Aguila, Maria-Eliza R.; Rebbeck, Trudy; Pope, Alun; Ng, Karl; Leaver, Andrew M. (2017): Six-month clinical course and factors associated with non-improvement in migraine and non-migraine headaches.
In: Cephalalgia : an international journal of headache, 333102417744360. DOI: 10.1177/0333102417744360.
Background Evidence on the medium-term clinical course of recurrent headaches is scarce. This study explored the six-month course and factors associated with non-improvement in migraine compared with tension-type headache and cervicogenic headache. Methods In this longitudinal cohort study, the six-month course of headaches was prospectively examined in participants (n = 37 with migraine; n = 42 with tension-type or cervicogenic headache). Participants underwent physical examination for cervical musculoskeletal impairments at baseline. Participants also completed questionnaires on pain, disability and other self-report measures at baseline and follow-up, and kept an electronic diary for 6 months. Course of headaches was examined using mixed within-between analyses of variance and Markov chain modeling. Multiple factors were evaluated as possible factors associated with non-improvement using regression analysis. Results Headache frequency, intensity, and activity interference in migraine and non-migraine headaches were generally stable over 6 months but showed month-to-month variations. Day-to-day variations were more volatile in the migraine than the non-migraine group, with the highest probability of transitioning from any headache state to no headache (probability = 0.82-0.85). The odds of non-improvement in disability was nearly six times higher with cervical joint dysfunction (odds ratio [95% CI] = 5.58 [1.14-27.42]). Conclusions Headache frequency, intensity, and activity interference change over 6 months, with day-to-day variation being more volatile in migraine than non-migraine headaches. Cervical joint dysfunction appears to be associated with non-improvement for disability in 6 months. These results may contribute to strategies for educating patients to help align their expectations with the nature of their headaches.
Alberico, Claudia Oliveira; Schipperijn, Jasper; Reis, Rodrigo S. (2017): Use of global positioning system for physical activity research in youth. ESPAÇOS Adolescentes, Brazil.
In: Prev Med 103 (Suppl), S59-S65. DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.12.026.
The built environment is an important factor associated with physical activity and sedentary behavior (SB) during adolescence. This study presents the methods for objective assessment of context-specific moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and SB, as well as describes results from the first project using such methodology in adolescents from a developing country. An initial sample of 381 adolescents was recruited from 32 census tracts in Curitiba, Brazil (2013); 80 had their homes geocoded and wore accelerometer and GPS devices for seven days. Four domains were defined as important contexts: home, school, transport and leisure. The majority of participants (n = 80) were boys (46; 57.5%), with a normal BMI (52; 65.0%) and a mean age (SD) of 14.5 (5.5) years. Adolescents spent most of their time at home, engaging in SB. Overall, the largest proportion of MVPA was while in transport (17.1% of time spent in this context) and SB while in leisure (188.6min per day). Participants engaged in MVPA for a median of 28.7 (IQR 18.2–43.2) and 17.9 (IQR 9.2–32.1) minutes during week and weekend days, respectively. Participants spent most of their day in the leisure and home domains. The use of Geographic Information System (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS) and accelerometer data allowed objective identification of the amount of time spent in MVPA and SB in four different domains. Though the combination of objective measures is still an emerging methodology, this is a promising and feasible approach to understanding interactions between people and their environments in developing countries. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Andrewes, Holly E.; Hulbert, Carol; Cotton, Susan M.; Betts, Jennifer; Chanen, Andrew M. (2017): Ecological momentary assessment of nonsuicidal self-injury in youth with borderline personality disorder.
In: Personality disorders 8 (4), S. 357–365. DOI: 10.1037/per0000205.
Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is highly prevalent among individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). The aim of this study was to investigate the cognitive, emotional, and contextual experience of NSSI in 107 youth (aged 15–25 years) with BPD who had minimal prior exposure to treatment. Using ecological momentary assessment, participants completed a randomly prompted questionnaire about their affect, self-injurious thoughts, and behaviors six times per day for 6 days. Twenty-four youth with BPD engaged in 52 counts of NSSI, with 56 motives identified. Open-ended questions revealed that on occasions of NSSI, a large minority of participants could identify neither their motives (27%, n = 15) nor the environmental precipitants (46%, n = 24) for NSSI. Changes in affect revealed a pattern of increasing negative and decreasing positive affect prior to NSSI, with a reduction in negative and an increase in positive affect following NSSI. These changes were absent for those who did not engage in NSSI. Initial self-injurious thoughts and changes in negative and positive affect occurred a median of 35, 15, and 10 hr prior to NSSI, respectively. These findings suggest that youth with BPD have limited capacity to reflect on their motives and environment preceding NSSI. The patterns of affect change indicate that NSSI is maintained by reward incentives as well as negative reinforcement. The time between initial self-injurious thoughts and engagement in NSSI reveals a window of opportunity for intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Beiwinkel, Till; Hey, Stefan; Bock, Olaf; Rossler, Wulf (2017): Supportive mental health self-monitoring among smartphone users with psychological distress. Protocol for a fully mobile randomized controlled trial.
In: Frontiers in public health 5, S. 249. DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2017.00249.
Mobile health (mHealth) could be widely used in the population to improve access to psychological treatment. In this paper, we describe the development of a mHealth intervention on the basis of supportive self-monitoring and describe the protocol for a randomized controlled trial to evaluate its effectiveness among smartphone users with psychological distress. Based on power analysis, a representative quota sample of N = 186 smartphone users will be recruited, with an over-sampling of persons with moderate to high distress. Over a 4-week period, the intervention will be compared to a self-monitoring without intervention group and a passive control group. Telephone interviews will be conducted at baseline, post-intervention (4 weeks), and 12-week follow-up to assess study outcomes. The primary outcome will be improvement of mental health. Secondary outcomes will include well-being, intentions toward help-seeking and help-seeking behavior, user activation, attitudes toward mental-health services, perceived stigmatization, smartphone app quality, user satisfaction, engagement, and adherence with the intervention. Additionally, data from the user’s daily life as collected during self-monitoring will be used to investigate risk and protective factors of mental health in real-world settings. Therefore, this study will allow us to demonstrate the effectiveness of a smartphone application as a widely accessible and low-cost intervention to improve mental health on a population level. It also allows to identify new assessment approaches in the field of psychiatric epidemiology.
Bell, Imogen H.; Lim, Michelle H.; Rossell, Susan L.; Thomas, Neil (2017): Ecological momentary assessment and intervention in the treatment of psychotic disorders. A systematic review.
In: Psychiatr Serv 68 (11), S. 1172–1181. DOI: 10.1176/appi.ps.201600523.
Objective: Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) and ecological momentary intervention (EMI) are technologies used to track fluctuations in experiences and prompt behavioral responses within the context of a person’s daily life. Most commonly delivered via smartphone, EMA and EMI have potential to provide simple, cost-effective, and userled treatment for psychotic disorders. This systematic review aimed to synthesize current research exploring the feasibility, acceptability, and clinical outcomes of EMA and EMI in the treatment of psychotic disorders. Methods: A systematic search was conducted identifying studies published between 1980 and July 7, 2016, by searching PubMed, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials with combinations of search terms related to mobile devices, EMA and EMI, and psychotic disorders. Results: Of 1,623 studies identified, nine met inclusion criteria for the review. These studies found satisfactory feasibility and acceptability and preliminary evidence of improved clinical outcomes. The interventions, which had a broad array of features, targeted remote monitoring of illness and symptoms, and they also targeted illness self-management by using momentary reminders or instructions for behaviors, including medication adherence, management of symptoms and psychosocial impairments, daily living skills, and goal achievement. Conclusions: The findings of this review provide preliminary support for the clinical utility of EMA and EMI in the treatment of psychotic disorders. Future research should explore further applications of these technologies with larger sample sizes and controlled designs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Berge, Jerica M.; Tate, Allan; Trofholz, Amanda; Fertig, Angela R.; Miner, Michael; Crow, Scott; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne (2017): Momentary parental stress and food-related parenting practices.
