition behaviors. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) attempts to overcome the challenges of recalled data with real-time data collection in a subject’s natural environment, often leveraging technology. This perspective piece 1) introduces the concepts and terminology of EMA, 2) provides an overview of the methodological and analytical considerations, 3) gives examples of past research using EMA, and 4) suggests new opportunities (including combining assessment and intervention) and limitations (including the need for technology) for the application of EMA to research and practice regarding nutrition behaviors.

 

Ho, T. W.; Huang, C. T.; Chiu, H. C.; Ruan, S. Y.; Tsai, Y. J.; Yu, C. J.; Lai, F. (2016): Effectiveness of Telemonitoring in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Taiwan-A Randomized Controlled Trial. In: Scientific reports 6, S. 23797. DOI: 10.1038/srep23797.

Abstract:

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the leading cause of death worldwide, and poses a substantial economic and social burden. Telemonitoring has been proposed as a solution to this growing problem, but its impact on patient outcome is equivocal. This randomized controlled trial aimed to investigate effectiveness of telemonitoring in improving COPD patient outcome. In total, 106 subjects were randomly assigned to the telemonitoring (n = 53) or usual care (n = 53) group. During the two months following discharge, telemonitoring group patients had to report their symptoms daily using an electronic diary. The primary outcome measure was time to first re-admission for COPD exacerbation within six months of discharge. During the follow-up period, time to first re-admission for COPD exacerbation was significantly increased in the telemonitoring group than in the usual care group (p = 0.026). Telemonitoring was also associated with a reduced number of all-cause re-admissions (0.23 vs. 0.68/patient; p = 0.002) and emergency room visits (0.36 vs. 0.91/patient; p = 0.006). In conclusion, telemonitoring intervention was associated with improved outcomes among COPD patients admitted for exacerbation in a country characterized by a small territory and high accessibility to medical services. The findings are encouraging and add further support to implementation of telemonitoring as part of COPD care.

 

Holl, Julia; Wolff, Sebastian; Schumacher, Maren; Höcker, Anja; Arens, Elisabeth A.; Spindler, Gabriela et al. (2016): Substance use to regulate intense posttraumatic shame in individuals with childhood abuse and neglect. In: Development and Psychopathology. DOI: 10.1017/S0954579416000432.

Abstract:

Abstract Childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) is considered as a risk factor for substance use disorder (SUD). Based on the drinking to cope model, this study investigated the association of two trauma-relevant emotions (shame and sadness) and substance use. Using ecological momentary assessment we compared real-time emotion regulation in situations with high and low intensity of shame and sadness in currently abstinent patients with CAN and lifetime SUD (traumaSUD group), healthy controls with CAN (traumaHC group), and without CAN (nontraumaHC group). Multilevel analysis showed a positive linear relationship between high intensity of both emotions and substance use for all groups. The traumaSUD group showed heightened substance use in low, as well as in high, intensity of shame and sadness. In addition, we found an interaction between type of emotion, intensity, and group: the traumaHC group exhibited a fourfold increased risk for substance use in high intense shame situations relative to the traumaSUD group. Our findings provide evidence for the drinking to cope model. The traumaSUD group showed a reduced distress tolerance for variable intensity of negative emotions. The differential effect of intense shame for the traumaHC group emphazises its potential role in the development of SUD following CAN. In addition, shame can be considered a relevant focus for therapeutic preinterventions and interventions for SUD after CAN. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Hoorelbeke, Kristof; Koster, Ernst H. W.; Demeyer, Ineke; Loeys, Tom; Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne (2016): Effects of Cognitive Control Training on the Dynamics of (Mal)Adaptive Emotion Regulation in Daily Life. In: Emotion. DOI: 10.1037/emo0000169.

Abstract:

Cognitive control plays a key role in both adaptive emotion regulation, such as positive reappraisal, and maladaptive emotion regulation, such as rumination, with both strategies playing a major role in resilience and well-being. As a result, cognitive control training (CCT) targeting working memory functioning may have the potential to reduce maladaptive emotion regulation and increase adaptive emotion regulation. The current study explored the effects of CCT on positive reappraisal ability in a lab context, and deployment and efficacy of positive appraisal and rumination in daily life. A sample of undergraduates (n = 83) was allocated to CCT or an active control condition, performing 10 online training sessions over a period of 14 days. Effects on regulation of affective states in daily life were assessed using experience sampling over a 7-day posttraining period. Results revealed a positive association between baseline cognitive control and self-reported use of adaptive emotion regulation strategies, whereas maladaptive emotion regulation strategies showed a negative association. CCT showed transfer to working memory functioning on the dual n-back task. Overall, effects of CCT on emotion regulation were limited to reducing deployment of rumination in low positive affective states. However, we did not find beneficial effects on indicators of adaptive emotion regulation. These findings are in line with previous studies targeting maladaptive emotion regulation but suggest limited use in enhancing adaptive emotion regulation in a healthy sample. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Houben, Marlies; Bohus, Martin; Santangelo, Philip S.; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich; Trull, Timothy J.; Kuppens, Peter (2016): The specificity of emotional switching in borderline personality disorder in comparison to other clinical groups. In: Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment 7 (2), S. 198–204. DOI: 10.1037/per0000172.

Abstract:

In an attempt to better understand the nature of emotion dysregulation in the daily lives of persons with a borderline personality disorder (BPD), Houben et al. (2016) recently identified emotional switching, which refers to the tendency to make large changes between positive and negative emotional states over time, as a possible defining characteristic of the emotion dynamics observed in BPD. The goal of this study was to examine the specificity of these previous findings in 2 samples by comparing BPD patients (N = 43 in sample 1; N = 81 in sample 2) to patients with bulimia nervosa (N = 20), posttraumatic stress disorder (N = 28), or healthy controls (N = 28) in sample 1, and to patients with depressive disorder (N = 50) in sample 2, with respect to measures of emotional switching. Analyses of these 2 experience sampling datasets revealed that contrary to expectations, BPD patients did not differ from the clinical groups regarding their mere tendency to switch between positive and negative emotional states on consecutive moments over time and regarding the magnitude of such changes between positive and negative emotional states over time. However, all clinical groups did differ from healthy controls regarding all switch measures in dataset 1. These results indicate that emotional switching, similar to other more traditional indicators of overall changes in emotional intensity in daily life, might reflect a feature of emotional responding characterizing a range of disorders with mood disturbances. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Huh, Jimi; Cerrada, Christian J.; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G.; Dunton, Genevieve; Leventhal, Adam M. (2016): Social contexts of momentary craving to smoke among Korean American emerging adults. In: Addictive Behaviors 56, S. 23–29. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2016.01.006.

Abstract:

Introduction: Korean American emerging adult (KAEA) smokers represent a culturally and developmentally unique population constituted of primarily light, intermittent smokers. Sociocultural contexts might play an important role in contributing to instances of acute cigarette craving and motivation to smoke in this population; yet, research testing such hypotheses is scant. The current study tests whether and how social contexts are associated with the craving among KAEA smokers. Methods: Seventy-eight daily KAEA smokers, who smoke 4 + cigs/day, participated in a 7-day ecological momentary assessment (EMA), in which participants responded to both signal-contingent (random) and event-contingent (smoking) prompts to answer surveys on their mobile phones (prompt-level n = 1377; 603 random + 774 smoking prompts). Nicotine dependence was measured at baseline; cigarette craving, negative affect, presence of others smoking, social contexts were measured with EMA. Results: Modeling of within-participant variation and covariation showed that being with Korean friends (vs. alone) was associated with increased levels of momentary craving. This association between Korean friends and craving disappeared when adjusted for presence of others smoking, which was a strong predictor of momentary craving. The positive association between Korean friends and craving was amplified immediately prior to smoking (vs. non-smoking random) instances. Conclusions: Being with Korean friends might serve as a culturally-specific salient smoking cue, which might have been learned throughout their smoking history. Our data also showed that increased craving associated with Korean friends may represent social settings that primarily involve cigarette smoking. Given our findings on cigarette use among KAEA’s social network, addressing cigarette use as a group behavior might be a fruitful intervention strategy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Hülsheger, Ute R. (2016): From dawn till dusk: Shedding light on the recovery process by investigating daily change patterns in fatigue. In: Journal of Applied Psychology 101 (6), S. 905–914. DOI: 10.1037/apl0000104.

Abstract:

Although the notion that recovery is a process rather than a state lies at the heart of recovery theory, the continuous cycle of depletion and replenishment of resources itself has not yet been investigated empirically. In the present article, I therefore build on recovery theory and on evidence from chronobiological research and adopt a temporal research approach that allows investigating change trajectories in fatigue over the course of the day. Furthermore, the role of sleep quality and psychological detachment in these change trajectories is investigated. Hypotheses are tested in an experience-sampling study involving 133 employees who were asked to provide fatigue ratings 4 times a day over 5 consecutive workdays. Growth curve analyses revealed that on average fatigue decreased in the morning, reaching a nadir around midday and then increased until bedtime. Additionally, daily sleep quality explained variation in individuals’ fatigue change trajectories: When sleep quality was low, next day fatigue decreased between morning and midday and then increased again until bedtime; when sleep quality was high, fatigue remained stable until midday and then increased again between the end of work and bedtime. Theoretical implications for the recovery literature and practical implications are discussed in conclusion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Ilies, Remus; Aw, Sherry S. Y.; Lim, Vivien K. G. (2016): A naturalistic multilevel framework for studying transient and chronic effects of psychosocial work stressors on employee health and well‐being. In: Applied Psychology: An International Review 65 (2), S. 223–258. DOI: 10.1111/apps.12069.

Abstract:

Research in work and organisational health psychology (WOHP) has traditionally employed methodologies targeted at examining between‐individual associations of psychosocial stressors, psychological strain, health, and well‐being. Recently, however, there has been a shift towards more ecologically valid assessments of these classes of constructs, i.e. assessing them as and when they occur, often involving multiple assessments of the individual within a day. Known as Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA), studies employing this methodology enable examinations of within‐individual (daily) fluctuations in well‐being as a result of work stressors and other environmental factors, as well as investigations of person–environment interactions. In addition, the study of employee health and well‐being can benefit from the application of new and exciting technologies for measurement, such as smartphones and wearable devices for the tracking of physiological well‐being indicators. Drawing on the Allostatic Load Model as an integrative framework, the current article aims to organise previous EMA research efforts in the field of WOHP, provide an overview of methodological tools that can be used in EMA research, and provide guidelines for analyzing EMA data. Finally, we conclude by discussing opportunities and challenges in the use of EMA in WOHP. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Inada, Shuji; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Iizuka, Yoko; Ohashi, Ken; Kikuchi, Hiroe; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu et al. (2016): Pilot study for the development of a self-care system for type 2 diabetes patients using a personal digital assistant (PDA). In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine 23 (3), S. 295–299. DOI: 10.1007/s12529-016-9535-1.

Abstract:

Purpose: The primary objective of the present pilot study was to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of the newly developed self-care system using personal digital assistance in patients with type 2 diabetes. The secondary objective was to investigate changes in daily calorie intake, body weight, and hemoglobin A1c after using the system for 6 months. Method: The participants were nine outpatients with type 2 diabetes, aged 34–72 and living in Tokyo or surrounding prefectures. They were instructed to use the electronic food diary and to review the graphs of the total energy intake to control food intake under their own target value for 6 months. After they completed the study, the feasibility indicated by adherence rate for food recording and acceptability of the system rated with 6-point Likert scale from 1 (worst) to 6 (best) by the participants were investigated. Results: Seven participants out of nine completed the study protocol. The median adherence rate for food recording was 80.6 %. Regarding the acceptability, six patients rated 6 for desire to use the system while one rated 5. In addition, regarding improvement in self-care for diabetes, the median score was 5. Daily calorie intake, body weight, and HbA1c, however, did not change significantly over the 6-month period. Conclusion: The newly developed self-care system might be feasible and acceptable in diabetes patients, which could be applied as an ecological momentary intervention tool, although there was some room to refine it to raise adherence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Kanning, Martina K.; Schoebi, Dominik (2016): Momentary Affective States Are Associated with Momentary Volume, Prospective Trends, and Fluctuation of Daily Physical Activity. In: Frontiers in psychology 7, S. 744. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00744.

Abstract:

Several interventions aiming to enhance physical activity in everyday life showed mixed effects. Affective constructs are thought to potentially support health behavior change. However, little is known about within-subject associations between momentary affect and subsequent physical activity in everyday life. This study analyzed the extent to which three dimensions of affective states (valence, calmness, and energetic arousal) were associated with different components of daily activity trajectories. Sixty-five undergraduates’ students (Age: M = 24.6; SD = 3.2; females: 57%) participated in this study. Physical activity was assessed objectively through accelerometers during 24 h. Affective states assessments were conducted randomly every 45 min using an e-diary with a six-item mood scale that was especially designed for ambulatory assessment. We conducted three-level multi-level analyses to investigate the extent to which momentary affect accounted for momentary volume, prospective trends, and stability vs. fluctuation of physical activity in everyday life. All three affect dimensions were significantly associated with momentary activity volumes and prospective trends over 45 min periods. Physical activity didn’t fluctuate freely, but featured significant autocorrelation across repeated measurements, suggesting some stability of physical activity across 5-min assessments. After adjusting for the autoregressive structure in physical activity assessments, only energetic arousal remained a significant predictor. Feeling energized and awake was associated with an increased momentary volume of activity and initially smaller but gradually growing decreases in subsequent activity within the subsequent 45 min. Although not related to trends in physical activity, higher valence predicted lower stability in physical activity across subsequent 45 min, suggesting more short-term fluctuations in daily activity the more participants reported positive affective valence. The current analyses afford interesting insight into within-subject associations between momentary affect and activity-trajectories in everyday life. Energetic arousal emerged as the only meaningful predictor of physical activity in daily life after adjusting for autoregression. A significant effect of valence on short-term activity fluctuations might indicate that activity interventions would benefit from taking into account enhancement of positive affective valence in everyday life. Moments of enhanced valence may scaffold attempts helping inactive people to get started with daily activities and overcome periods of inactivity in everyday life.

 

Kaplan, S. E.; Ohrbach, R. (2016): Self-Report of Waking-State Oral Parafunctional Behaviors in the Natural Environment. In: Journal of oral & facial pain and headache 30 (2), S. 107–119. DOI: 10.11607/ofph.1592.

Abstract:

AIMS: To determine if retrospective self-report of oral parafunctional behaviors potentially relevant to pain conditions is valid, by comparing oral parafunctional behaviors via a self-report instrument (Oral Behaviors Checklist [OBC]) with in-field reports of oral parafunction. METHODS: Individuals with a range of oral parafunctional behaviors, as identified by the OBC, were recruited, and 22 completed the field study. Using the Ecological Momentary Assessment paradigm, each subject was randomly prompted about eight times per day, for a target of 7 days, via portable handheld computer to report current behaviors among 11 queried items. Before and after the field study, a paper version of the OBC was administered. Separately, 74 individuals participated in a test-retest study of the paper OBC. Analyses included regression, correlation, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and area under the receiving operating curve (AUC). RESULTS: Pre- and postfield study administration of the OBC exhibited substantial reliability (ICC = 0.65), indicating no reactivity during the intervening in-field data collection. Reliability across in-field days was low, indicating high variability in which behavior occurred on which day. Nonobservable behaviors were reported more frequently than observable behaviors. Self-report via OBC was linear with in-field data collection methods (R2 values ranged from 0.1 to 0.7; most values were within 0.3 to 0.4). The predictive value of the self-report total score was AUC (0.88) relative to the in-field study score. Separate test-retest reliability of the OBC was almost perfect (ICC = 0.88). CONCLUSIONS: The OBC is a reliable and valid way to predict behaviors in the natural environment and will be useful for further pain research.

 

Keng, Shian-Ling; Tong, Eddie M. W. (2016): Riding the Tide of Emotions With Mindfulness: Mindfulness, Affect Dynamics, and the Mediating Role of Coping. In: Emotion. DOI: 10.1037/emo0000165.

