Aggio, Daniel; Wallace, Karen; Boreham, Nicola; Shankar, Aparna; Steptoe, Andrew; Hamer, Mark (2017): Objectively measured daily physical activity and postural changes as related to positive and negative affect using ambulatory monitoring assessments.
In: Psychosomatic medicine 79 (7), S. 792–797. DOI: 10.1097/PSY.0000000000000485.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine whether objectively measured daily physical activity and posture of sitting, standing, and sit-to-stand transitions are associated with daily assessments of affect. METHODS: Participants (N = 51, 49% female) wore ActivPal accelerometers for 24 h/d for seven consecutive days. Time spent sitting, standing, and being physically active and sit-to-stand transitions were derived for each day. Participants also completed a mood inventory each evening. Multilevel models examined within- and between-person associations of daily physical activity with positive and negative affect, adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, education, and sleep duration. RESULTS: Within-person associations showed that a 1-hour increase in daily physical activity was associated with a decrease in negative affect over the same day (B = -0.11, 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.21 to -0.01). Between-person associations indicated a borderline significant association between higher average daily physical activity levels and higher positive affect (B = 1.85, 95% CI = -0.25 to 3.94). There were no between- or within-person associations between sitting, standing, and sit-to-stand transitions with affect. CONCLUSIONS: Promoting physical activity may be a potential intervention strategy to acutely suppress negative affective states.
Badra, Marcel; Schulze, Lars; Becker, Eni S.; Vrijsen, Janna Nonja; Renneberg, Babette; Zetsche, Ulrike (2017): The association between ruminative thinking and negative interpretation bias in social anxiety.
In: Cognition & emotion 31 (6), S. 1234–1242. DOI: 10.1080/02699931.2016.1193477.
Cognitive models propose that both, negative interpretations of ambiguous social situations and ruminative thoughts about social events contribute to the maintenance of social anxiety disorder. It has further been postulated that ruminative thoughts fuel biased negative interpretations, however, evidence is rare. The present study used a multi-method approach to assess ruminative processing following a social interaction (post-event processing by self-report questionnaire and social rumination by experience sampling method) and negative interpretation bias (via two separate tasks) in a student sample (n = 51) screened for high (HSA) and low social anxiety (LSA). Results support the hypothesis that group differences in negative interpretations of ambiguous social situations in HSAs vs. LSAs are mediated by higher levels of post-event processing assessed in the questionnaire. Exploratory analyses highlight the potential role of comorbid depressive symptoms. The current findings help to advance the understanding of the association between two cognitive processes involved in social anxiety and stress the importance of ruminative post-event processing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Bakker, Jindra Myrthe; Goossens, Liesbet; Lange, Iris; Michielse, Stijn; Schruers, Koen; Lieverse, Ritsaert et al. (2017): Real-life validation of reduced reward processing in emerging adults with depressive symptoms.
In: Journal of abnormal psychology 126 (6), S. 713–725. DOI: 10.1037/abn0000294.
Subclinical symptoms of depression are common in emerging adults. Anhedonia is one such symptom that specifically puts one at risk for developing clinical depression. Recently, important progress has been made in elucidating the underlying neurobiology of anhedonia. This progress rests on many experimental studies examining how subjects with depressive symptoms respond to anticipating and consuming rewarding stimuli. Translating these findings to real-life reward processing dynamics is an important next step in order to guide fine-tuning of preventive treatments. We propose that the Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM) represents a useful tool in addressing this issue. ESM requires individuals to carry a device that beeps at semirandom moments, inviting them to fill out a short questionnaire on mood, context, and behavior. Using this methodology, we aimed to decompose the construct of reward processing into its daily life dynamics, by investigating how positive affect (PA), reward anticipation and active behavior influence each other over time. A group of emerging adults (aged 16-25) was included, of which two-thirds presented with subclinical depressive symptoms. Associations between PA, reward anticipation and active behavior manifested in the flow of daily life. Depressive symptoms were significantly associated with reduced time-lagged associations between reward anticipation and active behavior (beta = -.005, p = .006) and active behavior and reward anticipation (beta = -.002, p = .027). The moderating effect of depressive symptoms on the time-lagged association between reward anticipation and PA approached significance (beta = -.002, p = .051). These findings represent an important step in translating experimental knowledge on reward processing into daily life processes. (PsycINFO Database Record
Bandarian-Balooch, Siavash; Martin, Paul R.; McNally, Brenton; Brunelli, Arissa; Mackenzie, Sharon (2017): Electronic-diary for recording headaches, triggers, and medication use. Development and Evaluation.
In: Headache. DOI: 10.1111/head.13184.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate an e-diary developed for measuring headaches, triggers, and medication consumption, in terms of reliability and validity, and variables such as ease of use and participant compliance. BACKGROUND: For many decades, behavioral treatment of headaches has been evaluated via participants completing paper diaries recording their headaches and associated phenomena. There is some limited evidence supporting the reliability and validity of paper diaries, and criticisms have been offered such as the large amount of effort involved for both participants and researchers. This study evaluates a new e-diary that will operate on virtually any device that can connect to the internet, and yields 5 of the recommended outcome measures. METHODS: One hundred and eighty-one participants (146 females, 35 males) were allocated to 2 groups, e-diaries vs paper diaries, via a disproportionate stratified allocation process. The e-diary group included 4 subgroups based on the technology available to the participant, and the paper diary group included 2 subgroups, one parallel to the e-dairies (short paper), and one representative of traditional paper diaries (long paper). The study commenced with individuals who had self-identified as headache and migraine sufferers attending a screening session that included headache diagnosis. Participants who met selection criteria then completed the Headache Disability Inventory and a measure of quality of life (SF-36) to assess the convergent validity of the diaries, and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales to assess the discriminant validity of the diaries. They also completed a Measure of Acceptance Questionnaire. Participants then completed the headache diaries over the next 30 days. Finally, participants completed for a second time the questionnaires completed previously. RESULTS: The 5 outcome measures – headache frequency, peak intensity, average intensity, duration, and medication usage – were found to have strong test-retest reliability (r, 0.68-0.79), for all 3 types of diary. These 5 measures for the e-diaries were shown to have good convergent validity via comparison with scores on the Headache Disability Inventory (r, 0.46-0.55) and SF-36 (r, -0.35 to -0.49), and divergent validity via comparison with scores on the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (r, 0.10-0.25). The long-paper diaries had significantly higher missing data scores (M = 15.20, SD = 14.84) and more errors in data completion (M = 5.47, SD = 3.28) than the e-diaries and short-paper diaries (P < .05). In addition, the long-paper diaries were evaluated by the participants as more burdensome and significantly less easy to use than the e-diaries and short-paper diaries. CONCLUSIONS: The e-diaries evaluated in this research would prove a useful tool in clinical trials of behavioral treatment for headaches.
Bares, Cristina B.; Dick, Danielle M.; Kendler, Kenneth S. (2017): Nicotine dependence, internalizing symptoms, mood variability and daily tobacco use among young adult smokers.
In: Addictive behaviors. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.004.
INTRODUCTION: Cigarette use among young adults continues to rise. As young adults transition to college and assume other adult roles and responsibilities, they are at risk for the development of mental health problems and for the progression of substance use problems. Previous studies suggest that individual differences in negative and positive mood contribute to cigarette use in established college-aged smokers, but less is known whether fluctuations in mood influence daily cigarette use, controlling for trait levels of internalizing symptoms and nicotine dependence. METHODS: Data for this study came from a sample of college students (N=39, 59% female, mean age 20.4years) who reported regular cigarette use and participated in a 21-day ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study assessing within-individual variation in cigarette use and mood. RESULTS: A three-level hierarchical linear model accounting for the structure of 1896 occasions of cigarette use nested within days and individuals indicated that within-individual variability in positive mood was associated with cigarette use at each occasion, after taking into account baseline levels of nicotine dependence and internalizing problems. CONCLUSIONS: Daily shifts in positive moods are importantly associated with consuming cigarettes throughout the day.
Bell, Imogen H.; Lim, Michelle H.; Rossell, Susan L.; Thomas, Neil (2017): Ecological momentary assessment and intervention in the treatment of psychotic disorders. A Systematic Review.
In: Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.) 68 (11), 1172-1181. DOI: 10.1176/appi.ps.201600523.
OBJECTIVE: Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) and ecological momentary intervention (EMI) are technologies used to track fluctuations in experiences and prompt behavioral responses within the context of a person’s daily life. Most commonly delivered via smartphone, EMA and EMI have potential to provide simple, cost-effective, and user-led treatment for psychotic disorders. This systematic review aimed to synthesize current research exploring the feasibility, acceptability, and clinical outcomes of EMA and EMI in the treatment of psychotic disorders. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted identifying studies published between 1980 and July 7, 2016, by searching PubMed, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials with combinations of search terms related to mobile devices, EMA and EMI, and psychotic disorders. RESULTS: Of 1,623 studies identified, nine met inclusion criteria for the review. These studies found satisfactory feasibility and acceptability and preliminary evidence of improved clinical outcomes. The interventions, which had a broad array of features, targeted remote monitoring of illness and symptoms, and they also targeted illness self-management by using momentary reminders or instructions for behaviors, including medication adherence, management of symptoms and psychosocial impairments, daily living skills, and goal achievement. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this review provide preliminary support for the clinical utility of EMA and EMI in the treatment of psychotic disorders. Future research should explore further applications of these technologies with larger sample sizes and controlled designs.
Benedek, Mathias; Jauk, Emanuel; Kerschenbauer, Kevin; Anderwald, Ruth; Grond, Leonhard (2017): Creating art. An experience sampling study in the domain of moving image art.
In: Psychol Aesthet Creat Arts 11 (3), S. 325–334. DOI: 10.1037/aca0000102.
This study investigated work-related behaviors and feelings in the process of creating art. In a collaborative effort by creativity researchers and artistic researchers, we invited artists to create a short film or video for an international art competition and monitored them for 2 weeks while producing the artwork. The artists provided daily reflections on their work process via smartphone or online experience sampling, and we assessed relevant person data via an online questionnaire. Multilevel models were used to explain variability in artwork advancement beyond linear increases over time. Artwork advancement was predicted by deliberate engagement, engrossment in details and enjoyment of work, and by reduced work-related feelings of anxiety and ‘walking in a fog.’ Between-person analyses revealed that artists with higher past artistic achievement and lower agreeableness produced artworks of higher quality in terms of the evaluations by the competition jury. This study demonstrates the feasibility of experience sampling methods for the investigation of extended creative work and highlights some general processes and relevant traits in the process of creating art. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Ben-Zeev, Dror; Brian, Rachel; Wang, Rui; Wang, Weichen; Campbell, Andrew T.; Aung, Min S. H. et al. (2017): CrossCheck. Integrating self-report, behavioral sensing, and smartphone use to identify digital indicators of psychotic relapse.
In: Psychiatr Rehabil J 40 (3), S. 266–275. DOI: 10.1037/prj0000243.
Objective: This purpose of this study was to describe and demonstrate CrossCheck, a multimodal data collection system designed to aid in continuous remote monitoring and identification of subjective and objective indicators of psychotic relapse. Method: Individuals with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders received a smartphone with the monitoring system installed along with unlimited data plan for 12 months. Participants were instructed to carry the device with them and to complete brief self-reports multiple times a week. Multimodal behavioral sensing (i.e., physical activity, geospatials activity, speech frequency, and duration) and device use data (i.e., call and text activity, app use) were captured automatically. Five individuals who experienced psychiatric hospitalization were selected and described for instructive purposes. Results: Participants had unique digital indicators of their psychotic relapse. For some, self-reports provided clear and potentially actionable description of symptom exacerbation prior to hospitalization. Others had behavioral sensing data trends (e.g., shifts in geolocation patterns, declines in physical activity) or device use patterns (e.g., increased nighttime app use, discontinuation of all smartphone use) that reflected the changes they experienced more effectively. Conclusion: Advancements in mobile technology are enabling collection of an abundance of information that until recently was largely inaccessible to clinical research and practice. However, remote monitoring and relapse detection is in its nascence. Development and evaluation of innovative data management, modeling, and signal-detection techniques that can identify changes within an individual over time (i.e., unique relapse signatures) will be essential if we are to capitalize on these data to improve treatment and prevention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Berg, Kelly C.; Cao, Li; Crosby, Ross D.; Engel, Scott G.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crow, Scott J. et al. (2017): Negative affect and binge eating. Reconciling differences between two analytic approaches in ecological momentary assessment research.
In: The International journal of eating disorders 50 (10), S. 1222–1230. DOI: 10.1002/eat.22770.
OBJECTIVE: Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) research has produced contradictory findings regarding the trajectory of negative affect after binge-eating episodes. Given the clinical implications, the objective of the current study was to reconcile these inconsistencies by comparing the two most commonly employed statistical approaches used to analyze these data. METHOD: Data from two EMA studies were analyzed separately. Study 1 included 118 adult females with full- or subthreshold DSM-IV anorexia nervosa. Study 2 included 131 adult females with full-threshold DSM-IV bulimia nervosa. For each dataset, the single most proximal negative affect ratings preceding and following a binge-eating episode were compared. The times at which these ratings were made, relative to binge-eating episodes, were also compared. RESULTS: The results indicate that the average proximal pre-binge ratings of negative affect were significantly higher than the average proximal post-binge ratings of negative affect. However, results also indicate that the average proximal post-binge ratings of negative affect were made significantly closer in time to the binge-eating episodes ( approximately 20 min post-binge) than the average proximal pre-binge ratings of negative affect ( approximately 2.5 hr pre-binge). A graphical representation of the results demonstrates that the average proximal pre-binge and post-binge ratings map closely onto the results of previous studies. DISCUSSION: These data provide one possible explanation for the inconsistent findings regarding the trajectory of negative affect after binge eating. Moreover, they suggest that the findings from previous studies are not necessarily contradictory, but may be complementary, and appear to bolster support for the affect regulation model of binge eating.
Berge, Jerica M.; Trofholz, Amanda; Tate, Allan D.; Beebe, Maureen; Fertig, Angela; Miner, Michael H. et al. (2017): Examining unanswered questions about the home environment and childhood obesity disparities using an incremental, mixed-methods, longitudinal study design. The Family Matters study.
In: Contemporary clinical trials 62, S. 61–76. DOI: 10.1016/j.cct.2017.08.002.
There are disparities in the prevalence of childhood obesity for children from low-income and minority households. Mixed-methods studies that examine home environments in an in-depth manner are needed to identify potential mechanisms driving childhood obesity disparities that have not been examined in prior research. The Family Matters study aims to identify risk and protective factors for childhood obesity in low-income and minority households through a two-phased incremental, mixed-methods, and longitudinal approach. Individual, dyadic (i.e., parent/child; siblings), and familial factors that are associated with, or moderate associations with childhood obesity will be examined. Phase I includes in-home observations of diverse families (n=150; 25 each of African American, American Indian, Hispanic/Latino, Hmong, Somali, and White families). In-home observations include: (1) an interactive observational family task; (2) ecological momentary assessment of parent stress, mood, and parenting practices; (3) child and parent accelerometry; (4) three 24-hour child dietary recalls; (5) home food inventory; (6) built environment audit; (7) anthropometry on all family members; (8) an online survey; and (9) a parent interview. Phase I data will be used for analyses and to inform development of a culturally appropriate survey for Phase II. The survey will be administered at two time points to diverse parents (n=1200) of children ages 5-9. The main aim of the current paper is to describe the Family Matters complex study design and protocol and to report Phase I feasibility data for participant recruitment and study completion. Results from this comprehensive study will inform the development of culturally-tailored interventions to reduce childhood obesity disparities.
Berner, Laura A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Cao, Li; Engel, Scott G.; Lavender, Jason M.; Mitchell, James E.; Wonderlich, Stephen A. (2017): Temporal associations between affective instability and dysregulated eating behavior in bulimia nervosa.
In: J Psychiatr Res 92, S. 183–190. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2017.04.009.
Prior research suggests that the construct of emotional instability may be salient to bulimia nervosa (BN), but no study to date has used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to examine its temporal association with binge eating and purging. In the current study, 133 women with DSM-IV BN used portable digital devices to provide multiple daily negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA) ratings and record eating disorder behaviors over 2 weeks. Two state-of-the art indices quantified affective instability: probability of acute change (PAC), which represents the likelihood of extreme affective increases, and mean squared successive difference (MSSD), which represents average change over successive recordings. For extreme affective change, results revealed that on bulimic behavior days, extreme NA increases were less likely after bulimic behaviors than before them, and extreme increases in PA were more likely after bulimic behaviors than during the same time period on non-bulimic behavior days. However, average NA instability (i.e., MSSD) was (a) greater on bulimic behavior days than non-bulimic behavior days, (b) greater after bulimic behaviors than during the same time period on non-bulimic behavior days, and (c) greater after bulimic behaviors than before them. Results lend support to the notion that bulimic behaviors are negatively reinforcing (i.e., via post-behavior acute affective changes), but also indicate that these behaviors may exacerbate overall affective dysregulation. These findings may improve understanding of BN maintenance and inform the development of novel interventions or refinement of existing treatments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Blechert, J.; Liedlgruber, M.; Lender, A.; Reichenberger, J.; Wilhelm, F. H. (2017): Unobtrusive electromyography-based eating detection in daily life. A new tool to address underreporting?
In: Appetite 118, S. 168–173. DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.08.008.
Research on eating behavior is limited by an overreliance on self-report. It is well known that actual food intake is frequently underreported, and it is likely that this problem is overrepresented in vulnerable populations. The present research tested a chewing detection method that could assist self-report methods. A trained sample of 15 participants (usable data of 14 participants) kept detailed eating records during one day and one night while carrying a recording device. Signals recorded from electromyography sensors unobtrusively placed behind the right ear were used to develop a chewing detection algorithm. Results showed that eating could be detected with high accuracy (sensitivity, specificity >90%) compared to trained self-report. Thus, electromyography-based eating detection might usefully complement future food intake studies in healthy and vulnerable populations.
Bodin, Fernando; McIntyre, Kathleen M.; Schwartz, Joseph E.; McKinley, Paula S.; Cardetti, Caitlyn; Shapiro, Peter A. et al. (2017): The association of cigarette smoking with high frequency heart rate variability. An ecological momentary assessment study.
In: Psychosomatic medicine 79 (9), S. 1045–1050. DOI: 10.1097/PSY.0000000000000507.
OBJECTIVE: Evidence from both laboratory and observational studies suggests that acute and chronic smoking leads to reduced high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), a measure of cardiac vagal regulation. We utilized ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to study the effect of smoking on concurrent HF-HRV in a trial measuring the effects of hostility reduction, and compared 24-hour HF-HRV in smokers and non-smokers. METHOD: Ambulatory ECG data were collected pre-randomization from 149 healthy, individuals with high hostility levels (20-45 years, BMI </= 32 kg/m) and paired with concurrent EMA ratings of smoking, and physical position during waking hours. A multilevel mixed model was estimated associating ln(HF-HRV) from smoking status (between-person factor) and person-centered momentary smoking (within-person factor, treated as a random effect), adjusting for momentary physical position, medication use, and consumption of alcohol and caffeine. RESULTS: 35 smokers and 114 non-smokers provided both EMA and HF-HRV data. Within smokers, ln HF-HRV was reduced by 0.31 ms (p=0.04) when participants reported having recently smoked cigarettes, compared to when they had not. The 24-hour HF-HRV was significantly lower in smokers (mean = 5.24 +/- SD = 0.14 ms) than non-smokers (5.63 +/- 0.07 ms; p=0.01).’ CONCLUSION: In healthy, smokers with high hostility levels used as their own controls during daily living, smoking acutely reduced HF-HRV. HF-HRV was also reduced in smokers as compared to non-smokers. Although limited by a small sample of individuals with high hostility levels, these findings nonetheless provide additional evidence that cardiac vagal regulation is lowered by cigarette smoking, which may be one of the numerous pathophysiological effects of smoking.
Booij, Sanne H.; Snippe, Evelien; Jeronimus, Bertus F.; Wichers, Marieke; Wigman, Johanna T. W. (2018): Affective reactivity to daily life stress. Relationship to positive psychotic and depressive symptoms in a general population sample.
In: Journal of affective disorders 225, S. 474–481. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.08.051.
INTRODUCTION: Increased affective reactivity to daily life stress has been found in individuals with psychosis and depression, and in those at risk for these conditions. Because depressive and psychotic symptoms often co-occur, increased affective reactivity in these disorders may be explained by the presence of depressive symptoms, psychotic symptoms, or both. Therefore, we examined whether affective reactivity to daily stress is related to positive psychotic symptoms, independently of depressive symptoms, and vice versa. METHODS: We used data from an intensive sampling study in the general population (n = 411), with three measurements a day (t = 90). The following subjective stressors were assessed: appraisal of activities, appraisal of social interactions, and experienced physical discomfort. Affective reactivity was conceptualized as both the positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) response to these stressors. By means of mixed model analyses, it was examined whether affective reactivity was independently related to depressive and/or positive psychotic symptoms. RESULTS: The PA response to activities and NA response to social interactions were negatively and positively related to depressive symptoms, respectively, independent of psychotic symptoms. In contrast, no (in)dependent association was found between positive psychotic symptoms and affective reactivity to any of the daily life stressors. These findings were confirmed in a subsample with increased symptoms. LIMITATIONS: The prevalence of positive psychotic symptoms was relatively low in this general population sample. CONCLUSIONS: Increased affect reactivity predicts depressive symptoms, but not positive psychotic symptoms. Affective reactivity may still facilitate the development of psychotic symptomatology via its impact on depressive symptoms.
Borders, Ashley; Lu, Shou‐En (2017): The bidirectional associations between state anger and rumination and the role of trait mindfulness.
In: Aggress Behav 43 (4), S. 342–351. DOI: 10.1002/ab.21693.
Rumination is associated with exacerbated angry mood. Angry moods may also trigger rumination. However, research has not empirically tested the bidirectional associations of state rumination and anger, as experience sampling methodology can do. We predicted that state anger and rumination would be bi‐directionally associated, both concurrently and over time, even controlling for trait anger and rumination. In addition, because mindfulness is associated with rumination and anger at the bivariate level, we examined the effect of trait mindfulness on the bidirectional association between state rumination and anger. We examined two hypotheses: (i) state rumination mediates the effect of trait mindfulness on state anger; and (ii) trait mindfulness weakens, or moderates, the bidirectional associations between state rumination and anger. In an experience‐sampling study, 200 college students reported their current ruminative thinking and angry mood several times a day for 7 days. Mixed model analyses indicated that state anger and rumination predicted each other concurrently. In cross‐lagged analyses, previous anger did not uniquely predict current rumination; previous rumination predicted current anger, although the effect was small. In support of our hypothesis, state rumination mediated the association between trait mindfulness and state anger. Additionally, trait mindfulness moderated the concurrent and cross‐lagged associations between state rumination and anger, although the results were complex. This study contributes new information about the complex interplay of rumination and anger. Findings also add support to the theory that mindfulness decreases emotional reactivity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Bormann, Kai C. (2017): Linking daily ethical leadership to followers’ daily behaviour. The roles of daily work engagement and previous abusive supervision.
In: European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology 26 (4), S. 590–600. DOI: 10.1080/1359432X.2017.1331217.
The aim of this study was to advance literature on ethical leadership towards its day-level application. Daily ethical leadership is defined as ethical leadership behaviours a leader exhibits on a given day. Beneficial effects of daily ethical leadership on daily helping behaviour and daily counterproductive work behaviour via daily work engagement were examined. Furthermore, yesterday’s abusive supervision was postulated to moderate the impact of today’s ethical leadership on work engagement indicating moderated mediation. The relationship between daily ethical leadership and daily work engagement should be stronger when previous abusive supervision was high. This model was tested using an experience sampling methodology spread over 5 working days. The sample consisted of 241 employees from different organizations. Results supported the beneficial indirect impact of daily ethical leadership on daily helping through strengthening daily work engagement. The indirect effect was non-significant for daily counterproductive work behaviour. Consistent with theoretical assumptions, both indirect effects were strongest with high previous abusive supervision and diminished when previous abusive supervision was low. Implications for leadership research and managerial practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Braciszewski, Jordan M.; Tran, Tanya B.; Moore, Roland S.; Bock, Beth C.; Tzilos, Golfo K.; Chamberlain, Patricia; Stout, Robert L. (2017): Developing a tailored texting preventive intervention. A card sort methodology.
In: Journal of applied biobehavioral research 22 (2). DOI: 10.1111/jabr.12060.
PURPOSE: Intervention content written by adults for youth can result in miscommunication due to generational and cultural differences. Inviting at-risk youth to participate in the creation of intervention material can augment acceptability for their peers. METHODS: To improve intervention messaging, the present study examines the utility of a card sort technique when creating cellular phone text messages to be used in a preventive substance use intervention. During focus groups with 24 youth who are exiting the foster care system – a population with distinct cultural attributes – participants were asked to rate stage of change-specific health messages rooted in Motivational Interviewing and the Transtheoretical Model. RESULTS: Participants unanimously favored content that encouraged autonomy and choice. Statements that invited a “look to the future” were also rated favorably. Messages that referenced the past were not rated well, as were suggestions for professional assistance. Finally, encouragement to receive social support for change was met with ambivalence. While some participants regarded support as helpful, many others felt a severe lack of support in their lives, possibly prompting further substance use. CONCLUSIONS: Youth exiting foster care constitute a unique population whose voice is paramount in the development of interventions. The content present in traditional approaches to substance use prevention (e.g., increasing social support) may not apply to this group of vulnerable youth. The card sort technique has strong potential to evoke youth-specific intervention content that is more readily understood and accepted by target audiences.
Carels, Robert A.; Rossi, James; Solar, Chelsey; Selensky, Jennifer C. (2017): An ecological momentary assessment of weight stigma among weight loss participants.
In: Journal of health psychology, 1359105317692855. DOI: 10.1177/1359105317692855.
This investigation explored experiences of weight stigma using momentary, real-time diary assessments among adults seeking weight loss treatment. In total, 51 participants completed diary assessments of weight stigmatizing events and reported how they felt and coped with each incident. Experiencing stigma was significantly associated with fewer positive and greater negative emotions. There was a significant inverse relationship between using positive self-talk and feeling numb and a positive relationship between using isolation/avoidance coping and feeling depressed, ashamed, and less happy. The significant negative momentary impacts of weight stigma likely contribute to the long-term negative consequences of experiencing weight stigma.
Carpenter, Ryan W.; Trela, Constantine J.; Lane, Sean P.; Wood, Phillip K.; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Trull, Timothy J. (2017): Elevated rate of alcohol consumption in borderline personality disorder patients in daily life.
In: Psychopharmacology. DOI: 10.1007/s00213-017-4727-1.
RATIONALE: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is highly associated with alcohol use disorder, but little is known about how BPD individuals consume alcohol or the immediate effects of their consumption. There is therefore a need for research investigating drinking behavior in BPD. OBJECTIVES: The current study examined rate of alcohol consumption in BPD (N = 54) and community individuals (COM; N = 59) within ecologically valid drinking episodes. We hypothesized that rate of consumption would be elevated in BPD individuals. We further hypothesized that rate of consumption would be positively associated with subjective stimulation, but not sedation, and that stimulation would be associated with increased positive affect (PA) and reduced negative affect (NA). METHODS: Ambulatory assessment was used to assess rate of consumption, subjective alcohol response, and affect in the moment (N observations = 3444). Rate of consumption was defined as change in estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) relative to drinking episode start. Multilevel modeling was used to test hypotheses. RESULTS: As hypothesized, BPD individuals demonstrated a faster increase in eBAC than COM individuals. Rate of consumption was associated with subjective stimulation, but not sedation, in both groups. Stimulation was associated with increased PA in both groups and reduced NA in the BPD group. CONCLUSIONS: BPD individuals consumed alcohol more rapidly than COM individuals. Faster consumption may serve as a means for BPD individuals to maximize the rewarding pharmacological effects of alcohol and to increase positive and reduce negative affect.