In: Pediatrics 140 (6). DOI: 10.1542/peds.2017-2295.
BACKGROUND: Research suggests that stress and depressed mood are associated with food-related parenting practices (ie, parent feeding practices, types of food served at meals). However, current measures of parental stress, depressed mood, and food-related parenting practices are typically survey-based and assessed as static/unchanging characteristics, failing to account for fluctuations across time and context. Identifying momentary factors that influence parent food-related parenting practices will facilitate the development of effective interventions aimed at promoting healthy food-related parenting practices. In this study, we used ecological momentary assessment to examine the association between momentary factors (eg, stress, depressed mood) occurring early in the day and food-related parenting practices at the evening meal. METHODS: Children aged 5 to 7 years and their families (N = 150) from 6 racial and/or ethnic groups (n = 25 each African American, Hispanic/Latino, Hmong, American Indian, Somali, and white families) were recruited for this mixed-methods study through primary care clinics. RESULTS: Higher stress and depressed mood earlier in the day predicted pressure-to-eat feeding practices and fewer homemade foods served at meals the same night. Effect modification was found for certain racial and/or ethnic groups with regard to engaging in pressure-to-eat feeding practices (ie, America Indian, Somali) or serving fewer homemade meals (ie, African American, Hispanic/Latino) in the face of high stress or depressed mood. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians may want to consider discussing with parents the influence stress and depressed mood can have on everyday food-related parenting practices. Additionally, future researchers should consider using real-time interventions to reduce parental stress and depressed mood to promote healthy parent food-related parenting practices.
Bertz, Jeremiah W.; Epstein, David H.; Preston, Kenzie L. (2017): Combining ecological momentary assessment with objective, ambulatory measures of behavior and physiology in substance-use research.
In: Addictive behaviors. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.11.027.
Whereas substance-use researchers have long combined self-report with objective measures of behavior and physiology inside the laboratory, developments in mobile/wearable electronic technology are increasingly allowing for the collection of both subjective and objective information in participants’ daily lives. For self-report, ecological momentary assessment (EMA), as implemented on contemporary smartphones or personal digital assistants, can provide researchers with near-real-time information on participants’ behavior and mood in their natural environments. Data from portable/wearable electronic sensors measuring participants’ internal and external environments can be combined with EMA (e.g., by timestamps recorded on questionnaires) to provide objective information useful in determining the momentary context of behavior and mood and/or validating participants’ self-reports. Here, we review three objective ambulatory monitoring techniques that have been combined with EMA, with a focus on detecting drug use and/or measuring the behavioral or physiological correlates of mental events (i.e., emotions, cognitions): (1) collection and processing of biological samples in the field to measure drug use or participants’ physiological activity (e.g., hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity); (2) global positioning system (GPS) location information to link environmental characteristics (disorder/disadvantage, retail drug outlets) to drug use and affect; (3) ambulatory electronic physiological monitoring (e.g., electrocardiography) to detect drug use and mental events, as advances in machine learning algorithms make it possible to distinguish target changes from confounds (e.g., physical activity). Finally, we consider several other mobile/wearable technologies that hold promise to be combined with EMA, as well as potential challenges faced by researchers working with multiple mobile/wearable technologies simultaneously in the field.
Beute, Femke; Kort, Yvonne A. W. de (2017): The natural context of wellbeing. Ecological momentary assessment of the influence of nature and daylight on affect and stress for individuals with depression levels varying from none to clinical.
In: Health & place 49, S. 7–18. DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2017.11.005.
This paper explores how everyday encounters with two natural phenomena -natural elements and daylight- influence affect and stress levels for people differing in mental health. Nature and daylight exposure both have well-documented beneficial effects on mental health and affect but to what extent their exposure has beneficial effects in daily life is currently under investigated, as is the question whether lower mental health would make one more, or instead, less responsive. To this end, an ecological momentary assessment protocol was employed for a period of 6 days. Fifty-nine participants varying in level of depressive symptoms from none to clinical completed momentary assessments of affect, stress, and their physical environment. Results indicate beneficial effects of nature and daylight on affect and some effects on stress and stress-related outcomes. For nature exposure, but not for daylight exposure, effects were stronger for those in higher need of restoration, stressing the importance of our everyday environment for mental wellbeing.