Abstract:

Little research has examined ways in which mindfulness is associated with affect dynamics, referring to patterns of affect fluctuations in daily life. Using ecological momentary assessment (EMA), the present study examined the associations between trait mindfulness and several types of affect dynamics, namely affect variability, affect inertia, affect switch, and affect instability. Three hundred ninety undergraduate students from Singapore reported their current emotions and coping styles up to 19 times per day across 2 days. Results showed that trait mindfulness correlated negatively with variability, instability, and inertia of negative affect and positively with negative-to-positive affect switch. These relationships were independent of openness, habitual reappraisal, habitual suppression, depression, and self-esteem. Importantly, lower maladaptive coping was found to mediate these relationships. The study suggests that trait mindfulness independently promotes adaptive patterns of affective experiences in daily life by inhibiting maladaptive coping styles. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Kishida, Moé; Elavsky, Steriani (2016): A daily process approach to depict satisfaction with life during the menopausal transition: Physical (in)activity, symptoms, and neuroticism. In: Journal of Happiness Studies. DOI: 10.1007/s10902-016-9743-z.

Abstract:

The main objectives of the present study were (1) to examine the between- and within-person association of physical (in)activity and satisfaction with life (SWL), and (2) to identify relevant top-down and bottom-up influences associated with daily well-being in menopausal women using a daily process approach. As part of a 21-day diary study, community-dwelling middle-aged women (N = 103; age range 40–60 years) wore an accelerometer for the objective assessment of physical activity and completed daily Internet surveys at the end of their day. Multilevel analyses indicated the between-person effects of physical activity on SWL were negligent but that on days when a woman was more physically active than her usual, she reported greater SWL (B = 12.01, p < .05). Sedentary behavior did not demonstrate a between- or within-person association with SWL. Women also experienced reduced SWL on days when greater symptom burden was reported (B = −2.47, p < .05). Neuroticism also emerged as a top-down personality trait with a negative relation to SWL (B = −1.47, p < .05). Higher levels of neuroticism predicted reduced daily life satisfaction particularly on days characterized by heightened symptom burden (B = −0.26, p < .05). In this sample of midlife women, daily physical activity had a positive influence on SWL, whereas daily symptom burden and the personality trait of neuroticism had detrimental consequences on a woman’s daily well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Kolar, David R.; Hammerle, Florian; Jenetzky, Ekkehart; Huss, Michael; Burger, Arne (2016): Aversive tension in female adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa: a controlled ecological momentary assessment using smartphones. In: BMC psychiatry 16, S. 97. DOI: 10.1186/s12888-016-0807-8.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Current models of Anorexia Nervosa (AN) emphasize the role of emotion regulation. Aversive tension, described as a state of intense arousal and negative valence, is considered to be a link between emotional events and disordered eating. Recent research focused only on adult patients, and mainly general emotion regulation traits were studied. However, the momentary occurrence of aversive tension, particularly in adolescents with AN, has not been previously studied. METHOD: 20 female adolescents with AN in outpatient treatment and 20 healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years participated in an ecological momentary assessment using their smartphones. Current states of aversive tension and events were assessed hourly for two consecutive weekdays. Mean and maximum values of aversive tension were compared. Multilevel analyses were computed to test the influence of time and reported events on aversive tension. The effect of reported events on subsequent changes of aversive tension in patients with AN were additionally tested in a multilevel model. RESULTS: AN patients showed higher mean and maximum levels of aversive tension. In a multilevel model, reported food intake was associated with higher levels of aversive tension in the AN group, whereas reported school or sport-related events were not linked to specific states of aversive tension. After food intake, subsequent increases of aversive tension were diminished and decreases of aversive tension were induced in adolescents with AN. CONCLUSIONS: Aversive tension may play a substantial role in the psychopathology of AN, particular in relation with food intake. Therefore, treatment should consider aversive tension as a possible intervening variable during refeeding. Our findings encourage further research on aversive tension and its link to disordered eating. TRIAL REGISTRATION: German register of clinical trials (DRKS): DRKS00005228 (Date of registration: September 2, 2013).

 

Konen, T.; Dirk, J.; Leonhardt, A.; Schmiedek, F. (2016): The interplay between sleep behavior and affect in elementary school children’s daily life. In: Journal of experimental child psychology 150, S. 1–15. DOI: 10.1016/j.jecp.2016.04.003.

Abstract:

Recent reviews raised the idea of a bidirectional relation between sleep behavior and affect in adults, but little is known about this interplay in general and especially regarding children. In this micro-longitudinal study, the interplay of sleep and affect was captured directly in children’s daily life context in and out of school through ambulatory assessment. For 31 consecutive days, 110 elementary school children (8-11 years old) provided information about their last night’s sleep and reported their current affect at four daily occasions in school and at home on smartphones. A multilevel approach was used to analyze the relation between sleep and affect the next day (morning, noon, and afternoon) and the relation between evening affect and subsequent sleep. At the within-person level, sleep quality was related to all observed facets of affect the next day and the strongest effects were found in the morning. The effect of sleep quality on positive affect was particularly pronounced for children who on average went to bed early and slept long. There were, however, no direct within-person effects of sleep quantity on affect. Furthermore, evening affect was related to subsequent sleep. The findings support the idea of a bidirectional relation between affect and sleep in children’s daily life (including school). They suggest that good sleep provides a basis and resource for children’s affective well-being the next day and demonstrate the importance of analyzing within-person variations of children’s sleep. Micro-longitudinal findings can contribute to explain how macro-longitudinal relations between sleep and affect develop over time.

 

Krogh, Anne-Berit; Larsson, Bo; Salvesen, øyvind; Linde, Mattias (2016): A comparison between prospective internet-based and paper diary recordings of headache among adolescents in the general population. In: Cephalalgia 36 (4), S. 335–345. DOI: 10.1177/0333102415591506.

Abstract:

Aim: The aim of this article was to develop and apply an Internet-based headache diary (i-diary) for adolescents and compare it with a paper-diary (p-diary) regarding adherence, user acceptability and recorded headache activity. Methods: In a cross-sectional school-based study, a representative sample of 488 adolescents aged 12–18 years were randomly allocated by cluster sampling to record for three weeks in i-diaries or p-diaries their headache intensity, disability, and use of acute medication. Results: A significantly (p = 0.008) higher proportion of adolescents in the i-diary group used the diary at least once during the 21-day period (86% vs 76% for the p-diary). However, the p-diary group completed a significantly (p < 0.001) higher number of diary days (20.8 vs 15.0 days for the i-diary). The response rate for the i-diary-group was largely evenly distributed over the study period; conversely, approximately two-thirds of the adolescents using the p-diary responded on all 21 days, whereas one-fourth did not respond at all. The two diary types were rated as equal in easiness to remember (p = 0.25), but the i-diaries were more bothersome to use (p = 0.029). Conclusion: Although p-diary users completed a higher proportion of diary days, i-diaries provided more reliable and credible estimates of headache parameters because of better real-time assessment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

LaForce, Craig; Feldman, Gregory; Spangenthal, Selwyn; Eckert, Joerg H.; Henley, Michelle; Patalano, Francesco; D’Andrea, Peter (2016): Efficacy and safety of twice-daily glycopyrrolate in patients with stable, symptomatic COPD with moderate-to-severe airflow limitation: the GEM1 study. In: International journal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 11, S. 1233–1243. DOI: 10.2147/COPD.S100445.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to confirm the efficacy and safety of twice-daily glycopyrrolate 15.6 microg, a long-acting muscarinic antagonist, in patients with stable, symptomatic, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with moderate-to-severe airflow limitation. METHODS: The GEM1 study was a 12-week, multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study that randomized patients with stable, symptomatic COPD with moderate-to-severe airflow limitation to twice-daily glycopyrrolate 15.6 microg or placebo (1:1) via the Neohaler((R)) device. The primary objective was to demonstrate superiority of glycopyrrolate versus placebo in terms of forced expiratory volume in 1 second area under the curve between 0 and 12 hours post morning dose at week 12. Other outcomes included additional spirometric end points, transition dyspnea index, St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire, COPD Assessment Test, rescue medication use, and symptoms reported by patients via electronic diary. Safety was also assessed during the study. RESULTS: Of the 441 patients randomized (glycopyrrolate, n=222; placebo, n=219), 96% of patients completed the planned treatment phase. Glycopyrrolate demonstrated statistically significant (P<0.001) improvements in lung function versus placebo. Glycopyrrolate showed statistically significant improvement in the transition dyspnea index focal score, St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire total score, COPD Assessment Test score, rescue medication use, and daily total symptom score versus placebo at week 12. Safety was comparable between the treatment groups. CONCLUSION: Significant improvement in lung function, dyspnea, COPD symptoms, health status, and rescue medication use suggests that glycopyrrolate is a safe and effective treatment option as maintenance bronchodilator in patients with stable, symptomatic COPD with moderate-to-severe airflow limitation.

 

Lanaj, Klodiana; Johnson, Russell E.; Wang, Mo (2016): When Lending a Hand Depletes the Will: The Daily Costs and Benefits of Helping. In: Journal of Applied Psychology. DOI: 10.1037/apl0000118.

Abstract:

Employees help on a regular daily basis while at work, yet surprisingly little is known about how responding to help requests affects helpers. Although recent theory suggests that helping may come at a cost to the helper, the majority of the helping literature has focused on the benefits of helping. The current study addresses the complex nature of helping by simultaneously considering its costs and benefits for helpers. Using daily diary data across 3 consecutive work weeks, we examine the relationship between responding to help requests, perceived prosocial impact of helping, and helpers’ regulatory resources. We find that responding to help requests depletes regulatory resources at an increasing rate, yet perceived prosocial impact of helping can replenish resources. We also find that employees’ prosocial motivation moderates these within-person relationships, such that prosocial employees are depleted to a larger extent by responding to help requests, and replenished to a lesser extent by the perceived prosocial impact of helping. Understanding the complex relationship of helping with regulatory resources is important because such resources have downstream effects on helpers’ behavior in the workplace. We discuss the implications of our findings for both theory and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Laurin, Kristin; Fitzsimons, Gráinne M.; Finkel, Eli J.; Carswell, Kathleen L.; Vandellen, Michelle R.; Hofmann, Wilhelm et al. (2016): Power and the pursuit of a partner’s goals. In: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 110 (6), S. 840–868. DOI: 10.1037/pspi0000048.

Abstract:

We investigated how power dynamics in close relationships influence the tendency to devote resources to the pursuit of goals valued by relationship partners, hypothesizing that low (vs. high) power in relationships would lead individuals to center their individual goal pursuit around the goals of their partners. We study 2 related phenomena: partner goal prioritization, whereby individuals pursue goals on behalf of their partners, and partner goal contagion, whereby individuals identify and adopt as their own the goals that their partner pursues. We tested our ideas in 5 studies that employed diverse research methods, including lab experiments and dyadic studies of romantic partners, and multiple types of dependent measures, including experience sampling reports, self-reported goal commitment, and behavioral goal pursuit in a variety of goal domains. Despite this methodological diversity, the studies provided clear and consistent evidence that individuals with low power in their relationships are especially likely to engage in both partner goal prioritization and partner goal contagion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Lavender, J. M.; Mason, T. B.; Utzinger, L. M.; Wonderlich, S. A.; Crosby, R. D.; Engel, S. G. et al. (2016): Examining affect and perfectionism in relation to eating disorder symptoms among women with anorexia nervosa. In: Psychiatry research 241, S. 267–272. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2016.04.122.

Abstract:

This study examined personality and affective variables in relation to eating disorder symptoms in anorexia nervosa (AN). Women (N=118) with DSM-IV AN completed baseline questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory, Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale) and interviews (Eating Disorder Examination, Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorder Scale), followed by two weeks of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involving multiple daily reports of affective states and eating disorder behaviors. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted using eating disorder symptoms as dependent variables (i.e., EMA binge eating, EMA self-induced vomiting, eating disorder rituals, eating disorder preoccupations, dietary restraint). Predictor variables were maladaptive perfectionism (baseline), depressive symptoms (baseline), and affect lability (EMA). Results revealed that affect lability was independently associated with binge eating, whereas depressive symptoms were independently associated with self-induced vomiting. Depressive symptoms were independently associated with eating disorder rituals, whereas both depressive symptoms and maladaptive perfectionism were independently associated with eating disorder preoccupations. Finally, maladaptive perfectionism and affect lability were both independently associated with dietary restraint. This pattern of findings suggests the importance of affective and personality constructs in relation to eating disorder symptoms in AN and may highlight the importance of targeting these variables in the context of treatment.

 

Lavender, Jason M.; Utzinger, Linsey M.; Cao, Li; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Engel, Scott G.; Mitchell, James E.; Crosby, Ross D. (2016): Reciprocal associations between negative affect, binge eating, and purging in the natural environment in women with bulimia nervosa. In: Journal of abnormal psychology 125 (3), S. 381–386. DOI: 10.1037/abn0000135.

Abstract:

Although negative affect (NA) has been identified as a common trigger for bulimic behaviors, findings regarding NA following such behaviors have been mixed. This study examined reciprocal associations between NA and bulimic behaviors using real-time, naturalistic data. Participants were 133 women with bulimia nervosa (BN) according to the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders who completed a 2-week ecological momentary assessment protocol in which they recorded bulimic behaviors and provided multiple daily ratings of NA. A multilevel autoregressive cross-lagged analysis was conducted to examine concurrent, first-order autoregressive, and prospective associations between NA, binge eating, and purging across the day. Results revealed positive concurrent associations between all variables across all time points, as well as numerous autoregressive associations. For prospective associations, higher NA predicted subsequent bulimic symptoms at multiple time points; conversely, binge eating predicted lower NA at multiple time points, and purging predicted higher NA at 1 time point. Several autoregressive and prospective associations were also found between binge eating and purging. This study used a novel approach to examine NA in relation to bulimic symptoms, contributing to the existing literature by directly examining the magnitude of the associations, examining differences in the associations across the day, and controlling for other associations in testing each effect in the model. These findings may have relevance for understanding the etiology and/or maintenance of bulimic symptoms, as well as potentially informing psychological interventions for BN. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Leikas, S.; Ilmarinen, V. J. (2016): Happy now, tired later? Extraverted and Conscientious behavior are related to immediate mood gains, but to later fatigue. In: Journal of personality. DOI: 10.1111/jopy.12264.

Abstract:

AIM: Experience-sampling studies on Big Five-related behavior show that people display the whole spectrum of each trait in their daily behavior, and that desirable Big Five states – especially state Extraversion – are related to positive mood. However, other research lines suggest that extraverted and conscientious behavior may be mentally depleting. The present research examined this possibility by extending the time frame of the measured personality processes. METHOD: A 12-day experience-sampling study (N = 48, No. of observations = 2328) measuring Big Five states, mood, stress, and fatigue five times a day. RESULTS: Extraverted and conscientious behavior were concurrently related to positive mood and lower fatigue, but to higher fatigue after a 3-hour delay. These relations were not moderated by personality traits. The relation between extraverted behavior and delayed fatigue was mediated by the number of people the person had encountered. Whether the person had a goal mediated the relation between conscientious behavior and delayed fatigue. CONCLUSION: Extraverted and conscientious behavior predict mental depletion after a 3-hour delay. The results help reconcile previous findings regarding the consequences of state extraversion, and provide novel information about the consequences of state conscientiousness. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

 

Lennarz, Hannah K.; van Roekel, Eeske; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Hollenstein, Tom; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Granic, Isabela (2016): Associations between interpersonal relationships and negative affect in adolescents: An experience sampling study on the role of trait coping. In: Swiss Journal of Psychology 75 (2), S. 71–79. DOI: 10.1024/1421-0185/a000172.