Catterson, Arman Daniel; Eldesouky, Lameese; John, Oliver P. (2017): An experience sampling approach to emotion regulation. Situational suppression use and social hierarchy.
In: Journal of research in personality 69, S. 33–43. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrp.2016.04.004.
Whereas past research has examined the use of emotion regulation strategies in terms of individual differences or responses to experimental manipulations, this research takes a naturalistic and repeated-measures approach to examine suppression use in specific situations. Using an experience sampling design, we find evidence across two samples (total N = 215) that (1) there was substantial within-person variation in suppression use, (2) the situational use of suppression was explained by situational differences in extraversion and social hierarchy, and (3) when used in contexts in which people felt they were low in social hierarchy, the negative relationship between suppression and well-being was attenuated. These findings suggest there are contexts in which suppression use may not be maladaptive, and demonstrate the benefits of studying emotion processes in real-life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Connolly, Samantha L.; Alloy, Lauren B. (2017): Rumination interacts with life stress to predict depressive symptoms. An ecological momentary assessment study.
In: Behaviour research and therapy 97, S. 86–95. DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.07.006.
Rumination is a well-established vulnerability factor for depression that may exert deleterious effects both independently and in interaction with stress. The current study examined momentary ruminative self-focus (MRS) and stress-reactive rumination (SRR) as predictors of depressive symptoms utilizing a smartphone ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design. 121 undergraduates responded to four text message alerts per day for one week in which they indicated the occurrence of life stress, rumination, and depressed mood. SRR, but not MRS, independently predicted increases in depressive symptoms. MRS interacted with depressive symptoms to predict increases in symptoms at the subsequent timepoint, supporting the deleterious effects of depressive rumination on future mood state. Interactions emerged between stress and both MRS and SRR, such that experiencing higher levels of stressors and rumination at an observation predicted greater increases in depressive symptoms. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate that state rumination moderates the effect of stress in predicting depressive symptoms using EMA methodology. Results suggest that rumination levels in response to stress vary within individuals and can have an important effect on depressed mood. Findings may have important clinical implications, as lessening individuals’ tendency to engage in rumination following stress may help to alleviate depressive symptoms.
Cotter, Katherine N.; Silvia, Paul J. (2017): Measuring mental music. Comparing retrospective and experience sampling methods for assessing musical imagery.
In: Psychol Aesthet Creat Arts 11 (3), S. 335–343. DOI: 10.1037/aca0000124.
Musical imagery—hearing music in your mind that isn’t playing in the environment—has been investigated using both retrospective methods (self-report scales of typical experiences) and in vivo methods (assessing inner music as it happens in daily life). But because musical imagery is often fleeting and on the fringe of conscious attention, retrospective self-report measures of inner music might correspond poorly with people’s actual experience of inner music. The present research thus compared reports from a retrospective measure of musical imagery (the Involuntary Musical Imagery Scale) and a week of intensive experience sampling in a sample of 132 young adults. For 7 days, participants were signaled 14 times daily between 8 a.m. and midnight. Both methods assessed the frequency and length of imagery episodes and the subjective qualities of the experience: its valence, whether people moved along with the imagery, and if the imagery helped their current activities. People’s retrospective reports of the frequency and length of their musical imagery experiences were more strongly related to their in-the-moment reports, whereas their retrospective reports of the qualities of inner music experiences were largely unrelated to in-the-moment reports. In general, musical expertise was more strongly related to the in-the-moment reports of musical imagery than their retrospective counterparts. The gap between how people actually experience inner music in daily life and their beliefs about their experiences suggests that musical imagery, like other subtle and fleeting experiences, is better captured by in vivo methods. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Cristobal-Narvaez, P.; Sheinbaum, T.; Myin-Germeys, I.; Kwapil, T. R.; Castro-Catala, M. de; Dominguez-Martinez, T. et al. (2017): The role of stress-regulation genes in moderating the association of stress and daily-life psychotic experiences.
In: Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica 136 (4), S. 389–399. DOI: 10.1111/acps.12789.
OBJECTIVE: The interaction of single nucleotide polymorphisms with both distal and proximal environmental factors across the extended psychosis phenotype is understudied. This study examined (i) the interaction of relevant SNPs with both early-life adversity and proximal (momentary) stress on psychotic experiences (PEs) in an extended psychosis sample; and (ii) differences between early-psychosis and non-clinical groups for these interactions. METHODS: Two hundred and forty-two non-clinical and 96 early-psychosis participants were prompted randomly eight times daily for 1 week to complete assessments of current experiences, including PEs and stress. Participants also reported on childhood trauma and were genotyped for 10 SNPs on COMT, RGS4, BDNF, FKBP5, and OXTR genes. RESULTS: Unlike genetic variants, distal and proximal stressors were associated with PEs in both samples and were more strongly associated with PEs in the early-psychosis than in the non-clinical group. The RGS4 TA and FKBP5 CATT haplotypes interacted with distal stress, whereas the A allele of OXTR (rs2254298) interacted with proximal stress, increasing momentary levels of PEs in the early-psychosis group. No interactions emerged with COMT or BDNF variants. CONCLUSION: Individual differences in relevant stress-regulation systems interact with both distal and proximal psychosocial stressors in shaping the daily-life manifestation of PEs across the psychosis continuum.
Crouch, Tara A.; Lewis, Jamie A.; Erickson, Thane M.; Newman, Michelle G. (2017): Prospective investigation of the contrast avoidance model of generalized anxiety and worry.
In: Behav Ther 48 (4), S. 544–556. DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2016.10.001.
The factors that maintain generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms and worry over time are not entirely clear. The Contrast Avoidance Model (CAM) postulates that individuals at risk for pathological worry and GAD symptoms uniquely fear emotional shifts from neutral or positive emotions into negative emotional states, and consequently use worry to maintain negative emotion in order to avoid shifts or blunt the effect of negative contrasts. This model has received support in laboratory experiments, but has not been investigated prospectively in the naturalistic context of daily life. The present study tested the CAM in a longitudinal experience sampling study with a subclinical sample. Participants selected to represent a broad range of symptoms (N = 92) completed baseline measures of GAD and depression symptoms, and eight weekly assessments of worry, experiences of negative emotional contrasts during their worst event of the week, and situation-specific negative emotion. Consistent with the CAM, GAD symptoms prospectively predicted higher endorsement of negative contrast experiences as worst events, independent of depression symptoms. Unsurprisingly, higher negative contrasts predicted higher negative emotion. However, both higher baseline GAD symptoms and weekly worry uniquely moderated (reduced) this relationship, providing consistent support for the idea that worry may blunt the emotional effects of contrasts. Depression symptoms did not have the same moderating effect. These findings support the CAM in an ecologically valid context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Cuspidi, Cesare; Sala, Carla; Tadic, Marijana; Gherbesi, Elisa; Giorgi, Antonio de; Grassi, Guido; Mancia, Giuseppe (2017): Clinical and prognostic significance of a reverse dipping pattern on ambulatory monitoring. An updated review.
In: Journal of clinical hypertension (Greenwich, Conn.) 19 (7), S. 713–721. DOI: 10.1111/jch.13023.
Reverse or inverted dipping (ie, the phenomenon characterized by higher nighttime compared with daytime blood pressure values) is an alteration of circadian blood pressure rhythm frequently documented in hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and sleep apnea syndrome, and generally regarded as a harmful condition. Available literature on the clinical and prognostic implications of reverse dipping is scanty. The present article will review a number of relevant issues concerning reverse dipping, in particular: (1) its possible mechanisms; (2) prevalence and clinical correlates, (3) concomitant cardiac and extracardiac subclinical organ damage; (4) association with acute and chronic cardiovascular diseases; (5) prognostic value in predicting cardiovascular events and mortality; and (6) therapeutic interventions aimed at reverting this abnormal circadian blood pressure rhythm.
Debrot, Anik; Meuwly, Nathalie; Muise, Amy; Impett, Emily A.; Schoebi, Dominik (2017): Morethan just sex. Affection mediates the association between sexual activity and well-being.
In: Personality & social psychology bulletin 43 (3), S. 287–299. DOI: 10.1177/0146167216684124.
Positive interpersonal interactions such as affection are central to well-being. Sex is associated with greater individual well-being, but little is known about why this occurs. We predicted that experienced affection would account for the association between sex and well-being. Cross-sectional results indicated that affection mediated the association between sex and both life satisfaction (Study 1) and positive emotions (however, among men only in Study 2). In Study 3, an experience sampling study with 106 dual-earner couples with children, affection mediated the association between sex and increased positive affect in daily life. Cross-lagged analyses in Study 3 to 4 supported the predicted direction of the associations. Moreover, the strength of the daily association between sex and positive affect predicted both partners’ relationship satisfaction 6 months later. Our findings underscore the importance of affection and positive affect for understanding how sex promotes well-being and has long-term relational benefits.
Debrot, Anik; Siegler, Sebastian; Klumb, Petra L.; Schoebi, Dominik (2017): Daily work stress and relationship satisfaction. Detachment affects romantic couples’ interactions quality.
In: J Happiness Stud. DOI: 10.1007/s10902-017-9922-6.
Psychologically detaching from work in the private setting is crucial to recover from work stress and promotes well-being. Moreover, broad evidence documents negative effects of stress on relationship quality. However, the interpersonal consequences of detachment have barely been studied. We seek to investigate, in daily life, whether and how detachment affects the interaction quality with the romantic partner. We propose that stress impedes detaching from work, and that detachment in turn, promotes individuals’ ability to engage in positive interactions at home, which increases individual and relational well-being. In a first experience sampling study, involving 106 dual-earner couples with young children, detachment mediated the association between work stress and not only the stressed individual’s, but also their partner’s relationship quality. However, positive (affectionate) behaviors did not play a significant role in this process. In a second experience sampling study, involving 53 dual-earner couples with preschool children, detachment was associated with more affectionate interactions, which in turn, predicted lower actor, but not partner evening strain. These results suggest that detachment from work not only affects the working individual’s, but also their close partner’s the perception of their interactions, showing that detachment plays an important mediating role in the stress spillover and crossover process. This emphasizes the relevance of addressing interpersonal processes in the association between detachment and well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Debusscher, Jonas; Hofmans, Joeri; Fruyt, Filip de (2017): The multiple face(t)s of state conscientiousness. Predicting task performance and organizational citizenship behavior.
In: Journal of research in personality 69, S. 78–85. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrp.2016.06.009.
Previous studies have shown that conscientiousness facets incrementally predict performance above and beyond trait conscientiousness. In the present paper we investigate whether this finding also holds at the daily level. We conducted a ten-day experience sampling study assessing state conscientiousness in the morning and task performance and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) in the afternoon. Using multilevel bi-factor modeling we show that general state conscientiousness positively predicts both task performance and OCB. Moreover, self-discipline and deliberation showed incremental predictive validity above and beyond overall state conscientiousness in the prediction of daily task performance, whereas none of the state conscientiousness facets uniquely predicted daily OCB levels. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Dekkers, Tessa; Melles, Marijke; Mathijssen, Nina M. C.; Vehmeijer, Stephan B. W.; Ridder, Huib de (2017): Tailoring the orthopaedic consultation. How perceived patient characteristics influence surgeons’ communication.
In: Patient education and counseling. DOI: 10.1016/j.pec.2017.08.018.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether and how orthopaedic surgeons tailor communication during medical consultations based on perceived patient characteristics. METHODS: Seven orthopaedic surgeons were repeatedly interviewed following an approach based on ecological momentary assessment. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the eighty short interviews. The association between patient characteristics and tailoring approaches was explored in a correspondence analysis of the counted codes. RESULTS: Surgeons estimate patients’ competence (illness management and communication abilities), autonomy, and interpersonal behaviour. They report tailoring communication in two-thirds of the consultations. The surgeons’ perception was associated with the employment of specific approaches to communication: (1) high patient competence with extensive information provision or no changes in communication, (2) less autonomy and less competence with reassurance and direction, (3) high autonomy with discussions about pace and expectations, and (4) high sociability with communication about personal circumstances and wishes. CONCLUSION: The surgeon’s perception of a patient influences communication during consultations. Future research should address whether these intuitively employed approaches are appropriate, effective, and generalizable to other medical specialists. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Tailoring physician-patient communication can improve its quality. The novel approaches identified in this study can be used to formulate and test formal guidelines for tailored communication.
Dogan, Ezgi; Sander, Christian; Wagner, Xenija; Hegerl, Ulrich; Kohls, Elisabeth (2017): Smartphonebased monitoring of objective and subjective data in affective disorders. Where are we and where are we going? Systematic review.
In: Journal of medical Internet research 19 (7), e262. DOI: 10.2196/jmir.7006.
BACKGROUND: Electronic mental health interventions for mood disorders have increased rapidly over the past decade, most recently in the form of various systems and apps that are delivered via smartphones. OBJECTIVE: We aim to provide an overview of studies on smartphone-based systems that combine subjective ratings with objectively measured data for longitudinal monitoring of patients with affective disorders. Specifically, we aim to examine current knowledge on: (1) the feasibility of, and adherence to, such systems; (2) the association of monitored data with mood status; and (3) the effects of monitoring on clinical outcomes. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for relevant articles published in the last ten years (2007-2017) by applying Boolean search operators with an iterative combination of search terms, which was conducted in February 2017. Additional articles were identified via pearling, author correspondence, selected reference lists, and trial protocols. RESULTS: A total of 3463 unique records were identified. Twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. The majority of articles represented feasibility studies (n=27); two articles reported results from one randomized controlled trial (RCT). In total, six different self-monitoring systems for affective disorders that used subjective mood ratings and objective measurements were included. These objective parameters included physiological data (heart rate variability), behavioral data (phone usage, physical activity, voice features), and context/environmental information (light exposure and location). The included articles contained results regarding feasibility of such systems in affective disorders, showed reasonable accuracy in predicting mood status and mood fluctuations based on the objectively monitored data, and reported observations about the impact of monitoring on clinical state and adherence of patients to the system usage. CONCLUSIONS: The included observational studies and RCT substantiate the value of smartphone-based approaches for gathering long-term objective data (aside from self-ratings to monitor clinical symptoms) to predict changes in clinical states, and to investigate causal inferences about state changes in patients with affective disorders. Although promising, a much larger evidence-base is necessary to fully assess the potential and the risks of these approaches. Methodological limitations of the available studies (eg, small sample sizes, variations in the number of observations or monitoring duration, lack of RCT, and heterogeneity of methods) restrict the interpretability of the results. However, a number of study protocols stated ambitions to expand and intensify research in this emerging and promising field.
Edmondson, Donald; Sumner, Jennifer A.; Kronish, Ian M.; Burg, Matthew M.; Oyesiku, Linda; Schwartz, Joseph E. (2017): The association of PTSD with clinic and ambulatory blood pressure in healthy adults.
In: Psychosomatic medicine. DOI: 10.1097/PSY.0000000000000523.
OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with incident cardiovascular risk. We tested the association of PTSD with clinic and ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in a sample of healthy participants, and test ABP reactivity to anxiety as a mechanism by which PTSD may influence BP. METHODS: Participants were originally enrolled during workplace BP screenings at 3 sites; approximately 6 years (SD=1.0) later, they completed 9 clinic BP assessments over 3 visits, 1 week apart. Prior to the 3rd visit, participants were screened for PTSD (>/= 33 on the PTSD Checklist-Civilian) and depression (Beck Depression Inventory), then completed 24-hour ABP monitoring with electronic diary assessment of anxiety (0-100) at each awake reading. RESULTS: Of 440 participants, 92 (21%) screened positive for PTSD. In regression models adjusted for depression and demographic and clinical variables, PTSD was associated with greater mean systolic BP [3.8 mmHg clinic (95% CI: 1.1 to 6.5, p=0.006), 3.0 mmHg awake ABP (95% CI: 0.1 to 5.9, p=0.04), and a non-significant 2.1 mmHg ABP during sleep, (95% CI: -1.0 to 5.1, p=0.18)]. PTSD was associated with greater 24-hour median anxiety (p< 0.001), and changes in anxiety were positively associated with concurrent systolic ABP (p<0.001). ABP reactivity to anxiety was greater in participants with PTSD, which partially explained the association of PTSD with ABP. CONCLUSIONS: PTSD is associated with greater systolic BP, partly because of greater anxiety, and systolic BP reactivity to anxiety, throughout the day. Daily anxiety and related BP reactivity may be targets for interventions to reduce the cardiovascular risk associated with PTSD.
Elliston, Katherine G.; Ferguson, Stuart G.; Schuz, Benjamin (2017): Personal and situational predictors of everyday snacking. An application of temporal self-regulation theory.
In: British journal of health psychology 22 (4), S. 854–871. DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12259.
OBJECTIVES: This study aims at testing predictions derived from temporal self-regulation theory (TST) in relation to discretionary food choices (snacks). TST combines a motivational sphere of influence (cognitions and temporal valuations resulting in intentions) with a momentary sphere (encompassing social and physical environmental cues). This dual approach differs from current health behaviour theories, but can potentially improve our understanding of the interplay of personal and environmental factors in health behaviour self-regulation. DESIGN: A mixed event-based and time-based (Ecological Momentary Assessment) study in 61 adults aged between 18 and 64, with a BMI range between 18.34 and 39.78 (M = 25.66, SD = 4.82) over two weeks. METHODS: Participants recorded their food and drink intake for two weeks in real time using electronic diaries. Participants also responded to non-consumption assessments at random intervals throughout each day. Momentary cues (individual, situational, and environmental factors) were assessed both during food logs and non-consumption assessments. Motivational factors, past behaviour, and trait self-regulation were assessed during baseline. RESULTS: Multilevel logistic regression analyses showed that across all snack types, environmental cues and negative affect were associated with an increased likelihood of snacking. Perceiving a cost of healthy eating to occur before eating was associated with an increased likelihood of snacking, whereas intentions and self-regulation were not. CONCLUSIONS: Discretionary food intake is largely guided by momentary cues, and motivational-level factors, such as intention and self-regulation, are less important in the initiation of discretionary food intake. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Overweight and obesity are a result of prolonged periods of energy imbalance between energy intake and expenditure (Hill & Peters, ). One of the key behavioural determinants of energy imbalances results from food intake, specifically from discretionary food choices (snacking). Temporal self-regulation theory (Hall & Fong, ) takes into account both deliberate and momentary influences on health behaviour, which is especially relevant to exploring the drivers of snacking. What does this study add? Offers new insight into the application of TST in explaining momentary eating behaviours. Snacking initiation is guided by momentary cues, not person-level factors. Dietary interventions should acknowledge the momentary cues that are associated with snacking.
Emerson, Jessica A.; Dunsiger, Shira; Williams, David M. (2017): Reciprocal within-day associations between incidental affect and exercise. An EMA study.
In: Psychology & health, S. 1–14. DOI: 10.1080/08870446.2017.1341515.
Previous research suggests that how people feel throughout the course of a day (i.e. incidental affect) is predictive of exercise behaviour. A mostly separate literature suggests that exercise can lead to more positive incidental affect. OBJECTIVE: This study examines the potential reciprocal effects of incidental affect and exercise behaviour within the same day. DESIGN: Fifty-nine low-active (exercise <60 min/week), overweight (BMI: 25.0-39.9) adults (ages 18-65) participated in a six-month print-based exercise promotion programme. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Ecological momentary assessment was used to record self-reported exercise sessions in real time and incidental affective valence (feeling good/bad) as assessed by the 11-point Feeling Scale at random times throughout the day. RESULTS: Use of a within-subjects cross-lagged, autoregressive model showed that participants were more likely to exercise on days when they experienced more positive incidental affect earlier in the day (b = .58, SE = .10, p < .01), and participants were more likely to experience more positive incidental affect on days when they had exercised (b = .26, SE = .03, p < .01), with the former association significantly stronger than the latter (t = 23.54, p < .01). CONCLUSION: The findings suggest a positive feedback loop whereby feeling good and exercising are reciprocally influential within the course of a day.
Erickson, Thane M.; Granillo, M. Teresa; Crocker, Jennifer; Abelson, James L.; Reas, Hannah E.; Quach, Christina M. (2017): Compassionate and self-image goals as interpersonal maintenance factors in clinical depression and anxiety.
In: Journal of clinical psychology. DOI: 10.1002/jclp.22524.
OBJECTIVE: Interpersonal models of depression and anxiety have not examined the role of interpersonal goals in shaping relationships and symptoms. Striving to promote/protect desired self-images (self-image goals) may undermine relationships and increase symptoms, whereas striving to support others (compassionate goals) may be protective, but clinical relevance is unknown. METHOD: We tested effects of compassionate versus self-image goals on interpersonal functioning and symptoms in clinically depressed and/or anxious participants (N = 47) during 10 days of experience sampling, over a 6-week follow-up, and in a dyadic relationship. RESULTS: Participants reported higher conflict and symptoms on days that they most pursued self-image goals, but noted higher perceived support and lower symptoms when pursuing compassionate goals. Goals prospectively predicted symptom changes 6 weeks later. Lastly, informant-rated interpersonal goals predicted relationship satisfaction of both patients and significant others. CONCLUSION: Results suggest the relevance of self-image and compassionate goals for the interpersonal maintenance of depression and anxiety.
Fazeli, Pariya L.; Turan, Janet M.; Budhwani, Henna; Smith, Whitney; Raper, James L.; Mugavero, Michael J.; Turan, Bulent (2017): Moment-to-moment within-person associations between acts of discrimination and internalized stigma in people living with HIV. An experience sampling study.
In: Stigma and Health 2 (3), S. 216–228. DOI: 10.1037/sah0000051.
Internalized stigma related to HIV is associated with poorer outcomes for people living with HIV (PLWH). However, little is known about the association between experiences of daily acts of discrimination by others and the activation of internalized stigma, including factors that may moderate this association. One hundred 9 men living with HIV responded to experience sampling method (ESM) questions 3 times a day for 7 days via smart-phones. ESM questions included experiences of recent acts of discrimination, internalized HIV stigma, avoidance coping with HIV, and recent social support. We also administered several traditional questionnaire measures assessing psychosocial constructs. In hierarchical linear modeling analyses controlling for age, race, socioeconomic status, and time on antiretroviral therapy, experiencing discrimination predicted internalized stigma within persons. Individuals higher on attachment-related avoidance, attachment-related anxiety, avoidance coping, perceived community stigma, and helplessness, and individuals lower on social support had stronger associations between discrimination and current internalized stigma. Similarly, results from 2 state moderator variables supported our trait analyses: State-level (ESM) social support and avoidance coping were significant moderators. Thus, when PLWH experience incidents of discrimination due to HIV, this may lead to increased feelings of internalized stigma. We extend the literature by demonstrating that the associations between experienced and internalized stigma are not just at the generalized trait level, but also occur at the state level, accounting for within-person variability. Results provide implications for interventions aiming to modify maladaptive interpersonal traits as well as interventions to increase social support to reduce the impact of discrimination on PLWH. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Fernandez-Castro, Jordi; Martinez-Zaragoza, Fermin; Rovira, Tatiana; Edo, Silvia; Solanes-Puchol, Angel; Martin-Del-Rio, Beatriz et al. (2017): How does emotional exhaustion influence work stress? Relationships between stressor appraisals, hedonic tone, and fatigue in nurses’ daily tasks. A longitudinal cohort study.
In: International journal of nursing studies 75, S. 43–50. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2017.07.002.
BACKGROUND: Work-related stress is a prevalent condition in the nursing profession, and its influence may vary according to changeable individual and situational factors. It is, therefore, important to investigate the real-time momentary changes in these factors and their relationship to emotional exhaustion experienced by nurses. OBJECTIVES: We aim to analyse how their perceptions of demand, control, effort and reward change according to the task performed through real-time assessment and interact with the emotional exhaustion level of ward nurses. DESIGN: The research design was longitudinal. METHOD: A three-level hierarchical model with a repeated measures design was used to assess the momentary self-reports of 96 hospital ward nurses, completed using a smartphone programmed with random alarms. RESULTS: Findings show that demand, effort, and control appraisals depend on the task performed. The task appraised as most demanding, effortful, and controllable was direct care. Reward appraisal depends on the task performed and personal variables, i.e. emotional exhaustion. The situations perceived as more rewarding were rest and direct care. Momentary hedonic tone can be explained by the task performed, demand, reward, emotional exhaustion and by the interaction between emotional exhaustion and demand appraisal. Momentary fatigue can be explained by the task performed, demand, reward, and the emotional exhaustion. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the importance of using momentary measures to understand complex and changeable inter-relationships. While also clarifying the targets of intervention programmes aimed at preventing burnout within the nursing profession.
Finan, Patrick H.; Carroll, C. Patrick; Moscou-Jackson, Gyasi; Martel, Marc O.; Campbell, Claudia M.; Pressman, Alex et al. (2017): Daily opioid use fluctuates as a function of pain, catastrophizing, and affect in patients with sickle cell disease. An electronic daily diary analysis.
In: The journal of pain : official journal of the American Pain Society. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpain.2017.08.010.
Chronic opioid therapy is a common treatment regimen for patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), a chronically painful recessive hemoglobinopathy. The collective risk profile of chronic opioid therapy necessitates an understanding of which pain-related factors, such as affect and pain catastrophizing, are associated with the ebbs and flows of opioid use in daily life, a topic that has received very little attention among patients with any type of chronically painful condition, including SCD. We therefore investigated the variability of day-to-day patterns of short and long-acting opioid use and their associations with pain and pain-related cognitive and affective processes in daily life among patients with SCD using a nightly electronic diary (N = 45). Opioid use was self-reported and converted into oral morphine equivalents for analysis, which was conducted with mixed effects modeling. Results indicated that greater pain and pain catastrophizing were associated with greater use of short- acting opioids, and negative affect was associated with greater use of long-acting opioids. Additionally, the association of pain and short-acting opioid use was moderated by pain catastrophizing, showing that opioid use was elevated when patients catastrophized about their pain, even if they reported low levels of pain. These findings suggest that monitoring pain-related cognitive and affective variables may be a useful approach to understanding risk for problematic opioid use in patients with daily pain. PERSPECTIVE: The present study demonstrates that pain and pain-related cognitive and affective variables are associated with daily variation in prescription opioid use in sickle cell disease. The findings may have broad implications for tracking and defining risk for prescription opioid misuse in patients with daily pain.
Fischer, Sarah; Breithaupt, Lauren; Wonderlich, Joseph; Westwater, Margaret L.; Crosby, Ross D.; Engel, Scott G. et al. (2017): Impact of the neural correlates of stress and cue reactivity on stress related binge eating in the natural environment.
In: J Psychiatr Res 92, S. 15–23. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2017.03.017.
Women with symptoms of bulimia nervosa (BN) exhibit decreased response to visual food cues in several limbic and frontal regions compared to controls. Stress causes decreased blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response in these regions in non-clinical samples; there is a lack of data on this topic in BN. This study examined the impact of individual differences in neural reactivity to palatable food cues following acute stress on stress-binge trajectories in everyday life. 16 women with BN symptoms viewed palatable food cues prior to and immediately following an acute stress induction in the scanner. Participants then responded to a series of prompts assessing daily ratings of stress and binge episodes for a period of two weeks. Decreased BOLD signal was observed in response to food cues pre to post stress in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), amygdala, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Ecological momentary assessment data collection demonstrated that stress increased prior to binge episodes in the natural environment, and decreased following. Changes in activation in the ACC, precuneus, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) significantly moderated the relationship of stress to binge eating in daily life, such that women who exhibited decreased response reported significantly increasing stress prior to binges, while women who did not exhibit decreases reported no significant change in stress prior to binges. Individual differences in neural response to food cues under stress appear to underlie distinct antecedants to binge eating. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Hartley-Clark, Linda; Cummins, Robert A.; Tomyn, Adrian J.; Weinberg, Melissa K.; Richardson, Ben (2017): Using dynamic factor analysis to provide insights into data reliability in experience sampling studies.