Blechert, J.; Liedlgruber, M.; Lender, A.; Reichenberger, J.; Wilhelm, F. H. (2017): Unobtrusive electromyography-based eating detection in daily life. A new tool to address underreporting?
In: Appetite 118, S. 168–173. DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.08.008.
Research on eating behavior is limited by an overreliance on self-report. It is well known that actual food intake is frequently underreported, and it is likely that this problem is overrepresented in vulnerable populations. The present research tested a chewing detection method that could assist self-report methods. A trained sample of 15 participants (usable data of 14 participants) kept detailed eating records during one day and one night while carrying a recording device. Signals recorded from electromyography sensors unobtrusively placed behind the right ear were used to develop a chewing detection algorithm. Results showed that eating could be detected with high accuracy (sensitivity, specificity > 90%) compared to trained self-report. Thus, electromyography-based eating detection might usefully complement future food intake studies in healthy and vulnerable populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Bodin, Fernando; McIntyre, Kathleen M.; Schwartz, Joseph E.; McKinley, Paula S.; Cardetti, Caitlyn; Shapiro, Peter A. et al. (2017): The association of cigarette smoking with high-frequency heart rate variability. An ecological momentary assessment study.
In: Psychosomatic Medicine 79 (9), S. 1045–1050. DOI: 10.1097/PSY.0000000000000507.
Objective: Evidence from both laboratory and observational studies suggests that acute and chronic smoking leads to reduced high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), a measure of cardiac vagal regulation.We used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to study the effect of smoking on concurrent HF-HRV in a trial measuring the effects of hostility reduction and compared 24-hour HF-HRV in smokers and nonsmokers. Method: Ambulatory electrocardiogram data were collected before randomization from 149 healthy individuals with high hostility levels (20–45 years, body mass index ≤ 32 kg/m²) and paired with concurrent EMA ratings of smoking and physical position during waking hours. A multilevel mixed model was estimated associating ln(HF-HRV) from smoking status (between-person factor) and person-centered momentary smoking (within-person factor, treated as a random effect), adjusting for momentary physical position, medication use, and consumption of alcohol and caffeine. Results: Thirty-five smokers and 114 nonsmokers provided both EMA and HF-HRV data. Within smokers, ln HF-HRV was reduced by 0.31 millisecond² (p = .04) when participants reported having recently smoked cigarettes, compared with when they had not. The 24-hour HF-HRV was significantly lower in smokers (M [SD] = 5.24 [0.14] milliseconds²) than nonsmokers (5.63 ± 0.07 milliseconds², p = .01). Conclusions: In healthy smokers with high hostility levels used as their own controls during daily living, smoking acutely reduced HF-HRV. HF-HRV was also reduced in smokers as compared with nonsmokers. Although limited by a small sample of individuals with high hostility levels, these findings nonetheless provide additional evidence that cardiac vagal regulation is lowered by cigarette smoking, which may be one of the numerous pathophysiological effects of smoking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Bolman, Catherine; Verboon, Peter; Thewissen, Vivianne; Boonen, Viviane; Soons, Karin; Jacobs, Nele (2017): Predicting smoking lapses in the first week of quitting. An ecological momentary assessment study.
In: Journal of addiction medicine. DOI: 10.1097/ADM.0000000000000365.