Abstract:

Previous studies focused mostly on predicting the adjustment of adolescents based on distinct coping strategies. However, people generally do not use only one coping strategy, but rather select from a repertoire of coping strategies. This study aimed to identify these repertoires by categorizing adolescents by the coping strategies they use and by examining whether these typologies moderate the well-established relationship between negative affect and interpersonal relationships (e.g., close, acquaintances, alone). The experience sampling method (ESM) was used to assess negative affect and the interpersonal relationships of 280 adolescents (Mage = 14.19, SDage = .54; 59% girls) at nine randomly chosen times on six consecutive days. Coping strategies were measured with a questionnaire prior to ESM. Latent profile analysis revealed two profiles: passive copers and active copers. Furthermore, all participants reported less negative affect when they were with people with whom they had close interpersonal relationships (family and friends) than when they were with acquaintances (class or teammates) or alone. No moderation of coping typologies was revealed. The results underscore the importance of close interpersonal relationships to buffer against negative affect during adolescence and support the notion that the relationship between negative affect and close interpersonal relationships is strong, as it is not moderated by the method used to deal with negative events. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Liao, Yue; Skelton, Kara; Dunton, Genevieve; Bruening, Meg (2016): A Systematic Review of Methods and Procedures Used in Ecological Momentary Assessments of Diet and Physical Activity Research in Youth: An Adapted STROBE Checklist for Reporting EMA Studies (CREMAS). In: Journal of medical Internet research 18 (6), S. e151. DOI: 10.2196/jmir.4954.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is a method of collecting real-time data based on careful timing, repeated measures, and observations that take place in a participant’s typical environment. Due to methodological advantages and rapid advancement in mobile technologies in recent years, more studies have adopted EMA in addressing topics of nutrition and physical activity in youth. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review is to describe EMA methodology that has been used in studies addressing nutrition and physical activity in youth and provide a comprehensive checklist for reporting EMA studies. METHODS: Thirteen studies were reviewed and analyzed for the following 5 areas of EMA methodology: (1) sampling and measures, (2) schedule, (3) technology and administration, (4) prompting strategy, and (5) response and compliance. RESULTS: Results of this review showed a wide variability in the design and reporting of EMA studies in nutrition and physical activity among youth. The majority of studies (69%) monitored their participants during one period of time, although the monitoring period ranged from 4 to 14 days, and EMA surveys ranged from 2 to 68 times per day. More than half (54%) of the studies employed some type of electronic technology. Most (85%) of the studies used interval-contingent prompting strategy. For studies that utilized electronic devices with interval-contingent prompting strategy, none reported the actual number of EMA prompts received by participants out of the intended number of prompts. About half (46%) of the studies failed to report information about EMA compliance rates. For those who reported, compliance rates ranged from 44-96%, with an average of 71%. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this review suggest that in order to identify best practices for EMA methodology in nutrition and physical activity research among youth, more standardized EMA reporting is needed. Missing the key information about EMA design features and participant compliance might lead to misinterpretation of results. Future nutrition and physical activity EMA studies need to be more rigorous and thorough in descriptions of methodology and results. A reporting checklist was developed with the goal of enhancing reliability, efficacy, and overall interpretation of the findings for future studies that use EMAs.

 

Lopez, R. B.; Milyavskaya, M.; Hofmann, W.; Heatherton, T. F. (2016): Motivational and neural correlates of self-control of eating: A combined neuroimaging and experience sampling study in dieting female college students. In: Appetite 103, S. 192–199. DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.03.027.

Abstract:

Self-regulation is a critical ability for maintaining a wide range of health behaviors, especially in preventing overeating and weight gain. Previous work has identified various threats to self-control in the eating domain, chief among which are desire strength and negative affect. In the present study, we examined individual differences in college-aged dieters’ experiences of these threats as they encountered temptations to eat in their daily lives, and tested whether these differences characterized sub-groups of dieters with divergent self-control outcomes. Specifically, 75 dieting females (age range: 18-23) participated in a combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and experience sampling study. Participants passively viewed food cues during a fMRI session, and then reported their daily eating behaviors for one week via ecological momentary assessment. We examined the characteristics of dieters who exhibited the most favorable combination of the aforementioned factors (i.e., low desire strength and positive mood) and who were thus most successful at regulating their eating. These dieters endorsed more autonomous reasons for their self-regulatory goals, and during the food cue reactivity task more readily recruited the inferior frontal gyrus, a brain region associated with inhibitory control. We suggest that these motivational and neural correlates may also be implicated in self-regulation of other important health behaviors.

 

Lorussi, Federico; Carbonaro, Nicola; Rossi, Danilo de; Paradiso, Rita; Veltink, Peter; Tognetti, Alessandro (2016): Wearable Textile Platform for Assessing Stroke Patient Treatment in Daily Life Conditions. In: Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology 4, S. 28. DOI: 10.3389/fbioe.2016.00028.

Abstract:

Monitoring physical activities during post-stroke rehabilitation in daily life may help physicians to optimize and tailor the training program for patients. The European research project INTERACTION (FP7-ICT-2011-7-287351) evaluated motor capabilities in stroke patients during the recovery treatment period. We developed wearable sensing platform based on the sensor fusion among inertial, knitted piezoresistive sensors and textile EMG electrodes. The device was conceived in modular form and consists of a separate shirt, trousers, glove, and shoe. Thanks to the novel fusion approach it has been possible to develop a model for the shoulder taking into account the scapulo-thoracic joint of the scapular girdle, considerably improving the estimation of the hand position in reaching activities. In order to minimize the sensor set used to monitor gait, a single inertial sensor fused with a textile goniometer proved to reconstruct the orientation of all the body segments of the leg. Finally, the sensing glove, endowed with three textile goniometers and three force sensors showed good capabilities in the reconstruction of grasping activities and evaluating the interaction of the hand with the environment, according to the project specifications. This paper reports on the design and the technical evaluation of the performance of the sensing platform, tested on healthy subjects.

 

Luong, Gloria; Wrzus, Cornelia; Wagner, Gert G.; Riediger, Michaela (2016): When bad moods may not be so bad: Valuing negative affect is associated with weakened affect–health links. In: Emotion 16 (3), S. 387–401. DOI: 10.1037/emo0000132.

Abstract:

Bad moods are considered “bad” not only because they may be aversive experiences in and of themselves, but also because they are associated with poorer psychosocial functioning and health. We propose that people differ in their negative affect valuation (NAV; the extent to which negative affective states are valued as pleasant, useful/helpful, appropriate, and meaningful experiences) and that affect–health links are moderated by NAV. These predictions were tested in a life span sample of 365 participants ranging from 14–88 years of age using reports of momentary negative affect and physical well-being (via experience sampling) and assessments of NAV and psychosocial and physical functioning (via computer-assisted personal interviews and behavioral measures of hand grip strength). Our study demonstrated that the more individuals valued negative affect, the less pronounced (and sometimes even nonexistent) were the associations between everyday experiences of negative affect and a variety of indicators of poorer psychosocial functioning (i.e., emotional health problems, social integration) and physical health (i.e., number of health conditions, health complaints, hand grip strength, momentary physical well-being). Exploratory analyses revealed that valuing positive affect was not associated with the analogous moderating effects as NAV. These findings suggest that it may be particularly important to consider NAV in models of affect–health links. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Lydon, D. M.; Ram, N.; Conroy, D. E.; Pincus, A. L.; Geier, C. F.; Maggs, J. L. (2016): The within-person association between alcohol use and sleep duration and quality in situ: An experience sampling study. In: Addictive Behaviors 61, S. 68–73. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2016.05.018.

Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: Despite evidence for detrimental effects of alcohol on sleep quality in laboratory studies, alcohol is commonly used as a self-prescribed sleep aid. This study examined the within-person associations of alcohol use with sleep duration and quality in everyday life to gain insight into the ecological validity of laboratory findings on the association between sleep and alcohol. METHOD: A sample of 150 adults (age 19-89years) were followed for 60+days as part of an intensive experience sampling study wherein participants provided daily reports of their alcohol use, sleep duration, and sleep quality. Within-person and between-person associations of daily sleep duration and quality with alcohol use were examined using multilevel models. RESULTS: A significant, negative within-person association was observed between sleep quality and alcohol use. Sleep quality was lower on nights following alcohol use. Sleep duration did not vary as a function of within-person variation in alcohol use. CONCLUSIONS: In line with laboratory assessments, alcohol use was associated with low sleep quality but was not associated with sleep duration, suggesting that laboratory findings generalize to everyday life. This examination of individuals’ daily lives suggests that alcohol does not systematically improve sleep quality or duration in real life.

 

McAuliffe, Alan; McGann, Marek (2016): Sampling Participants’ Experience in Laboratory Experiments: Complementary Challenges for More Complete Data Collection. In: Frontiers in psychology 7, S. 674. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00674.

Abstract:

Speelman and McGann’s (2013) examination of the uncritical way in which the mean is often used in psychological research raises questions both about the average’s reliability and its validity. In the present paper, we argue that interrogating the validity of the mean involves, amongst other things, a better understanding of the person’s experiences, the meaning of their actions, at the time that the behavior of interest is carried out. Recently emerging approaches within Psychology and Cognitive Science have argued strongly that experience should play a more central role in our examination of behavioral data, but the relationship between experience and behavior remains very poorly understood. We outline some of the history of the science on this fraught relationship, as well as arguing that contemporary methods for studying experience fall into one of two categories. “Wide” approaches tend to incorporate naturalistic behavior settings, but sacrifice accuracy and reliability in behavioral measurement. “Narrow” approaches maintain controlled measurement of behavior, but involve too specific a sampling of experience, which obscures crucial temporal characteristics. We therefore argue for a novel, mid-range sampling technique, that extends Hurlburt’s descriptive experience sampling, and adapts it for the controlled setting of the laboratory. This controlled descriptive experience sampling may be an appropriate tool to help calibrate both the mean and the meaning of an experimental situation with one another.

 

Mehta, Clare M.; Dementieva, Yulia (2016): The contextual specificity of gender: Femininity and masculinity in college students’ same- and other-gender peer contexts. In: Sex Roles. DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0632-z.

Abstract:

Social constructivist models of gender suggest that gendered attitudes and behaviors, such as femininity and masculinity, are context-dependent (Deaux and Major 1987). If this is the case, femininity and masculinity may be better conceptualized as variable states rather than as stable traits. In the present study, we used Ecological Momentary Assessment to investigate variations in femininity and masculinity according to the gender of peers in female and male college students’ real-life social contexts. Cisgender participants were recruited from a small liberal arts college in the northeastern region of the United States. Sixteen female and 11 male college students (M age = 20) contributed 448 reports documenting their social context and femininity and masculinity over a 2-week period. We found that men reported greater femininity on a momentary version of the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) when they were with women in comparison to when they were with men. We also found that both women and men reported greater masculinity on a momentary version of the BSRI when they were with men in comparison to when they were with women. Our findings lend empirical support to social constructivist models of gender and highlight the importance of investigating how interpersonal contexts contribute to gender-typed attitudes and behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Mehta, Clare M.; Walls, Courtney; Scherer, Emily A.; Feldman, Henry A.; Shrier, Lydia A. (2016): Daily affect and intimacy in emerging adult couples. In: Journal of Adult Development 23 (2), S. 101–110. DOI: 10.1007/s10804-016-9226-9.

Abstract:

We investigated individual- and couple-level associations between daily intimacy and affective states (N = 2211 observations) in 20 heterosexual emerging adult couples (age 18–25 years, M = 23) who had been in a sexual relationship with one another for at least 3 weeks (M = 12 months). Individual analyses revealed that emerging adults’ feelings of intimacy varied from day to day and that there were no gender differences in daily intimacy. Affect and intimacy were positively associated within day for women, but not for men. Time-lagged individual-level analyses revealed that prior-day positive or negative affect did not predict present-day intimacy for men or women. However, prior-day intimacy positively predicted present-day positive affect in men and negatively predicted present-day negative affect in women. Time-lagged couple-level analyses revealed that men’s prior-day positive affect positively predicted their female partner’s present-day intimacy. Women’s prior-day intimacy negatively predicted their male partner’s present-day negative affect. Implications of the day-to-day associations of intimacy with positive and negative affect within emerging adult couples are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Moore, Raeanne C.; Depp, Colin A.; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Lenze, Eric J. (2016): Ecological momentary assessment versus standard assessment instruments for measuring mindfulness, depressed mood, and anxiety among older adults. In: Journal of Psychiatric Research 75, S. 116–123. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2016.01.011.

Abstract:

As mobile data capture tools for patient-reported outcomes proliferate in clinical research, a key dimension of measure performance is sensitivity to change. This study compared performance of patient-reported measures of mindfulness, depression, and anxiety symptoms using traditional paper-and-pencil forms versus real-time, ambulatory measurement of symptoms via ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Sixty-seven emotionally distressed older adults completed paper-and-pencil measures of mindfulness, depression, and anxiety along with two weeks of identical items reported during ambulatory monitoring via EMA before and after participation in a randomized trial of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) or a health education intervention. We calculated effect sizes for these measures across both measurement approaches and estimated the Number-Needed-to-Treat (NNT) in both measurement conditions. Study outcomes greatly differed depending on which measurement method was used. When EMA was used to measure clinical symptoms, older adults who participated in the MBSR intervention had significantly higher mindfulness and significantly lower depression and anxiety than participants in the health education intervention at post-treatment. However, these significant changes in symptoms were not found when outcomes were measured with paper-and-pencil measures. The NNT for mindfulness and depression measures administered through EMA were approximately 25–50% lower than NNTs derived from paper-and-pencil administration. Sensitivity to change in anxiety was similar across administration modes. In conclusion, EMA measures of depression and mindfulness substantially outperformed paper-and-pencil measures with the same items. The additional resources associated with EMA in clinical trials would seem to be offset by its greater sensitivity to detect change in key outcome variables. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Mulligan, Lee D.; Haddock, Gillian; Emsley, Richard; Neil, Sandra T.; Kyle, Simon D. (2016): High Resolution Examination of the Role of Sleep Disturbance in Predicting Functioning and Psychotic Symptoms in Schizophrenia: A Novel Experience Sampling Study. In: Journal of abnormal psychology. DOI: 10.1037/abn0000180.

Abstract:

Sleep disturbance is common in schizophrenia, but its role in predicting functioning and psychotic symptoms has yet to be rigorously examined. The purpose of this study was to conduct a prospective, high-resolution examination of the relationship between nightly sleep and next-day functioning and psychotic symptoms in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Experience sampling methodology was integrated with actigraphy and sleep diaries across 7 days in 22 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Momentary assessments of mood, psychotic symptoms, and functioning were gathered at 5 points each day following pseudorandom schedules. Multilevel modeling was performed to evaluate the links between variables. Objective and subjective sleep disturbance predicted reduced next-day functioning, which remained significant after controlling for psychotic symptom severity. Increased sleep fragmentation and reduced subjective and objective sleep efficiency predicted greater next-day auditory hallucinations, whereas increased objective sleep fragmentation and reduced subjective sleep quality predicted greater paranoia and delusions of control. Negative affect on awakening mediated a proportion of these relationships (range: 17.9–57.3%). For the first time, we show that sleep disturbance is a predictor of next-day impaired functioning and psychotic symptom severity in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Therefore, interventions targeting sleep may have the potential to directly and indirectly enhance functional and symptomatic recovery in those experiencing psychosis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Myin-Germeys, I.; Klippel, A.; Steinhart, H.; Reininghaus, U. (2016): Ecological momentary interventions in psychiatry. In: Current opinion in psychiatry 29 (4), S. 258–263. DOI: 10.1097/YCO.0000000000000255.

Abstract:

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we discuss feasibility, content, and where possible efficacy of ecological momentary interventions (EMIs) in psychiatry. EMIs adopt mobile devices, such as personal digital assistants or smartphones, for the delivery of treatments in the daily life of patients. We will discuss EMIs in the field of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression disorder, as well as one generic, transdiagnostic EMI. RECENT FINDINGS: The few studies that are available all underscore feasibility and acceptability of mobile health approaches in patients with severe mental illness. In terms of content, there is a huge variety in approaches ranging from a mixture of face-to-face contacts augmented with EMI components to a fully automated EMI. With regard to efficacy, only two randomized clinical trials have been conducted, supporting the efficacy of EMIs in mental health. Evidence seems to point toward greater efficacy when EMI is integrated with real-life assessment using experience sampling methodology, preferentially tailoring the intervention toward the specific needs of the individual as well as toward those moments when intervention is needed. SUMMARY: The review demonstrates that mobile health may be an important asset to the mental health field but underscores that it still is in its very early ages. In the discussion, we point toward ways of improving EMIs for severe mental illness, changing our perspective from testing feasibility to testing efficacy and ultimately implementing EMIs in routine mental health services.

 

Niermann, C. Y.; Herrmann, C.; Haaren, B. von; van Kann, D.; Woll, A. (2016): Affect and Subsequent Physical Activity: An Ambulatory Assessment Study Examining the Affect-Activity Association in a Real-Life Context. In: Frontiers in psychology 7, S. 677. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00677.