In: Psychol Assess 29 (9), S. 1120–1128. DOI: 10.1037/pas0000411.
The past 2 decades have seen increasing use of experience sampling methods (ESMs) to gain insights into the daily experience of affective states (e.g., its variability, as well as antecedents and consequences of temporary shifts in affect). Much less attention has been given to methodological challenges, such as how to ensure reliability of test scores obtained using ESM. The present study demonstrates the use of dynamic factor analysis (DFA) to quantify reliability of test scores in ESM contexts, evaluates the potential impact of unreliable test scores, and seeks to identify characteristics of individuals that may account for their unreliable test scores. One hundred twenty-seven participants completed baseline measures (demographics and personality traits), followed by a 7-day ESM phase in which positive and negative state affect were measured up to 6 times per day. Analyses showed that although at the sample level, scores on these affect measures exhibited adequate levels of reliability, up to one third of participants failed to meet conventional standards of reliability. Where these low reliability estimates were not significantly associated with personality factors, they could—in some cases—be explained by model misspecification where a meaningful alternative structure was available. Despite these potential differences in factor structure across participants, subsequent modeling with and without these ‘unreliable’ cases showed similar substantive results. Hence, the present findings suggest typical analyses based on ESM data may be robust to individual differences in data structure and/or quality. Ways to augment the DFA approach to better understand unreliable cases are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Public Significance Statement—Despite increasing research interest in monitoring phenomena that fluctuate in daily life (e.g., affective states, smoking-related cravings), researchers have received limited guidance regarding how to evaluate whether these measurements are valid and reliable. The present study demonstrates the use of dynamic factor analysis for evaluating measurement reliability in this context and, in cases of identified poor reliability, explores ways to better understand the source of this low reliability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Gilbert, Kirsten; Mineka, Susan; Zinbarg, Richard E.; Craske, Michelle G.; Adam, Emma K. (2017): Emotion regulation regulates more than emotion. Associations of momentary emotion regulation with diurnal cortisol in current and past depression and anxiety.
In: Clinical psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science 5 (1), S. 37–51. DOI: 10.1177/2167702616654437.
Maladaptive emotion regulation and dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning are characteristic of depression and anxiety. However, little research examines whether and how emotion regulation affects HPA axis functioning. We utilized an experience sampling methodology to examine associations between three emotion regulation strategies (problem solving, disengagement, and emotional expression/support seeking) and diurnal cortisol rhythms and reactivity in everyday life. Participants were young adults with current, past, or no history of internalizing disorders (depression or anxiety; N = 182). Across participants, problem solving was associated with an elevated cortisol awakening response (CAR) while disengagement was associated with a steeper cortisol slope. Only for individuals with internalizing disorders was momentary problem solving and emotional expression/support seeking associated with higher cortisol reactivity and emotional expression/support seeking associated with a flatter diurnal slope and blunted CAR. Results provide insight into associations between emotion regulation and day-to-day HPA-axis functioning.
Gloster, Andrew T.; Miche, Marcel; Wersebe, Hanna; Mikoteit, Thorsten; Hoyer, Jurgen; Imboden, Christian et al. (2017): Daily fluctuation of emotions and memories thereof. Design and methods of an experience sampling study of major depression, social phobia, and controls.
In: International journal of methods in psychiatric research 26 (3). DOI: 10.1002/mpr.1578.
Symptom fluctuations and the dynamic contexts provoking these are poorly understood. This deficit is compounded by people’s limited ability to accurately report about such dimensions in retrospect. Utilizing the advantages of experience sampling methodology (ESM), this study rigorously describes and tests proximal environmental, neurobiological and psychological factors associated with symptoms and mood states. Participants were assigned to three diagnostic groups: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD; n = 118), Social Phobia (SP; n = 47), or a Control Group without SP or MDD (CG; n = 119). Laboratory assessments included cognitive abilities, memory, constructs, and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). ESM lasted seven days, with six assessments per day covering symptoms, affect, daily events, social interactions, post-event processing, well-being, etc. Morning cortisol and actigraphy were also assessed during ESM. Thereafter, participants provided subjective retrospective recall estimates of the emotions they reported during ESM. The multi-level data of >10,000 observations will allow for thorough examination of fluctuations of psychopathology and well-being in two highly prevalent disorders. Using two clinical groups and a non-affected control group, the clinical specificity versus generalizability of processes can be directly tested, thus providing stimulating information about the overlap and differences between anxiety and affective disorders. This research informs about the development, fluctuation, and maintaining factors of emotions and symptoms and examines the accuracy with which participants recall these dimensions.
Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Crosby, Ross D.; Cao, Li; Pearson, Carolyn M.; Utzinger, Linsey M.; Pacanowski, Carly R. et al. (2017): Contextual factors associated with eating in the absence of hunger among adults with obesity.
In: Eat Behav 26, S. 33–39. DOI: 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2017.01.005.
Eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) is under-explored in adults with obesity. In this study, 50 adults with obesity recorded eating episodes and theoretically-relevant environmental, perceptual, and emotional correlates in the natural environment for 2weeks via ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Generalized linear models and mixed models were used to characterize correlates and consequences of EAH vs. non-EAH episodes/tendencies (within-subjects and between-subjects effects, respectively), time of day, and time of day × EAH interactions. Approximately 21% of EMA-recorded eating episodes involved EAH, and 70% of participants reported at least 1 EAH episode. At the within-person level, participants’ EAH episodes were associated with greater self-labeled overeating than their non-EAH episodes. At the between-person level, participants who tended to engage in more EAH reported less self-labeled overeating than those who engaged in less EAH. Across EAH and non-EAH episodes, eating in the evening was associated with overeating, expecting eating to be more rewarding, greater alcoholic beverage consumption, eating alone, eating because others are eating, and eating while watching television. Significant EAH × time of day interactions were also observed but the pattern of findings was not consistent. Findings suggest that EAH may be a relevant target for reducing food intake in individuals with obesity given its high prevalence and association with perceptions of overeating, although results should be extended using objective measures of food intake. Associations between evening eating episodes and perceptual and environmental factors should be further explored. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Graebener, Alexandra Heike; Michael, Tanja; Holz, Elena; Lass-Hennemann, Johanna (2017): Repeated cortisol administration does not reduce intrusive memories – A double blind placebo controlled experimental study.
In: European neuropsychopharmacology : the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology 27 (11), S. 1132–1143. DOI: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2017.09.001.
PTSD is a severe mental disorder, which may develop after exposure to traumatic events and is characterized by intrusive memories. Intrusions are sudden brief sensory memories of the traumatic event, that cause immense distress and impairment in every day functioning. Thus, the reduction of intrusive memories is one of the main aims of PTSD therapy. Recently, the glucocorticoid cortisol has been proposed as a pharmacological option to reduce intrusive memories, because cortisol is known to have memory retrieval inhibiting effects. However, the research on the effects of cortisol administration on intrusive memories is not conclusive. The aim of the present study was to examine if repeated cortisol administration inhibits intrusions and recognition memory in an experimental study using the trauma film paradigm. In a randomized double-blind placebo controlled design participants were exposed to a traumatic film (known to induce intrusions in healthy participants) and received either a low dose of cortisol (20mg) or placebo on the three days following “trauma exposure”. Intrusive memories were assessed with an Electronic Diary and an Intrusion Triggering Task. Furthermore, we assessed explicit memory for the traumatic film clip with a recognition test. Contrary to our predictions, the cortisol group did not report fewer intrusions than the placebo group nor did it show diminished performance on the recognition test. Our results show that sole cortisol administration after a traumatic experience cannot reduce intrusive re-experiencing.
Haynos, Ann F.; Berg, Kelly C.; Cao, Li; Crosby, Ross D.; Lavender, Jason M.; Utzinger, Linsey M. et al. (2017): Trajectories of higher- and lower-order dimensions of negative and positive affect relative to restrictive eating in anorexia nervosa.
In: Journal of abnormal psychology 126 (5), S. 495–505. DOI: 10.1037/abn0000202.
Despite robust support for the role of affect in the maintenance of binge eating and purging, the relationship between affect and restrictive eating remains poorly understood. To investigate the relationship between restrictive eating and affect, ecological momentary assessment data from 118 women with anorexia nervosa (AN) were used to examine trajectories of higher-order dimensions of negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA), as well as lower-order dimensions of NA (Fear, Guilt) and PA (Joviality, Self-Assurance) relative to restrictive eating. Affect trajectories were modeled before and after restrictive eating episodes and AN subtype was examined as a moderator of these trajectories. Across the sample, Guilt significantly increased before and decreased after restrictive eating episodes. Global NA, Global PA, Fear, Joviality, and Self-Assurance did not vary relative to restrictive eating episodes across the sample. However, significant subtype by trajectory interactions were detected for PA indices. Among individuals with AN restricting subtype, Global PA, Joviality, and Self-Assurance decreased prior to and Self-Assurance increased following restrictive eating episodes. In contrast, Global PA and Self-Assurance increased prior to, but did not change following, restrictive eating episodes among individuals with AN binge eating/purging subtype. Results suggest that dietary restriction may function to mitigate guilt across AN subtypes and to enhance self-assurance among individuals with AN restricting subtype. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
General Scientific Summary—It is not well understood why individuals with anorexia nervosa engage in persistent restrictive eating. The results of this study indicate that individuals with anorexia nervosa may engage in restrictive eating because it decreases guilt and, for those with anorexia nervosa, restricting subtype, enhances self-assurance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Heath, Lori E.; Heeney, Matthew M.; Hoppe, Carolyn C.; Adjei, Samuel; Agbenyega, Tsiri; Badr, Mohamed et al. (2017): Successful utilization of an electronic pain diary in a multinational phase 3 interventional study of pediatric sickle cell anemia.
In: Clinical trials (London, England), 1740774517723307. DOI: 10.1177/1740774517723307.
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Patients with sickle cell anemia can experience recurrent pain episodes, which affect quality of life. The reported prevalence of pain is higher in studies using patient diaries than in healthcare facility utilization data. Determining Effects of Platelet Inhibition on Vaso-Occlusive Events was a multinational study that assessed the efficacy and safety of prasugrel in reducing the rate of vaso-occlusive events in children with sickle cell anemia (NCT01794000) and included an electronic patient-reported outcome diary to record pain occurrence. We aimed to capture diary completion rates and compliance in children who used the electronic patient-reported outcome diary during the Determining Effects of Platelet Inhibition on Vaso-Occlusive Events study and examine factors contributing to diary completion rates and compliance. METHODS: Daily electronic patient-reported outcome diary data were collected for up to 9 months in Determining Effects of Platelet Inhibition on Vaso-Occlusive Events participants aged 4 to <18 years in Africa, the Americas, Europe, and the Middle East. The questionnaires were available in 11 languages/dialects for collecting subjective (pain intensity, activity interference) and objective (study drug use, analgesic use, school attendance) data. Pain intensity was measured using the Faces Pain Scale-Revised. Data were entered by participants or caregivers and transferred wirelessly each day to a central database. Diary completion rates were the number of daily diary entries divided by the total number of expected daily diary entries. Percentages of participants who were compliant with the diary (>/=80% diary completion) were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 311 participants received a diary; 268 provided diary data through Month 9. Diary completion rates and compliance were high throughout the collection period and across all groups and regions, despite no games being included on the device. For subjective data, the overall completion rate was 94.4%, and 92.6% of participants were compliant. For objective data, the overall completion rate was 93.3%, and 89.7% of participants were compliant. Completion rates and compliance differed significantly by age and region and were higher for 4 to <12 year olds and very much higher for participants from Africa and the Middle East. Caregivers almost always entered data for participants <6 years and rarely entered data for participants >/=12 years. Comparing participant-entered and caregiver-entered data, pain intensity score data were more consistent for 4 to <12 year olds than older children, but pain intensity scores for older children were higher when entered by caregivers. CONCLUSION: With appropriate design, participant training, and sufficient monitoring, an electronic patient-reported outcome diary can capture daily sickle cell-related pain data in large multinational studies. Providing a mechanism for caregiver reporting is particularly valuable for participants <6 years and may also facilitate compliance in older children who experience high levels of pain.
Hedin, Lena (2017): Support and challenges in the process of leaving care. A Swedish qualitative follow-up study of foster youths’ lived experiences.
In: Qual Soc Work 16 (4), S. 500–514. DOI: 10.1177/1473325015627384.
This in-depth follow-up study presents some foster youths’ lived experiences from when they were teens in a new foster family through the process of leaving care. Their transition to adulthood was delayed because of disturbances in their school situation; however, as adults they took advantage of the possibility to study. The narratives reveal the crucial importance of social workers, and what is needed to make their relations with youth trustful. Even though there were placement breakdowns along the way, in retrospect they all see the benefits of their foster family: as a steady base when needed or just as a construction of a ‘good family’ that they keep in mind. Most striking is the young people’s agency in overcoming challenges and obstacles, which led to increased maturity and self-confidence, though it depended on having some kind of security in their social situation. Facebook plays a vital role in keeping relationships alive, which is especially important for those without a secure base in their family or peer group. It appears that their striving for independence is intertwined with a need for interdependence on the way to adulthood, with varying emphasis over time. Mixed qualitative methods were used: interviews, network maps and The Experience Sampling Method. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Heininga, V. E.; van Roekel, E.; Ahles, J. J.; Oldehinkel, A. J.; Mezulis, A. H. (2017): Positive affective functioning in anhedonic individuals’ daily life. Anything but flat and blunted.
In: Journal of affective disorders 218, S. 437–445. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.04.029.
Background: Anhedonia, the decreased interest and pleasure, is often described as ‘flat’ or ‘blunted’ positive affect (PA). Yet, little is known about PA functioning in anhedonic individuals’ daily lives. The current study investigates PA reactivity to pleasurable experiences in anhedonia together with its relevant temporal dynamics (i.e., variability, instability, and inertia), and expands current knowledge by exploring the role of arousal therein. Methods: Using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM), we collected 90 assessments of real-life PA experiences across 30 days in 18–24 year old individuals with anhedonia (N = 69) and without anhedonia (N = 69). Results: Multilevel analyses showed that anhedonia was associated with less intense pleasure experience, and lower levels of PA. Contrary to predictions from laboratory research and depression theory, individuals with anhedonia showed more variability and less stability in PA, and no signs of blunted PA reactivity. In fact, when exploring high and low arousal PA, individuals with anhedonia showed a slightly stronger reactivity to pleasurable experiences in high-arousal PA but not low-arousal PA. Limitations: We did not control for previous pleasure experiences and, instead of the last positive event, accumulation of positive events may have determined the change in high-arousal PA. Conclusions: Individuals with anhedonia are likely less ‘flat’ or ‘blunted’ than generally thought. Although replication is warranted, impairments in high-arousal positive emotions may be of particular interest in the clinical treatment of anhedonia. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Holl, Julia; Wolff, Sebastian; Schumacher, Maren; Höcker, Anja; Arens, Elisabeth A.; Spindler, Gabriela et al. (2017): Substance use to regulate intense posttraumatic shame in individuals with childhood abuse and neglect.
In: Dev Psychopathol 29 (3), S. 737–749. DOI: 10.1017/S0954579416000432.
Childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) is considered as a risk factor for substance use disorder (SUD). Based on the drinking to cope model, this study investigated the association of two trauma-relevant emotions (shame and sadness) and substance use. Using ecological momentary assessment we compared real-time emotion regulation in situations with high and low intensity of shame and sadness in currently abstinent patients with CAN and lifetime SUD (traumaSUD group), healthy controls with CAN (traumaHC group), and without CAN (nontraumaHC group). Multilevel analysis showed a positive linear relationship between high intensity of both emotions and substance use for all groups. The traumaSUD group showed heightened substance use in low, as well as in high, intensity of shame and sadness. In addition, we found an interaction between type of emotion, intensity, and group: the traumaHC group exhibited a fourfold increased risk for substance use in high intense shame situations relative to the traumaSUD group. Our findings provide evidence for the drinking to cope model. The traumaSUD group showed a reduced distress tolerance for variable intensity of negative emotions. The differential effect of intense shame for the traumaHC group emphazises its potential role in the development of SUD following CAN. In addition, shame can be considered a relevant focus for therapeutic preinterventions and interventions for SUD after CAN. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Horvath, Keith J.; Lammert, Sara; LeGrand, Sara; Muessig, Kathryn E.; Bauermeister, Jose A. (2017): Using technology to assess and intervene with illicit drug-using persons at risk for HIV.
In: Current opinion in HIV and AIDS 12 (5), S. 458–466. DOI: 10.1097/COH.0000000000000398.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes recent literature on novel ways technology is used for assessment of illicit drug use and HIV risk behaviours, suggestions for optimizing intervention acceptability, and recently completed and ongoing technology-based interventions for drug-using persons at risk for HIV and others with high rates of drug use and HIV risk behaviour. RECENT FINDINGS: Among studies (n = 5) comparing technology-based to traditional assessment methods, those using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) had high rates of reported drug use and high concordance with traditional assessment methods. The two recent studies assessing the acceptability of mHealth approaches overall demonstrate high interest in these approaches. Current or in-progress technology-based interventions (n = 8) are delivered using mobile apps (n = 5), text messaging (n = 2) and computers (n = 1). Most intervention studies are in progress or do not report intervention outcomes; the results from one efficacy trial showed significantly higher HIV testing rates among persons in need of drug treatment. SUMMARY: Studies are needed to continually assess technology adoption and intervention preferences among drug-using populations to ensure that interventions are appropriately matched to users. Large-scale technology-based intervention trials to assess the efficacy of these approaches, as well as the impact of individual intervention components, on drug use and other high-risk behaviours are recommended.
Houle, Timothy T.; Turner, Dana P.; Golding, Adrienne N.; Porter, John A. H.; Martin, Vincent T.; Penzien, Donald B.; Tegeler, Charles H. (2017): Forecasting individual headache attacks using perceived stress. Development of a multivariable prediction model for persons with episodic migraine.
In: Headache 57 (7), S. 1041–1050. DOI: 10.1111/head.13137.
OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a prediction model that forecasts future migraine attacks for an individual headache sufferer. BACKGROUND: Many headache patients and physicians believe that precipitants of headache can be identified and avoided or managed to reduce the frequency of headache attacks. Of the numerous candidate triggers, perceived stress has received considerable attention for its association with the onset of headache in episodic and chronic headache sufferers. However, no evidence is available to support forecasting headache attacks within individuals using any of the candidate headache triggers. METHODS: This longitudinal cohort with forecasting model development study enrolled 100 participants with episodic migraine with or without aura, and N = 95 contributed 4626 days of electronic diary data and were included in the analysis. Individual headache forecasts were derived from current headache state and current levels of stress using several aspects of the Daily Stress Inventory, a measure of daily hassles that is completed at the end of each day. The primary outcome measure was the presence/absence of any headache attack (head pain > 0 on a numerical rating scale of 0-10) over the next 24 h period. RESULTS: After removing missing data (n = 431 days), participants in the study experienced a headache attack on 1613/4195 (38.5%) days. A generalized linear mixed-effects forecast model using either the frequency of stressful events or the perceived intensity of these events fit the data well. This simple forecasting model possessed promising predictive utility with an AUC of 0.73 (95% CI 0.71-0.75) in the training sample and an AUC of 0.65 (95% CI 0.6-0.67) in a leave-one-out validation sample. This forecasting model had a Brier score of 0.202 and possessed good calibration between forecasted probabilities and observed frequencies but had only low levels of resolution (ie, sharpness). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that future headache attacks can be forecasted for a diverse group of individuals over time. Future work will enhance prediction through improvements in the assessment of stress as well as the development of other candidate domains to use in the models.
Hühn, Arief Ernst; Khan, Vassilis-Javed; Ketelaar, Paul; van ‘t Riet, Jonathan; Konig, Ruben; Rozendaal, Esther et al. (2017): Does location congruence matter? A field study on the effects of location-based advertising on perceived ad intrusiveness, relevance & value.
In: Comput Human Behav 73, S. 659–668. DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2017.03.003.
We investigate the effect of location-congruent mobile messages on perceived intrusiveness, value, and relevance through a field experiment using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM). We developed a mobile application for undergraduate students, featuring campus news and information concerning class schedules. This application also included daily ads for the University restaurant, which were either location-(semi)congruent or location-incongruent. Immediately after viewing the ads the app presented a short questionnaire to the participants for a period of four weeks, thereby measuring their perceived intrusiveness, relevance and value of these ads. During these four weeks daily ads were sent to 40 students, resulting in 107 responses from 23 participants. The results show that our participants perceived location-(semi)congruent ads as significantly more valuable and relevant, whereas no significant results were found for perceived intrusiveness. By investigating LBA in a field-study based on ESM utilizing participants’ own smartphone devices this study corroborates the presumed effects of location-(semi)congruency on marketing relevant ad perceptions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Inauen, Jennifer; Bolger, Niall; Shrout, Patrick E.; Stadler, Gertraud; Amrein, Melanie; Rackow, Pamela; Scholz, Urte (2017): Using smartphone-based support groups to promote healthy eating in daily life. A randomised trial.
In: Applied psychology. Health and well-being. DOI: 10.1111/aphw.12093.
BACKGROUND: Although many people intend to eat healthily, they often fail to do so. We report the first randomised trial testing whether smartphone-based support groups can enhance healthy eating. METHODS: Adults (N = 203) were randomised to the support or control condition (information), and to one of two eating goals (increasing fruit and vegetable/decreasing unhealthy snack consumption). After baseline, participants received information on their assigned eating goal, and completed a 13-day electronic diary. During Days 4-10, support participants were asked to support each other in achieving their eating goal in smartphone-based groups. The primary outcome was daily servings of fruit/vegetables or unhealthy snacks. Maintenance of intervention effects was assessed on Days 11-13, and at 1-month and 2-month follow-ups. RESULTS: Support participants showed a gradual increase in healthy eating over time, and ate 1.4 fruits and vegetables more, 95% CI [0.3, 2.6], or 0.8 unhealthy snacks less, 95% CI [-1.4, -0.2] than controls on Day 10. Most effects were not maintained at follow-ups. CONCLUSIONS: Smartphone-based groups can promote fruit and vegetable consumption and decrease unhealthy snack intake. This study extends previous findings of the benefits of support groups, and sheds light on the temporal dynamics of behavior change.
Ismaila, Afisi S.; Birk, Ruby; Shah, Dhvani; Zhang, Shiyuan; Brealey, Noushin; Risebrough, Nancy A. et al. (2017): Once-daily triple therapy in patients with advanced COPD. Healthcare resource utilization data and associated costs from the FULFIL trial.
In: Advances in therapy 34 (9), S. 2163–2172. DOI: 10.1007/s12325-017-0604-x.
INTRODUCTION: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is associated with a high healthcare resource and cost burden. Healthcare resource utilization was analyzed in patients with symptomatic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at risk of exacerbations in the FULFIL study. Patients received either once-daily, single inhaler triple therapy (fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol) 100 microg/62.5 microg/25 microg or twice-daily dual inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting beta agonist therapy (budesonide/formoterol) 400 microg/12 microg. METHODS: FULFIL was a phase III, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter study. Unscheduled contacts with healthcare providers were recorded by patients in a daily electronic diary; the costs of healthcare resource utilization were calculated post hoc using UK reference costs. RESULTS: Over 24 weeks, slightly fewer patients who received fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol (169/911; 18.6%) required contacts with healthcare providers compared with budesonide/formoterol (180/899; 20.0%). Over 52 weeks in an extension population, fewer patients who received fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol required unscheduled contacts with healthcare providers compared with budesonide/formoterol (25.2% vs. 32.7%). Non-drug costs per treated patient per year were lower in the fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol group than the budesonide/formoterol group over 24 and 52 weeks ( pound653.80 vs. pound763.32 and pound749.22 vs. pound988.03, respectively), with the total annualized cost over 24 weeks being slightly greater for fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol than budesonide/formoterol ( pound1,289.35 vs. pound1,267.45). CONCLUSIONS: This healthcare resource utilization evidence suggests that, in a clinical trial setting over a 24- or 52-week timeframe, non-drug costs associated with management of a single inhaler fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol are lower compared with twice-daily budesonide/formoterol. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT02345161. FUNDING: GSK.
Jazaieri, Hooria; McGonigal, Kelly; Lee, Ihno A.; Jinpa, Thupten; Doty, James R.; Gross, James J.; Goldin, Philippe R. (2017): Altering the trajectory of affect and affect regulation. The impact of compassion training.
In: Mindfulness (N Y), S. 1–11. DOI: 10.1007/s12671-017-0773-3.
A growing literature has begun to document the effects of compassion training on a variety of important interpersonal behaviors (e.g., helping behavior). What is not yet well understood, however, is what impact compassion training has on affect and affect regulation. To examine this issue, we implemented a 9-week compassion training program in which 51 adults provided twice-daily ratings of four affective states (anxiety, calm, fatigue, alertness) as well as their desire and capability to regulate these affective states. In addition, participants provided weekly responses regarding five specific regulatory strategies. Analysis of day-to-day trajectories of affective experience showed a decrease in anxiety and increase in calmness. Day-to-day trajectories of affect regulation demonstrated that participants were more likely to choose to accept and thus not influence or modulate affective experience (as opposed to dampen, enhance, or hold on to or maintain the affective state). At the same time, participants also reported being more capable in meeting their respective regulatory goals. Finally, analysis of week-to-week trajectories of specific regulatory strategies over the course of the compassion training program demonstrated that participants shifted to lesser use of expressive suppression and greater acceptance when experiencing stress/anxiety. These results suggest that interventions such as compassion training may help modulate specific affective states and modify the use of and self-efficacy for specific regulatory strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Jones, Ashley Bell; Brown, Nicolas A.; Serfass, David G.; Sherman, Ryne A. (2017): Personality and density distributions of behavior, emotions, and situations.
In: Journal of research in personality 69, S. 225–236. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrp.2016.10.006.
Whole Trait Theory defines personality as a density distribution of one’s momentary behavior, complete with all of its parameters (e.g., mean, SD, skew, kurtosis). Two questions regarding these parameters remain largely unexamined: (1) are individual differences in these parameters stable? And (2) do scores on standard personality tests correspond to these parameters? The current study (N = 209) employed an experience sampling design (Nobs ≈8300) to examine the stability of density distribution parameters and the relationship between standard personality test scores and density distribution parameters of 10 behaviors/emotions and 8 situation characteristics. Results showed that, (a) individual differences in density distribution parameters are moderately stable and (b) at the bivariate level, personality was associated with numerous distribution parameters for a number of behaviors/emotions, and situations. However, when the appropriate statistical controls were taken into account, these associations diminished. While individual differences in density distribution parameters we moderately stable, standard personality measures rarely correspond to any other parameters of density distributions once the mean of the density distribution is known. Emotionality and eXtraversion appear as exceptions to this general pattern. These results imply that both theory and measurement in personality should be cognizant of within-person variability in behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Jones, Malia; Taylor, Anais; Liao, Yue; Intille, Stephen S.; Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund (2017): Real-time subjective assessment of psychological stress. Associations with objectively-measured physical activity levels.