Abstract:

Traditionally, cognitive, motivational, and volitional determinants have been used to explain and predict health behaviors such as physical activity. Recently, the role of affect in influencing and regulating health behaviors received more attention. Affects as internal cues may automatically activate unconscious processes of behavior regulation. The aim of our study was to examine the association between affect and physical activity in daily life. In addition, we studied the influence of the habit of being physically active on this relationship. An ambulatory assessment study in 89 persons (33.7% male, 25 to 65 years, M = 45.2, SD = 8.1) was conducted. Affect was assessed in the afternoon on 5 weekdays using smartphones. Physical activity was measured continuously objectively using accelerometers and subjectively using smartphones in the evening. Habit strength was assessed at the beginning of the diary period. The outcomes were objectively and subjectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) performed after work. Multilevel regression models were used to analyze the association between affect and after work MVPA. In addition, the cross-level interaction of habit strength and affect on after work MVPA was tested. Positive affect was positively related to objectively measured and self-reported after work MVPA: the greater the positive affect the more time persons subsequently spent on MVPA. An inverse relationship was found for negative affect: the greater the negative affect the less time persons spent on MVPA. The cross-level interaction effect was significant only for objectively measured MVPA. A strong habit seems to strengthen both the positive influence of positive affect and the negative influence of negative affect. The results of this study confirm previous results and indicate that affect plays an important role for the regulation of physical activity behavior in daily life. The results for positive affect were consistent. However, in contrast to previous reports of no or an inverse association, negative affect decreased subsequent MVPA. These inconsistencies may be-in part-explained by the different measurements of affect in our and other studies. Therefore, further research is warranted to gain more insight into the association between affect and physical activity.

 

O’Reilly-Shah, V.; Mackey, S. (2016): Survalytics: An Open-Source Cloud-Integrated Experience Sampling, Survey, and Analytics and Metadata Collection Module for Android Operating System Apps. In: JMIR mHealth and uHealth 4 (2), S. e46. DOI: 10.2196/mhealth.5397.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: We describe here Survalytics, a software module designed to address two broad areas of need. The first area is in the domain of surveys and app analytics: developers of mobile apps in both academic and commercial environments require information about their users, as well as how the apps are being used, to understand who their users are and how to optimally approach app development. The second area of need is in the field of ecological momentary assessment, also referred to as experience sampling: researchers in a wide variety of fields, spanning from the social sciences to psychology to clinical medicine, would like to be able to capture daily or even more frequent data from research subjects while in their natural environment. OBJECTIVE: Survalytics is an open-source solution for the collection of survey responses as well as arbitrary analytic metadata from users of Android operating system apps. METHODS: Surveys may be administered in any combination of one-time questions and ongoing questions. The module may be deployed as a stand-alone app for experience sampling purposes or as an add-on to existing apps. The module takes advantage of free-tier NoSQL cloud database management offered by the Amazon Web Services DynamoDB platform to package a secure, flexible, extensible data collection module. DynamoDB is capable of Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant storage of personal health information. RESULTS: The provided example app may be used without modification for a basic experience sampling project, and we provide example questions for daily collection of blood glucose data from study subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The module will help researchers in a wide variety of fields rapidly develop tailor-made Android apps for a variety of data collection purposes.

 

Pearson, Carolyn M.; Pisetsky, Emily M.; Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Lavender, Jason M.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Crosby, Ross D. et al. (2016): Personality psychopathology differentiates risky behaviors among women with bulimia nervosa. In: International Journal of Eating Disorders. DOI: 10.1002/eat.22570.

Abstract:

Objective Individuals with bulimia nervosa (BN) frequently endorse risky behaviors such as self‐harm and substance use. However, no studies of BN to date have examined factors associated with engaging in individual or co‐occurring risky behaviors. Given that individuals with BN often have personality psychopathology, which has been linked to symptoms and course of illness, this study sought to examine how personality may differentiate engagement in risky behaviors among BN individuals. Method A sample of 133 women with BN completed self‐report measures of personality psychopathology at baseline, and then reported on bulimic and risky behaviors (e.g., substance misuse, self‐harm) over 2 weeks using ecological momentary assessment. A series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the unique associations between state‐level predictor variables (each risky behavior, e.g., substance misuse, and combination of risky behaviors, e.g., substance misuse plus self‐harm) and trait‐level personality constructs. Results Substance misuse behavior, above and beyond all other risky behaviors, was significantly associated with higher scores on trait dissocial behavior (P = 0.004). Discussion Substance misuse in BN has a unique association with dissocial behavior, a personality trait characterized by hostility, impulsivity, and entitlement. These results suggest that targeting personality variables may help facilitate more effective treatment of risky behaviors, including substance use in BN. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Pearson, Jennifer L.; Smiley, Sabrina L.; Rubin, Leslie F.; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew; Elmasry, Hoda; Davis, Megan et al. (2016): The Moment Study: protocol for a mixed method observational cohort study of the Alternative Nicotine Delivery Systems (ANDS) initiation process among adult cigarette smokers. In: BMJ open 6 (4), S. e011717. DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-011717.

Abstract:

INTRODUCTION: Alternative Nicotine Delivery Systems (ANDS) such as e-cigarettes are battery-powered devices that aerosolize nicotine and other substances to simulate smoking without using tobacco. Little is known about the ANDS initiation process among adult smokers. The aims of this research are threefold to: (1) examine how ANDS use affects cigarette use; (2) examine how the immediate environmental and psychosocial contexts of cigarette and ANDS use vary within-and between-participants in general and by menthol preference and race; and, (3) examine participants’ ‘lived experience’ of the subjective perceptions, meaning, influences and utility of cigarette and ANDS use. METHODS AND ANALYSES: This study’s mixed method, 6-week longitudinal design will produce a detailed description of the ANDS initiation process among adult smokers (N=100). Qualitative and quantitative data collection will include 3 weeks of: (1) ecological momentary assessment of patterns of cigarette/ANDS use, satisfaction, mood and craving; (2) geospatial assessment of participants’ environment, including indoor and outdoor cigarette/ANDS norms and rules; (3) in-depth interviews about the meaning and utility of cigarette smoking and ANDS use; and, (4) saliva cotinine and exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) biomarkers. A diverse sample will be recruited with an equal number of menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers. As the primary independent variable, we will investigate how ANDS use affects cigarette consumption. We will also examine how smoking-related and ANDS-related rules and norms surrounding product use influence cigarette and ANDS product use, and how the subjective effects of ANDS use affect ANDS perceptions, beliefs and use. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the US National Institutes of Health (1R21DA036472), registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02261363), and approved by the Chesapeake IRB (Pro00008526). Findings will be disseminated to the scientific and lay community through presentations, reports and scientific publications. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02261363; Pre-results.

 

Pemberton, Rachel; Fuller Tyszkiewicz, Matthew D. (2016): Factors contributing to depressive mood states in everyday life: A systematic review. In: Journal of affective disorders 200, S. 103–110. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2016.04.023.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Although accumulated evidence suggests that fluctuations in depressed mood are common among individuals with depression, and may be associated with onset, duration, and severity of illness, a systematic appraisal of putative predictors of depressed mood is lacking. METHODS: A systematic search for relevant studies in the literature was conducted using PsycInfo and PubMed databases via EbscoHost in February 2016. The search was limited to articles using the experience sampling method, an approach suitable for capturing in situ fluctuations in mood states. RESULTS: Forty-two studies met inclusion criteria for the review, from which three key risk factors (poor sleep, stress, and significant life events) and two protective factors (physical activity and quality of social interactions) were identified. The majority of papers supported concurrent and lagged associations between these putative protective/risk factors and depressed mood. LIMITATIONS: Despite support for each of the proposed protective/risk factors, few studies evaluated multiple factors in the same study. Moreover, the time course for the effects of these predictors on depressed mood remains largely unknown. CONCLUSIONS: The present review identified several putative risk and protective factors for depressed mood. A review of the literature suggests that poor sleep, negative social interactions, and stressful negative events may temporally precede spikes in depressed mood. In contrast, exercise and positive social interactions have been shown to predict subsequent declines in depressed mood. However, the lack of multivariate models in which the unique contributions of various predictors could be evaluated means that the current state of knowledge prevents firm conclusions about which factors are most predictive of depressed mood. More complex modeling of these effects is necessary in order to provide insights useful for clinical treatment in daily life of the depressed mood component of depressive disorders.

 

Piasecki, Thomas M.; Hedeker, Donald; Dierker, Lisa C.; Mermelstein, Robin J. (2016): Progression of nicotine dependence, mood level, and mood variability in adolescent smokers. In: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 30 (4), S. 484–493. DOI: 10.1037/adb0000165.

Abstract:

Mood processes are theorized to play a role in the initiation and progression of smoking behavior. Available work using real-time assessments in samples of young smokers, including several reports from the Social and Emotional Contexts of Adolescent Smoking Patterns (SECASP) study, has indicated that smoking events acutely improve mood and that escalating smoking frequency may stabilize mood. However, prior analyses have not specifically evaluated within-person change in nicotine dependence, which is conceptually distinguishable from frequent smoking and may be associated with unique mood consequences. The current investigation addressed this question using data from 329 adolescent SECASP participants (9th or 10th grade at recruitment) who contributed mood reports via ecological momentary assessment in up to four 1-week bursts over the course of 24 months. Mixed-effects location scale analyses revealed that within-person increases in scores on the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale were associated with elevations in negative mood level and increased variability of both positive and negative moods. These effects remained when within-person changes in smoking frequency were covaried and were not fully attributable to a subgroup of youth who rapidly escalated their smoking frequency over time. The findings indicate that adolescents tend to show increasing levels of positive mood states, decreasing levels of negative mood, and diminishing mood variability between ages 16 to 18, but progression of nicotine dependence may counteract some of these developmental gains. Emergence of withdrawal symptoms is a likely explanation for the adverse mood effects associated with dependence progression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Pisetsky, Emily M.; Crosby, Ross D.; Cao, Li; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Mitchell, James E.; Engel, Scott G. et al. (2016): An examination of affect prior to and following episodes of getting drunk in women with bulimia nervosa. In: Psychiatry research 240, S. 202–208. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2016.04.044.

Abstract:

The current study examined the association between affect and self-reported alcohol intoxication in women with bulimia nervosa (BN; N=133). Participants completed a two-week ecological momentary assessment protocol. Momentary global positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA), as well as the facets of NA (fear, guilt, hostility and sadness), were measured. Forty-five participants endorsed that they “got drunk” during the study period. Daily mean and variability of global PA and NA were compared between days with self-reported alcohol intoxication and days without self-reported alcohol intoxication. Trajectories of affect were modeled prior to and following episodes of self-reported alcohol intoxication. There were no differences in the mean or variability of PA or NA on days characterized by self-reported alcohol intoxication compared to days with no self-reported alcohol intoxication (ps>0.05). PA decreased significantly prior to self-reported alcohol intoxication and remained stable afterwards. There were no changes in global NA before or after self-reported alcohol intoxication, but an examination of the facets of NA showed that sadness increased following episodes of self-reported alcohol intoxication. These findings showed only partial support for a negative reinforcement model of alcohol use in women with BN.

 

Pollock, Noah C.; McCabe, Gillian A.; Southard, Ashton C.; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil (2016): Pathological personality traits and emotion regulation difficulties. In: Personality and Individual Differences 95, S. 168–177. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2016.02.049.

Abstract:

The present research investigated associations between pathological personality traits and emotion regulation difficulties. Study 1 examined the associations between pathological personality traits and self-reported aspects of emotion dysregulation among 932 undergraduates. The results of Study 1 revealed associations between pathological personality traits and specific aspects of emotion dysregulation (e.g., antagonism was associated with impulse control difficulties and limited access to emotion regulation strategies). Study 2 was an experience-sampling study that explored the relationship between pathological personality traits and emotional reactivity to daily events for 350 undergraduates over the course of seven days. Key results from Study 2 showed that negative affectivity, detachment, and antagonism moderated individuals’ reactions to daily negative interpersonal events. The results of these studies suggest important connections between pathological personality traits and emotion regulation difficulties that may shed light on the interpersonal problems that often accompany personality pathology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Quilty, Lena C.; Watson, Chris; Toneatto, Tony; Bagby, R. Michael (2016): A Prospective Investigation of Affect, the Desire to Gamble, Gambling Motivations and Gambling Behavior in the Mood Disorders. In: Journal of gambling studies / co-sponsored by the National Council on Problem Gambling and Institute for the Study of Gambling and Commercial Gaming. DOI: 10.1007/s10899-016-9616-8.

Abstract:

Time-sampling methodology was implemented to examine the prospective associations between affect, desire to gamble, and gambling behavior in individuals diagnosed with a mood disorder. Thirty (9 male, 21 female) adults with a lifetime diagnosis of a depressive or bipolar disorder diagnosis who endorsed current gambling and lifetime gambling harm participated in the present study. Participants completed electronic diary entries of their current affective state, desire to gamble, and gambling behavior for 30 consecutive days. Hierarchical linear modelling revealed that affect was not a predictor of gambling behavior. Instead, affect predicted the desire to gamble, with high levels of sadness and arousal independently predicting an increased desire to gamble. Desire to gamble predicted actual gambling behavior. There were no differences across diagnostic groups in terms of gambling motivations at baseline; however, during the 30-day period, participants with bipolar disorder endorsed gambling to cope with negative affect more often than did participants with depressive disorder, whereas those with depressive disorder more often endorsed gambling for social reasons or enhancement of positive affect. The present findings provide evidence that negative affect is not directly related to actual gambling behavior, and suggest that affective states rather impact the desire to gamble.

 

Rauthmann, J. F.; Jones, A. B.; Sherman, R. A. (2016): Directionality of Person-Situation Transactions: Are There Spillovers Among and Between Situation Experiences And Personality States? In: Personality & social psychology bulletin 42 (7), S. 893–909. DOI: 10.1177/0146167216647360.

Abstract:

To elucidate temporal sequences among and between person and situation variables, this work examines cross-measurement spillovers between situation experiences S (on the Situational Eight DIAMONDS characteristics [Duty, Intellect, Adversity, Mating, pOsitivity, Negativity, Deception, Sociality]) and personality states P (on the Big Six HEXACO dimensions [Honesty/Humility, Emotionality, eXtraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Openness to Experience]) in experience sampling data. Multi-level modeling of lagged data at tn -1 and non-lagged data at tn grants the opportunity to examine (a) the stability (P –> P, S –> S), (b) cross-sectional associations (S <–> P), and (c) cross-lagged associations among and between situation experiences and personality states (S –> P, P –> S). Findings indicated that there were (a) moderate stability paths, (b) small to moderate cross-sectional paths, and (c) only very small cross-lagged paths (though the different situation characteristics and personality states showed differential tendencies toward no directionality, S –> P or P –> S unidirectionality, or bidirectionality). Findings are discussed in light of refining studies on dynamic person-situation transactions.

 

Reis, Dorota; Arndt, Charlotte; Lischetzke, Tanja; Hoppe, Annekatrin (2016): State work engagement and state affect: Similar yet distinct concepts. In: Journal of Vocational Behavior 93, S. 1–10. DOI: 10.1016/j.jvb.2015.12.004.

Abstract:

State work engagement (SWE), a multidimensional construct of work-related well-being, was originally conceptualized as a trait, but diary studies have revealed substantial within-person fluctuations. Given that SWE is conceptualized as a work-related affective-motivational construct, the question arises as to whether SWE can be differentiated from other affective constructs. Thus, the goal of the present study was to compare SWE and state affect with respect to their degree of within-person variability and to examine their distinct relationships with health and performance variables (i.e., sleep quality and job performance). Fifty-two employees (44% female) participated in the study, which included 3 assessments per day over the course of 2weeks. Our results revealed that energetic arousal and tense arousal fluctuated more strongly within days than vigor and absorption. Multilevel analyses demonstrated that high sleep quality predicted higher state affect but not higher SWE. In addition, vigor exhibited an inverted U-shaped relation with performance. In sum, SWE as a time-varying construct showed some overlap with state affect but also demonstrated discriminant validity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Richard, Erin M.; Converse, Patrick D. (2016): An examination of within-person variance in contextual display rules and deviation from display rules. In: European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology 25 (3), S. 412–429. DOI: 10.1080/1359432X.2015.1102133.

Abstract:

Contextual display rules refer to perceptions of the particular emotions that should be displayed in a specific set of circumstances. As such, it is important to examine within-person variance in such perceptions within the dynamic context of real-life organizations. To this end, experience sampling methodology was used to highlight within-person variance in display rules and examine event-level predictors of these contextual display rules. Thirty-nine university staff members were surveyed four times per day about their most recent interaction. Employee momentary affect (pleasantness and activation) and relationship with the interaction target (solidarity and relative power) were examined as predictors of both contextual display rule perceptions and deviation from those display rules. Pleasantness of affect related positively to the level of expression allowed by the display rule, whereas activation of affect and target solidarity related positively to deviation from display rules. Complex interactions were also found between the predictors, further highlighting the complexity of the emotional labour process. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Ridder, Jill de; Pihet, Sandrine; Suter, Maya; Caldara, Roberto (2016): Empathy in institutionalized adolescents with callous-unemotional traits: An ecological momentary assessment study of emotion recognition. In: Criminal Justice and Behavior 43 (5), S. 653–669. DOI: 10.1177/0093854815618431.

Abstract:

Callous-unemotional (CU) traits are associated with impaired distress recognition, possibly leading to suboptimal empathy development. Evidence stems from computerized task results, having little in common with day-to-day experiences. We assessed institutionalized adolescents’ empathic accuracy in their ability to infer staff members’ emotions, using Ecological Momentary Assessment. A sample of 55 adolescents reported perceived levels of distress and anger in staff, 4 times per day over the course of 8 days. CU traits were assessed with the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory, and data were submitted to multilevel regression analyses. All adolescents well identified anger and distress; high CU adolescents even overestimated both anger and distress intensities. Our ecological data suggest that in real-life situations, cognitive empathy skills may compensate for high CU adolescents’ distress recognition impairment. However, this compensatory process results in the perception of excessively negative emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Rowe, Christopher; Hern, Jaclyn; DeMartini, Anna; Jennings, Danielle; Sommers, Mathew; Walker, John; Santos, Glenn-Milo (2016): Concordance of Text Message Ecological Momentary Assessment and Retrospective Survey Data Among Substance-Using Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial. In: JMIR mHealth and uHealth 4 (2), S. e44. DOI: 10.2196/mhealth.5368.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Alcohol and illicit drug use is more prevalent among men who have sex with men (MSM) compared to the general population and has been linked to HIV transmission in this population. Research assessing individual patterns of substance use often utilizes questionnaires or interviews that rely on retrospective self-reported information, which can be subject to recall bias. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is a set of methods developed to mitigate recall bias by collecting data about subjects’ mental states and behaviors on a near real-time basis. EMA remains underutilized in substance use and HIV research. OBJECTIVE: To assess the concordance between daily reports of substance use collected by EMA text messages (short message service, SMS) and retrospective questionnaires and identify predictors of daily concordance in a sample of MSM. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of EMA text responses (regarding behavior on the previous day) and audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) survey data (14-day recall) from June 2013 to September 2014 as part of a randomized controlled trial assessing a pharmacologic intervention to reduce methamphetamine and alcohol use among nondependent MSM in San Francisco, California. Reports of daily methamphetamine use, alcohol use, and binge alcohol use (5 or more drinks on one occasion) were collected via EMA and ACASI and compared using McNemar’s tests. Demographic and behavioral correlates of daily concordance between EMA and ACASI were assessed for each substance, using separate multivariable logistic regression models, fit with generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: Among 30 MSM, a total of 994 days were included in the analysis for methamphetamine use, 987 for alcohol use, and 981 for binge alcohol use. Methamphetamine (EMA 20%, ACASI 11%, P<.001) and alcohol use (EMA 40%, ACASI 35%, P=.001) were reported significantly more frequently via EMA versus ACASI. In multivariable analysis, text reporting of methamphetamine (adjusted odds ratio 0.06, 95% CI 0.04-0.10), alcohol (0.48, 0.33-0.69), and binge alcohol use (0.27, 0.17-0.42) was negatively associated with daily concordance in the reporting of each respective substance. Compared to white participants, African American participants were less likely to have daily concordance in methamphetamine (0.15, 0.05-0.43) and alcohol (0.2, 0.05-0.54) reporting, and other participants of color (ie, Asian, Hispanic, multi-racial) were less likely to have daily concordance in methamphetamine reporting (0.34, 0.12-1.00). College graduates were more likely to have daily concordance in methamphetamine reporting (6.79, 1.84-25.04) compared to those with no college experience. CONCLUSIONS: We found that methamphetamine and alcohol use were reported more frequently with daily EMA texts compared to retrospective ACASI, concordance varied among different racial/ethnic subgroups and education levels, and reported substance use by EMA text was associated with lower daily concordance with retrospective ACASI. These findings suggest that EMA methods may provide more complete reporting of frequent, discrete behaviors such as substance use.

 

Ruscio, Aimee C.; Muench, Christine; Brede, Emily; MacIntyre, Jessica; Waters, Andrew J. (2016): Administration and assessment of brief mindfulness practice in the field: A feasibility study using ecological momentary assessment. In: Mindfulness. DOI: 10.1007/s12671-016-0538-4.

Abstract:

Measuring the construct, component processes, and practice of mindfulness remains challenging. This ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study was a pilot parallel group randomized controlled trial of a brief mindfulness practice (Brief-MP) intervention on self-reported mindfulness and performance-based cognition. Adult community smokers were randomly assigned to a Brief-MP or Control (sham meditation) group. Participants carried a personal digital assistant (PDA) for 2 weeks and were instructed to initiate 20 min of meditation (or control) training on the PDA daily, and to complete an assessment of mindfulness and cognition immediately afterwards. Additionally, participants completed assessments at random times up to four times per day. Primary outcome variables were feasibility and acceptability, state and trait mindfulness, a decentered perspective to depressive stimuli, and attentional bias to smoking stimuli. Thirty-seven participants provided EMA data totaling 1874 assessments. Fifteen of 18 Brief-MP participants completed over 75 % of mindfulness trainings in the field. The majority of Brief-MP participants endorsed favorable descriptions of the intervention: “acceptable,” and “willing to recommend to a friend”. Linear Mixed Model analyses on EMA data revealed that, over time, Brief-MP (vs. Control) increased self-reported Curiosity and Decentering assessed by the Toronto Mindfulness Scale. Brief-MP did not change trait mindfulness or cognition. In sum, Brief-MP administered in the field was acceptable and increased state mindfulness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Sagar, K. A.; Dahlgren, M. K.; Racine, M. T.; Dreman, M. W.; Olson, D. P.; Gruber, S. A. (2016): Joint Effects: A Pilot Investigation of the Impact of Bipolar Disorder and Marijuana Use on Cognitive Function and Mood. In: PloS one 11 (6), S. e0157060. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0157060.

Abstract:

Marijuana is the most widely used illicit substance in those diagnosed with bipolar I disorder. However, there is conflicting evidence as to whether marijuana may alleviate or exacerbate mood symptomatology. As bipolar disorder and marijuana use are individually associated with cognitive impairment, it also remains unclear whether there is an additive effect on cognition when bipolar patients use marijuana. The current study aimed to determine the impact of marijuana on mood in bipolar patients and to examine whether marijuana confers an additional negative impact on cognitive function. Twelve patients with bipolar disorder who smoke marijuana (MJBP), 18 bipolar patients who do not smoke (BP), 23 marijuana smokers without other Axis 1 pathology (MJ), and 21 healthy controls (HC) completed a neuropsychological battery. Further, using ecological momentary assessment, participants rated their mood three times daily as well as after each instance of marijuana use over a four-week period. Results revealed that although the MJ, BP, and MJBP groups each exhibited some degree of cognitive impairment relative to HCs, no significant differences between the BP and MJBP groups were apparent, providing no evidence of an additive negative impact of BPD and MJ use on cognition. Additionally, ecological momentary assessment analyses indicated alleviation of mood symptoms in the MJBP group after marijuana use; MJBP participants experienced a substantial decrease in a composite measure of mood symptoms. Findings suggest that for some bipolar patients, marijuana may result in partial alleviation of clinical symptoms. Moreover, this improvement is not at the expense of additional cognitive impairment.

 

Sallis, James F.; Cerin, Ester; Conway, Terry L.; Adams, Marc A.; Frank, Lawrence D.; Pratt, Michael et al. (2016): Physical activity in relation to urban environments in 14 cities worldwide: a cross-sectional study. In: Lancet (London, England) 387 (10034), S. 2207–2217. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)01284-2.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is a global pandemic responsible for over 5 million deaths annually through its effects on multiple non-communicable diseases. We aimed to document how objectively measured attributes of the urban environment are related to objectively measured physical activity, in an international sample of adults. METHODS: We based our analyses on the International Physical activity and Environment Network (IPEN) adult study, which was a coordinated, international, cross-sectional study. Participants were sampled from neighbourhoods with varied levels of walkability and socioeconomic status. The present analyses of data from the IPEN adult study included 6822 adults aged 18-66 years from 14 cities in ten countries on five continents. Indicators of walkability, public transport access, and park access were assessed in 1.0 km and 0.5 km street network buffers around each participant’s residential address with geographic information systems. Mean daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity were measured with 4-7 days of accelerometer monitoring. Associations between environmental attributes and physical activity were estimated using generalised additive mixed models with gamma variance and logarithmic link functions. RESULTS: Four of six environmental attributes were significantly, positively, and linearly related to physical activity in the single variable models: net residential density (exp[b] 1.006 [95% CI 1.003-1.009]; p=0.001), intersection density (1.069 [1.011-1.130]; p=0.019), public transport density (1.037 [1.018-1.056]; p=0.0007), and number of parks (1.146 [1.033-1.272]; p=0.010). Mixed land use and distance to nearest public transport point were not related to physical activity. The difference in physical activity between participants living in the most and least activity-friendly neighbourhoods ranged from 68 min/week to 89 min/week, which represents 45-59% of the 150 min/week recommended by guidelines. INTERPRETATION: Design of urban environments has the potential to contribute substantially to physical activity. Similarity of findings across cities suggests the promise of engaging urban planning, transportation, and parks sectors in efforts to reduce the health burden of the global physical inactivity pandemic. FUNDING: Funding for coordination of the IPEN adult study, including the present analysis, was provided by the National Cancer Institute of National Institutes of Health (CA127296) with studies in each country funded by different sources.

 

Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Moeller, Julia; Schneider, Barbara; Spicer, Justina; Lavonen, Jari (2016): Integrating the light and dark sides of student engagement using person-oriented and situation-specific approaches. In: Learning and Instruction 43, S. 61–70. DOI: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2016.01.001.

Abstract:

This study contributes to the research on student engagement in three ways: 1) by combining questionnaire and situational measures of engagement using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM), 2) by applying a demands-resources model to describe the positive and negative aspects of student engagement, and 3) by adopting a person-oriented approach to describe subgroups of students with different profiles of engagement and burnout symptoms. Two studies were conducted: sample one comprised 255 US high school students (45.5% female, 9th–12th grade), and sample two 188 Finnish comprehensive and high school students (59.6% female, 9th to 10th grade). Latent profile analyses (LPA) of person-level measures of schoolwork engagement and burnout in the US and Finland revealed four profiles: 1) engaged, 2) engaged-exhausted, 3) moderately burned out (risk for burnout) and 4) burned out. These four groups were identified in both samples, but differed in their prevalence. The groups differed in their state experiences of situational demands, resources and engagement at school. Engagement is not wholly an experience of ‘flourishing’: some students experienced elevated levels of both engagement and burnout. Thus, positive and negative aspects of engagement should be studied and modeled together. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Scherer, Emily A.; Huang, Lin; Shrier, Lydia A. (2016): Application of correlated time-to-event models to ecological momentary assessment data. In: Psychometrika. DOI: 10.1007/s11336-016-9495-z.

Abstract:

Ecological momentary assessment data consist of in-the-moment sampling several times per day aimed at capturing phenomena that are highly variable. When research questions are focused on the association between a construct measured repeatedly and an event that occurs sporadically over time interspersed between repeated measures, the data consist of correlated observed or censored times to an event. In such a case, specialized time-to-event models that account for correlated observations are required to properly assess the relationships under study. In the current study, we apply two time-to-event analysis techniques, proportional hazards, and accelerated failure time modeling, to data from a study of affective states and sexual behavior in depressed adolescents and illustrate differing interpretations from the models. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Schiepek, Gunter; Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Gruber, Martin; Strunk, Guido; Bachler, Egon; Aas, Benjamin (2016): Real-Time Monitoring of Psychotherapeutic Processes: Concept and Compliance. In: Frontiers in psychology 7, S. 604. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00604.

Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: The feasibility of a high-frequency real-time monitoring approach to psychotherapy is outlined and tested for patients’ compliance to evaluate its integration to everyday practice. Criteria concern the ecological momentary assessment, the assessment of therapy-related cognitions and emotions, equidistant time sampling, real-time nonlinear time series analysis, continuous participative process control by client and therapist, and the application of idiographic (person-specific) surveys. METHODS: The process-outcome monitoring is technically realized by an internet-based device for data collection and data analysis, the Synergetic Navigation System. Its feasibility is documented by a compliance study on 151 clients treated in an inpatient and a day-treatment clinic. RESULTS: We found high compliance rates (mean: 78.3%, median: 89.4%) amongst the respondents, independent of the severity of symptoms or the degree of impairment. Compared to other diagnoses, the compliance rate was lower in the group diagnosed with personality disorders. CONCLUSION: The results support the feasibility of high-frequency monitoring in routine psychotherapy settings. Daily collection of psychological surveys allows for the assessment of highly resolved, equidistant time series data which gives insight into the nonlinear qualities of therapeutic change processes (e.g., pattern transitions, critical instabilities).

 

Schlier, Bjorn; Moritz, Steffen; Lincoln, Tania M. (2016): Measuring fluctuations in paranoia: Validity and psychometric properties of brief state versions of the Paranoia Checklist. In: Psychiatry research 241, S. 323–332. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2016.05.002.

Abstract:

Research increasingly assesses momentary changes in paranoia in order to elucidate causal mechanisms. Observed or manipulated changes in postulated causal factors should result in fluctuations in state paranoid ideation. Previous studies often employed a state-adapted Paranoia Checklist (Freeman et al., 2005) to measure state paranoia. This study examined whether the Paranoia Checklist or subsets of its items are appropriate for this purpose. Thirteen studies (N=860) were subjected to meta-analyses of each Paranoia Checklist item. We selected items based on (1) whether they showed pre-to-post change in the expected direction and (2) whether this effect was larger in experimental vs. control conditions. All resulting item selections were cross-validated on a hold-out sample (n=1893). Finally, we explored how much variation in paranoia was captured by the state-adapted version in a brief ambulatory assessment study (N=32). A thirteen item State Paranoia Checklist as well as a five item and a three item Brief State Paranoia Checklist were extracted. Cross validation revealed better model fit and increased sensitivity to change. Multilevel analysis indicated 25-30% of the variance in the Brief State Paranoia Checklists to be due to intra-individual daily fluctuations in paranoia. Our analyses produced reliable and valid revised scales. Increases in change sensitivity indicate that future assessment of state paranoia in experimental and ambulatory assessment studies can be optimized by using the revised scales.

 

Schwerdtfeger, Andreas R.; Rathner, Eva-Maria (2016): The ecological validity of the autonomic-subjective response dissociation in repressive coping. In: Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal 29 (3), S. 241–258. DOI: 10.1080/10615806.2015.1048237.

Abstract:

Background and Objectives: Repressive coping has been associated with elevated cardiovascular reactivity and diminished self-reported negative affect (so-called autonomic-subjective response dissociation, ASRD) in response to laboratory stressors. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the ecological validity of this response pattern. Design: An ambulatory assessment strategy was applied in order to analyze associations between ASRD and repressive coping throughout a day. Methods: A sample of 114 individuals was recruited. Heart rate was recorded via ECG and subjective reports of negative affect as well as the experience of demand and control (as indicators of stress) and situational characteristics were assessed several times a day via mobile electronic devices. Results: Repressive coping relative to other coping dispositions was accompanied by elevated ASRD during stressful episodes in daily life, thus supporting previous laboratory research. Conclusions: The findings suggest that repressive coping is associated with a discrepancy between subjective reports of negative affect and autonomic responding to stressful encounters in everyday life, which might impact health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Seidel, Maria; Petermann, Juliane; Diestel, Stefan; Ritschel, Franziska; Boehm, Ilka; King, Joseph A. et al. (2016): A naturalistic examination of negative affect and disorder-related rumination in anorexia nervosa. In: European child & adolescent psychiatry. DOI: 10.1007/s00787-016-0844-3.

Abstract:

In anorexia nervosa (AN), volitional inhibition of rewarding behaviors, such as eating, involves a conflict between the desire to suppress appetite and the inherent motive to consume. This conflict is thought to have costs that carry over into daily life, e.g., triggering negative affect and/or recurring ruminations, which may ultimately impact long term outcome. Hence, increasing research effort is being dedicated to understand the link between emotional and ruminative processes in the etiology and maintenance of AN. We investigated whether affective states influence disorder-related rumination in AN applying “ecological momentary assessment”, a method which allows the experimenter to gain insight into psychological processes in the natural environment and assess data in real time. Participants (AN = 37, healthy controls = 33) were given a smartphone for 14 days. A ringtone signaled at six random time-points each day to fill in a questionnaire, which gauged disorder-typical thoughts about food and weight as well as affective state. Analyses, applying hierarchical linear models confirmed that AN patients spend more time thinking about food, body shape and weight than controls (p < 0.001). Additionally, the results support the hypothesis that momentary negative affect (but not baseline depression (p = 0.56) or anxiety symptoms (p = 0.60) are positively associated with a higher amount of disorder-related rumination in patients (p < 0.001). Our findings are in line with theories which claim that ruminative thinking induces a vulnerability to negative stimuli which, in turn, fosters heightened negative affect. Thus, therapeutic interventions could be improved by implementing modules that specifically target disorder-related rumination.