In: Psychol Sport Exerc 31, S. 79–87. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2017.03.013.
Psychosocial stress may be a factor in the link between physical activity and obesity. This study examines how the daily experience of psychosocial stress influences physical activity levels and weight status in adults. Temporally ordered relationships between sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity levels and real-time reports of subjective psychosocial stress levels are reported. Adults (n = 105) wore an accelerometer and participated in an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of stress by answering prompts on a mobile phone several times per day over 4 days. Subjective stress was negatively related to sedentary activity in the minutes immediately preceding and immediately following an EMA prompt. Light activity was positively associated with a subsequent EMA report of higher stress, but there were no observed associations between stress and moderate-to-vigorous activity. Real-time stress reports and accelerometer readings for the same 4-day period showed no association. Nor were there associations between real-time stress reports and weight status. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Kane, Michael J.; Gross, Georgina M.; Chun, Charlotte A.; Smeekens, Bridget A.; Meier, Matt E.; Silvia, Paul J.; Kwapil, Thomas R. (2017): For whom the mind wanders, and when, varies across laboratory and daily-life settings.
In: Psychological science 28 (9), S. 1271–1289. DOI: 10.1177/0956797617706086.
Undergraduates ( N = 274) participated in a weeklong daily-life experience-sampling study of mind wandering after being assessed in the lab for executive-control abilities (working memory capacity; attention-restraint ability; attention-constraint ability; and propensity for task-unrelated thoughts, or TUTs) and personality traits. Eight times a day, electronic devices prompted subjects to report on their current thoughts and context. Working memory capacity and attention abilities predicted subjects’ TUT rates in the lab, but predicted the frequency of daily-life mind wandering only as a function of subjects’ momentary attempts to concentrate. This pattern replicates prior daily-life findings but conflicts with laboratory findings. Results for personality factors also revealed different associations in the lab and daily life: Only neuroticism predicted TUT rate in the lab, but only openness predicted mind-wandering rate in daily life (both predicted the content of daily-life mind wandering). Cognitive and personality factors also predicted dimensions of everyday thought other than mind wandering, such as subjective judgments of controllability of thought. Mind wandering in people’s daily environments and TUTs during controlled and artificial laboratory tasks have different correlates (and perhaps causes). Thus, mind-wandering theories based solely on lab phenomena may be incomplete.
Karwowski, Maciej; Lebuda, Izabela; Szumski, Grzegorz; Firkowska-Mankiewicz, Anna (2017): From moment-to-moment to day-to-day. Experience sampling and diary investigations in adults’ everyday creativity.
In: Psychol Aesthet Creat Arts 11 (3), S. 309–324. DOI: 10.1037/aca0000127.
Two studies examined the dynamics and predictors of momentary creative activity among adults. Study 1 (N = 74) applied the experience sampling methodology (ESM) to investigate the likelihood of engaging in creative activity and explain its variability using both within-person predictors (experienced emotions) and between person-predictors (personality and creative activity). This study also demonstrated that the likelihood of momentary creative activity during a random week at the age 52 is predicted by participants’ intelligence measured 4 decades ago. Study 2 extended these findings: In a 2-week-long diary study, participants (N = 433) reported their everyday creative behaviors and activity in the spheres related to arts (painting, composing music, writing), science (writing scientific articles, solving technical problems), and everyday functioning (cooking, blogging). Active positive emotions generally predicted day-to-day variability of creative behavior, whereas the role of individual-differences was more complex and domain-specific. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Kerwin, Edward; Donohue, James F.; Goodin, Thomas; Tosiello, Robert; Wheeler, Alistair; Ferguson, Gary T. (2017): Efficacy and safety of glycopyrrolate/eFlow(R) CS (nebulized glycopyrrolate) in moderate-to-very-severe COPD. Results from the glycopyrrolate for obstructive lung disease via electronic nebulizer (GOLDEN) 3 and 4 randomized controlled trials.
In: Respiratory medicine. DOI: 10.1016/j.rmed.2017.07.011.
BACKGROUND: SUN-101 is a combination of glycopyrrolate delivered through an innovative, electronic nebulizer, intended for the treatment of patients with COPD. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of this new drug device combination. METHODS: Replicate Phase III randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of glycopyrrolate solution administered by an investigational eFlow(R) Closed System (eFlow(R) CS) nebulizer in subjects with moderate-to-very-severe COPD, including those with continued background use of a long-acting beta2-agonist +/- inhaled corticosteroid and/or history of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Subjects were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive placebo or glycopyrrolate (25 mug or 50 mug twice daily [BID]) for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline in trough forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) at Week 12 compared with placebo. Secondary endpoints included change from baseline in forced vital capacity (FVC) after 12 weeks, change from baseline in health status measured by St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) at 12 weeks/end of study (EOS), and change in rescue medication use, as well as change from baseline in FEV1 area under the curve from 0 to 12 h after 12 weeks in the GOLDEN 3 sub-study. Daytime and night-time symptoms were recorded using an electronic diary. Safety was monitored throughout the study, including major adverse cardiovascular events. RESULTS: A total of 653 subjects were randomized in GOLDEN 3 and 641 in GOLDEN 4. Treatment with glycopyrrolate 25 mug BID and 50 mug BID resulted in statistically significant and clinically important changes from baseline in trough FEV1 compared with placebo at Week 12 (GOLDEN 3: 0.105 L and 0.126 L; p </= 0.0001; GOLDEN 4: 0.084 L and 0.082 L; p </= 0.0001). Nebulized glycopyrrolate 25 mug BID and 50 mug BID also resulted in improvements in FVC change from baseline versus placebo at Week 12 (GOLDEN 3: 0.149 L and 0.167 L, p < 0.001; GOLDEN 4: 0.130 L and 0.113 L, p < 0.01), and in SGRQ change from baseline score versus placebo at Week 12/EOS (GOLDEN 3: -3.072 [p < 0.05] and -1.848; GOLDEN 4: -3.585 and -3.557, p < 0.01). LS mean change from baseline in EXACT-respiratory symptoms total score at Week 12 for placebo and nebulized glycopyrrolate 25 and 50 mug BID were -0.936, -1.903 and -1.502 for GOLDEN 3 and -0.376, -1.647 and -1.532 for GOLDEN 4. Rescue medication use was unchanged. Nebulized glycopyrrolate was well tolerated at both doses based on the incidence of adverse events and CV events. CONCLUSIONS: The results of these studies demonstrated statistically significant and clinically important improvements in pulmonary function and patient-reported health outcomes, with an acceptable safety profile, support the use of glycopyrrolate/eFlow(R) CS as a potential maintenance treatment for moderate-to-very-severe COPD.
Ketonen, Elina E.; Dietrich, Julia; Moeller, Julia; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Lonka, Kirsti (2017): The role of daily autonomous and controlled educational goals in students’ academic emotion states. An experience sampling method approach.
In: Learn Instr, S. 1–11. DOI: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2017.07.003.
The present study examines antecedents of university students’ academic emotions (Pekrun, Goetz, Titz, & Perry, 2002) in the context of self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985; 2000), using real-time assessment and intra-individual analyses. We investigated whether daily autonomous and controlled-motivated educational goals predicted students’ academic emotions. University students (N = 55) completed smartphone diaries over 14 consecutive days. The two-week intensive longitudinal data were organized in a hierarchical three-level structure, with situations (Level 1) nested within days (Level 2) nested within students (Level 3). Students’ goal motivation was assessed in morning questionnaires, and academic emotions in three daytime questionnaires. The results of the multilevel structural equation models showed that setting self-determined autonomous educational goals predicted positive emotions, whereas controlled motivation predicted negative emotions in everyday academic situations, applying both to within-person processes and between-person differences. Both kinds of goal motivation, autonomous and controlled, were associated with determination in students’ daily lives. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Kimhy, David; Wall, Melanie M.; Hansen, Marie C.; Vakhrusheva, Julia; Choi, C. Jean; Delespaul, Philippe et al. (2017): Autonomic regulation and auditory hallucinations in individuals with schizophrenia. An experience sampling study.
In: Schizophr Bull 43 (4), S. 754–763. DOI: 10.1093/schbul/sbw219.
Auditory Hallucinations (AH) cause substantial suffering and dysfunction, yet remain poorly understood and modeled. Previous reports have linked AH to increases in negative emotions, suggesting a role for the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in underlying this link. Employing an Experience Sampling Method (ESM) approach, 40 individuals with schizophrenia completed a 36-hour ambulatory assessment of AH and cardiac autonomic regulation. Participants carried mobile electronic devices that prompted them to report 10 times/d the severity of their momentary AH, along with a Holter monitor that continuously recorded their cardiac autonomic regulation. The clocks of the devices and monitors were synchronized, allowing for high time-resolution temporal linking of the AH and concurrent autonomic data. Power spectral analysis was used to determine the relative vagal (parasympathetic) contribution to autonomic regulation during 5 minutes prior to each experience sample. The participants also completed interview-based measures of AH (SAPS; PSYRATS). The ESM-measured severity of AH was significantly correlated with the overall SAPSindexed AH severity, along with the PSYRATS-indexed AH frequency, duration, loudness, degree of negative content, and associated distress. A mixed-effect regression model indicated that momentary increases in autonomic arousal, characterized by decreases in vagal input, significantly predicted increases in ESM-measured AH severity. Vagal input averaged over the 36-hour assessment displayed a small but significant inverse correlation with the SAPS-indexed AH. The results provide preliminary support for a link between ANS regulation and AH. The findings also underscore the highly dynamic nature of AH and the need to utilize high time-resolution methodologies to investigate AH. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Kleiman, Evan M.; Turner, Brianna J.; Fedor, Szymon; Beale, Eleanor E.; Huffman, Jeff C.; Nock, Matthew K. (2017): Examination of real-time fluctuations in suicidal ideation and its risk factors. Results from two ecological momentary assessment studies.
In: Journal of abnormal psychology 126 (6), S. 726–738. DOI: 10.1037/abn0000273.
Two studies examined 2 important but previously unanswered questions about the experience of suicidal ideation: (a) How does suicidal ideation vary over short periods of time?, and (b) To what degree do risk factors for suicidal ideation vary over short periods and are such changes associated with changes in suicidal ideation? Participants in Study 1 were 54 adults who had attempted suicide in the previous year and completed 28 days of ecological momentary assessment (EMA; average of 2.51 assessments per day; 2,891 unique assessments). Participants in Study 2 were 36 adult psychiatric inpatients admitted for suicide risk who completed EMA throughout their time in the hospital (average stay of 10.32 days; average 2.48 assessments per day; 649 unique assessments). These studies revealed 2 key findings: (a) For nearly all participants, suicidal ideation varied dramatically over the course of most days: more than 1-quarter (Study 1 = 29%; Study 2 = 28%) of all ratings of suicidal ideation were a standard deviation above or below the previous response from a few hours earlier and nearly all (Study 1 = 94.1%; Study 2 = 100%) participants had at least 1 instance of intensity of suicidal ideation changing by a standard deviation or more from 1 response to the next. (b) Across both studies, well-known risk factors for suicidal ideation such as hopelessness, burdensomeness, and loneliness also varied considerably over just a few hours and correlated with suicidal ideation, but were limited in predicting short-term change in suicidal ideation. These studies represent the most fine-grained examination of suicidal ideation ever conducted. The results advance the understanding of how suicidal ideation changes over short periods and provide a novel method of improving the short-term prediction of suicidal ideation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
General Scientific Summary—Traditionally, suicidal ideation and its risk factors have been studied using long periods of time (e.g., years, months) between measurements, precluding any short-term examination of real-time variation in suicidal ideation. Using smartphone-based assessments collected multiple times per day, this study revealed that suicidal ideation and its risk factors often vary considerably over a period as short as 4 to 8 hours. Additional studies using real-time monitoring are needed to further study dynamic short-term changes in suicidal ideation and its risk factors, and to test the impact of interventions aimed at decreasing their occurrence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Klipker, Kathrin; Wrzus, Cornelia; Rauers, Antje; Boker, Steven M.; Riediger, Michaela (2017): Within-person changes in salivary testosterone and physical characteristics of puberty predict boys’ daily affect.
In: Hormones and behavior 95, S. 22–32. DOI: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2017.07.012.
Recent investigations highlighted the role of within-person pubertal changes for adolescents’ behavior. Yet, little is known about effects on adolescents’ daily affect, particularly regarding the hormonal changes underlying physical changes during puberty. In a study with 148 boys aged 10 to 20years, we tested whether within-person physical and hormonal changes over eight months predicted everyday affect fluctuations, measured with experience sampling. As expected, greater within-person changes in testosterone (but not in dehydroepiandrosterone) were associated with higher affect fluctuations in daily life. Additionally, greater physical changes predicted higher affect fluctuations for individuals in the beginning of puberty. The findings demonstrate the relevance of physical and hormonal changes in boys’ affective (in)stability.
Knell, Gregory; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Businelle, Michael S.; Shuval, Kerem; Wetter, David W.; Kendzor, Darla E. (2017): Ecological momentary assessment of physical activity. Validation study.
In: Journal of medical Internet research 19 (7), e253. DOI: 10.2196/jmir.7602.
BACKGROUND: Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) may elicit physical activity (PA) estimates that are less prone to bias than traditional self-report measures while providing context. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine the convergent validity of EMA-assessed PA compared with accelerometry. METHODS: The participants self-reported their PA using International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and wore an accelerometer while completing daily EMAs (delivered through the mobile phone) for 7 days. Weekly summary estimates included sedentary time and moderate-, vigorous-, and moderate-to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). Spearman coefficients and Lin’s concordance correlation coefficients (LCC) examined the linear association and agreement for EMA and the questionnaires as compared with accelerometry. RESULTS: Participants were aged 43.3 (SD 13.1) years, 51.7% (123/238) were African American, 74.8% (178/238) were overweight or obese, and 63.0% (150/238) were low income. The linear associations of EMA and traditional self-reports with accelerometer estimates were statistically significant (P<.05) for sedentary time (EMA: rho=.16), moderate-intensity PA (EMA: rho=.29; BRFSS: rho=.17; IPAQ: rho=.24), and MVPA (EMA: rho=.31; BRFSS: rho=.17; IPAQ: rho=.20). Only EMA estimates of PA were statistically significant compared with accelerometer for agreement. CONCLUSIONS: The mobile EMA showed better correlation and agreement to accelerometer estimates than traditional self-report methods. These findings suggest that mobile EMA may be a practical alternative to accelerometers to assess PA in free-living settings.
Kolar, David R.; Huss, Michael; Preuss, Hanna M.; Jenetzky, Ekkehart; Haynos, Ann F.; Burger, Arne; Hammerle, Florian (2017): Momentary emotion identification in female adolescents with and without anorexia nervosa.
In: Psychiatry research 255, S. 394–398. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.06.075.
Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) often report difficulties in identifying emotions, which have been mostly studied as an alexithymia trait. In a controlled two-day ecological momentary assessment, we studied the influence of time of day and aversive tension on self-reported momentary emotion identification. Analysis on an aggregated level revealed a significant lower mean emotion identification in the AN group. In a mixed model analysis, the AN group showed lower emotion identification than the control group (HC). Both a general and a group effect of time of day were found, indicating that emotion identification improved during the day in HC, whereas a negligible decrease of the emotion identification over time was observed in the AN group. Age was associated positively with emotion identification in general, but no specific effect on a group level was found. No effect of aversive tension was found. Our results indicate that an improvement during the day might be a natural process of emotion identification, which is hindered in AN. Future research should focus on temporal relations between emotion identification and disordered eating behavior to further evaluate the clinical relevance of emotion identification difficulties in AN.
Kranzler, Amy; Fehling, Kara B.; Lindqvist, Janne; Brillante, Julia; Yuan, Fengpeng; Gao, Xianyi et al. (2017): An ecological investigation of the emotional context surrounding nonsuicidal self-injurious thoughts and behaviors in adolescents and young adults.
In: Suicide & life-threatening behavior. DOI: 10.1111/sltb.12373.
Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methodology was used to examine the emotional context of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Forty-seven adolescents and young adults used a novel smartphone app to monitor their emotional experiences, NSSI thoughts, and NSSI behaviors for 2 weeks. Momentary changes in both negative and positive emotions predicted greater intensity of NSSI thoughts at the subsequent assessment, while only increases in negative emotion predicted NSSI behaviors. Immediately following NSSI behaviors participants reported reduced high-arousal negative emotions and increased low-arousal positive emotions, suggesting that NSSI may be an efficient and effective method of regulating emotion. Findings highlight the importance of addressing emotion regulation in NSSI interventions.
Kratz, Anna L.; Braley, Tiffany J.; Foxen-Craft, Emily; Scott, Eric; Murphy, John F. 3rd; Murphy, Susan L. (2017): How do pain, fatigue, depressive, and cognitive symptoms relate to well-being and social and physical functioning in the daily lives of individuals with multiple sclerosis?
In: Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. DOI: 10.1016/j.apmr.2017.07.004.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relative association between daily change in pain, fatigue, depressed mood, and cognitive function and 4 outcomes-positive affect and well-being, ability to participate in social roles and activities, upper extremity (UE) functioning, and lower extremity (LE) functioning. DESIGN: Data analysis, multilevel mixed modeling. SETTING: General community. PARTICIPANTS: Ambulatory adults (N=102) with multiple sclerosis. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Customized short-forms of the Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders positive affect and well-being, UE functioning, and LE functioning item banks and the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System ability to participate in social roles and activities item bank adapted for daily use and administered as end-of-day diaries. RESULTS: Above and beyond the effects of demographic and clinical covariates, daily pain was associated with 3 of the 4 outcomes; days of higher than usual pain were related to lower same-day social participation (unstandardized beta, B=-1.00; P=.002), UE functioning (B=-1.04; P=.01), and LE functioning (B=-.71; P=.04). Daily fatigue and depressed mood were independently related to daily positive affect and well-being; days of worse fatigue (B=-.54; P=.006) and depressed mood (B=-1.17; P<.0001) were related to lower same-day well-being. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate the role of fluctuations in symptoms in daily functioning and quality of life of individuals with multiple sclerosis. Daily increases in pain intensity are related to social and physical functioning, whereas increases in fatigue and depressed mood are related to lower daily well-being. Findings implicate a person-centered approach to monitoring and treating symptoms.
Kratz, Anna L.; Murphy, Susan L.; Braley, Tiffany J. (2017): Ecological momentary assessment of pain, fatigue, depressive, and cognitive symptoms rteveals significant daily variability in multiple sclerosis.
In: Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation 98 (11), S. 2142–2150. DOI: 10.1016/j.apmr.2017.07.002.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the daily variability and patterns of pain, fatigue, depressed mood, and cognitive function in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). DESIGN: Repeated-measures observational study of 7 consecutive days of home monitoring, including ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of symptoms. Multilevel mixed models were used to analyze data. SETTING: General community. PARTICIPANTS: Ambulatory adults (N=107) with MS recruited through the University of Michigan and surrounding community. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: EMA measures of pain, fatigue, depressed mood, and cognitive function rated on a 0 to 10 scale, collected 5 times a day for 7 days. RESULTS: Cognitive function and depressed mood exhibited more stable within-person patterns than pain and fatigue, which varied considerably within person. All symptoms increased in intensity across the day (all P<.02), with fatigue showing the most substantial increase. Notably, this diurnal increase varied by sex and age; women showed a continuous increase from wake to bedtime, whereas fatigue plateaued after 7 pm for men (wake-bed B=1.04, P=.004). For the oldest subgroup, diurnal increases were concentrated to the middle of the day compared with younger subgroups, which showed an earlier onset of fatigue increase and sustained increases until bed time (wake-3 pm B=.04, P=.01; wake-7 pm B=.03, P=.02). Diurnal patterns of cognitive function varied by education; those with advanced college degrees showed a more stable pattern across the day, with significant differences compared with those with bachelor-level degrees in the evening (wake-7 pm B=-.47, P=.02; wake-bed B=-.45, P=.04). CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that chronic symptoms in MS are not static, even over a short time frame; rather, symptoms-fatigue and pain in particular-vary dynamically across and within days. Incorporation of EMA methods should be considered in the assessment of these chronic MS symptoms to enhance assessment and treatment strategies.
Kratz, Anna L.; Murphy, Susan L.; Braley, Tiffany J. (2017): Pain, fatigue, and cognitive symptoms are temporally associated within but not across days in multiple sclerosis.
In: Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation 98 (11), S. 2151–2159. DOI: 10.1016/j.apmr.2017.07.003.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the temporal associations, within day and day to day, between pain, fatigue, depressed mood, and cognitive function in multiple sclerosis (MS). DESIGN: Repeated-measures study involving 7 days of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of symptoms 5 times a day; multilevel mixed models were used to analyze data. SETTING: Community. PARTICIPANTS: Ambulatory adults (N=107) with MS. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: EMA of pain, fatigue, depressed mood, and cognitive function rated on a 0 to 10 scale. RESULTS: Fatigue and pain were linked within day such that higher pain was associated with higher subsequent fatigue (B=.09, P=.04); likewise, higher fatigue was associated with higher pain in the following time frame (B=.05, P=.04). Poorer perceived cognitive function preceded increased subsequent pain (B=.08, P=.007) and fatigue (B=.10, P=.01) within day. Depressed mood was not temporally linked with other symptoms. In terms of day-to-day effects, a day of higher fatigue related to decreased next day fatigue (B=-.16, P=.01), and a day of higher depressed mood related to increased depressed mood the next day (B=.17, P=.01). There were no cross-symptom associations from one day to the next. CONCLUSIONS: Findings provide new insights on how common symptoms in MS relate to each other and vary within and over days. Pain and fatigue show evidence of a dynamic bidirectional relation over the course of a day, and worsening of perceived cognitive function preceded worsening of both pain and fatigue. Most temporal associations between symptoms occur within the course of a day, with relatively little carryover from one day to the next.
Kuehner, Christine; Welz, Annett; Reinhard, Iris; Alpers, Georg W. (2017): Lab meets real life. A laboratory assessment of spontaneous thought and its ecological validity.
In: PloS one 12 (9), e0184488. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0184488.
People’s minds frequently wander towards self-generated thoughts, which are unrelated to external stimuli or demands. These phenomena, referred to as “spontaneous thought” (ST) and “mind wandering” (MW), have previously been linked with both costs and benefits. Current assessments of ST and MW have predominantly been conducted in the laboratory, whereas studies on the ecological validity of such lab-related constructs and their interrelations are rare. The current study examined the stability of ST dimensions assessed in the lab and their predictive value with respect to MW, repetitive negative thought (uncontrollable rumination, RUM), and affect in daily life. Forty-three university students were assessed with the Amsterdam Resting State Questionnaire (2nd version) to assess ten ST dimensions during the resting state in two laboratory sessions, which were separated by five days of electronic ambulatory assessment (AA). During AA, individuals indicated the intensity of MW and RUM, as well as of positive and negative affect in daily life ten times a day. ST dimensions measured in the lab were moderately stable across one week. Five out of ten ST lab dimensions were predicted by mental health-related symptoms or by dispositional cognitive traits. Hierarchical linear models revealed that a number of ST lab dimensions predicted cognitive and affective states in daily life. Mediation analyses showed that RUM, but not MW per se, accounted for the relationship between specific ST lab dimensions and mood in daily life. By using a simple resting state task, we could demonstrate that a number of lab dimensions of spontaneous thought are moderately stable, are predicted by mental health symptoms and cognitive traits, and show plausible associations with categories of self-generated thought and mood in daily life.
Lapid Pickman, Liron; Greene, Talya; Gelkopf, Marc (2017): Sense of threat as a mediator of peritraumatic stress symptom development during wartime. An experience sampling study.
In: Journal of traumatic stress 30 (4), S. 372–380. DOI: 10.1002/jts.22207.
Exposure and sense of threat have been associated with stress symptoms, yet these relationships have not been clarified during the peritraumatic period. We investigated the mediating role of sense of threat in the link between exposure to rocket warning sirens and stress symptoms during wartime, and the effect of severe mental illness (SMI) status and gender on this mediation. A 30-day twice-daily smartphone-based intensive assessment of exposure to sirens, sense of threat, and peritraumatic stress symptoms was performed during the 2014 Israel-Gaza conflict. Participants included 182 highly exposed individuals with or without SMI. Multilevel structural equation modeling analysis was performed, with SMI status and gender as confounders. Exposure affected the level of peritraumatic stress symptoms both directly, b = 1.07, p < .001, 95% CI [0.32, 1.82], and indirectly, b = 0.78, p < .001, 95% CI [0.24, 1.33], through sense of threat. The effect of sense of threat on stress symptoms was larger in the SMI group, b = 0.86, p < .001, 95% CI [0.31, 1.40]. Gender did not have a significant effect. Sense of threat has a key role in symptom development during the peritraumatic timeframe. Intervention and prevention efforts should start early and focus on promoting a sense of safety, particularly with people with SMI.
Leibach, Gillian G.; Everhart, Robin S. (2017): Family assessment device. Real-world validity in urban families of children with asthma.
In: J Fam Psychol 31 (5), S. 642–647. DOI: 10.1037/fam0000313.
Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) was used to further validate the real-world predictability of the Family Assessment Device (FAD) among low income, racial and ethnic minority, urban families of children (7–12 years) with asthma. Caregivers completed self-report measures at baseline, as well as daily assessments of family functioning for 2 weeks through EMA delivered via smartphone. Concurrent validity was established with measures of caregiver perceived stress and positive and negative affect at baseline. Better family functioning at baseline was associated with EMA reports of families getting along better and of being better able to balance multiple family needs, including child asthma management. Consistent with previous literature, findings suggest the FAD is an ecologically valid measure for use with urban families of children with asthma. Researchers and clinicians may be confident that assessments of family functioning in research and clinical settings are predictive of what may be happening in the family’s everyday life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Grube, Joel W.; Bersamin, Melina (2017): Adolescents, alcohol, and marijuana. Context characteristics and problems associated with simultaneous use.
In: Drug and alcohol dependence 179, S. 55–60. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.06.023.
We investigated contexts of simultaneous use of alcohol and marijuana and the impact of simultaneous use on problems among adolescents. Ecological momentary assessment data were obtained over two weekends from 150 adolescents in California (47% female, M age=16.36years), using smartphone surveys administered early and late in the evening and again the following morning. We assessed whether, in what context, and with whom adolescents drank alcohol and used other substances over 3 evening hours. We assessed problems they experienced each evening on the following morning. Results showed that greater adult supervision in every context was associated with a 55% lower risk of simultaneous use (RRR=0.45, p</=.05). Contexts with no other underage drinkers were associated with 99% lower risk of simultaneous use (RRR=0.01, p</=.005). Each occasion of simultaneous use was related to 110% increase in the number of problems (IRR=2.10, p</=.005), with 83%, 221% and 311% greater odds of violence (OR=1.83, p</=.05), driving under the influence or riding with a drunk driver (OR=3.21, p</=.05), or being drunk (OR=4.11, p</=.005). Additional analyses showed that these problems may be attributed largely to the alcohol consumed in each context. Results demonstrate that it is essential to consider situational and social characteristics of substance use contexts to better understand adolescent simultaneous use of alcohol and drugs and problems.
Lipton, Michael L.; Ifrah, Chloe; Stewart, Walter F.; Fleysher, Roman; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Kim, Mimi; Lipton, Richard B. (2017): Validation of HeadCount-2w for estimation of two-week heading. Comparison to daily reporting in adult amateur player.
In: Journal of science and medicine in sport. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsams.2017.08.008.