 

Seto, Edmund; Hua, Jenna; Wu, Lemuel; Shia, Victor; Eom, Sue; Wang, May; Li, Yan (2016): Models of individual dietary behavior based on smartphone data: The influence of routine, physical activity, emotion, and food environment. In: PloS one 11 (4).

Abstract:

Introduction: Smartphone applications (apps) facilitate the collection of data on multiple aspects of behavior that are useful for characterizing baseline patterns and for monitoring progress in interventions aimed at promoting healthier lifestyles. Individual-based models can be used to examine whether behavior, such as diet, corresponds to certain typological patterns. The objectives of this paper are to demonstrate individual-based modeling methods relevant to a person’s eating behavior, and the value of such approach compared to typical regression models. Method: Using a mobile app, 2 weeks of physical activity and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) data, and 6 days of diet data were collected from 12 university students recruited from a university in Kunming, a rapidly developing city in southwest China. Phone GPS data were collected for the entire 2-week period, from which exposure to various food environments along each subject’s activity space was determined. Physical activity was measured using phone accelerometry. Mobile phone EMA was used to assess self-reported emotion/feelings. The portion size of meals and food groups was determined from voice-annotated videos of meals. Individual-based regression models were used to characterize subjects as following one of 4 diet typologies: those with a routine portion sizes determined by time of day, those with portion sizes that balance physical activity (energy balance), those with portion sizes influenced by emotion, and those with portion sizes associated with food environments. Results: Ample compliance with the phone-based behavioral assessment was observed for all participants. Across all individuals, 868 consumed food items were recorded, with fruits, grains and dairy foods dominating the portion sizes. On average, 218 hours of accelerometry and 35 EMA responses were recorded for each participant. For some subjects, the routine model was able to explain up to 47% of the variation in portion sizes, and the energy balance model was able to explain over 88% of the variation in portion sizes. Across all our subjects, the food environment was an important predictor of eating patterns. Generally, grouping all subjects into a pooled model performed worse than modeling each individual separately. Conclusion: A typological modeling approach was useful in understanding individual dietary behaviors in our cohort. This approach may be applicable to the study of other human behaviors, particularly those that collect repeated measures on individuals, and those involving smartphone-based behavioral measurement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Shernoff, David J.; Kelly, Sean; Tonks, Stephen M.; Anderson, Brett; Cavanagh, Robert F.; Sinha, Suparna; Abdi, Beheshteh (2016): Student engagement as a function of environmental complexity in high school classrooms. In: Learning and Instruction 43, S. 52–60. DOI: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2015.12.003.

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the linkage between the quality of the learning environment and the quality of students’ experience in seven high school classrooms in six different subject areas. The quality of the learning environment was conceptualized in terms of environmental complexity, or the simultaneous presence of environmental challenge and environmental support. The students (N = 108) in each class participated in the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) measuring their engagement and related experiential variables. Concurrently, environmental complexity and its subdimensions were observed and rated from video with a new observational instrument, The Optimal Learning Environments – Observational Log and Assessment (OLE-OLA). Using two-level HLM regression models, ratings from the OLE-OLA were utilized to predict student engagement and experiential variables as measured by the ESM. Results showed that environmental complexity predicted student engagement and sense of classroom self-esteem. Implications for research, theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Shingleton, Rebecca M.; Pratt, Elizabeth M.; Gorman, Bernard; Barlow, David H.; Palfai, Tibor P.; Thompson-Brenner, Heather (2016): Motivational text message intervention for eating disorders: A single-case alternating treatment design using ecological momentary assessment. In: Behavior Therapy 47 (3), S. 325–338. DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2016.01.005.

Abstract:

Objective: This study tested a motivational text message treatment adjunct for individuals with eating disorders (EDs) who exhibited high dietary restraint/restriction. Method: A replicated single-case alternating treatment design was used to examine (a) the feasibility of combining a brief motivational interview with subsequent text messages and (b) the influence of the text messages on eating behaviors and motivation to change in individuals with EDs (N = 12). The protocol was 8weeks and the text messages were adjunctive to cognitive-behavioral therapy. Results: The intervention was well accepted (mean rating = 7/10) and feasible within the context of monetary compensation (mean daily monitoring compliance = 91%). Text messages did not impact behavioral outcomes: dietary restraint and kilocalorie intake. They had mixed effects on motivation to change dietary restraint, measured by the Readiness and Motivation Questionnaire (RMQ). When receiving text messages, RMQ precontemplation scores (desire to restrict) significantly increased, indicating decreased motivation; however, action scores (effort toward reducing dietary restraint) significantly increased, indicating increased motivation. These effects were moderated by weight status. Underweight individuals (n = 4; body mass index [BMI] < 19.0) reported increased ambivalence—that is, an increased desire to restrict and increased action toward reducing restriction—in response to the text messages. Normal weight participants (n = 8; BMI > 19.0) reported only increased action toward reducing restriction in response to the text messages. Discussion: These data demonstrate text messages are a potentially feasible and acceptable treatment adjunct and may be effective at increasing motivation to change for normal weight individuals, while their influence on underweight patients is more complex. These findings provide a foundation for future research in technology-based motivational interventions for EDs and offer preliminary evidence for using these methods among normal weight individuals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Skoluda, N.; Linnemann, A.; Nater, U. M. (2016): The role of week(end)-day and awakening time on cortisol and alpha-amylase awakening responses. In: Stress (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 19 (3), S. 333–338. DOI: 10.1080/10253890.2016.1174850.

Abstract:

Awakening responses in salivary cortisol (CAR) and alpha-amylase (AAR) constitute proxies of morning activation patterns of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system, respectively. Previous studies suggest that the CAR is decreased at weekends and at late awakening. However, it is insufficiently studied (a) whether this also applies to the AAR and (b) whether week(end)-day and awakening time interact with each other. Using an ecological momentary assessment design, 48 healthy young adults (60% women) were investigated over a 7-d period (Study 1), and 27 chronic pain patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia syndrome were examined over a 14-d period (Study 2). For the assessment of the CAR and AAR, participants provided saliva samples each morning (upon awakening, 30 min after awakening). Preprogrammed electronic diary devices were used to track week(end)-day and exact time of saliva sampling (awakening time). In Study 1, CAR was unrelated to weekend, awakening time, or their interaction, whereas only early awakening time was positively associated with AAR. In Study 2, week-days as well as early awakening times on week-days predicted increased CAR. AARs were not predicted by week(end)-day, awakening times, or their interaction. These findings suggest that time-related factors may influence awakening responses, particularly the impact of week(end)-day on the CAR and the impact of awakening times on the AAR. Since week(end)-day and awakening times may negatively affect awakening responses, these potential confounding factors should be assessed and controlled for, particularly in studies assessing both CAR and AAR.

 

Sliwinski, M. J.; Mogle, J. A.; Hyun, J.; Munoz, E.; Smyth, J. M.; Lipton, R. B. (2016): Reliability and Validity of Ambulatory Cognitive Assessments. In: Assessment. DOI: 10.1177/1073191116643164.

Abstract:

Mobile technologies are increasingly used to measure cognitive function outside of traditional clinic and laboratory settings. Although ambulatory assessments of cognitive function conducted in people’s natural environments offer potential advantages over traditional assessment approaches, the psychometrics of cognitive assessment procedures have been understudied. We evaluated the reliability and construct validity of ambulatory assessments of working memory and perceptual speed administered via smartphones as part of an ecological momentary assessment protocol in a diverse adult sample (N= 219). Results indicated excellent between-person reliability (>/=0.97) for average scores, and evidence of reliable within-person variability across measurement occasions (0.41-0.53). The ambulatory tasks also exhibited construct validity, as evidence by their loadings on working memory and perceptual speed factors defined by the in-lab assessments. Our findings demonstrate that averaging across brief cognitive assessments made in uncontrolled naturalistic settings provide measurements that are comparable in reliability to assessments made in controlled laboratory environments.

 

Snippe, Evelien; Simons, Claudia J. P.; Hartmann, Jessica A.; Menne-Lothmann, Claudia; Kramer, Ingrid; Booij, Sanne H. et al. (2016): Change in daily life behaviors and depression: Within-person and between-person associations. In: Health Psychology 35 (5), S. 433–441. DOI: 10.1037/hea0000312.

Abstract:

Objective: This study examined associations between daily physical, sedentary, social, and leisure behaviors and depressive symptoms (a) at a macrolevel, over the course of an Experience Sampling (ESM) self-monitoring intervention, and (b) at a microlevel, by examining daily within-person associations. Second, we examined the effects of the ESM self-monitoring intervention on these daily life behaviors. Methods: Individuals with a diagnosis of depression (N = 102) receiving pharmacological treatment were randomized to 1 of 2 six-week ESM intervention conditions or a control condition. Physical, sedentary, social, and leisure behaviors as well as depressive symptoms were assessed prospectively in every-day life at baseline, postintervention, and during the ESM interventions. Results: Change in physical activity and talking from baseline to postintervention was associated with change in depressive symptoms from baseline to postintervention. Within-person daily fluctuations in talking, physical activity, doing nothing/resting, and being alone predicted end-of-day depressive symptoms over and above depressive symptoms at the previous day. The ESM interventions contributed to change in talking, doing nothing/resting, and being alone over time in comparison with the control group. The analyses revealed individual differences in the amount of behavioral change over time and in the within-subject associations between daily behaviors and depressive symptoms. Conclusions: The findings suggest that physical, sedentary, and social behaviors have affective implications for daily mental health of individuals with depression. Self-monitoring using ESM may be a useful add-on tool to achieve behavioral change and to gain personalized insight in behaviors that improve daily depressive symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Sperry, Sarah H.; Lynam, Donald R.; Walsh, Molly A.; Horton, Leslie E.; Kwapil, Thomas R. (2016): Examining the multidimensional structure of impulsivity in daily life. In: Personality and Individual Differences 94, S. 153–158. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2016.01.018.

Abstract:

Impulsivity is a key personality and psychopathology construct that is best conceptualized as multidimensional. The UPPS model is a comprehensive multidimensional framework which defines four impulsivity facets: negative urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking. Although these facets have unique predictive value in laboratory based correlational studies, the validity and expression of these facets have not been examined in daily life. The present study employed experience sampling methodology (ESM) to examine associations of UPPS impulsivity facets with affect, cognition, and behavior in daily life in a non-clinical sample of 299 young adults. The impulsivity facets were differentially expressed in daily life. Negative urgency was associated with negative affect, poor sense of self, and thought disruption; lack of premeditation was associated with negative but energetic affect; lack of perseverance was characterized by difficulty putting forth effort and completing activities; and sensation seeking was associated with positive affect and enjoying oneself. All UPPS facets with the exception of sensation seeking were associated with increased troublesome behavior in daily life. Overall, these results support the validity of the multidimensional UPPS model of impulsivity in daily life and suggest that ESM is a useful tool for examining the expression of impulsivity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Stawarczyk, David; D’Argembeau, Arnaud (2016): Conjoint Influence of Mind-Wandering and Sleepiness on Task Performance. In: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. DOI: 10.1037/xhp0000254.

Abstract:

Recent research suggests that sleepiness and mind-wandering—the experience of thoughts that are both stimulus-independent and task-unrelated—frequently co-occur and are both associated with poorer cognitive functioning. Whether these two phenomena have distinguishable effects on task performance remains unknown, however. To investigate this question, we used the online experience sampling of mind-wandering episodes and subjective sleepiness during a laboratory task (the Sustained Attention to Response Task; SART), and also assessed mind-wandering frequency and sleep-related disturbances in daily life using self-report questionnaires. The results revealed that the tendency to experience mind-wandering episodes during the SART and daily life was associated with higher levels of daytime sleepiness and sleep-related disturbances. More important, however, mind-wandering and sleepiness were independent predictors of SART performance at both the within- and between-individuals levels. These findings demonstrate that, although mind-wandering and sleepiness frequently co-occur, these two phenomena have distinguishable and additive effects on task performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Stefano, Emily C.; Hudson, Danae L.; Whisenhunt, Brooke L.; Buchanan, Erin M.; Latner, Janet D. (2016): Examination of body checking, body image dissatisfaction, and negative affect using Ecological momentary assessment. In: Eating behaviors 22, S. 51–54. DOI: 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2016.03.026.

Abstract:

Research has shown that non-clinical women, particularly those with high body concern, engage in frequent body checking behaviors. The purpose of this study was to use ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to examine the frequency and correlates of body checking behavior, including its association with body image dissatisfaction and negative affect, in non-clinical women with high body concern. Undergraduate female participants with high body concern (n=22) were assessed five times per day for five days via text messages sent to their smart phones. During each assessment, participants reported the number of times they engaged in eight different body checking behaviors and their current level of negative affect and body dissatisfaction. After aggregation, a total of 3064 body checking behaviors were reported by the sample during the five-day period. All participants reported engaging in body checking at least once per day, with a mean of 27.85 checking behaviors per day. Hierarchical Linear Modeling revealed that body checking significantly predicted both body dissatisfaction and negative affect. These results provide preliminary support for the cognitive behavioral theory of eating disorders, suggesting that as women engage in more frequent body checking behaviors, they also experience higher levels of body dissatisfaction and negative affect.

 

Strahler, Jana; Doerr, Johanna M.; Ditzen, Beate; Linnemann, Alexandra; Skoluda, Nadine; Nater, Urs M. (2016): Physical activity buffers fatigue only under low chronic stress. In: Stress (Amsterdam, Netherlands), S. 1–7. DOI: 10.1080/10253890.2016.1192121.

Abstract:

Fatigue is one of the most commonly reported complaints in the general population. As physical activity (PA) has been shown to have beneficial effects, we hypothesized that everyday life PA improves fatigue. Thirty-three healthy students (21 women, 22.8 +/- 3.3 years, 21.7 +/- 2.3 kg/m2) completed two ambulatory assessment periods. During five days at the beginning of the semester (control condition) and five days during final examination preparation (examination condition), participants repeatedly reported on general fatigue (awakening, 10 am, 2 pm, 6 pm and 9 pm) by means of an electronic diary, collected saliva samples for the assessment of cortisol and alpha-amylase immediately after providing information on fatigue and wore a triaxial accelerometer to continuously record PA. Self-perceived chronic stress was assessed as a moderator. Using hierarchical linear modeling, including PA, condition (control vs. examination), sex and chronic stress as predictors, PA level during the 15 min prior to data entry did not predict momentary fatigue level. Furthermore, there was no effect of condition. However, a significant cross-level interaction of perceived chronic stress with PA was observed. In fact, the (negative) relationship between PA and fatigue was stronger in those participants with less chronic stress. Neither cortisol nor alpha-amylase was significantly related to physical activity or fatigue. Our study showed an immediate short-term buffering effect of everyday life PA on general fatigue, but only when experiencing lower chronic stress. There seems to be no short-term benefit of PA in the face of higher chronic stress. These findings highlight the importance of considering chronic stress when evaluating the effectiveness of PA interventions in different target populations, in particular among chronically stressed and fatigued subjects.

 

Taverno Ross, Sharon E.; Dowda, Marsha; Dishman, Rodney K.; Pate, Russell R. (2016): Classes of physical activity and sedentary behavior in 5th grade children. In: American journal of health behavior 40 (3), S. 352–361. DOI: 10.5993/AJHB.40.3.7.

Abstract:

Objectives: We identified classes of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors (SB) in 5th grade children, associated factors, and trajectories of change into 7th grade. Methods: This study included N = 495 children (221 boys, 274 girls) who participated in the Transitions and Activity Changes in Kids (TRACK) Study. PA was assessed objectively as well as by self-report. Children, parents, and school administrators completed surveys to assess related factors. Latent class analysis, growth modeling, and adjusted multinomial logistic regression procedures were used to classify children based on self-reported PA and SB and examine associated factors. Results: Three classes of behavior were identified: Class 1: Low PA/Low SB; Class 2: Moderate PA/ High SB; and Class 3: High PA/High SB (boys) or Class 3: High PA (girls). Class 3 children had higher levels of self-efficacy (boys), and enjoyment, parental support, and physical activity equipment at home (girls). Class 2 boys and Class 3 girls did not experience decline in PA (accelerometer) over time. Conclusions: Self-efficacy (boys) and home environment (girls) may play a role in shaping patterns of PA in children. Findings may help to inform future interventions to encourage children to meet national PA guidelines. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Thompson, R. J.; Kircanski, K.; Gotlib, I. H. (2016): The grass is not as green as you think: Affect evaluation in people with internalizing disorders. In: Journal of affective disorders 203, S. 233–240. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2016.06.006.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Affect evaluation – how people evaluate their emotion experiences – has important implications for mental health. METHODS: We examined how 70 adults diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder and/or Generalized Anxiety Disorder or no psychiatric disorders (control group) believe they should feel in the moment (should affect). We repeatedly assessed participants’ current affect and should affect over one week using experience sampling. To examine the psychometric properties of should affect, participants rated their level of rumination at each survey and completed trait measures of brooding and ideal affect at the lab. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Independent of group status, participants reported that they should be feeling more positive affect and less negative affect. Even after accounting for mean affect, the clinical groups’ reports were generally more extreme than were those of the control group. We documented good convergent and discriminant validity of should affect. Finally, we describe clinical implications and directions for future research.

 

Thrul, J.; Ferguson, S. G.; Buhler, A. (2016): How Do Light and Intermittent Smokers Differ from Heavy Smokers in Young Adulthood: The Role of Smoking Restraint Strategies. In: Journal of psychoactive drugs, S. 1–6. DOI: 10.1080/02791072.2016.1172744.

Abstract:

Light and intermittent smoking has become a prevalent pattern of use among young adults. Little is known about which factors differentiate light and intermittent smokers (LITS) from heavy smokers (HS) in young adulthood. In this study, we compare young adult LITS with HS with regard to demographic- and smoking-related variables, self-control abilities, and concrete strategies of smoking restraint. The data were collected as part of an Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) study with 137 German young adult smokers (M Age = 21.1 years, 46.0% female; 76 HS [>/=10 cigarettes/day] and 61 LITS [</=5 cigarettes/day]). Participants were recruited over the Internet and completed a baseline questionnaire online. Several variables differentiated LITS and HS in a multiple logistic regression analysis: LITS reported fewer smoking friends (p < .001) and a higher self-efficacy to resist smoking (p < .01). Further, LITS smoking status was associated with reporting a past quit attempt (p < .05) and the use of smoking restraint strategies (counting, limiting, and purposefully not smoking cigarettes; p < .05). Notably, nicotine dependence and trait self-control abilities did not differentiate between LITS and HS. Our results point to the role of smoking restraint strategies and self-monitoring of smoking to limit the daily number of cigarettes smoked.

 

Treadway, M. T.; Leonard, C. V. (2016): Isolating biomarkers for symptomatic states: considering symptom-substrate chronometry. In: Molecular psychiatry. DOI: 10.1038/mp.2016.83.

Abstract:

A long-standing goal of psychopathology research is to develop objective markers of symptomatic states, yet progress has been far slower than expected. Although prior reviews have attributed this state of affairs to diagnostic heterogeneity, symptom comorbidity and phenotypic complexity, little attention has been paid to the implications of intra-individual symptom dynamics and inter-relatedness for biomarker study designs. In this critical review, we consider the impact of short-term symptom fluctuations on widely used study designs that regress the ‘average level’ of a given symptom against biological data collected at a single time point, and summarize findings from ambulatory assessment studies suggesting that such designs may be sub-optimal to detect symptom-substrate relationships. Although such designs have a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biological substrates related to more stable, longer-term changes (for example, gray matter thinning during a depressive episode), they may be less optimal for the detection of symptoms that exhibit high frequency fluctuations, are susceptible to common reporting biases, or may be heavily influenced by the presence of other symptoms. We propose that a greater emphasis on intra-individual symptom chronometry may be useful for identifying subgroups of patients with common, proximal pathological indicators. Taken together, these three recent developments in the areas of symptom conceptualization and measurement raise important considerations for future studies attempting to identify reliable biomarkers in psychiatry.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 31 May 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.83.

 

Trela, Constantine J.; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Bartholow, Bruce D.; Heath, Andrew C.; Sher, Kenneth J. (2016): The natural expression of individual differences in self-reported level of response to alcohol during ecologically assessed drinking episodes. In: Psychopharmacology 233 (11), S. 2185–2195. DOI: 10.1007/s00213-016-4270-5.

Abstract:

Rationale: Low sensitivity to alcohol is a well-established risk factor for alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, little is known about how the low sensitivity phenotype is expressed on a fine-grained, momentary level in drinkers’ daily experience. Objectives: The objective of the study is to evaluate individual differences in subjective states and appraisals of alcoholic beverages during the ascending limb of real-world drinking episodes. Methods: Social drinkers (N = 398) with varying degrees of alcohol sensitivity as indexed by the Self-Rating of the Effects of Alcohol form (SRE; Schuckit et al. in Addiction 92:979–988, 1997a) recorded diary entries over a 3-week monitoring period (2576 drinking episodes containing 6546 moments). Hierarchical linear modeling was used to evaluate whether individual differences in alcohol sensitivity predicted differing intra-episode estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) trajectories, ratings of subjective states, and drink appraisals. Results: Lower self-reported alcohol sensitivity was associated with consuming “too much, too fast,” as indicated by a steeper slope of ascending eBAC. In models adjusted for momentary eBAC level, participants reporting lower alcohol sensitivity at baseline showed blunted subjective intoxication and drink-contingent punishment. Conclusions: The results suggest that low sensitivity to alcohol is associated with a blunting of some forms of subjective feedback (i.e., perceptions of intoxication and punishment) that might typically encourage drinking restraint. This may ‘tip the scales’ toward excess consumption and could help to explain why a low alcohol sensitivity forecasts AUD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Trull, Timothy J.; Wycoff, Andrea M.; Lane, Sean P.; Carpenter, Ryan W.; Brown, Whitney C. (2016): Cannabis and Alcohol Use, Affect, and Impulsivity in Psychiatric Outpatients’ Daily Lives. In: Addiction (Abingdon, England). DOI: 10.1111/add.13471.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cannabis and alcohol are the most commonly used (il)licit drugs worldwide. We compared the effects of cannabis and alcohol use on within-person changes in impulsivity, hostility, and positive affect at the momentary and daily levels, as they occurred in daily life. DESIGN: Observational study involving ecological momentary assessments collected via electronic diaries 6 random times a day for 28 consecutive days. SETTING: Outpatients’ everyday life contexts in Columbia, MO, USA. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-three adult psychiatric outpatients (85% female; M = 30.9 years old) with Borderline Personality or Depressive disorders, who reported using only cannabis (n = 3), only alcohol (n = 58), or both (n = 32) at least once during the study period. MEASUREMENTS: Real-time, standard self-report measures of impulsivity, hostility, and positive affect, as impacted by momentary reports of cannabis and alcohol use. FINDINGS: Cannabis use was associated with elevated feelings of impulsivity at the day level (b = 0.83, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.17-1.49) and increased hostility at the momentary (b = 0.07, 95% CI = 0.01-0.12) and person (b = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.15-1.47) level. Alcohol use was associated with elevated feelings of impulsivity at the momentary (b = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.13-0.71) and day level (b = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.22-1.41) and increased positive affect at the momentary (b = 0.12, 95% CI = 0.06-0.18) and day (b = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.16-0.49) level. CONCLUSIONS: Cannabis and alcohol use are associated with increases in impulsivity (both), hostility (cannabis), and positive affect (alcohol) in daily life, and these effects are part of separate processes that operate on different time scales (i.e., momentary versus daily).

 

Turan, Bulent; Fazeli, Pariya L.; Raper, James L.; Mugavero, Michael J.; Johnson, Mallory O. (2016): Social Support and Moment-to-Moment Changes in Treatment Self-Efficacy in Men Living With HIV: Psychosocial Moderators and Clinical Outcomes. In: Health Psychology. DOI: 10.1037/hea0000356.

Abstract:

Objective: For people living with HIV, treatment adherence self-efficacy is an important predictor of treatment adherence and, therefore, of clinical outcomes. Using experience sampling method (ESM), this study aimed to examine: (1) the within-person association between moment-to-moment changes in social support and HIV treatment self-efficacy; (2) the moderators of this within-person association; (3) the concordance between questionnaire and ESM measurement of treatment self-efficacy; and (4) the utility of each approach (ESM and questionnaire) in predicting adherence to medication, adherence to clinic visits, CD4 counts, and viral load. Method: Men living with HIV (N = 109) responded to the same set of ESM questions 3 times a day for 7 days via a smart phone given to them for the study. They also completed cross-sectional questionnaires and their clinic data was extracted from medical records to examine predictors and consequences of state and trait treatment self-efficacy. Results: In within-person hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analyses, receipt of recent social support predicted higher current ESM treatment self-efficacy. This association was stronger for individuals reporting higher avoidance coping with HIV. The correlation between ESM and questionnaire measures of treatment self-efficacy was r = .37. ESM measure of average treatment self-efficacy predicted medication adherence, visit adherence, CD4 counts, and viral load, while questionnaire-based self-efficacy did not predict these outcomes. Conclusion: Interventions aimed at improving treatment adherence may target social support processes, which may improve treatment self-efficacy and adherence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Turner, Brianna J.; Cobb, Rebecca J.; Gratz, Kim L.; Chapman, Alexander L. (2016): The role of interpersonal conflict and perceived social support in nonsuicidal self-injury in daily life. In: Journal of abnormal psychology 125 (4), S. 588–598. DOI: 10.1037/abn0000141.

Abstract:

Although accumulating microlongitudinal research has examined emotion regulatory models of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), few studies have examined how interpersonal contingencies influence daily NSSI behavior. Participants with repeated NSSI (N = 60) provided daily ratings of perceived social support, interpersonal conflict, and NSSI urges and behaviors for 14 days. Consistent with interpersonal models of NSSI, we hypothesized that participants would be more likely to engage in NSSI on days when they experienced high levels of interpersonal conflict, that NSSI acts that were revealed to others would be followed by desirable interpersonal changes (i.e., greater support, less conflict), and that these interpersonal changes would, in turn, predict stronger NSSI urges and more frequent NSSI behavior. Consistent with hypotheses, daily conflict was associated with stronger same-day NSSI urges and greater likelihood of NSSI acts. Perceived support increased following NSSI acts that had been revealed to others, but not unrevealed NSSI acts. This perceived support was, in turn, associated with a stronger NSSI urges and greater likelihood of engaging in NSSI on the following day. Moreover, participants whose NSSI was revealed to others engaged in more total NSSI acts during the diary period than those whose NSSI was not revealed to others. Inconsistent with hypotheses, interpersonal conflict did not decrease following NSSI, regardless of whether or not these acts were revealed to others. Together, these results provide preliminary support for interpersonal reinforcement models of NSSI and highlight the importance of expanding research in this area to include interpersonal contingencies that may influence this behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

van Knippenberg, R. J.; Vugt, M. E. de; Ponds, R. W.; Myin-Germeys, I.; Verhey, F. R. (2016): Dealing with daily challenges in dementia (deal-id study): effectiveness of the experience sampling method intervention ‘Partner in Sight’ for spousal caregivers of people with dementia: design of a randomized controlled trial. In: BMC psychiatry 16 (1), S. 136. DOI: 10.1186/s12888-016-0834-5.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need for psychosocial interventions that effectively support dementia caregivers in daily life. The Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM) offers the possibility to provide a more dynamic view of caregiver functioning. ESM-derived feedback may help to redirect caregivers’ behavior towards situations that elicit positive emotions and to increase their feelings of competence in the caretaking process. This paper presents the design of a study that evaluates the process characteristics and effects of the ESM-based intervention ‘Partner in Sight’. METHODS/DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial with 90 spousal caregivers of people with dementia will be conducted. Participants will be randomly assigned to the experimental (6-week ESM intervention including feedback), pseudo-experimental (6-week ESM intervention without feedback), or control group (care as usual). Assessments will be performed pre- and post-intervention and at 2-, and 6-month follow-up. Main outcomes will be sense of competence, perceived control, momentary positive affect, and psychological complaints (depressive symptoms, perceived stress, anxiety, momentary negative affect). In addition to the effect evaluation, a process and economic evaluation will be conducted to investigate the credibility and generalizability of the intervention, and its cost-effectiveness. DISCUSSION: The potential effects of the ESM intervention may help caregivers to endure their care responsibilities and prevent them from becoming overburdened. This is the first ESM intervention for caregivers of people with dementia. The results of this study, therefore, provide a valuable contribution to the growing knowledge on m-health interventions for dementia caregivers. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Dutch Trial Register NTR4847 ; date registered Oct 9, 2014.

 

van Lenten, Scott A.; Doane, Leah D. (2016): Examining multiple sleep behaviors and diurnal salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase: Within- and between-person associations. In: Psychoneuroendocrinology 68, S. 100–110. DOI: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2016.02.017.

Abstract:

Sleep has been linked to the daily patterns of stress-responsive physiological systems, specifically the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and autonomic nervous system (ANS). However, extant research examining sleep and diurnal patterns of cortisol, the primary end product of the HPA axis, has primarily focused on sleep duration with limited attention on other facets of sleep. For example, it is not clear how specific aspects of sleep (e.g., sleep quality, sleep duration variability) are related to specific components of diurnal cortisol rhythms. Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been recognized as a surrogate marker of ANS activity, but limited research has explored relations between sleep and sAA diurnal rhythms. The current study utilized an ecological momentary assessment protocol to examine within- and between-person relations between several facets of sleep behavior using multiple methods (e.g., subjective report, actigraphy) and salivary cortisol and sAA. Older adolescents (N = 76) provided saliva samples and diary entries five times per day over the course of three days. Sleep was assessed via questionnaire, through daily diaries, and monitored objectively using actigraphy over a four day period. Between-person results revealed that shorter average objective sleep duration and greater sleep duration variability were related to lower levels of waking cortisol and flatter diurnal slopes across the day. Within-person results revealed that on nights when individuals slept for shorter durations than usual they also had lower levels of waking cortisol the next day. Sleep was not related to the cortisol awakening response (CAR) or diurnal patterns of sAA, in either between-person or within-person analyses. However, typical sleep behaviors measured via questionnaire were related to waking levels of sAA. Overall, this study provides a greater understanding of how multiple components of sleep, measured in naturalistic environments, are related to cortisol and sAA diurnal rhythms, and how day-to-day, within-person changes in sleep duration contribute to daily variations in cortisol. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

van Roekel, Eeske; Verhagen, Maaike; Engels, Rutger C M E; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Cacioppo, Stephanie; Cacioppo, John T. (2016): Trait and State Levels of Loneliness in Early and Late Adolescents: Examining the Differential Reactivity Hypothesis. In: Journal of clinical child and adolescent psychology : the official journal for the Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, American Psychological Association, Division 53, S. 1–12. DOI: 10.1080/15374416.2016.1146993.

Abstract:

According to the differential reactivity hypothesis, lonely individuals respond differently to their environment compared to nonlonely individuals, which may sustain their loneliness levels. However, this interesting hypothesis has not yet been explored in daily life: Do lonely individuals feel lonely all the time, or do they feel more or less lonely in specific social contexts? The main aim of the present study was to test the differential reactivity hypothesis in daily life by examining in three samples whether trait levels of loneliness affected the levels of state loneliness in different social contexts. We used baseline questionnaires to measure trait loneliness and the Experience Sampling Method to collect data on state loneliness, in early adolescents (N = 269, Mage = 14.49, 59% female) and late adolescents (N = 223, Mage = 19.60, 91% female) from the Netherlands and late adolescents from the United States (N = 126, Mage = 19.20, 51% female). Results provided evidence for the differential reactivity hypothesis in the total sample, as high lonely adolescents experienced higher levels of state loneliness in situations in which they were alone than low lonely adolescents, but also benefited more from being with intimate company than low lonely adolescents. In sum, the present study provided evidence for the differential reactivity hypothesis and showed that the experience of loneliness in daily life was remarkably similar across age and culture. Our findings provide important insights into the daily experiences of trait lonely people, which may provide starting points for interventions.

 

Vansteelandt, K.; Verbeke, G. (2016): A Mixed Model to Disentangle Variance and Serial Autocorrelation in Affective Instability Using Ecological Momentary Assessment Data. In: Multivariate behavioral research, S. 1–20. DOI: 10.1080/00273171.2016.1159177.