OBJECTIVES: To validate the HeadCount-2w questionnaire for estimation of 2-week soccer heading by comparison to daily electronic diary reporting over the same two-week period. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. METHODS: Adult amateur soccer players completed HeadCount-daily, comprising 14 daily at-home assessments of soccer play and heading via a tablet PC. Following the 14day period, players completed HeadCount-2w, a web-based two-week-recall questionnaire on soccer and heading. intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was estimated between HeadCount-daily, the reference standard, and HeadCount-2w estimates of heading during the same 2-week period. RESULTS: 53 participants (38 men) reported a mean of 24.36 (median=11.76) headers during 2 weeks via HeadCount-daily and a mean of 38.34 (median=15.0) headers for the same 2 weeks via HeadCount-2w. The ICC comparing 2-week heading from HeadCount-daily and HeadCount-2w was 0.85. Linear regression of the log-transformed Headcount-daily on HeadCount-2w data yielded a slope of 0.71 (p<0.001; 95% CI 0.54-0.82), suggesting that heading tends to be over-estimated by HeadCount-2w relative to HeadCount-daily. Slope estimates for men (0.65) and women (0.71) were similar. CONCLUSIONS: HeadCount, a self-administered web-based survey, is valid for self-reporting 2-week heading in adult amateur players, supporting its use in future research and as a simple and low-cost technique for exposure monitoring.
Lu, Wenying; Chappell, Kate; Walters, Julia A. E.; Jacobson, Glenn A.; Patel, Rahul; Schüz, Natalie; Ferguson, Stuart G. (2017): The effect of varenicline and nicotine patch on smoking rate and satisfaction with smoking. An examination of the mechanism of action of two pre-quit pharmacotherapies.
In: Psychopharmacology 234 (13), S. 1969–1976. DOI: 10.1007/s00213-017-4604-y.
Objectives: In recent years, there has been growing research interest in using nicotine replacement medications to aid smoking reduction prior to a quit attempt. Gaining a better understanding of how treatments influence smoking reduction may allow for better tailoring of treatments and, ultimately, better cessation outcomes. The objective of the current study was to test the effects of the pre-quit use of varenicline and nicotine patch on smoking rate and satisfaction with smoking. Methods: All participants were required to attend up to five study visit sections. Participants (n = 213) who were interested in quitting were randomised (open-label) to receive either pre-quit patch or varenicline (both treatments started 2 weeks prior to an assigned quit day, followed by 10 weeks post-quit) or standard patch (10 weeks starting from an assigned quit day). Participants used modified smartphones to monitor their smoking in real time for 4 weeks. Results: Participants in the two pre-quit treatment groups reported significant reductions in both their satisfaction with smoking (p < 0.001) and smoking rate (p < 0.001) from baseline to the end of pre-quit period; participants in the standard patch group did not. The observed reduction of smoking rate was associated with the satisfaction with smoking (p < 0.01), although the mediation effect of satisfaction was small. Conclusions: Pre-quit treatment caused reductions in satisfaction with smoking and smoking rate. Satisfaction was associated with changes in smoking rate, but the relationship was weak. As such, monitoring reductions in satisfaction do not appear to be a viable method of evaluating responsiveness to treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Lüdtke, Thies; Kriston, Levente; Schröder, Johanna; Lincoln, Tania M.; Moritz, Steffen (2017): Negative affect and a fluctuating jumping to conclusions bias predict subsequent paranoia in daily life. An online experience sampling study.
In: J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 56, S. 106–112. DOI: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2016.08.014.
Background and objectives: Negative affect and a tendency to ‘jump to conclusions’ (JTC) are associated with paranoia. So far, only negative affect has been examined as a precursor of subsequent paranoia in daily life using experience sampling (ESM). We addressed this research gap and used ESM to test whether JTC fluctuates in daily life, whether it predicts subsequent paranoia, and whether it mediates the effect of negative affect on paranoia. Methods: Thirty-five participants with schizophrenia spectrum disorders repeatedly self-reported negative affect, JTC, and paranoia via online questionnaires on two consecutive days. We measured JTC with a paradigm consisting of ambiguous written scenarios. Multilevel linear models were conducted. Results: Most participants showed JTC consistently on two days rather than only on one day. When time was used as a predictor of JTC, significant slope variance indicated that for a subgroup of participants JTC fluctuated over time. For 48% of participants, these fluctuations equaled changes of approximately ±1 point on the four-point JTC scale within one day. There was no mediation. However, negative affect and JTC both significantly predicted subsequent paranoia. Limitations: The ESM assessment period was short and encompassed few assessments (8 in total). Conclusions: Our findings indicate that JTC is both stable (regarding its mere occurrence) and fluctuating simultaneously (regarding its magnitude). Although JTC was not a mediator linking negative affect and paranoia, it did predict paranoia. Further ESM studies on JTC are needed to confirm our findings in longer assessment periods and with other JTC paradigms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
MacLean, R. Ross; Pincus, Aaron L.; Smyth, Joshua M.; Geier, Charles F.; Wilson, Stephen J. (2017): Extending the balloon analogue risk task to assess naturalistic risk taking via a mobile platform.
In: J Psychopathol Behav Assess, S. 1–10. DOI: 10.1007/s10862-017-9628-4.
The Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) is a behavioral measure that is commonly used to assess risk taking propensity. The primary goal of the present study was to introduce a mobile version of the BART (mBART) that can be included within ambulatory assessment protocols to assess risk taking in daily life. Study 1 compared common BART indices (i.e., total money earned, adjusted average pumps, balloon explosions, and coefficient of variability [CV]) on a single administration of the laboratory BART on a computer and the mBART on a smartphone (n = 78). Results revealed generally consistent relationships between indices of risk taking propensity in both the laboratory BART and mBART. Study 2 administered the mBART as part of a 7-day ecological momentary assessment (EMA) protocol in a population of nondaily smokers (n = 51). Using multi-level models, results suggest that males have greater adjusted average pumps (p = .03), and that a participant’s average CV is negatively related to trait sensation seeking (p = .03) and positively associated with trait positive urgency (p = .04). There were within-person effects of study day (p = .05) and environment (p = .02) with respect to adjusted average pumps such that individuals took greater risks as the study progressed and were riskier when alone compared to with others. Inclusion of the mBART in EMA did not appear to significantly increase participant burden and demonstrated acceptable levels of compliance. These results offer initial evidence supporting the feasibility and utility of the mBART for ambulatory research designs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Malinen, Kaisa; Rönkä, Anna; Sevón, Eija; Schoebi, Dominik (2017): The difficulty of being a professional, a parent, and a spouse on the same day. Daily spillover of workplace interactions on parenting, and the role of spousal support.
In: J Prev Interv Community 45 (3), S. 156–167. DOI: 10.1080/10852352.2016.1198121.
Designing parenting interventions and preventions requires knowledge on the factors and processes that shape parenting behaviors. Using data collected over 10 days, during the last hour of work and before going to bed, this study examined the spillover of interpersonal work stresses into positive and negative parenting behaviors. Data were collected among 103 couples who had at least one child between the age of one and eight years. Of particular interest was the role of received emotional spousal support as a moderator of stress spillover. Dyadic variants of multilevel models were used to analyze the data. The results showed that on days on which mothers or fathers reported stressful interpersonal interactions in the workplace, they also reported less positive parenting behaviors. In addition, mothers reported more negative parenting behaviors on days characterized by these kinds of work experiences. Mothers and fathers were found to report more positive parenting behaviors, and mothers less negative parenting behaviors, on the days on which they received more spousal support. Received spousal support also moderated spillover of work stress into parenting behaviors and this finding was found to be gender-specific: for mothers, support enhanced spillover into positive behaviors, and for fathers, it enhanced spillover into negative parenting behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Mason, Ashley E.; Jhaveri, Kinnari; Cohn, Michael; Brewer, Judson A. (2017): Testing a mobile mindful eating intervention targeting craving-related eating. Feasibility and proof of concept.
In: Journal of behavioral medicine. DOI: 10.1007/s10865-017-9884-5.
Theoretically driven smartphone-delivered behavioral interventions that target mechanisms underlying eating behavior are lacking. In this study, we administered a 28-day self-paced smartphone-delivered intervention rooted in an operant conditioning theoretical framework that targets craving-related eating using mindful eating practices. At pre-intervention and 1-month post-intervention, we assessed food cravings among adult overweight or obese women (N = 104; M age = 46.2 +/- 14.1 years; M BMI = 31.5 +/- 4.5) using ecological momentary assessment via text message (SMS), self-reported eating behavior (e.g., trait food craving), and in-person weight. Seventy-eight participants (75.0%) completed the intervention within 7 months (‘all completers’), and of these, 64 completed the intervention within 3 months (‘timely completers’). Participants experienced significant reductions in craving-related eating (40.21% reduction; p < .001) and self-reported overeating behavior (trait food craving, p < .001; other measures ps < .01). Reductions in trait food craving were significantly correlated with weight loss for timely completers (r = .30, p = .020), this pattern of results was also evident in all completers (r = .22, p = .065). Taken together, results suggest that smartphone-delivered mindful eating training targeting craving-related eating may (1) target behavior that impacts a relative metabolic pathway, and (2) represent a low-burden and highly disseminable method to reduce problematic overeating among overweight individuals. ClinicalTrials.gov registration: NCT02694731.
Mason, Tyler B.; Pacanowski, Carly R.; Lavender, Jason M.; Crosby, Ross D.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Engel, Scott G. et al. (2017): Evaluating the ecological validity of the dutch eating behavior questionnaire among obese adults using ecological momentary assessment.
In: Assessment, 1073191117719508. DOI: 10.1177/1073191117719508.
This study evaluated the ecological validity (i.e., accurate measurement of a construct as experienced in naturalistic settings) of the self-report Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ). Obese adults ( N = 50) completed the DEBQ, followed by a 2-week ecological momentary assessment protocol that included measures of eating episodes and associated intrapersonal contextual factors. Results revealed that DEBQ Emotional Eating was associated with greater negative affect and less positive affect at both pre- and post-eating episode, as well as post-eating ratings of feeling driven to eat. DEBQ External Eating was positively associated with pre-eating expectations about enjoying the taste of food, but was unrelated to actual enjoyment reported post-eating; External Eating was positively associated with the post-eating ratings of feeling driven to eat. DEBQ Dietary Restraint was positively associated with pre-eating intentions to eat less to lose/avoid gaining weight. Overall, results provide some support for the ecological validity of the DEBQ.
Matz-Costa, Christina; Cosner Berzin, Stephanie; Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie; Halvorsen, Cal J. (2017): Perceptions of the meaningfulness of work among older social purpose workers. An ecological momentary assessment study.
In: Journal of applied gerontology : the official journal of the Southern Gerontological Society, 733464817727109. DOI: 10.1177/0733464817727109.
The ecological momentary assessment (EMA) method was used to examine the antecedents and correlates of older adults’ in-the-moment perceptions of meaning at work. Data were collected six times per day for 7 days from 30 older adults who were mostly social entrepreneurs and who were engaged in purpose work (i.e., work that addresses a social problem or issue). We found concurrent effects of two types of affective states (i.e., relaxed and energetic) and generative work behaviors (i.e., sharing information about one’s work and encouraging/inviting others into one’s work) on three measures of perceptions of meaningful work (i.e., high passion for one’s work, high sense of engagement in one’s work, and high connection to a sense of meaning in life). Feeling energetic had a lagged effect on meaningful work approximately 2.5 and 5 hr later in the day. We consider ways to foster engagement in meaningful work as a path toward healthy aging.
McCarroll, Rebecca; Eyles, Helen; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona (2017): Effectiveness of mobile health (mHealth) interventions for promoting healthy eating in adults. A systematic review.
In: Preventive medicine 105, S. 156–168. DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2017.08.022.
Unhealthy eating is a major risk factor for chronic disease. However, many current strategies to promote healthy eating are not sustainable over the longer-term. More cost-effective wide-reaching initiatives are urgently needed. Mobile health (mHealth) interventions, delivered via mobile devices, could provide a solution. This systematic review summarized the evidence on the effect of mHealth interventions for promoting healthy eating in adults. A comprehensive systematic search of five scientific databases was conducted using methods adapted from the Cochrane Handbook. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs), published up to 1 July 2016, which examined healthy eating interventions delivered via mobile device. Of 879 articles identified, 84 full text articles were potentially eligible and further assessed, and 23 included. Narrative review results indicated small positive effects of mHealth interventions on healthy eating (5/8 trials) and weight loss (5/13 trials). However, the current evidence base is insufficient (studies are of poor quality) to determine conclusive positive effects. More rigorous RCTs with longer-term (>6months) follow-up are warranted to determine if effects are maintained.
Mennis, Jeremy; Mason, Michael; Ambrus, Andreea; Way, Thomas; Henry, Kevin (2017): The spatial accuracy of geographic ecological momentary assessment (GEMA). Error and bias due to subject and environmental characteristics.
In: Drug and alcohol dependence 178, S. 188–193. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.05.019.
Background: Geographic ecological momentary assessment (GEMA) combines ecological momentary assessment (EMA) with global positioning systems (GPS) and geographic information systems (GIS). This study evaluates the spatial accuracy of GEMA location data and bias due to subject and environmental data characteristics. Methods: Using data for 72 subjects enrolled in a study of urban adolescent substance use, we compared the GPS-based location of EMA responses in which the subject indicated they were at home to the geocoded home address. We calculated the percentage of EMA locations within a sixteenth, eighth, quarter, and half miles from the home, and the percentage within the same tract and block group as the home. We investigated if the accuracy measures were associated with subject demographics, substance use, and emotional dysregulation, as well as environmental characteristics of the home neighborhood. Results: Half of all subjects had more than 88% of their EMA locations within a half mile, 72% within a quarter mile, 55% within an eighth mile, 50% within a sixteenth of a mile, 83% in the correct tract, and 71% in the correct block group. There were no significant associations with subject or environmental characteristics. Conclusions: Results support the use of GEMA for analyzing subjects’ exposures to urban environments. Researchers should be aware of the issue of spatial accuracy inherent in GEMA, and interpret results accordingly. Understanding spatial accuracy is particularly relevant for the development of ‘ecological momentary interventions’ (EMI), which may depend on accurate location information, though issues of privacy protection remain a concern. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Miadich, Samantha A.; Everhart, Robin S.; Heron, Kristin E.; Cobb, Caroline O. (2017): Medication use, sleep, and caregiver smoking status among urban children with asthma.
In: The Journal of asthma : official journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma, S. 1–8. DOI: 10.1080/02770903.2017.1350969.
OBJECTIVE: Children living in urban settings from low-income, minority families are at a high risk for experiencing asthma morbidity. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, i.e., secondhand) exposure, typically from caregiver smoking, has been associated with increased quick-relief medication use and child nocturnal awakenings due to increased asthma symptoms as well as worse sleep quality in children with asthma. This study investigated the moderating role of caregiver smoking status on the association between quick-relief medication use and child’s sleep quality in urban children with persistent asthma. METHODS: Fifty-four urban children with persistent asthma and their primary caregivers completed a baseline research session. Caregivers then completed ecological momentary assessment surveys via smartphones twice daily for two weeks in which smoking behaviors, child quick-relief medication use, and child’s sleep quality were assessed. RESULTS: Twenty caregivers (37%) reported smoking at least one day across the two-week period. The caregiver smoking status significantly moderated the association between quick-relief medication use and child’s sleep quality after controlling for child age and monthly household income. The caregiver smoking status exacerbated the association between quick-relief medication use and child’s sleep quality, such that more medication usage was associated with worse sleep quality. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that in urban families with a caregiver who smokes, more daily quick-relief medication use may put children at an increased risk for worse sleep quality. The effects of ETS exposure on child’s sleep quality in addition to child asthma symptoms should be an integral part of discussions between pediatric healthcare providers and families of children with asthma.
Minami, Haruka; Frank, Brandon E.; Bold, Krysten W.; McCarthy, Danielle E. (2017): Ecological momentary analysis of the relations among stressful events, affective reactivity, and smoking among smokers with high versus low depressive symptoms during a quit attempt.
In: Addiction (Abingdon, England). DOI: 10.1111/add.13964.
AIMS: To assess whether individuals trying to quit smoking who have high depressive symptoms (HD), compared with low depressive symptoms (LD): (1) report more frequent stressful events (SEs), (2) are more likely to smoke after SEs, (3) experience greater acute or persistent changes in affect after an SE, and (4) are at greater risk of smoking following affective changes. DESIGN: Smoking cessation data were analyzed using multi-level path modeling to examine the moderating effects of depressive symptoms on relations among SEs, subsequent affect, and smoking. SETTING: An academic research center in Central New Jersey, USA. PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-one adult treatment-seeking daily smokers recruited from 2010 to 2012. MEASUREMENTS: Baseline depressive symptoms [HD: Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) >/= 16 versus LD: CES-D < 16]; and real-time ecological momentary assessment (EMA) reports of SEs, affect, and smoking assessed during 21 days post-quit. FINDINGS: Multi-level models indicated that HD smokers were more likely than LD smokers to report stressful events [odds ratio (OR) = 2.323, P = 0.009], but had similar post-stress acute affective changes (negative affect: b = -0.117, P = 0.137, positive affect: b = 0.020, P = 0.805). Only HD smokers reported increased negative affect (NA) (b = 0.199, P = 0.030) and decreased positive affect (PA) up to 12 hours later (b = -0.217, P = 0.021), and greater lapse risk up to 24 hours after an SE (OR = 3.213, P = 0.017). The persistence of elevated NA and suppressed PA was partially explained by increased odds of subsequent SEs among HD smokers. However, the heightened stress-lapse association over 24 hours found in HD smokers was not fully explained by sustained aversive affect or subsequent SEs. CONCLUSIONS: Depressed and non-depressed smokers trying to quit appear to experience similar acute affective changes following stress: however, depressed smokers experience higher rates of exposure to stress, longer-lasting post-stress affective disturbance and greater risk of smoking lapse 12-24 hours after a stressful event than non-depressed smokers.
Minbashian, Amirali; Beckmann, Nadin; Wood, Robert E. (2017): Emotional intelligence and individual differences in affective processes underlying task‐contingent conscientiousness.
In: J Organ Behav. DOI: 10.1002/job.2233.
Summary Organisational researchers have recently begun to focus on the more dynamic aspects of personality in the workplace. The present study examines individual differences in the affective processes that underlie one such dynamic construct, task‐contingent conscientiousness. Using experience sampling data collected over 3 weeks from 201 managers, we show (a) that individuals differ substantially from each other in the paths that connect task demand, positive and negative affect, and conscientious behaviour; (b) that these individual differences cohere to define person types or classes that represent meaningful differences in the extent to which task‐contingent conscientiousness is mediated affectively; and (c) that emotional intelligence increases the likelihood of membership in classes that are characterised by affectively mediated effects. Theoretical implications of the findings are discussed with reference to the cognitive‐affective personality system model, research on the consequences of affect in the workplace, and the literature on emotional intelligence. Practical applications are suggested for managers who wish to use personality assessment for developmental purposes, especially in relation to facilitating behavioural change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Modecki, Kathryn Lynn; Mazza, Gina L. (2017): Are we making the most of ecological momentary assessment data? A comment on Richardson, Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, O’Donnell, Ling, & Staiger, 2017.
In: Health Psychol Rev 11 (3), S. 295–297. DOI: 10.1080/17437199.2017.1347513.
Comments on an article by Ben Richardson et al. (see record [rid]2017-32841-003[/rid]). Without a doubt, smartphones in our pockets have revolutionised day-to-day life. This constant connection, and health psychologists ’ associated ability to capture repeated, fine-grained assessments of people’s behaviours, experiences, and contexts via ecological momentary assessment (EMA) provides an unmatched opportunity for conducting original research. Yet this opportunity brings with it its own tension (Baraniuk, 2013) – Are we making the most of it? This tension between recognising that technology has dramatically altered our prospects for amassing health psychology data, and acknowledging our current limits in exploiting these possibilities motivates our commentary. Here we highlight four critical points which are nicely underscored by the authors in their recommendation of a novel method for analysing EMA data. To each of these points of agreement, we add accompanying caveats and recommendations based on noted limitations and constraints within the field. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Moeller, Julia; Dietrich, Julia; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.; Schneider, Barbara (2017): Passionate experiences in adolescence. Situational variability and long-term stability.
In: Journal of research on adolescence : the official journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence 27 (2), S. 344–361. DOI: 10.1111/jora.12297.
This study investigates adolescents’ situational passionate experiences, defined as states of strong commitment and intense affect. We examine the extent to which experiencing passion was specific to situations versus individual differences, and explore which activities are likely to elicit adolescents’ passion. Using longitudinal experience sampling method (ESM) data from a representative sample of 996 adolescents (54.6% females) in three cohorts (6th, 8th, and 10th grade at baseline), we examine whether adolescents’ frequency of passionate experiences remained stable across 2 years. Results of multilevel analyses revealed that situational determinants accounted for 80% of variance in passion, while 20% were due to characteristics of the person that remained stable across 1 week of ESM assessment. An adolescent’s percentage of passionate experiences among all observed experiences remained stable across 2 years in rank order and mean level.
Monin, Joan K.; Poulin, Michael J.; Brown, Stephanie L.; Langa, Kenneth M. (2017): Spouses’ daily feelings of appreciation and self-reported well-being.
In: Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association. DOI: 10.1037/hea0000527.
OBJECTIVE: Research shows that active support provision is associated with greater well-being for spouses of individuals with chronic conditions. However, not all instances of support may be equally beneficial for spouses’ well-being. The theory of communal responsiveness suggests that because spouses’ well-being is interdependent, spouses benefit most from providing support when they believe their support increases their partner’s happiness and is appreciated. Two studies tested this hypothesis. METHOD: Study 1 was a 7-day ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study of 73 spouses of persons with dementia (74%) and other conditions. In Study 1, spouses self-reported active help, perceptions of how happy the help made the partner and how much the help improved the partner’s well-being, and spouses’ positive and negative affect at EMA time points. Study 2 was a 7-day daily assessment study of 43 spouses of persons with chronic pain in which spouses reported their emotional support provision, perceived partner appreciation, and their own physical symptoms. RESULTS: Study 1 showed that active help was associated with more positive affect for spouses when they perceived the help increased their partner’s happiness and improved their partner’s well-being. Study 2 showed that emotional support provision was associated with fewer spouse reported physical symptoms when perceptions of partner appreciation were high. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that interventions for spouses of individuals with chronic conditions take into account spouses’ perceptions of their partners’ positive emotional responses. Highlighting the positive consequences of helping may increase spouses’ well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record
Mullane, Sarah L.; Toledo, Meynard J. L.; Rydell, Sarah A.; Feltes, Linda H.; Vuong, Brenna; Crespo, Noe C. et al. (2017): Social ecological correlates of workplace sedentary behavior.
In: Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 14 (1), S. 117. DOI: 10.1186/s12966-017-0576-x.
Background: To identify social ecological correlates of objectively measured workplace sedentary behavior. Methods: Participants from 24 worksites—across academic, industrial, and government sectors—wore an activPAL-micro accelerometer for 7-days (Jan-Nov 2016). Work time was segmented using daily logs. Sedentary behavior outcomes included time spent sitting, standing, in light intensity physical activity (LPA, stepping cadence < 100 steps/min), and in prolonged sitting bouts (> 30 min). Outcomes were standardized to an 8 h work day. Two electronic surveys were completed to derive individual (job type and work engagement), cultural (lunch away from the desk, walking at lunch and face-to-face interaction), physical (personal printer and office type) and organizational (sector) factors. Mixed-model analyses with worksite-level clustering were performed to examine multi-level associations. Secondary analyses examined job type and sector as moderators of these associations. All models were adjusted for age, race/ethnicity and gender. Results: Participants (N = 478; 72% female; age: 45.0 ± 11.3 years; 77.8% non-Hispanic white) wore the activPAL-micro for 90.2 ± 15.5% of the reported workday. Walking at lunch was positively associated with LPA (5.0 ± 0.5 min/8 h, P < 0.001). Regular face-to-face interaction was negatively associated with prolonged sitting (−11.3 ± 4.8 min/8 h, P < 0.05). Individuals in private offices sat more (20.1 ± 9.1 min/8 h, P < 0.05), stood less (−21.5 ± 8.8 min/8 h, P < 0.05), and engaged in more prolonged sitting (40.9 ± 11.2 min/8 h, P < 0.001) than those in public office space. These associations were further modified by job type and sector. Conclusions: Work-specific individual, cultural, physical and organizational factors are associated with workplace sedentary behavior. Associations vary by job type and sector and should be considered in the design of workplace interventions to reduce sedentary behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Neubauer, Andreas B.; Lerche, Veronika; Voss, Andreas (2017): Interindividual differences in the intraindividual association of competence and well-being. Combining experimental and intensive longitudinal designs.
In: Journal of personality. DOI: 10.1111/jopy.12351.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to assess whether people differ in the degree to which their well-being is affected by fulfillment of the need for competence. Specifically, we want to examine (a) whether interindividual differences in the within-person coupling of competence satisfaction and well-being (competence satisfaction effect) and of competence dissatisfaction and well-being (competence dissatisfaction effect) exist, and (b) whether these differences moderate the effects of an experimentally induced frustration of the need for competence. METHOD: A daily diary study (N = 89) and a laboratory based experiment (N = 150) were conducted to investigate interindividual differences in need effects. In a third study, participants of an additional daily diary study (N = 129) were subsequently subjected to an experimental frustration of the need for competence. RESULTS: Including interindividual differences in the within-person coupling of need fulfillment and well-being improved model fit significantly, indicating that there were statistically meaningful interindividual differences in need effects. The interaction of competence satisfaction effect and competence dissatisfaction effect moderated the effect of an experimental competence frustration on negative affect. CONCLUSION: Results show that interindividual differences in the association of competence fulfillment and well-being are a matter of degree, but not quality. They also support the claim that need satisfaction and dissatisfaction are more than psychometric opposites.
Noe, Beryl; Turner, Liam D.; Linden, David E. J.; Allen, Stuart M.; Maio, Gregory R.; Whitaker, Roger M. (2017): Timing rather than user traits mediates mood sampling on smartphones.
In: BMC research notes 10 (1), S. 481. DOI: 10.1186/s13104-017-2808-1.
OBJECTIVE: Recent years have seen an increasing number of studies using smartphones to sample participants’ mood states. Moods are usually collected by asking participants for their current mood or for a recollection of their mood states over a specific period of time. The current study investigates the reasons to favour collecting mood through current or daily mood surveys and outlines design recommendations for mood sampling using smartphones based on these findings. These recommendations are also relevant to more general smartphone sampling procedures. RESULTS: N=64 participants completed a series of surveys at the beginning and end of the study providing information such as gender, personality, or smartphone addiction score. Through a smartphone application, they reported their current mood 3 times and daily mood once per day for 8 weeks. We found that none of the examined intrinsic individual qualities had an effect on matches of current and daily mood reports. However timing played a significant role: the last followed by the first reported current mood of the day were more likely to match the daily mood. Current mood surveys should be preferred for a higher sampling accuracy, while daily mood surveys are more suitable if compliance is more important.
Odgers, Candice L.; Russell, Michael A. (2017): Violence exposure is associated with adolescents’ same- and next-day mental health symptoms.
In: Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines. DOI: 10.1111/jcpp.12763.