Abstract:

Affective instability, the tendency to experience emotions that fluctuate frequently and intensively over time, is a core feature of several mental disorders including borderline personality disorder. Currently, affect is often measured with Ecological Momentary Assessment protocols, which yield the possibility to quantify the instability of affect over time. A number of linear mixed models are proposed to examine (diagnostic) group differences in affective instability. The models contribute to the existing literature by estimating simultaneously both the variance and serial dependency component of affective instability when observations are unequally spaced in time with the serial autocorrelation (or emotional inertia) declining as a function of the time interval between observations. In addition, the models can eliminate systematic trends, take between subject differences into account and test for (diagnostic) group differences in serial autocorrelation, short-term as well as long-term affective variability. The usefulness of the models is illustrated in a study on diagnostic group differences in affective instability in the domain of eating disorders. Limitations of the model are that they pertain to group (and not individual) differences and do not focus explicitly on circadian rhythms or cycles in affect.

 

Vantilborgh, Tim; Bidee, Jemima; Pepermans, Roland; Griep, Yannick; Hofmans, Joeri (2016): Antecedents of Psychological Contract Breach: The Role of Job Demands, Job Resources, and Affect. In: PloS one 11 (5), S. e0154696. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0154696.

Abstract:

While it has been shown that psychological contract breach leads to detrimental outcomes, relatively little is known about factors leading to perceptions of breach. We examine if job demands and resources predict breach perceptions. We argue that perceiving high demands elicits negative affect, while perceiving high resources stimulates positive affect. Positive and negative affect, in turn, influence the likelihood that psychological contract breaches are perceived. We conducted two experience sampling studies to test our hypotheses: the first using daily surveys in a sample of volunteers, the second using weekly surveys in samples of volunteers and paid employees. Our results confirm that job demands and resources are associated with negative and positive affect respectively. Mediation analyses revealed that people who experienced high job resources were less likely to report psychological contract breach, because they experienced high levels of positive affect. The mediating role of negative affect was more complex, as it increased the likelihood to perceive psychological contract breach, but only in the short-term.

 

Verloigne, M.; Loyen, A.; van Hecke, L.; Lakerveld, J.; Hendriksen, I.; Bourdheaudhuij, I. de et al. (2016): Variation in population levels of sedentary time in European children and adolescents according to cross-European studies: a systematic literature review within DEDIPAC. In: The international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity 13 (1), S. 69. DOI: 10.1186/s12966-016-0395-5.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: A high amount of sedentary time has been proposed as a risk factor for various health outcomes in adults. While the evidence is less clear in children and adolescents, monitoring sedentary time is important to understand the prevalence rates and how this behaviour varies over time and by place. This systematic literature review aims to provide an overview of existing cross-European studies on sedentary time in children (0-12y) and adolescents (13-18y), to describe the variation in population levels of sedentary time, and to discuss the impact of assessment methods. METHODS: Six literature databases were searched (PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, SportDiscus and OpenGrey), followed by backward- and forward tracking and searching authors’ and experts’ literature databases. Included articles were observational studies reporting on levels of sedentary time in the general population of children and/or adolescents in at least two European countries. Population levels were reported separately for children and adolescents. Data were reviewed, extracted and assessed by two researchers, with disagreements being resolved by a third researcher. The review protocol is published under registration number CRD42014013379 in the PROSPERO database. RESULTS: Forty-two eligible articles were identified, most were cross-sectional (n = 38). The number of included European countries per article ranged from 2 to 36. Levels of sedentary time were observed to be higher in East-European countries compared to the rest of Europe. There was a large variation in assessment methods and reported outcome variables. The majority of articles used a child-specific questionnaire (60 %). Other methods included accelerometers, parental questionnaires or interviews and ecological momentary assessment tools. Television time was reported as outcome variable in 57 % of included articles (ranging from a mean value of 1 h to 2.7 h in children and 1.3 h to 4.4 h in adolescents), total sedentary time in 24 % (ranging from a mean value of 192 min to 552 min in children and from 268 min to 506 min in adolescents). CONCLUSION: A substantial number of published studies report on levels of sedentary time in children and adolescents across European countries, but there was a large variation in assessment methods. Questionnaires (child specific) were used most often, but they mostly measured specific screen-based activities and did not assess total sedentary time. There is a need for harmonisation and standardisation of objective and subjective methods to assess sedentary time in children and adolescents to enable comparison across countries.

 

Walerius, Danielle M.; Fogleman, Nicholas D.; Rosen, Paul J. (2016): The role of adhd and negative emotional lability in predicting changes in parenting daily hassles. In: Journal of Child and Family Studies. DOI: 10.1007/s10826-016-0381-1.

Abstract:

The present study examined the extent to which children’s negative emotional lability (measured via ecological momentary assessment—EMA) and ADHD diagnostic status predicted changes in the frequency of daily parenting hassles and the stress resulting from daily hassles at one-week follow-up when controlling for baseline parenting hassles. Parents of 84 children 8–12 years-old (47 with ADHD, 37 without ADHD) completed a measure of parenting daily hassles at baseline and follow-up and participated in EMA assessment protocol ratings of their child’s mood (3-times daily) for one week. Analyses of covariance indicated that parents of children with ADHD reported significantly greater frequency of daily parenting hassles and intensity of parenting stress resulting from daily hassles than parents of children without ADHD at baseline and follow-up. Hierarchical regression analyses suggested that children’s negative emotional lability was a significant predictor of the intensity of parenting stress resulting from daily hassles, but not the frequency of daily parenting hassles. There was also an interaction of ADHD diagnostic status and greater EMA-derived negative emotional lability in the prediction of the frequency of daily parenting hassles due to children’s challenging behaviors. Specifically, greater negative emotional lability predicted more frequent daily parenting hassles due to children’s challenging behaviors among parents of children without ADHD but not among parents of children with ADHD. Overall, this study suggests that children’s negative emotional lability is a significant predictor of aspects of daily parenting hassles across parents of children with and without ADHD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Weidman, Aaron C.; Dunn, Elizabeth W. (2016): The unsung benefits of material things: Material purchases provide more frequent momentary happiness than experiential purchases. In: Social Psychological and Personality Science 7 (4), S. 390–399. DOI: 10.1177/1948550615619761.

Abstract:

Although research suggests that people derive more happiness from buying life experiences than material objects, almost no studies have examined how people actually feel while consuming real-world experiential and material purchases. In the present research, we provided the first examination of people’s momentary happiness while consuming these purchases. Participants were randomly assigned to spend C$20 on a material versus experiential purchase (Study 1) or to report a material versus experiential gift they received at Christmas (Study 2); participants in both studies reported their momentary happiness regarding these purchases over 2 weeks, using daily-diary (Study 1) and experience-sampling (Study 2) methodologies. Results suggest that material and experiential purchases deliver happiness in two distinct flavors: Material purchases provide more frequent momentary happiness over time, whereas experiential purchases provide more intense momentary happiness on individual occasions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Wickramasinghe, Asanga; Ranasinghe, Damith C.; Fumeaux, Christophe; Hill, Keith D.; Visvanathan, Renuka (2016): Sequence Learning with Passive RFID Sensors for Real Time Bed-egress Recognition in Older People. In: IEEE journal of biomedical and health informatics. DOI: 10.1109/JBHI.2016.2576285.

Abstract:

Getting out of bed and ambulating without supervision is identified as one of the major causes of patient falls in hospitals and nursing homes. Therefore, increased supervision is proposed as a key strategy towards falls prevention. An emerging generation of batteryless, lightweight and wearable sensors are creating new possibilities for ambulatory monitoring, where the unobtrusive nature of such sensors makes them particularly adapted for monitoring older people. In this study, we investigate the use of a batteryless Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tag response to analyze bed-egress movements. We propose a bed-egress movement detection framework that include a novel sequence learning classifier with a set of features derived based on bed-egress motion analysis. We analyzed data from 14 healthy older people (66-86 years old) who wore a wearable embodiment of a batteryless accelerometer integrated RFID sensor platform loosely attached over their clothes at sternum level, and undertook a series of activities including bed-egress in two clinical room settings. The promising results indicate the efficacy of our batteryless bed-egress monitoring framework.

 

Wong, Jennifer H. K.; Kelloway, E. Kevin (2016): What happens at work stays at work? Workplace supervisory social interactions and blood pressure outcomes. In: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 21 (2), S. 133–141. DOI: 10.1037/a0039900.

Abstract:

We investigated the relationship between workplace supervisory social interactions and blood pressure outcomes using hourly diary entries and ambulatory blood pressure data from an experience sampling study of 55 long-term care employees. After accounting for relevant cardiovascular controls, significant effects of supervisory interactions on cardiovascular reactivity and recovery were found. Multilevel analyses revealed that negatively perceived supervisory interactions predicted higher systolic blood pressure at work (B = −1.59, p < .05, N observations = 422). Using time-lagged hierarchical regression analyses, the average perceived valence of supervisory interactions at work predicted average systolic blood pressure recovery after work (B = −14.52, p < .05, N = 33). Specifically, negatively perceived supervisory interactions at work predicted poorer cardiovascular recovery after work. Suggestions for improving practices in organizations and in experience sampling research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Wood, S.; Greenfield, S. M.; Haque, M. S.; Martin, U.; Gill, P. S.; Mant, J. et al. (2016): Influence of ethnicity on acceptability of method of blood pressure monitoring: a cross-sectional study in primary care. In: The British journal of general practice : the journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners. DOI: 10.3399/bjgp16X685717.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Ambulatory and/or home monitoring are recommended in the UK and the US for the diagnosis of hypertension but little is known about their acceptability. AIM: To determine the acceptability of different methods of measuring blood pressure to people from different minority ethnic groups. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study with focus groups in primary care in the West Midlands. METHOD: People of different ethnicities with and without hypertension were assessed for acceptability of clinic, home, and ambulatory blood pressure measurement using completion rate, questionnaire, and focus groups. RESULTS: A total of 770 participants were included, who were white British (n = 300), South Asian (n = 241), and African Caribbean (n = 229). White British participants had significantly higher successful completion rates across all monitoring modalities compared with the other ethnic groups, especially for ambulatory monitoring: white British (n = 277, 92% [95% confidence interval [CI] = 89% to 95%]) versus South Asian (n = 171, 71% [95% CI = 65% to 76%], P<0.001) and African Caribbean (n = 188, 82% [95% CI = 77% to 87%], P<0.001), respectively. There were significantly lower acceptability scores for minority ethnic participants across all monitoring methods compared with white British participants. Focus group results highlighted self-monitoring as most acceptable and ambulatory monitoring least acceptable without consistent differences by ethnicity. Clinic monitoring was seen as inconvenient and anxiety provoking but with the advantage of immediate professional input. CONCLUSION: Reduced acceptability and completion rates among minority ethnic groups raise important questions for the implementation and interpretation of blood pressure monitoring. Selection of method of blood pressure monitoring should take into account clinical need, patient preference, and potential cultural barriers to monitoring.

 

Wright, A. G.; Hallquist, M. N.; Stepp, S. D.; Scott, L. N.; Beeney, J. E.; Lazarus, S. A.; Pilkonis, P. A. (2016): Modeling Heterogeneity in Momentary Interpersonal and Affective Dynamic Processes in Borderline Personality Disorder. In: Assessment. DOI: 10.1177/1073191116653829.

Abstract:

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a diagnosis defined by impairments in several dynamic processes (e.g., interpersonal relating, affect regulation, behavioral control). Theories of BPD emphasize that these impairments appear in specific contexts, and emerging results confirm this view. At the same time, BPD is a complex construct that encompasses individuals with heterogeneous pathology. These features-dynamic processes, situational specificity, and individual heterogeneity-pose significant assessment challenges. In the current study, we demonstrate assessment and analytic methods that capture both between-person differences and within-person changes over time. Twenty-five participants diagnosed with BPD completed event-contingent, ambulatory assessment protocols over 21 days. We used p-technique factor analyses to identify person-specific psychological structures consistent with clinical theories of personality. Five exemplar cases are selected and presented in detail to showcase the potential utility of these methods. The presented cases’ factor structures reflect not only heterogeneity but also suggest points of convergence. The factors also demonstrated significant associations with important clinical targets (self-harm, interpersonal violence).

 

Wrzus, Cornelia; Wagner, Gert G.; Riediger, Michaela (2016): Personality-situation transactions from adolescence to old age. In: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 110 (5), S. 782–799. DOI: 10.1037/pspp0000054.

Abstract:

People presumably choose and create their daily environments according to their personality. Prior research shows that, for example, more extraverted people engage more often in social situations, and more conscientious people engage more often in work-related activities compared with less extraverted or less conscientious people, respectively. The current study examined such personality-situation transactions in people’s daily life. Based on the assumption that older people know themselves and their personality better than younger people, we investigated whether momentary and proximate personality-situation associations (i.e., changing from 1 type of situation into another) increase with older age. Three-hundred and 78 people aged 14 to 82 years described their Big Five traits and took part in a 3-week experience-sampling phase. Using mobile-phone based assessments in daily life, participants reported on average 55 times on their momentary situation. Multilevel modeling results showed that personality-situation associations varied with the age of participants. Some of the “established” personality-situation associations, such as for extraversion and time spent with friends or conscientiousness and time spent with work activities, were only observed in adolescence and young adulthood. In contrast, other personality-situation associations appeared only in late adulthood, such as for openness and time spent with friends. Yet most personality-situation associations did not vary significantly with people’s age. In addition, personality traits predicted maintaining or entering personality-congruent situations. The latter results point to the active role of personality in shaping one’s environment. The findings imply that some personality-situation transactions may be largely similarly across the life span. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)

 

Yeung, D. Y.; Fung, H. H.; Chan, D. K. (2016): Comparing Effects of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Social Values Between Younger and Older Employees. In: The Journal of psychology, S. 1–21. DOI: 10.1080/00223980.2016.1187109.

Abstract:

Socioemotional selectivity theory proposes that older adults emphasize emotional goals and interpersonal closeness to a greater extent than do younger adults, suggesting that holding social work-related values (SWVs) may be beneficial to older employees. This project aimed at examining two dimensions of SWVs, intrinsic and extrinsic SWVs, and tested whether age and work situation would moderate their effects on self-rated job performance. A cross-sectional survey (Study 1, N = 357) and a 14-day experience sampling study (Study 2, N = 77) were conducted among Chinese managerial employees. Study 1 showed that the direct effect of intrinsic SWVs on self-rated job performance was stronger in older employees than in younger employees. Study 2 demonstrated that older employees who valued intrinsic SWVs while being in social situations performed much better than when they did not value intrinsic SWVs but being in social situations; however such positive effect was not shown in younger employees. Findings of this project reveal that the effect of SWVs varies across locus of effect (intrinsic versus extrinsic), age, and work situation. Among older employees, the positive effect of intrinsic SWVs is more crucial than that of extrinsic SWVs on self-rated job performance. Findings of this project imply that intrinsically rewarding incentives would be more effective in motivating older employees to reach peak performance.

 

Zettl, U. K.; Bauer-Steinhusen, U.; Glaser, T.; Czekalla, J.; Hechenbichler, K.; Limmroth, V.; Hecker, M. (2016): Adherence to Long-Term Interferon Beta-1b Injection Therapy in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis Using an Electronic Diary. In: Advances in therapy 33 (5), S. 834–847. DOI: 10.1007/s12325-016-0325-6.

Abstract:

INTRODUCTION: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system requiring long-term treatment, which is often hampered by non-adherence to self-applicable therapies, provoking continued disease activity and health care system burdens. This study assessed the influence of a personal digital assistant (PDA) with diary function (n = 339 patients) on persistence and adherence to an interferon beta treatment regimen in comparison to a paper patient diary (n = 330 patients). METHODS: Patients who recently started with subcutaneous injections of interferon beta-1b were recruited in this prospective, non-interventional, national cohort study for an observational period of 2 years after successful completion of the initial dose escalation. RESULTS: Therapy persistence as assessed by the drop-out rate within 104 weeks was about 50% in both study cohorts. In male patients, the drop-out rate was 10% lower when using a PDA compared to the non-PDA group. Use of a PDA with an injection reminder function increased adherence to the injection schedule (every other day) by a mean of 24.5 injections over 24 months in comparison to use of a PDA without injection reminder function. CONCLUSION: Persistence in this study was in the published range of observational MS studies. Furthermore, in male patients continuation of therapy might be positively influenced by use of a PDA, and both female and male patients might benefit from an integrated reminder function. In conclusion, electronic diaries reminding patients of upcoming injections can promote an improved adherence to MS therapy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00902135. FUNDING: Bayer Vital GmbH.

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