BACKGROUND: Young people exposed to violence are at increased risk for mental health and behavioral problems. However, very little is known about the immediate, or same-day, associations between violence exposure and adolescents’ mental health symptoms or whether daily symptom or behavioral reactivity marks future problems. METHODS: Young adolescents were assessed three times a day for 30 consecutive days using mobile-phone-based Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) (N = 151 adolescents). Over 12,500 assessments and 4,329 person days were obtained via the EMA. Adolescents were recruited from low-income neighborhoods based on parent-reported risk for externalizing symptoms. Mental health symptoms were assessed via parent and child report at baseline, multiple times per day via EMA assessments of the adolescents, and again 18 months later when 93% of the adolescents were reinterviewed. RESULTS: Results from multilevel models illustrated that young adolescents were more likely to experience symptoms of anger (OR = 1.74, CI: 1.31-2.30), depression (OR = 1.66, CI: 1.26-2.19), and conduct problems (OR = 2.63, CI: 1.71-4.04) on days that they were exposed versus not exposed to violence. Increases in depressive symptoms were also observed on days following violence exposure (OR = 1.46, CI: 1.09-1.97). Adolescents with the highest levels of violence exposure across the 30-day EMA were less behaviorally reactive to violence exposures in daily life, and heightened behavioral reactivity predicted increased risk for substance use across early adolescence. CONCLUSIONS: Findings support the need to focus on both the immediate and long-term associations between violence exposure and adolescents’ mental health and behavior. Results also suggest that heightened behavioral reactivity during early adolescence may signal emerging substance use problems.
Ozaki, Yuka; Goto, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Mai; Hofmann, Wilhelm (2017): Counteractive control over temptations. Promoting resistance through enhanced perception of conflict and goal value.
In: Self Identity 16 (4), S. 439–459. DOI: 10.1080/15298868.2016.1269668.
The present research explored people’s everyday practice of counteractive control. Experience sampling was used to test our prediction that strong temptations would promote self-control. Participants were 237 Japanese citizens with ages ranging from 18 to 69. Results indicated that perceived temptation prompted stronger resistance and restraint of behaviors, compared to those cases where no conflict was perceived. In addition, multilevel path analysis revealed the underlying process such that (a) a strong desire toward temptation intensified perception of conflict; (b) perceived conflict bolstered the value of goals that were in disagreement with the temptation; and (c) highly valued goals promoted self-control (i.e., stronger resistance and hence less yielding to temptation). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Pacella, Maria; Prabhu, Arjun; Morley, Julia; Huang, Stephanie; Suffoletto, Brian (2017): Postconcussive symptoms over the first 14 days after mild traumatic brain injury. An experience sampling study.
In: The Journal of head trauma rehabilitation. DOI: 10.1097/HTR.0000000000000335.
OBJECTIVE: This study examined changes in postconcussive symptoms (PCS) over the acute postinjury recovery period, focusing on how daily PCSs differ between mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and other injury types. SETTING: An urban emergency department (ED) in Western Pennsylvania. SUBJECTS: A total of 108 adult patients with trauma being discharged from the ED were recruited and grouped by injury type: mild TBI (mTBI; n = 39), head injury without mTBI (HI: n = 16), and non-head-injured trauma controls (TCs: n = 53). MAIN MEASURES: Subjects completed a baseline assessment and an experience sampling method (ESM) protocol for 14 consecutive days postinjury: outcomes were daily reports of headaches, anxiety, and concentration difficulties. RESULTS: Controlling for confounders, multilevel modeling revealed greater odds of headache and concentration difficulties on day 1 postinjury among the HI and mTBI groups (vs TCs). These odds decreased over time, with greater reductions for the HI and mTBI groups compared with TCs. By day 14, there were no group differences in PCS. In addition, only the HI group reported higher initial levels of anxiety and a steeper slope relative to TCs. CONCLUSION: Patients with HI, regardless of whether they meet the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicines definition of mTBI, have higher odds of typical PCS immediately postinjury, but faster rates of recovery than TCs. ESM can improve understanding the dynamic nature of postinjury PCS.
Pavani, Jean‐Baptiste; Le Vigouroux, Sarah; Kop, Jean‐Luc; Congard, Anne; Dauvier, Bruno (2017): A network approach to affect regulation dynamics and personality trait‐induced variations. Extraversion and neuroticism moderate reciprocal influences between affect and affect regulation strategies.
In: Eur J Pers. DOI: 10.1002/per.2109.
The objectives of the present study were twofold. First, we tested a new approach to affect regulation dynamics, conceptualized as a network made up of the reciprocal influences that affect and affect regulation strategies constantly exert on each other. Second, we attempted to gain a better understanding of these dynamics by examining how they vary according to broad personality traits. To this end, we adopted an experience sampling method, involving five daily assessments over a 2‐week period. In each assessment, participants indicated their current affective experience and the way they had implemented five well‐known affect regulation strategies (i.e. appreciation, positive reappraisal, distraction, expressive suppression, and rumination) since the previous assessment. At the sample level, the network of affect regulation dynamics was characterized by positive feedback loops between positive affect and so‐called broad‐minded strategies, and between negative affect and narrow‐minded strategies. The form of this network varied according to levels of extraversion and neuroticism. Our findings are discussed in light of current knowledge about personality and affect regulation. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Personality Psychology (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Pearson, Carolyn M.; Lavender, Jason M.; Cao, Li; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Engel, Scott G. et al. (2017): Associations of borderline personality disorder traits with stressful events and emotional reactivity in women with bulimia nervosa.
In: Journal of abnormal psychology 126 (5), S. 531–539. DOI: 10.1037/abn0000225.
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) traits are common among those with bulimia nervosa (BN). However, how these traits impact the state experience of precipitants of BN behavior, such as stressful events and emotional reactivity, has not been determined. Thus, the purpose of this naturalistic study was to examine this trait-state association in BN. Women with DSM-IV BN (N = 133) completed a baseline measure of personality pathology traits, and subsequently recorded their affective state and the frequency and perception of 3 types of stressful events (interpersonal, work/environment, and daily hassles) several times per day for 2 weeks using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Pearson correlations assessed the associations between BPD traits (affective lability, identity problems, insecure attachment, and cognitive dysregulation) and (a) frequency of stressful events and (b) perception of stressful events. Generalized linear models (GLM) were used to evaluate the relationship between BPD traits and changes in negative affect following stressful events. Results revealed that while all traits were significantly associated with perceived stressfulness, certain BPD traits were significantly associated with the frequency of stressful events. Individuals with higher trait insecure attachment experienced larger increases in negative affect following interpersonal stressful events. These findings suggest that interventions focused on addressing stressful events and enhancing adaptive emotional responses to interpersonal events may be particularly useful for a subset of individuals with BN with BPD-related personality characteristics, including insecure attachment, affective lability, and identity problems. (PsycINFO Database Record
Pincus, Aaron L. (2017): An interpersonal perspective on Criterion A of the DSM-5 alternative model for personality disorders.
In: Current opinion in psychology 21, S. 11–17. DOI: 10.1016/j.copsyc.2017.08.035.
This paper links Criterion A of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5th Edition Alternative Model for Personality Disorders with the contemporary interpersonal model of personality pathology. Advances in interpersonal theory and assessment are outlined to demonstrate that Criterion A’s self (identity, self-direction) and interpersonal (empathy, intimacy) impairments are related to the interpersonal meta-constructs and agency and communion and are operationalized by perceptual, behavioral, and affective mechanisms of the interpersonal situation framework. Research informed by the interpersonal situation examining interpersonal functioning in personality disorders is reviewed. Specifically, studies employing experience sampling with event-contingent designs examine social functioning in daily life and studies employing continuous assessment of interpersonal dynamics examine the moment-to-moment unfolding of interpersonal behavior in dyadic interactions.
Piontak, Joy Rayanne; Russell, Michael A.; Danese, Andrea; Copeland, William E.; Hoyle, Rick H.; Odgers, Candice L. (2017): Violence exposure and adolescents’ same-day obesogenic behaviors. New findings and a replication.
In: Social science & medicine (1982) 189, S. 145–151. DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.07.004.
OBJECTIVE: To test whether exposure to violence is associated with same-day increases in obesogenic behaviors among young adolescents, including unhealthy food and beverage consumption, poor quality sleep, and lack of physical activity. METHODS: Young at-risk adolescents between 12 and 15 years of age were recruited via telephone screening from low-income neighborhoods. Adolescents and their parents completed in-person assessments, followed by Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) delivered to 151 adolescents’ mobile phones three times a day for 30 days (4329 person days). Three obesogenic behaviors – unhealthy food consumption, poor sleep quality, and lack of physical activity – and violence exposure were assessed daily. Adolescents’ body mass index (BMI) was assessed prior to the EMA and 18 months later. A replication was performed among 395 adolescents from a population-representative sample (with 5276 EMA person days). RESULTS: On days that at-risk adolescents were exposed versus not exposed to violence, they were more likely to consume unhealthy foods and beverages (b = 0.12, p = 0.01), report feeling tired the next morning (OR = 1.58, p < 0.01), and to be active (OR = 1.61, p < 0.01). At-risk adolescents who reported higher consumption of soda and caffeinated beverages during the 30-day EMA were more likely to experience increases in BMI in later adolescence. Findings related to sleep and activity were supported in the population-based replication sample; however, no significant same-day associations were found between violence exposure and unhealthy dietary consumption. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that exposure to violence is associated with same-day unhealthy dietary consumption among at-risk adolescents and next-day tiredness related to sleep quality among adolescents from both at-risk and normative populations. Findings also point to unhealthy soda consumption during early adolescence as an important predictor of weight gain among at-risk adolescents.
Pos, Karin; Meijer, Carin J.; Verkerk, Oukje; Ackema, Onno; Krabbendam, Lydia; Haan, Lieuwe de (2017): Metacognitive training in patients recovering from a first psychosis. An experience sampling study testing treatment effects.
In: European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience. DOI: 10.1007/s00406-017-0833-7.
Cognitive biases, negative affect and negative self-esteem are associated with paranoia in people with psychotic disorders. Metacognitive group training (MCT) aims to target these biases although research has shown mixed results. Our objective was to establish the effect of MCT on paranoid ideation in patients with recent onset psychosis in a powerful experience sampling design. 50 patients between the age of 18 and 35 were included in a single-blind, parallel group RCT comparing MCT with occupational therapy (OT) as an active control condition. We assessed via questionnaires and experience sampling treatment effects on paranoid ideation, delusional conviction, the cognitive bias jumping to conclusion (JTC), and cognitive insight, as well as treatment effects on associations between negative affect, negative self-esteem and paranoid ideation. Patients in the MCT group did not show a decrease in paranoid ideation, delusional conviction, JTC-bias or an increase in cognitive insight compared with OT. However, negative affect showed a weaker association with paranoid ideation post-treatment in the MCT condition. In the OT condition, this association was stronger post-treatment. We tentatively suggest that patients with an early psychosis seemed to benefit from MCT in emotional learning compared with the OT condition. Despite the fact that the group training is well-received by patients, subsequent individual MCT (MCT+) may be indicated for stronger favorable effects on paranoid ideation.
Pos, Karin; Wit, Iris E. de; van Dijk, Floor A.; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A.; Bruggeman, Richard; Meijer, Carin J. et al. (2017): An experience sampling study on the ecological validity of the SWN-20. Indication that subjective well-being is associated with momentary affective states above and beyond psychosis susceptibility.
In: Psychiatry research. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.08.017.
Subjective well-being (SWB) is associated with treatment adherence and symptom outcome in people with psychotic disorders. Also, it is associated with psychosis susceptibility and it is partly hereditable. The SWN-20 is a widely used tool to assess subjective well-being in patients; it was also found to be suitable for assessing SWB in healthy populations. Yet it is unclear how this retrospectively measured construct may be associated with momentary affective state, which is the proposed underlying mechanism of subjective well-being. This study therefore investigated the ecological validity of the SWN-20 in people at different risk for psychosis. In 63 patients with a psychotic disorder and 61 siblings of patients with a psychotic disorder we assessed whether subjective well-being as measured with the SWN-20, was associated with momentary positive affect, negative affect, reward experience and stress-sensitivity as measured by the experience sample method (ESM). Higher subjective well-being was associated with higher momentary positive affect and lower negative affect, and this association was not conditional on psychosis vulnerability. Subjective well-being was not associated with stress-sensitivity or reward-experience. SWN-20 is an easy-to-use and ecologically valid tool to measure subjective well-being in people with different vulnerability for psychosis.
Potter, Lindsey N.; Brondolo, Elizabeth; Smyth, Joshua M. (2017): Biopsychosocial correlates of discrimination in daily life. A review.
In: Stigma and Health. DOI: 10.1037/sah0000120.
The bulk of the literature on the relationship of discrimination to health has relied on retrospective reports of perceived exposure to discrimination. Much less is known known about the real-time within-person association between discrimination and biopsychosocial processes. Intensive longitudinal methods, including ecological momentary assessment (EMA) and daily diary studies, are well suited for studying the dynamic nature of discriminatory experiences in daily life. This review examines research utilizing EMA and daily diaries to study discrimination within individuals in real-time and natural settings. We identified studies of discrimination related to race, sex, weight, and sexual orientation, and examined the prevalence and frequency of discrimination in daily life, the psychosocial correlates of discrimination, contextual factors related to discriminatory experiences, and moderators of the effects of discrimination. We highlight the benefits of using EMA and daily diaries in the study of discrimination and biopsychosocial processes, and provide suggestions for future work on these associations. EMA data suggest that discrimination occurs more frequently than might be clear from survey research and is associated with poor mental health in daily life. Further, discrimination may be enacted through various means (e.g., verbal expressions, behavior), by a variety of perpetrators (e.g., spouses, friends), and in various settings (e.g., in the home, in public places) in daily life. This methodology has potential to facilitate our understanding of the dynamic temporal relationship between cognitive, behavioral, and emotional responses to discrimination and poor health outcomes in daily life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Pöysä, Sanni; Vasalampi, Kati; Muotka, Joona; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Nurmi, Jari-Erik (2017): Variation in situation-specific engagement among lower secondary school students.
In: Learn Instr. DOI: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2017.07.007.
The majority of previous research has examined school engagement as an overall student characteristic. The present study contributes to the field by examining variation in students’ situation-specific engagement from one lesson to another and by investigating situational determinants of such variation. An intensive one-week lesson-to-lesson data collection was conducted in four lower secondary school classrooms. Students rated their situation-specific engagement at the end of each lesson with a mobile-based InSitu instrument. Data comprising a total of 57 students and 1328 ratings were analyzed with two-level hierarchical multivariate model (between students, and within students between lessons). The results indicated substantial within student variation in engagement between lessons which was predicted by school subjects. Students reported highest situational engagement and lowest disaffection in lessons of non-academic subjects. The findings extend prior literature by specifying factors affecting students’ situation-specific engagement and by unraveling effects due to variation within and between students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Preston, Kenzie L.; Kowalczyk, William J.; Phillips, Karran A.; Jobes, Michelle L.; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Lin, Jia-Ling et al. (2017): Context and craving during stressful events in the daily lives of drug-dependent patients.
In: Psychopharmacology 234 (17), S. 2631–2642. DOI: 10.1007/s00213-017-4663-0.
Rationale: Knowing how stress manifests in the lives of people with substance-use disorders could help inform mobile ‘just in time’ treatment. Objectives: The purpose of this paper is to examine discrete episodes of stress, as distinct from the fluctuations in background stress assessed in most EMA studies. Methods: For up to 16 weeks, outpatients on opioid-agonist treatment carried smartphones on which they initiated an entry whenever they experienced a stressful event (SE) and when randomly prompted (RP) three times daily. Participants reported the severity of stress and craving and the context of the report (location, activities, companions). Decomposition of covariance was used to separate within-person from between-person effects; reffect sizes below are within-person. Results: Participants (158 of 182; 87%) made 1787 stress-event entries. Craving for opioids increased with stress severity (reffect = 0.50). Stress events tended to occur in social company (with acquaintances, 0.63, friends, 0.17, or on the phone, 0.41) rather than with family (spouse, −0.14; child, −0.18), and in places with more overall activity (bars, 0.32; outside, 0.28; walking, 0.28) and more likelihood of unexpected experiences (with strangers, 0.17). Being on the internet was slightly protective (−0.22). Our prior finding that being at the workplace protects against background stress in our participants was partly supported in these stressful-event data. Conclusions: The contexts of specific stressful events differ from those we have seen in prior studies of ongoing background stress. However, both are associated with drug craving. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Probst, Thomas; Pryss, Rudiger C.; Langguth, Berthold; Rauschecker, Josef P.; Schobel, Johannes; Reichert, Manfred et al. (2017): Does tinnitus depend on time-of-day? An ecological momentary assessment study with the “TrackYourTinnitus” application.
In: Frontiers in aging neuroscience 9, S. 253. DOI: 10.3389/fnagi.2017.00253.
Only few previous studies used ecological momentary assessments to explore the time-of-day-dependence of tinnitus. The present study used data from the mobile application “TrackYourTinnitus” to explore whether tinnitus loudness and tinnitus distress fluctuate within a 24-h interval. Multilevel models were performed to account for the nested structure of assessments (level 1: 17,209 daily life assessments) nested within days (level 2: 3,570 days with at least three completed assessments), and days nested within participants (level 3: 350 participants). Results revealed a time-of-day-dependence of tinnitus. In particular, tinnitus was perceived as louder and more distressing during the night and early morning hours (from 12 a.m. to 8 a.m.) than during the upcoming day. Since previous studies suggested that stress (and stress-associated hormones) show a circadian rhythm and this might influence the time-of-day-dependence of tinnitus, we evaluated whether the described results change when statistically controlling for subjectively reported stress-levels. Correcting for subjective stress-levels, however, did not change the result that tinnitus (loudness and distress) was most severe at night and early morning. These results show that time-of-day contributes to the level of both tinnitus loudness and tinnitus distress. Possible implications of our results for the clinical management of tinnitus are that tailoring the timing of therapeutic interventions to the circadian rhythm of individual patients (chronotherapy) might be promising.
Proulx, Jeffrey; Klee, Daniel; Oken, Barry S. (2017): Do psychosocial predictors affect the following days’ cortisol awakening response? Expanding the temporal frame with which to explore morning cortisol.
In: Stress 20 (4), S. 398–403. DOI: 10.1080/10253890.2017.1346076.
Much of the extant cortisol awakening response (CAR) literature posits that CAR is an anticipatory response to perceived demands later that same day. However, expanding and switching the temporal order of cortisol and psychosocial influences may motivate more flexible approaches to understanding the dynamic relationship between mind and body, including cumulative strain on the HPA axis. This study was novel because we used two models to explore the effects of one day’s emotion regulation and cortisol levels on cortisol and CAR the following day in 100 mildly stressed adults aged 50–81 years old, which contrasts with the more common CAR-anticipatory-response design. In the first model, High negative-affect-variation on day 1 predicted a higher risk of having a flat CAR the next day, relative to the moderate-affect-variation group (RR = 10.10, p < .05). In the second model, higher bedtime cortisol on day 1 was positively associated with waking cortisol (β = .293, p < .01) and flatter CAR slopes on day 2 (β = −.422, p < .001). These results show that morning cortisol intercepts and slopes may be associated with previous days’ affect variability and levels of bedtime cortisol. These results also suggest that anticipation of demands may extend to the previous day, rather than just the morning of the demand, indicating a broader temporal framework for the study of CAR. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Ram, Nilam; Benson, Lizbeth; Brick, Timothy R.; Conroy, David E.; Pincus, Aaron L. (2017): Behavioral landscapes and earth mover’s distance. A new approach for studying individual differences in density distributions.
In: Journal of research in personality 69, S. 191–205. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrp.2016.06.010.
Contemporary views of personality highlight intraindividual variability. We forward a general method for quantifying individual differences in behavioral tendencies based on Earth Mover’s Distance. Using data from 150 individuals who reported on their and others’ interpersonal behavior in 64,112 social interactions, we illustrate how this new approach can advance notions of personality as density distributions. Results provide independent confirmation and establish validity of existing representations of individual differences in interpersonal behavior, and identify new dimensions and profiles of personality and well-being. Benefits of the EMD method include freedom from assumptions about the shape and form of density distributions, generality of application to n-dimensional behavior captured in experience sampling studies, and natural integration of personality structure and dynamics.
Rauschenberg, C.; van Os, J.; Cremers, D.; Goedhart, M.; Schieveld, J. N. M.; Reininghaus, U. (2017): Stress sensitivity as a putative mechanism linking childhood trauma and psychopathology in youth’s daily life.
In: Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica 136 (4), S. 373–388. DOI: 10.1111/acps.12775.
OBJECTIVE: Childhood trauma (CT) is associated with a range of psychopathologies, including psychosis. However, evidence on underlying mechanisms remains limited. The study aimed to investigate whether CT impacts on youth mental health by modifying sensitivity to stress in daily life. METHOD: The experience sampling method (ESM) was used to measure momentary stress, negative affect and psychotic experiences in 99 adolescents and young adults (43 help-seeking service users, 16 siblings and 40 controls). Before ESM assessments, CT and depressive, anxiety and psychotic symptoms were assessed. RESULTS: Stress sensitivity, that is, the association between momentary stress and (i) negative affect and (ii) psychotic experiences, was modified by physical and emotional abuse and, partially, emotional and physical neglect, but not sexual abuse in service users and controls. While there was strong evidence for increased stress sensitivity in service users when high vs. low levels of CT were compared, a pattern of resilience was evident in controls, with attenuated, or no differences in, stress sensitivity in those with high vs. low CT levels. Less consistent findings were observed in siblings. CONCLUSIONS: Stress sensitivity may be an important risk and resilience mechanism through which CT impacts on mental health in youth.
Richardson, Ben; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; O’Donnell, Renee; Ling, Mathew; Staiger, Petra K. (2017): Regression tree analysis of ecological momentary assessment data.
In: Health Psychol Rev 11 (3), S. 235–241. DOI: 10.1080/17437199.2017.1343677.
An increasingly popular form of data collection in health psychology research is Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA); that is, using diaries or smartphones to collect intensive longitudinal data. This method is increasingly applied to the study of relationships between state-based aspects of individuals’ functioning and health outcomes (e.g., binge eating, alcohol use). Analysis of such data is challenging and regression tree modelling (RTM) may be a useful alternative to multilevel modelling for investigating the association between a set of explanatory variables and a continuous outcome. Furthermore, RTM outputs ‘decision trees’ that could be used by health practitioners to guide assessment and tailor intervention. In contrast to regression, RTM is able to easily accommodate many complex, higher-order interactions between predictor variables (without the need to create explicit interaction terms). These benefits make the technique useful for those interested in monitoring and intervening upon health and psychological outcomes (e.g., mood, eating behaviour, risky alcohol use, and treatment adherence). Using real data, this paper demonstrates both the benefits and limitations of RTM and how to extend these models to accommodate analysis of nested data; that is, data that arise from EMA where repeated observations are nested within individuals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Roberts, Megan E.; Lu, Bo; Browning, Christopher R.; Ferketich, Amy K. (2017): Tracking young adults’ attitudes toward tobacco marketing using ecological momentary assessment (EMA).
In: Subst Use Misuse 52 (9), S. 1208–1213. DOI: 10.1080/10826084.2017.1302958.
Background: Decades of research demonstrate the pernicious effects of targeted cigarette marketing on young people. Now, with tobacco marketing shifting toward greater incorporation of alternative products, it is critical to identify current attitudes toward the new landscape of tobacco advertisements. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to understand the present landscape of tobacco marketing to which young adults are exposed, and to assess how they respond to it. Method: During 2015–2016, we used ecological momentary assessment (EMA), in which 44 young adults (aged 18–28) carried smartphones equipped with a survey app. Seventy-seven percent were ever-users of tobacco and 29.5% were intermittent users of tobacco (someday users of cigarettes and/or those who used another tobacco product >5 times within the past year). For ten days, participants were prompted at three random times/day to complete a brief survey about their exposures and responses to tobacco-related advertising. Analyses used t-test and multilevel modeling. Results: Intermittent users reported greater exposure than non-intermittent users to tobacco advertising. Further, both intermittent and ever-users reported more positive attitudes toward the tobacco advertising. Of the tobacco advertisements reported, 22% were for products unregulated by the FDA at the time of data collection. Conclusions/Importance: These findings indicate that young adults, and especially young adults who use tobacco, are exposed to a fair amount of tobacco advertising on a weekly basis. As the tobacco users in our sample were largely experimental and occasional users, these marketing exposures could put young adults at risk for progression toward regular use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Roos, Corey R.; Witkiewitz, Katie (2017): A contextual model of self-regulation change mechanisms among individuals with addictive disorders.
In: Clinical psychology review 57, S. 117–128. DOI: 10.1016/j.cpr.2017.08.008.
Numerous behavioral treatments for addictive disorders include components explicitly aimed at targeting self-regulation (e.g., coping and emotion regulation). We first provide a summary of key findings to date among studies that have examined self-regulation as a mechanism of behavior change (MOBC) in behavioral treatments for addictive disorders. Based on our review, we conclude that the role of self-regulation as a MOBC across behavioral treatments for addictive disorders is not well-characterized and findings are inconsistent across studies. For example, our review indicates that there is still inconsistent evidence that coping is a unique MOBC in cognitive-behavioral approaches for addictive behaviors. We propose that there has been slow progress in understanding self-regulation as a MOBC in addiction treatment because of a lack of attention to contextual factors. Accordingly, in the second half of this paper, we propose a contextual model of self-regulation change mechanisms, which emphasizes that the role of various facets of self-regulation as MOBC may depend on contextual factors in the immediate situational context (e.g., fluctuating internal and external cues) and in the broader context in which an individual is embedded (e.g., major life stressors, environmental conditions, dispositions). Additionally, we provide specific recommendations to guide future research for understanding both between-person and within-person self-regulation MOBC in addiction treatment. In particular, we provide key recommendations for how to capitalize on intensive longitudinal measurement methods (e.g., ecological momentary assessment) when bringing a contextual perspective to the study of self-regulation as MOBC in various addiction treatments.
Rose, Shyanika W.; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew; Elmasry, Hoda; Niaura, Ray (2017): Young adult non-smokers’ exposure to real-world tobacco marketing. Results of an ecological momentary assessment pilot study.
In: BMC research notes 10 (1), S. 435. DOI: 10.1186/s13104-017-2758-7.
BACKGROUND: The aims of this pilot study were to assess and characterize non-current smoking young adults’ exposure to tobacco marketing through an ecological momentary assessment protocol. METHODS: Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) consists of repeated measurement of momentary phenomena and is well-suited to capture sporadic experiences in the real-world, such as exposure to tobacco marketing. EMA has the potential to capture detailed information about real-world marketing exposures in ways that reduce recall bias and increase ecological validity. In this study, young adults (n = 31; ages 18-25) responded to random prompts regarding their momentary exposure to tobacco marketing via text messages on their smartphones for 14 days (n = 1798 observations). Unadjusted and adjusted analyses were conducted using multilevel logistic regression to assess the odds of exposure accounting for correlation of multiple repeated measures within individuals while controlling for variability between individuals. RESULTS: Respondents reported, on average, two momentary exposures to tobacco advertising in the 14-day study period. In adjusted analyses, African-American (aOR 3.36; 95% CI 1.07, 10.54) and Hispanic respondents (aOR 5.08; 95% CI 1.28, 20.13) were more likely to report exposure to tobacco advertising. Respondents were also more likely to report exposure when also exposed to others using tobacco products and when they were at stores compared with at home (aOR 14.82; 95% CI 3.61, 60.88). CONCLUSION: Non-smoking young adults report exposure to tobacco marketing particularly at the point-of-sale, with the highest likelihood of exposure among African-American and Hispanic young people. EMA protocols can be effective in assessing the potential impact of point-of-sale tobacco marketing on young adults.
Ruiz, John M.; Taylor, Daniel J.; Uchino, Bert N.; Smith, Timothy W.; Allison, Matthew; Ahn, Chul et al. (2017): Evaluating the longitudinal risk of social vigilance on atherosclerosis. Study protocol for the North Texas Heart Study.
In: BMJ open 7 (8), e017345. DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017345.
INTRODUCTION: Psychosocial factors are increasingly recognised as important determinants of cardiovascular disease risk. The North Texas Heart Study aims to understand the mechanisms responsible for this association with a focus on social vigilance (ie, scanning the environment for social threats). There is also growing interest in supplementing traditional methods (eg, survey assessment of psychosocial risk paired with cross-sectional and longitudinal health outcomes) with daily or repeated momentary assessment of psychosocial factors. However, there are relatively few longitudinal studies directly comparing these approaches with hard endpoints. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The North Texas Heart Study proposes a longitudinal measurement burst design to examine psychosocial determinants of subclinical atherosclerosis. A sample of 300 healthy community participants, stratified by age and gender, will complete survey measures, as well as 2 days of ecological momentary assessment at baseline and at a 2-year follow-up. A range of psychosocial and behavioural factors, objective biomarkers, as well as carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) will be assessed at both time points. Unadjusted and adjusted models will evaluate cross-sectional associations and determinants of change in the cIMT. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The Institutional Review Board at the study coordinating institute (University of North Texas) has approved this study. Positive, negative or inconclusive primary and ancillary findings will be disseminated in scientific journals and conferences.
Rummel, Jan; Nied, Laura (2017): Do drives drive the train of thought?-Effects of hunger and sexual arousal on mind-wandering behavior.
In: Consciousness and cognition 55, S. 179–187. DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2017.08.013.
Physiological needs that are currently unfulfilled are known to affect human cognition and behavior. The present study investigates whether and how the temporary activation of two primary physiological needs, namely hunger and sexual arousal, influence both the frequency and the contents of mind-wandering episodes. To induce hunger, one group of participants fasted for a minimum of five hours whereas another group of participants was exposed to audio material with explicit sexual content to provoke sexual arousal. Both groups as well as an additional control group, which had not received hunger instructions and had not been exposed to arousing material of any kind beforehand, performed a reading task during which mind wandering was assessed using a standard experience-sampling method. Results showed that acute hunger but not elevated sexual arousal renders the occurrence of mind-wandering episodes more likely. Induction of both hunger and sexual arousal rendered the occurrence of need-related off-task thoughts more likely and changed time orientations of mind wandering. The present findings are well in line with the assumption that unfulfilled needs regularly achieve cognitive priority and extend the cognitive-priority idea to self-generated thoughts.
Russell, Emma; Woods, Stephen A.; Banks, Adrian P. (2017): Examining conscientiousness as a key resource in resisting email interruptions. Implications for volatile resources and goal achievement.
In: J Occup Organ Psychol 90 (3), S. 407–435. DOI: 10.1111/joop.12177.
Within the context of the conservation of resources model, when a resource is deployed, it is depleted—albeit temporarily. However, when a ‘key’, stable resource, such as Conscientiousness, is activated (e.g., using a self‐control strategy, such as resisting an email interruption), we predicted that (1) another, more volatile resource (affective well‐being) would be impacted and that (2) this strategy would be deployed as a trade‐off, allowing one to satisfy task goals, at the expense of well‐being goals. We conducted an experience‐sampling field study with 52 email‐users dealing with their normal email as it interrupted them over the course of a half‐day period. This amounted to a total of 376 email reported across the sample. Results were analysed using random coefficient hierarchical linear modelling and included cross‐level interactions for Conscientiousness with strategy and well‐being. Our first prediction was supported—deploying the stable, key resource of Conscientiousness depletes the volatile, fluctuating resource of affective well‐being. However, our second prediction was not fully realized. Although resisting or avoiding an email interruption was perceived to hinder well‐being goal achievement by Conscientious people, it had neither a positive nor negative impact on task goal achievement. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Schmidt, Jennifer A.; Rosenberg, Joshua M.; Beymer, Patrick N. (2017): A person‐in‐context approach to student engagement in science. Examining learning activities and choice.
In: J Res Sci Teach. DOI: 10.1002/tea.21409.
Science education reform efforts in the Unites States call for a dramatic shift in the way students are expected to engage with scientific concepts, core ideas, and practices in the classroom. This new vision of science learning demands a more complex conceptual understanding of student engagement and research models that capture both the multidimensionality and contextual specificity of student engagement in science. In a unique application of person‐oriented analysis of experience sampling data, we employ cluster analysis to identify six distinct momentary engagement profiles representing different combinations of the behavioral, cognitive, and affective dimensions of student engagement in high school science classrooms. Students spend a majority of their classroom time in one of several engagement profiles characterized by high engagement on one dimension, but low levels on the others. Students exhibited low engagement across all three dimensions of engagement in about 22% of our observations. Full engagement, or high levels across all three dimensions, is the least frequent profile, occurring in only 11% of the observations. Students’ momentary engagement profiles are related in meaningful ways to both the learning activity in which students are engaged and the types of choices they are afforded. Laboratory activities provided especially polarized engagement experiences, producing full engagement, universally low engagement, and pleasurable engagement in which students are affectively engaged but are not engaged cognitively or behaviorally. Student choice is generally associated with more optimal engagement profiles and the specific type of choice matters in important ways. Choices about how to frame the learning activity have the most positive effects relative to other types of choices, such as choosing whom to work with or how much time to take. Results are discussed in terms of implications for practice and the utility of the methodological approach for evaluating the complexities of student engagement in science classrooms. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 9999:XX–XX, 2017 (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Schüz, Benjamin; Revell, Sarah; Hills, Andrew P.; Schüz, Natalie; Ferguson, Stuart G. (2017): Higher BMI is associated with stronger effects of social cues on everyday snacking behaviour.
In: Appetite 114, S. 1–5. DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.012.
Discretionary food choices (snacks) contribute up to a third of the daily energy intake and potentially contribute to energy imbalance and weight gain. Individual snack intake behaviour is guided by internal and external cues, with social cues (seeing others eat, being alone) consistently showing large effects. A wide body of (mainly laboratory-based) research suggests marked differences in people’s response to eating cues based on BMI. Here, we show that these BMI differences in cue responsiveness also pertain to everyday snacking behaviour. In two combined ecological momentary assessment studies, 122 participants with BMIs ranging from 18.34 to 45.71 kg/m² logged their everyday snacking behaviour in real-time over two weeks along with the presence or absence of social cues. Random-effects modelling showed that people with higher BMI were more likely to consume high-energy snacks when alone, and were more likely to consume low-energy snacks in the presence of others eating. This suggests BMI differences in cue responsiveness that are in line with impression management theory and underlines the importance of social cues for snacking behaviour and provides avenues for both theory and intervention development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Scott, Christy K.; Dennis, Michael L.; Gustafson, David H. (2017): Using smartphones to decrease substance use via self-monitoring and recovery support. Study protocol for a randomized control trial.
In: Trials 18 (1), S. 374. DOI: 10.1186/s13063-017-2096-z.
BACKGROUND: Alcohol abuse, other substance use disorders, and risk behaviors associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) represent three of the top 10 modifiable causes of mortality in the US. Despite evidence that continuing care is effective in sustaining recovery from substance use disorders and associated behaviors, patients rarely receive it. Smartphone applications (apps) have been effective in delivering continuing care to patients almost anywhere and anytime. This study tests the effectiveness of two components of such apps: ongoing self-monitoring through Ecological Momentary Assessments (EMAs) and immediate recovery support through Ecological Momentary Interventions (EMIs). METHODS/DESIGN: The target population, adults enrolled in substance use disorder treatment (n = 400), are being recruited from treatment centers in Chicago and randomly assigned to one of four conditions upon discharge in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Participants receive (1) EMAs only, (2) EMIs only, (3) combined EMAs + EMIs, or (4) a control condition without EMA or EMI for 6 months. People in the experimental conditions receive smartphones with the apps (EMA and/or EMI) specific to their condition. Phones alert participants in the EMA and EMA + EMI conditions at five random times per day and present participants with questions about people, places, activities, and feelings that they experienced in the past 30 min and whether these factors make them want to use substances, support their recovery, or have no impact. Those in the EMI and EMA + EMI conditions have continual access to a suite of support services. In the EMA + EMI condition, participants are prompted to use the EMI(s) when responses to the EMA(s) indicate risk. All groups have access to recovery support as usual. The primary outcome is days of abstinence from alcohol and other drugs. Secondary outcomes are number of HIV risk behaviors and whether abstinence mediates the effects of EMA, EMI, or EMA + EMI on HIV risk behaviors. DISCUSSION: This project will enable the field to learn more about the effects of EMAs and EMIs on substance use disorders and HIV risk behaviors, an understanding that could potentially make treatment and recovery more effective and more widely accessible. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02132481 . Registered on 5 May 2014.
Sells, Joanna R.; Waters, Andrew J.; MacLean, R. Ross (2017): Evaluating the influence of at-risk alcohol use on factors associated with smoking cessation. Combining laboratory and ecological momentary assessment.
In: Drug and alcohol dependence 179, S. 267–270. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.06.003.
OBJECTIVE: Most smokers want to quit but most cessation attempts end in failure. Alcohol consumption is associated with smoking behavior and relapse. We examined the associations between severity of drinking and psychological processes during a cessation attempt in the laboratory and during a quit attempt. METHODS: Smokers (N=209) enrolled in a smoking cessation study were followed from 2 weeks pre-quit through 4 weeks post-quit. Participants scoring 0-7 and 8-15 on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) were classified as low-risk and high-risk drinkers, respectively. Participants attended one pre-quit laboratory session before which they were required to abstain from smoking and another pre-quit session before which they smoked normally. Craving was assessed in the laboratory with the Questionnaire for Smoking Urges (QSU). A subsample of the participants also completed a 1-week ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study starting on the quit day. During EMA, craving for cigarettes was assessed, and attentional bias was assessed using a smoking Stroop task (n=119). RESULTS: High (vs. low) risk participants reported greater abstinence-induced increases in craving in the laboratory, and also exhibited greater attentional bias on the smoking Stroop task during EMA. CONCLUSIONS: High-risk drinkers exhibited a stronger increase in desire to smoke in abstinence and greater attentional bias to smoking cues early in a quit attempt, both of which may motivate continued smoking behaviors. High-risk drinkers may require more intensive or different smoking cessation interventions.
Shernof, David J.; Ruzek, Erik A.; Sannella, Alexander J.; Schorr, Roberta Y.; Sanchez-Wall, Lina; Bressler, Denise M. (2017): Student engagement as a general factor of classroom experience. Associations with student practices and educational outcomes in a university gateway course.
In: Frontiers in psychology 8, S. 994. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00994.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate a model for considering general and specific elements of student experience in a gateway course in undergraduate Financial Accounting in a large university on the East Coast, USA. Specifically, the study evaluated a bifactor analytic strategy including a general factor of student classroom experience, conceptualized as student engagement as rooted in flow theory, as well as factors representing specific dimensions of experience. The study further evaluated the association between these general and specific factors and both student classroom practices and educational outcomes. The sample of students (N = 407) in two cohorts of the undergraduate financial accounting course participated in the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) measuring students’ classroom practices, perceptions, engagement, and perceived learning throughout the one-semester course. Course grade information was also collected. Results showed that a two-level bifactor model fit the data better than two traditional (i.e., non-bifactor) models and also avoided significant multicollinearity of the traditional models. In addition to student engagement (general factor), specific dimensions of classroom experience in the bifactor model at the within-student level included intrinsic motivation, academic intensity, salience, and classroom self-esteem. At the between-student level, specific aspects included work orientation, learning orientation, classroom self-esteem, and disengagement. Multilevel Structural Equation Modeling (MSEM) demonstrated that sitting in the front of the classroom (compared to the sitting in the back), taking notes, active listening, and working on problems during class had a positive effect on within-student variation in student engagement and attention. Engagement, in turn, predicted perceived learning. With respect to between-student effects, the tendency to sit in front seats had a significant effect on student engagement, which in turn had a significant effect on perceived learning and course grades. A significant indirect relationship of seating and active learning strategies on learning and course grade as mediated by student engagement was found. Support for the general aspect of student classroom experience was interpreted with flow theory and suggested the need for additional research. Findings also suggested that active learning strategies are associated with positive learning outcomes even in educational environments where possibilities for action are relatively constrained.
Shiffman, Saul; Terhorst, Lauren (2017): Intermittent and daily smokers’ subjective responses to smoking.
In: Psychopharmacology 234 (9), S. 2911–2917. DOI: 10.1007/s00213-017-4682-x.
RATIONALE: One third of US smokers are intermittent smokers (ITS) who do not smoke daily. Unlike daily smokers (DS), whose smoking is negatively reinforced by withdrawal relief, ITS may be motivated by immediate positive reinforcement. In contrast, incentive salience theory posits hypothesis that “liking” of drug effects fades in established users, such as DS. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare ITS’ and DS’ hedonic responses to smoking. METHODS: Participants were 109 ITS (smoking 4-27 days/month) and 52 DS (smoking daily 5-25 cigarettes/day), aged >/=21, smoking >/=3 years, and not quitting smoking. For 3 weeks, participants engaged in ecological momentary assessment, carrying an electronic diary that asked them to rate their most recent smoking experience on 0-100 visual analog scales (satisfaction, enjoyment [averaged as "pleasure"], feeling sick, feeling a “rush,” enjoying upper respiratory sensations, and immediate craving relief). Hierarchical random effect regression analyzed 4476 ratings. RESULTS: ITS found smoking pleasurable (mean = 69.7 +/- 1.7 [SE]) but significantly less so than DS did (77.6 +/- 2.3; p < 0.006). ITS also reported more aversive response (ITS 18.2 +/- 1.4, DS 11.6 +/- 2.0; p < 0.007). Even though ITS are more likely to smoke at bars/restaurants, when drinking alcohol, or when others were present, they did not report more pleasure in these settings (compared to DS). More extensive smoking experience was unrelated to craving or smoking effects among DS, but predicted greater craving, greater pleasure, and less aversion among ITS. CONCLUSIONS: The findings were largely inconsistent with incentive-salience models of drug use.
Shiyko, Mariya P.; Perkins, Seth; Caldwell, Linda (2017): Feasibility and adherence paradigm to ecological momentary assessments in urban minority youth.
In: Psychol Assess 29 (7), S. 926–934. DOI: 10.1037/pas0000386.
All adolescents in general, including ethnic and racial minorities, report high levels of cell phone use, making mobile technology a useful tool for assessment and intervention. Known health and education disparities based on minority status motivated us to conduct an in-depth investigation regarding feasibility of and adherence to the ecological momentary assessment (EMA) research protocol, studying daily life of urban minority youth. In addition, this paper presents a methodological approach to conceptualizing and reporting adherence in EMA studies. The sample was comprised of 126 youth (41.3% boys; 40.5% 7th and 59.5% 8th graders; 75.4% African American, and 20.6% Hispanic) who carried a mobile phone for 10 days, including 2 weekends and reported on activities, moods, and attitudes. Mean level of adherence was 81% for momentary and 93.8% for daily assessments; it decreased over time and was higher during the week compared to weekends. Adherence was lower on days when participants reported high levels of negative affect and on days when they were engaged in physical activities. Our findings underscore the importance of differentiating between human and technology-related factors when computing adherence rates and portray adherence as a complex and dynamic construct that can vary across individuals. Specific study recommendations and methodological discussion provide guidelines for designing future studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Public Significance Statement—Minority youth are successful at using mobile technology in reporting their daily experiences. Mobile devices can be used for bridging disparity gaps. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Short, Nicole A.; Allan, Nicholas P.; Schmidt, Norman B. (2017): Sleep disturbance as a predictor of affective functioning and symptom severity among individuals with PTSD. An ecological momentary assessment study.
In: Behaviour research and therapy 97, S. 146–153. DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.07.014.
Recent research has highlighted the etiological role of sleep disturbance in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however it is currently unknown how daily changes in sleep are associated with next-day PTSD symptoms. Furthermore, sleep is critical for maintaining appropriate affect, leading some to hypothesize that affective dysfunction may account for the link between sleep disturbances and PTSD symptoms. Thus, the current study tested the relationship between sleep disturbances, affective valence, and PTSD symptoms utilizing an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design among individuals with PTSD (n=30) who participated in 4 EMA-based assessments daily over 8 days. Multilevel modeling indicated that, after accounting for prior evening’s PTSD symptoms, poor sleep quality and reduced sleep efficiency were associated with increased PTSD symptoms and negative affect. Furthermore, results supported the indirect effect of poor sleep quality on elevated PTSD symptoms through increased negative affect in the morning. Findings add to the body of research demonstrating the negative impact of poor sleep for individuals with PTSD by indicating that daily variations in sleep can affect next-day PTSD symptoms, and identifying negative affect as a mechanism of this relationship.
Short, Nicole A.; Allan, Nicholas P.; Stentz, Lauren; Portero, Amberly K.; Schmidt, Norman B. (2017): Predictors of insomnia symptoms and nightmares among individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder. An ecological momentary assessment study.
In: Journal of sleep research. DOI: 10.1111/jsr.12589.
Despite the high levels of comorbidity between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and sleep disturbance, little research has examined the predictors of insomnia and nightmares in this population. The current study tested both PTSD-specific (i.e. PTSD symptoms, comorbid anxiety and depression, nightmares and fear of sleep) and insomnia-specific (i.e. dysfunctional beliefs about sleep, insomnia-related safety behaviours and daily stressors) predictors of sleep quality, efficiency and nightmares in a sample of 30 individuals with PTSD. Participants participated in ecological momentary assessment to determine how daily changes in PTSD- and insomnia-related factors lead to changes in sleep. Multi-level modelling analyses indicated that, after accounting for baseline PTSD symptom severity, PTSD-specific factors were associated with insomnia symptoms, but insomnia-specific factors were not. Only daytime PTSD symptoms and fear of sleep predicted nightmares. Both sleep- and PTSD-related factors play a role in maintaining insomnia among those with PTSD, while nightmares seem to be linked more closely with only PTSD-related factors.
Slofstra, Christien; Nauta, Maaike H.; Holmes, Emily A.; Bos, Elisabeth H.; Wichers, Marieke; Batalas, Nikolaos et al. (2017): Exploring the relation between visual mental imagery and affect in the daily life of previously depressed and never depressed individuals.
In: Cognition & emotion, S. 1–8. DOI: 10.1080/02699931.2017.1365047.
Previously depressed individuals experience disturbances in affect. Affective disturbances may be related to visual mental imagery, given that imagery-based processing of emotional stimuli causes stronger affective responses than verbal processing in experimental laboratory studies. However, the role of imagery-based processing in everyday life is unknown. This study assessed mental imagery in the daily life of previously and never depressed individuals. Higher levels of visual mental imagery was hypothesised to be associated with more affective reactivity to both negatively and positively valenced mental representations. This study was the first to explore mental imagery in daily life using experience sampling methodology. Previously depressed (n = 10) and matched never depressed (n = 11) individuals participated in this study. Momentary affect and imagery-based processing were assessed using the “Imagine your mood” smartphone application. Participants recorded on average 136 momentary reports over a period of 8 weeks. The expected association between visual mental imagery and affective reactivity was not found. Unexpectedly, in both previously and never depressed individuals, higher levels of imagery-based processing of mental representations in daily life were significantly associated with better momentary mood and more positive affect, regardless of valence. The causality of effects remains to be examined in future studies.
Smith, Anthony; Salas, Kristy de; Lewis, Ian; Schuz, Benjamin (2017): Developing smartphone apps for behavioural studies. The AlcoRisk app case study.
In: Journal of biomedical informatics 72, S. 108–119. DOI: 10.1016/j.jbi.2017.07.007.
Smartphone apps have emerged as valuable research tools to sample human behaviours at their time of occurrence within natural environments. Human behaviour sampling methods, such as Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA), aim to facilitate research that is situated in ecologically valid real world environments rather than laboratory environments. Researchers have trialled a range of EMA smartphone apps to sample human behaviours such as dieting, physical activity and smoking. Software development processes for EMA smartphones apps, however, are not widely documented with little guidance provided for the integration of complex multidisciplinary behavioural and technical fields. In this paper, the AlcoRisk app for studying alcohol consumption and risk taking tendencies is presented alongside a software development process that integrates these multidisciplinary fields. The software development process consists of three stages including requirements analysis, feature and interface design followed by app implementation. Results from a preliminary feasibility study support the efficacy of the AlcoRisk app’s software development process.
Smith, Kathryn E.; Mason, Tyler B.; Crosby, Ross D.; Engel, Scott G.; Crow, Scott J.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Peterson, Carol B. (2017): State and trait positive and negative affectivity in relation to restraint intention and binge eating among adults with obesity.
In: Appetite 120, S. 327–334. DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.09.020.
Restraint and binge eating are cognitive and behavioral processes that are particularly important in the context of obesity. While extensive research has focused on negative affect (NA) in relation to binge eating, it is unclear whether affective valence (i.e., positive versus negative) and stability (i.e., state versus trait) differentially predict binge eating and restraint among individuals with obesity. Distinguishing between valence and stability helps elucidate under which affective contexts, and among which individuals, restraint and binge eating are likely to occur. Therefore, the present study examined relationships between trait and state levels of NA and positive affect (PA), binge eating, and restraint intention among 50 adults with obesity (BMI >/= 30). Participants completed baseline assessments followed by a two-week ecological momentary assessment (EMA) protocol. Structural equation modeling assessed a trait model of person-level measures of affect in relation to overall levels of binge eating and restraint intention, while general estimating equations (GEEs) assessed state models examining relationships between momentary affect and subsequent binge eating and restraint. The trait model indicated higher overall NA was related to more binge eating episodes, but was unrelated to overall restraint intention. Higher overall PA was related to higher overall restraint intention, but was unrelated to binge eating. State models indicated momentary NA was associated with a greater likelihood of subsequent binge eating and lower restraint intention. Momentary PA was unrelated to subsequent binge eating or restraint intention. Together, findings demonstrate important distinctions between the valence and stability of affect in relationship to binge eating and restraint intention among individuals with obesity. While NA is a more salient predictor of binge eating than PA, both overall PA and momentary NA are predictors of restraint intention.
Smyth, Joshua M.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Zawadzki, Matthew J.; Scott, Stacey B.; Conroy, David E.; Lanza, Stephanie T. et al. (2017): Everyday stress response targets in the science of behavior change.
In: Behaviour research and therapy. DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.09.009.
Stress is an established risk factor for negative health outcomes, and responses to everyday stress can interfere with health behaviors such as exercise and sleep. In accordance with the Science of Behavior Change (SOBC) program, we apply an experimental medicine approach to identifying stress response targets, developing stress response assays, intervening upon these targets, and testing intervention effectiveness. We evaluate an ecologically valid, within-person approach to measuring the deleterious effects of everyday stress on physical activity and sleep patterns, examining multiple stress response components (i.e., stress reactivity, stress recovery, and stress pile-up) as indexed by two key response indicators (negative affect and perseverative cognition). Our everyday stress response assay thus measures multiple malleable stress response targets that putatively shape daily health behaviors (physical activity and sleep). We hypothesize that larger reactivity, incomplete recovery, and more frequent stress responses (pile-up) will negatively impact health behavior enactment in daily life. We will identify stress-related reactivity, recovery, and response in the indicators using coordinated analyses across multiple naturalistic studies. These results are the basis for developing a new stress assay and replicating the initial findings in a new sample. This approach will advance our understanding of how specific aspects of everyday stress responses influence health behaviors, and can be used to develop and test an innovative ambulatory intervention for stress reduction in daily life to enhance health behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Starr, Lisa R.; Hershenberg, Rachel; Li, Y. Irina; Shaw, Zoey A. (2017): When feelings lack precision. Low positive and negative emotion differentiation and depressive symptoms in daily life.
In: Clinical psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science 5 (4), S. 613–631.
Research suggests the ability to differentiate discrete emotions protects against psychopathology. Little is known about daily processes through which negative and positive emotion differentiation (NED, PED) influence depressive symptomatology. We examined NED and PED as moderators of associations between daily processes (negative/positive experiences, brooding, and savoring) and daily depressive symptoms. Hypotheses were tested using intensive longitudinal techniques in two samples oversampled for depression: 157 young adults (Study 1) and 50 veterans recruited from VA primary care (Study 2). In Study 1, low NED predicted stronger associations between daily brooding and depressive symptoms. In Study 2, low NED predicted stronger reactivity to daily negative events. In both studies, low PED strengthened salutary effects of positive experiences and savoring on symptoms. Largely consistent across demographically divergent samples, results suggest both low NED and PED enhance effects of daily events and perseverative self-focus on fluctuations in depressive symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Sultson, Hedvig; Kukk, Katrin; Akkermann, Kirsti (2017): Positive and negative emotional eating have different associations with overeating and binge eating. Construction and validation of the Positive-Negative Emotional Eating Scale.
In: Appetite 116, S. 423–430. DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.05.035.
Research on emotional eating mostly focuses on negative emotions. Much less is known about how positive emotions relate to overeating and binge eating (BE). The aim of the current study was to construct a scale for positive and negative emotional eating and to assess its predictive validity. In study 1, the Positive-Negative Emotional Eating Scale (PNEES) was constructed and tested on 531 women, who also completed Eating Disorders Assessment Scale (EDAS). Results showed that a two-factor model constituting Positive emotional eating (PNEES-P) and Negative emotional eating (PNEES-N) fit the data well. PNEES-N also showed good convergent validity in assessing binge eating, correlating highly with EDAS subscale Binge eating. Further, a path analysis showed that after controlling for the mediating effect of PNEES-N, PNEES-P continued to significantly predict binge eating. In study 2 (N = 60), experience sampling method was used to assess overeating and BE in the natural environment. Palmtop computers were given to participants for a three-day study period that prompted them with questions regarding emotional experience, overeating, and BE. Results indicated that PNEES-P significantly predicted overeating, whereas PNEES-N predicted overeating and BE episodes only in a subsample of women who had experienced at least one overeating or BE episode. Thus, positive and negative emotional eating might have different relations with overeating and BE, with the latter being more characteristic of the severity/frequency of overeating and BE. New assessment tools that in addition to negative emotional eating also address positive emotional eating could be of potential help in planning intervention. Further, the tendency to overeat in response to positive emotions could be integrated into current models of eating disorders, especially when addressing relapse prevention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Tao, Shiqiang; Zeng, Ningzhou; Wu, Xi; Li, Xiaojin; Zhu, Wei; Cui, Licong; Zhang, G. Q. (2017): A data capture framework for large-scale interventional studies with survey workflow management.
In: AMIA Joint Summits on Translational Science proceedings. AMIA Joint Summits on Translational Science 2017, S. 278–286.
Capturing high-quality survey data is an arduous process for large-scale and extensive interventional studies. This paper presents the architecture, interface design, and an innovative form generation engine of a system called RE- Form: Refactorized Electronic Web Forms. REForm provides researchers the capability to design and manage surveys and the flexibility to organize them in a customizable workflow. REForm has been designed, implemented, pilot-tested and deployed for an NCI-funded interventional study IMPACT. It enables IMPACT to design and conduct a baseline survey of 95 questions with 662 options, a post-intervention survey of 82 questions with 574 options, six Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) surveys including four questions and 26 options each, and a follow-up survey con- taining 15 questions and 125 options. Feedback designed in the post-intervention survey showed that more than 94 percent of IMPACT participants highly endorsed the design and usability of the surveys created using REForm.
Taylor, H. S.; Giudice, L. C.; Lessey, B. A.; Abrao, M. S.; Kotarski, J.; Archer, D. F. et al. (2017): Treatment of endometriosis-associated pain with elagolix, an oral GnRH antagonist.
In: N Engl J Med 377 (1), S. 28–40. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1700089.
Background: Endometriosis is a chronic, estrogen-dependent condition that causes dysmenorrhea and pelvic pain. Elagolix, an oral, nonpeptide, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist, produced partial to nearly full estrogen suppression in previous studies. Methods: We performed two similar, double-blind, randomized, 6-month phase 3 trials (Elaris Endometriosis I and II [EM-I and EM-II]) to evaluate the effects of two doses of elagolix—150 mg once daily (lower-dose group) and 200 mg twice daily (higher-dose group)—as compared with placebo in women with surgically diagnosed endometriosis and moderate or severe endometriosis-associated pain. The two primary efficacy end points were the proportion of women who had a clinical response with respect to dysmenorrhea and the proportion who had a clinical response with respect to nonmenstrual pelvic pain at 3 months. Each of these end points was measured as a clinically meaningful reduction in the pain score and a decreased or stable use of rescue analgesic agents, as recorded in a daily electronic diary. Results: A total of 872 women underwent randomization in Elaris EM-I and 817 in Elaris EM-II; of these women, 653 (74.9%) and 632 (77.4%), respectively, completed the intervention. At 3 months, a significantly greater proportion of women who received each elagolix dose met the clinical response criteria for the two primary end points than did those who received placebo. In Elaris EM-I, the percentage of women who had a clinical response with respect to dysmenorrhea was 46.4% in the lower-dose elagolix group and 75.8% in the higher-dose elagolix group, as compared with 19.6% in the placebo group; in Elaris EM-II, the corresponding percentages were 43.4% and 72.4%, as compared with 22.7% (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). In Elaris EM-I, the percentage of women who had a clinical response with respect to nonmenstrual pelvic pain was 50.4% in the lower-dose elagolix group and 54.5% in the higher-dose elagolix group, as compared with 36.5% in the placebo group (P < 0.001 for all comparisons); in Elaris EM-II, the corresponding percentages were 49.8% and 57.8%, as compared with 36.5% (P = 0.003 and P < 0.001, respectively). The responses with respect to dysmenorrhea and nonmenstrual pelvic pain were sustained at 6 months. Women who received elagolix had higher rates of hot flushes (mostly mild or moderate), higher levels of serum lipids, and greater decreases from baseline in bone mineral density than did those who received placebo; there were no adverse endometrial findings. Conclusions: Both higher and lower doses of elagolix were effective in improving dysmenorrhea and nonmenstrual pelvic pain during a 6-month period in women with endometriosis-associated pain. The two doses of elagolix were associated with hypoestrogenic adverse effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Treloar, Hayley; Miranda, Robert, JR. (2017): Craving and acute effects of alcohol in youths’ daily lives. Associations with alcohol use disorder severity.
In: Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 25 (4), S. 303–313. DOI: 10.1037/pha0000133.
Identifying factors associated with the progression from recreational to pathological drinking in youth holds high clinical and theoretical importance. The present study tested cross-sectional associations of alcohol use disorder (AUD) severity with putative mechanisms of AUD progression among youth ages 15–24 years, namely acute subjective effects of alcohol and craving. Male (n = 44) and female (n = 42) youth completed ecological momentary assessments when not drinking, just before drinking, and while drinking in the natural environment via handheld wireless devices. Youth were recruited from the community and were frequent and heavy drinkers, the majority (93%) with at least 1 AUD symptom (M = 3.4, SD = 2.4). Findings from youths’ daily lives suggested that how youth feel while they drink depends, in part, on their severity of AUD pathology. In support of hypotheses, youths with more progressed drinking pathology (i.e., those with more symptoms of AUD) reported greater reductions in craving and tension while drinking, relative to nondrinking times. In partial support of hypotheses, males with greater AUD symptomatology reported marginally attenuated increases in stimulatory states while drinking; however, contrary to hypotheses, females with greater AUD symptomatology reported enhanced increases in stimulation while drinking. This research leveraged ecological momentary assessment methods to study subjective responses to alcohol and craving in youths’ daily lives and to cross-sectionally test putative associations with AUD etiology. This work adds to literature supporting subjective responses to alcohol in the pathogenesis of alcoholism, specifically by highlighting their importance during the period in life when alcohol problems typically first emerge. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Public Health Significance—This study suggests that how youth feel when they drink in their usual environments relates to their severity of alcohol use disorder. This initial finding points to the need for studies that track changes in youths’ experiences while drinking over time as alcohol problems develop. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Vaessen, T.; van Nierop, M.; Decoster, J.; Delespaul, P.; Derom, C.; Hert, M. de et al. (2017): Is sensitivity to daily stress predictive of onset or persistence of psychopathology?
In: European psychiatry : the journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists 45, S. 167–173. DOI: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2017.07.002.
PURPOSE: The aim of the current study was to replicate findings in adults indicating that higher sensitivity to stressful events is predictive of both onset and persistence of psychopathological symptoms in a sample of adolescents and young adults. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that sensitivity to mild stressors in particular is predictive of the developmental course of psychopathology. METHODS: We analyzed experience sampling and questionnaire data collected at baseline and one-year follow-up of 445 adolescent and young adult twins and non-twin siblings (age range: 15-34). Linear multilevel regression was used for the replication analyses. To test if affective sensitivity to mild stressors in particular was associated with follow-up symptoms, we used a categorical approach adding variables on affective sensitivity to mild, moderate and severe daily stressors to the model. RESULTS: Linear analyses showed that emotional stress reactivity was not associated with onset (beta=.02; P=.56) or persistence (beta=-.01; P=.78) of symptoms. There was a significant effect of baseline symptom score (beta=.53; P<.001) and average negative affect (NA: beta=.19; P<.001) on follow-up symptoms. Using the categorical approach, we found that affective sensitivity to mild (beta=.25; P<.001), but not moderate (beta=-.03; P=.65) or severe (beta=-.06; P=.42), stressors was associated with symptom persistence one year later. DISCUSSION: We were unable to replicate previous findings relating stress sensitivity linearly to symptom onset or persistence in a younger sample. Whereas sensitivity to more severe stressors may reflect adaptive coping, high sensitivity to the mildest of daily stressors may indicate an increased risk for psychopathology.
van den Akker, Karolien; Havermans, Remco C.; Jansen, Anita (2017): Appetitive conditioning to specific times of day.
In: Appetite 116, S. 232–238. DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.05.014.
Human laboratory studies have shown that eating desires are easily learned through classical conditioning: after a few pairings of an initially neutral stimulus (e.g., a box) with the intake of palatable food (e.g., chocolate), the stimulus elicits increased eating expectancies and eating desires (acquisition). After repeated non-reinforced presentations of the chocolate-associated stimulus, eating expectancies and desires decrease again (extinction). It is commonly assumed that eating desires in daily life are acquired and extinguished in a similar manner, but to date, this has not been empirically tested. In two studies, we examined whether the repeated consumption of chocolate at a specific time of day elicits increased eating expectancies and eating desires over a period of 5 days (study 1) or 15 days (study 2), and relative to a time of day not paired with chocolate intake. Further, it was tested whether acquired responding diminishes again during extinction (study 1). Ecological momentary assessment was used to carry out the studies in daily life. Results showed that eating expectancies were acquired in both studies. Only in study 2, eating desires were also successfully learned. It is concluded that eating expectancies and eating desires can be conditioned to ecologically valid cues and under real-life circumstances. This highlights the importance of associative learning processes in the experience of eating desires in daily life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
van Knippenberg, Rosalia J. M.; Vugt, Marjolein E. de; Smeets, Claudia M. J.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Verhey, Frans R. J.; Ponds, Rudolf W. (2017): Dealing with daily challenges in dementia (deal-id study). Process evaluation of the experience sampling method intervention ‘Partner in Sight’ for spousal caregivers of people with dementia.
In: Aging & mental health, S. 1–8. DOI: 10.1080/13607863.2017.1348466.
OBJECTIVES: This study describes the process evaluation of the experience sampling method (ESM) intervention ‘Partner in Sight’ for spousal caregivers of people with dementia. The aim was to determine internal and external validity of the intervention and provide information for future implementation in clinical practice. METHOD: Qualitative and quantitative data on sampling quality (recruitment and randomization, reach) and intervention quality (relevance and feasibility, adherence to protocol) were evaluated using descriptive statistics and conventional content analysis. RESULTS: The participation rate included 31.4%. Due to recruitment difficulties and time constraints the original goal to include 90 caregivers was not met. The intervention was largely performed according to protocol and well received by the participants. Overall, the ESM-derived feedback was considered supportive and increased participants’ awareness of their feelings and behavior. A large variance was found in the extent to which caregivers applied the feedback into their daily lives. The importance of the personal coach to provide face-to-face feedback and stimulate caregivers to implement new insights into their daily lives was emphasized. Suggestions for improvement were to reduce the time intensity of the program, to better tailor the program content to one’s personal situation, and to improve the ESM device. CONCLUSION: Although recruitment barriers were encountered, results indicate that future implementation of the ESM intervention ‘Partner in Sight’ is likely to be feasible in regular health care. If the intervention turns out to be (cost-) effective, a fine-tuned version of the program could be a valuable addition to the current health care system.
van Winkel, Mark; Wichers, Marieke; Collip, Dina; Jacobs, Nele; Derom, Catherine; Thiery, Evert et al. (2017): Unraveling the role of loneliness in depression. The relationship between daily life Experience and behavior.
In: Psychiatry 80 (2), S. 104–117. DOI: 10.1080/00332747.2016.1256143.
OBJECTIVE: Focusing on temporal associations between momentary (or state) loneliness, appraisal of social company, and being alone in daily life may help elucidate mechanisms that contribute to the development of prolonged (or trait) loneliness and major depressive disorder (MDD). We aim to examine if (a) a self-reinforcing loop between loneliness, negative appraisals of social company, and being alone in daily life may contribute to trait loneliness; (b) this possible self-reinforcing loop may also contribute to the development of MDD, by testing differences in temporal relationships between these social elements in participants who did or did not develop MDD during follow-up; and (c) any of these social elements at baseline predicted a MDD at follow-up. METHODS: A female general population sample (n = 417) participated in an experience sampling method (ESM) study. Time-lagged analyses between loneliness, appraisal of social company, and being alone were examined at baseline, and their associations with the development of MDD during 20 months follow-up were investigated. RESULTS: State loneliness was followed by an increase in negative appraisals of social company and a higher frequency of being alone. Further, negative appraisals of social company were associated with a higher frequency of being alone afterward. Only the latter was significant in the transition to MDD group. Trait loneliness predicted MDD during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Avoiding social contact after appraising company more negatively may contribute to the development of MDD.
Vansimaeys, Camille; Zuber, Mathieu; Pitrat, Benjamin; Join-Lambert, Claire; Tamazyan, Ruben; Farhat, Wassim; Bungener, Catherine (2017): Combining standard conventional measures and ecological momentary assessment of depression, anxiety and coping using smartphone application in minor stroke population. A longitudinal study protocol.
In: Frontiers in psychology 8, S. 1172. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01172.
Context: Stroke has several consequences on survivors’ daily life even for those who experience short-lasting neurological symptoms with no functional disability. Depression and anxiety are common psychological disorders occurring after a stroke. They affect long-term outcomes and quality of life but they are difficult to diagnose because of the neurobiological consequences of brain lesions. Current research priority is given to the improvement of the detection and prevention of those post-stroke psychological disorders. Although previous studies have brought promising perspectives, their designs based on retrospective tools involve some limits regarding their ecological validity. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) is an alternative to conventional instruments that could be a key in research for understanding processes that underlined post-stroke depression and anxiety onset. We aim to evaluate the feasibility and validity of anxiety, depression and coping EMA for minor stroke patients. Methods: Patients hospitalized in an Intensive Neuro-vascular Care Unit between April 2016 and January 2017 for a minor stroke is involved in a study based on an EMA methodology. We use a smartphone application in order to assess anxiety and depression symptoms and coping strategies four times a day during 1 week at three different times after stroke (hospital discharge, 2 and 4 months). Participants’ self-reports and clinician-rates of anxiety, depression and coping are collected simultaneously using conventional and standard instruments. Feasibility of the EMA method will be assessed considering the participation and compliance rate. Validity will be the assessed by comparing EMA and conventional self-report and clinician-rated measures. Discussion: We expect this study to contribute to the development of EMA using smartphone in minor stroke population. EMA method offers promising research perspective in the assessment and understanding of post-stroke psychological disorders. The development of EMA in stroke population could lead to clinical implications such as remotely psychological follow-ups during early supported discharge. Trial registration: European Clinical Trials Database Number 2014-A01937-40.
Venaglia, Rachel B.; Lemay, Edward P., JR (2017): Hedonic benefits of close and distant interaction partners. The mediating roles of social approval and authenticity.
In: Personality & social psychology bulletin 43 (9), S. 1255–1267. DOI: 10.1177/0146167217711917.
The current research utilized ecological momentary assessment methodology to examine affective responses to interacting with close versus distant interaction partners during naturally occurring social interactions, and to test predictions regarding the mediating roles of perceived social approval and authenticity. Analysis of 4,602 social interactions reported by 176 participants suggested that, relative to interactions with distant partners, interactions with close partners were characterized by more positive affect. This effect was mediated by perceived social approval and authenticity. These findings suggest that social interactions with close others confer greater hedonic benefits relative to interactions with distant partners due to greater confidence in social approval and feelings of authenticity. Exploratory analyses suggested that interactions with close partners featured warmer and less shy behavior, and that participants who placed more importance on close relationships (as measured by high relational-interdependent self-construal) experienced more approval and authenticity in their interactions, particularly with distant partners.
Vinci, Christine; Li, Liang; Wu, Cai; Lam, Cho Y.; Guo, Lin; Correa-Fernandez, Virmarie et al. (2017): The association of positive emotion and first smoking lapse. An ecological momentary assessment study.
In: Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association. DOI: 10.1037/hea0000535.
OBJECTIVE: Individuals attempting to quit smoking typically have poor success rates, and the majority fail to maintain long-term abstinence. Although a large body of evidence documents the impact of negative affect on reducing abstinence, there is a much smaller body of research on positive emotions, which could be an important mechanism that is associated with successful cessation. As such, this study examined positive emotions in real-time via ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to determine whether discrete positive emotions were uniquely related to 2 cessation milestones: quit day lapse and first lapse. METHOD: Participants were 391 smokers who received tobacco cessation treatment. EMAs were completed pre- and postquit, and positive emotion was assessed with 3 items (enthusiastic, happy, and relaxed) rated on 5-point Likert scales. Analyses examined the associations of the means and slopes of each emotion on the current day with the likelihood of lapse on the following day. RESULTS: When controlling for relevant covariates, prequit positive emotions were not related to quit day lapse. However, postquit positive emotions were associated with first lapse. Specifically, high levels of happiness and relaxation, as well as increasing levels of enthusiasm, happiness, and relaxation were related to a lower likelihood of next day lapse. CONCLUSIONS: These are some of the first real-time, real-world data to demonstrate that distinct positive emotions are associated with a lower risk of lapse during the postquit period among smokers attempting to quit. (PsycINFO Database Record
Wang, Yijie; Cham, Heining; Aladin, Meera; Yip, Tiffany (2017): Parental cultural socialization and adolescent private regard. Exploring mediating pathways through daily experiences.
In: Child development. DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12911.
Using longitudinal experience sampling data from 214 ethnic/racial minority adolescents (Wave 1 Mage = 15.24), the present study investigated how the longitudinal effect of parental cultural socialization on adolescent private regard was mediated through various daily pathways and novel constructs. Both the mean levels and variability of adolescents’ ethnic feelings (i.e., private regard) and social interactions (i.e., intragroup contact) in daily situations, as well as the situational association between intragroup contact and private regard, emerged as mediators. Greater cultural socialization promoted greater and more stable ethnic feelings and interactions, as well as their situational association, all of which promoted private regard over time. This study provides a framework to explore how development occurs in daily lives.
Welz, Annett; Reinhard, Iris; Alpers, Georg W.; Kuehner, Christine (2017): Happy thoughts. Mind wandering affects mood in daily life.
In: Mindfulness (N Y). DOI: 10.1007/s12671-017-0778-y.
Mind wandering is often thought to have adverse consequences such as to deteriorate mood. However, more recent findings suggest that the effect of mind wandering on mood may depend on the specific thought contents that occur during mind-wandering episodes and may be influenced by trait-like interindividual differences. The current study examined prospective effects of mind wandering (MW) on mood in daily life as well as possible moderating effects of dispositional mindfulness and rumination. Forty-three university students aged 19 to 32 (61% women) filled out questionnaires on trait mindfulness and rumination. Subsequently, they underwent 5 days of electronic ambulatory assessment of MW and positive and negative affect in daily life ten times a day. Prospective models revealed positive effects of MW on mood, and negative affect was lowest when thoughts during MW were most pleasant. Although dispositional rumination and mindfulness significantly affected mood in daily life, no moderating effects of these traits were identified on the association between MW and mood. These results suggest that mind wandering is not a negative phenomenon per se but instead has adaptive consequences that can lead to mood improvements. Our findings highlight the importance of accounting for the thought content of mind-wandering episodes when investigating the functional outcomes of a wandering mind. Given that mind wandering frequently takes place in everyday life, interventions that encourage individuals to shift the content of their mind-wandering experiences towards pleasant topics may have an important impact particularly for clinical populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Westermann, Stefan; Grezellschak, Sarah; Oravecz, Zita; Moritz, Steffen; Ludtke, Thies; Jansen, Andreas (2017): Untangling the complex relationships between symptoms of schizophrenia and emotion dynamics in daily life. Findings from an experience sampling pilot study.
In: Psychiatry research 257, S. 514–518. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.08.023.
The unfolding of emotions over time (i.e., emotion dynamics) has been characterized by baseline, intraindividual variability and regulatory tendency (return time to baseline after deflection). Mounting evidence suggests that compared to healthy individuals, individuals with schizophrenia are characterized by a more negatively valenced baseline and a higher intraindividual variability. However, the regulatory tendency has not been investigated in schizophrenia so far. We hypothesize that the severity of positive symptoms is linked to increased emotional variability and that the severity of negative symptoms is associated with an increased regulatory tendency. Fifteen individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia took part in this pilot experience sampling study and reported their emotional state ten times a day. The dynamics of valence and arousal and their relationship with symptomatology were estimated with the DynAffect model. Regulatory tendency in valence and arousal was positively associated with negative symptom severity and negatively associated with positive symptom severity. However, the severity of positive symptoms was not credibly associated with the variability of valence. The study only partly corroborates findings on increased stress reactivity in schizophrenia, which might be due to the small sample size. However, results suggest that negative symptoms could stem from over-regulated emotion dynamics, which may impede goal-directed behavior.
Westgate, Erin C.; Wilson, Timothy D.; Gilbert, Daniel T. (2017): With a little help for our thoughts. Making it easier to think for pleasure.
In: Emotion 17 (5), S. 828–839. DOI: 10.1037/emo0000278.
Can people enjoy thinking if they set their mind to it? Previous work suggests that many people do not enjoy the deliberate attempt to have pleasurable thoughts. We suggest that deliberately thinking for pleasure requires mental resources that people are either unwilling or unable to devote to the task. If so, then people should enjoy pleasant thoughts that occur unintentionally more than pleasant thoughts that occur intentionally. This hypothesis was confirmed in an experience sampling study (Study 1) in which participants were contacted 4 times a day for 7 days and asked to rate what they had been thinking about. In Studies 2–5 we experimentally manipulated how easy it was for people to engage in pleasurable thought when given the goal of doing so. All participants listed topics they would enjoy thinking about; then some were given a simple ‘thinking aid’ that was designed to make this experience easier. Participants who received the aid found the experience easier and enjoyed it more. The findings suggest that thinking for pleasure is cognitively demanding, but that a simple thinking aid makes it easier and more enjoyable. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Wilson, Robert E.; Thompson, Renee J.; Vazire, Simine (2017): Are fluctuations in personality states more than fluctuations in affect?
In: Journal of research in personality 69, S. 110–123. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrp.2016.06.006.
People fluctuate in their behavior as they go about their daily lives, but little is known about the processes underlying these fluctuations. In two ecological momentary assessment studies (Ns=124, 415), we examined the extent to which negative and positive affect accounted for the within-person variance in Big Five states. Participants were prompted six times a day over six days (Study 1) or four times a day over two weeks (Study 2) to report their recent thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Multilevel modeling results indicated that negative and positive affect account for most, but not all, of the within-person variance in personality states. Importantly, situation variables predicted variance in some personality states even after accounting for fluctuations in affect, indicating that fluctuations in personality states may be more than fluctuations in state affect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Wilt, Joshua A.; Bleidorn, Wiebke; Revelle, William (2017): Velocity explains the links between personality states and affect.
In: Journal of research in personality 69, S. 86–95. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrp.2016.06.008.
The present research examined whether perceived rate of progress toward a goal (velocity) mediated the relationships between personality states and affective states. Drawing from control theories of self-regulation, we hypothesized (i) that increased velocity would mediate the association between state extraversion and state positive affect, and (ii) that decreased velocity would mediate the association between state neuroticism and state negative affect. We tested these hypotheses in 2 experience sampling methodology studies that each spanned 2 weeks. Multilevel modeling analyses showed support for each of the bivariate links in our model, and multilevel path analyses supported our mediation hypotheses. We discuss implications for understanding the relations between personality states and affective states, control theories of self-regulation, and goal striving.
Wonderlich, Joseph A.; Breithaupt, Lauren E.; Crosby, Ross D.; Thompson, James C.; Engel, Scott G.; Fischer, Sarah (2017): The relation between craving and binge eating. Integrating neuroimaging and ecological momentary assessment.
In: Appetite 117, S. 294–302. DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.07.005.
The role of craving in binge eating characteristic of bulimia nervosa (BN) is inconclusive. A network of regions associated with cue reactivity to food and substances has been identified, comprised of the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, insula, and striatum. The goal of this study was to examine individual differences in BOLD response in this appetitive network as moderators of the relationship between craving and binging in the natural environment in women with BN. Women with BN (N = 16) completed a baseline measure of craving and a fMRI scan, where they viewed neutral cues and food cues. After each run, craving for food was assessed. Participants then completed an ecological momentary assessment six times a day via smart phone and recorded binge eating and craving. Participants exhibited significantly increased BOLD response in the left amygdala in response to food cues compared to neutral cues. However, individual differences in BOLD response were not correlated with self-report craving throughout the scan. The relationship between craving and binging in everyday life was moderated by individual differences in activation in the caudate, insula, and amygdala. Women with greater activation in these regions demonstrated significant increases in craving prior to binge eating. Those who did not exhibit increases in activation did not exhibit increases in craving prior to binge eating in the natural environment. Craving may not underlie binge eating for all individuals with BN. However, these results indicate that neural response to food cues may affect individual differences in the daily experience of craving and binge eating.
Woolum, Andrew; Foulk, Trevor; Lanaj, Klodiana; Erez, Amir (2017): Rude color glasses. The contaminating effects of witnessed morning rudeness on perceptions and behaviors throughout the workday.
In: The Journal of applied psychology. DOI: 10.1037/apl0000247.
Using an experimental experience sampling design, we investigate how witnessing morning rudeness influences workers’ subsequent perceptions and behaviors throughout the workday. We posit that a single exposure to rudeness in the morning can contaminate employees’ perceptions of subsequent social interactions leading them to perceive greater workplace rudeness throughout their workday. We expect that these contaminated perceptions will have important ramifications for employees’ work behaviors. In a 10-day study of 81 professional and managerial employees, we find that witnessed morning rudeness leads to greater perceptions of workplace rudeness throughout the workday and that those perceptions, in turn, predict lower task performance and goal progress and greater interaction avoidance and psychological withdrawal. We also find that the contaminating effect of morning rudeness depends on core self-evaluations (CSE)-employees high (vs. low) in CSE are affected less by exposure to morning rudeness. We discuss implications for practice and theory. (PsycINFO Database Record
Worthen-Chaudhari, Lise; McGonigal, Jane; Logan, Kelsey; Bockbrader, Marcia A.; Yeates, Keith O.; Mysiw, W. Jerry (2017): Reducing concussion symptoms among teenage youth. Evaluation of a mobile health app.
In: Brain injury 31 (10), S. 1279–1286. DOI: 10.1080/02699052.2017.1332388.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether a mobile health application that employs elements of social game design could compliment medical care for unresolved concussion symptoms. DESIGN: Phase I and Phase II (open-label, non-randomized, ecological momentary assessment methodology). SETTING: Outpatient concussion clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Youth, aged 13-18 years, with concussion symptoms 3+ weeks after injury; Phase I: n = 20; Phase II: n = 19. INTERVENTIONS: Participants received standard of care for concussion. The experimental group also used a mobile health application as a gamified symptoms journal. OUTCOME MEASURES: Phase I: feasibility and satisfaction with intervention (7-point Likert scale, 1 high). Phase II: change in SCAT-3 concussion symptoms (primary), depression and optimism. RESULTS: Phase 1: A plurality of participants completed the intervention (14 of 20) with high use (110 +/- 18% play) and satisfaction (median +/- interquartile range (IQR) = 2.0+/- 0.0). Phase II: Groups were equivalent on baseline symptoms, intervention duration, gender distribution, days since injury and medication prescription. Symptoms and optimism improved more for the experimental than for the active control cohort (U = 18.5, p = 0.028, effect size r = 0.50 and U = 18.5, p = 0.028, effect size r = 0.51, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Mobile apps incorporating social game mechanics and a heroic narrative may promote health management among teenagers with unresolved concussion symptoms.
Wouters, Saskia; Jacobs, Nele; Duif, Mira; Lechner, Lilian; Thewissen, Viviane (2017): Affect and between-meal snacking in daily life. The moderating role of gender and age.
In: Psychology & health, S. 1–18. DOI: 10.1080/08870446.2017.1380813.
OBJECTIVE: Affect-related energy intake from snacks remains relatively unexplored in daily life. This study examines the associations between momentary positive affect (PA) and momentary negative affect (NA) and subsequent energy intake from snacks. In addition, the moderating role of BMI, gender, age and level of education is investigated. DESIGN: Adults (N = 269), aged 20-50, participated in this study. Demographics were assessed in an online composite questionnaire. An experience sampling smartphone application was used to map momentary NA/PA and energy intake (kilocalories) from snacks in the context of daily life. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Energy intake from moment-to-moment self-reported snacks in real-life settings. RESULTS: A significant negative main effect of momentary NA on moment-to-moment energy intake was found. The higher the momentary NA, the lower the subsequent amount of kilocalories consumed. There was no main effect with regard to PA. Interaction analyses showed that men decreased their energy intake after experiencing NA, and increased their intake after experiencing PA. No associations were found in women. Additionally, young adults (20-30) increased their energy intake after experiencing PA. No associations were found in the other age groups. CONCLUSION: Interventions aiming at reducing energy intake might also address PA-related snacking in young adults and men.
Xu, Wei; Ding, Xu; Zhuang, Yulu; Yuan, Guangzhe; An, Yuanyuan; Shi, Zhiqiang; Hwa Goh, Pei (2017): Perceived haze, stress, and negative emotions. An ecological momentary assessment study of the affective responses to haze.
In: Journal of health psychology, 1359105317717600. DOI: 10.1177/1359105317717600.
The aim of this study was to examine the mediating role of stress in the association between people’s perceived haze and negative emotions in daily life. Using ecological momentary assessment, 95 college students reported their perceived haze, stress, and negative emotions twice a day over the course of 2 weeks. The results showed a positive relationship between perceived haze and negative emotions. More importantly, this association was significantly mediated by levels of stress. Findings suggested that people who perceived more severe haze may report higher stress levels, which in turn may lead to increases in negative emotions.