OBJECTIVES: This study focused on lapse shortly after an attempt to quit smoking. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) studies have mapped real-time situational factors that induce lapses in everyday life. However, the possible role of nonsmoking intention is disregarded in the dynamic context of daily life, whereas intention plays a key role in behavior change and shifts during smoking cessation. This study therefore aimed to capture the influence of intention on lapse, next to the known risk factors of negative affect, low self-efficacy, craving, positive outcome expectations towards smoking (POEs), being around smokers, and stress. It is hypothesized that scores on these factors shift during the day, especially shortly after quitting, which may induce lapse. Based on behavioral explanation models, intention is hypothesized to mediate the influence of the mentioned factors on lapse. METHODS: An EMA study was conducted among 49 self-quitters in the first week of smoking cessation. RESULTS: Generalized Linear Mixed Model regression analyses revealed that low nonsmoking intentions, low self-efficacy, and being around smokers (estimates were, respectively, -0.303, -0.331, and 2.083) predicted lapse. Nonsmoking intention partially mediated the influence of self-efficacy on lapse. Nonsmoking intention was predicted by not being around smokers, high self-efficacy, and low POEs (estimates were, respectively, -0.353, 0.293, and -0.072). CONCLUSIONS: This small-scale EMA study confirms the importance of nonsmoking intention on lapse, next to self-efficacy and being around smokers. It adds insights into the mediating role of intention on the relationship between self-efficacy and lapse, and into the predictors of nonsmoking intention.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.
Bos, F. M.; Blaauw, F. J.; Snippe, E.; van der Krieke, L.; Jonge, P. de; Wichers, M. (2017): Exploring the emotional dynamics of subclinically depressed individuals with and without anhedonia. An experience sampling study.
In: Journal of affective disorders 228, S. 186–193. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.12.017.
BACKGROUND: Anhedonia has been linked to worse prognosis of depression. The present study aimed to construct personalized models to elucidate the emotional dynamics of subclinically depressed individuals with versus without symptoms of anhedonia. METHODS: Matched subclinically depressed individuals with and without symptoms of anhedonia (N = 40) of the HowNutsAreTheDutch sample completed three experience sampling methodology assessments per day for 30 days. For each individual, the impact of physical activity, stress experience, and high/low arousal PA/NA on each other was estimated through automated impulse response function analysis (IRF). These individual IRF associations were combined to compare anhedonic versus non-anhedonic individuals. RESULTS: Physical activity had low impact on affect in both groups. In non-anhedonic individuals, stress experience increased NA and decreased PA and physical activity more strongly. In anhedonic individuals, PA high arousal showed a diminished favorable impact on affect (increasing NA/stress experience, decreasing PA/physical activity). Finally, large heterogeneity in the personalized models of emotional dynamics were found. LIMITATIONS: Stress experience was measured indirectly by assessing level of distress; the timeframe in between measurements was relatively long with 6h; and only information on one of the two hallmarks of anhedonia, loss of interest, was gathered. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest different pathways of emotional dynamics underlie depressive symptomatology. Subclinically depressed individuals with anhedonic complaints are more strongly characterized by diminished favorable impact of PA high arousal and heightened NA reactivity, whereas subclinically depressed individuals without these anhedonic complaints seem more characterized by heightened stress reactivity. The automatically generated personalized models may offer patient-specific insights in emotional dynamics, which may show clinical relevance.
Brinberg, Miriam; Fosco, Gregory M.; Ram, Nilam (2017): Examining inter-family differences in intra-family (parent–adolescent) dynamics using grid-sequence analysis.
In: J Fam Psychol 31 (8), S. 994–1004. DOI: 10.1037/fam0000371.
Family systems theorists have forwarded a set of theoretical principles meant to guide family scientists and practitioners in their conceptualization of patterns of family interaction—intra-family dynamics—that, over time, give rise to family and individual dysfunction and/or adaptation. In this article, we present an analytic approach that merges state space grid methods adapted from the dynamic systems literature with sequence analysis methods adapted from molecular biology into a ‘grid-sequence’ method for studying inter-family differences in intra-family dynamics. Using dyadic data from 86 parent–adolescent dyads who provided up to 21 daily reports about connectedness, we illustrate how grid-sequence analysis can be used to identify a typology of intrafamily dynamics and to inform theory about how specific types of intrafamily dynamics contribute to adolescent behavior problems and family members’ mental health. Methodologically, grid-sequence analysis extends the toolbox of techniques for analysis of family experience sampling and daily diary data. Substantively, we identify patterns of family level microdynamics that may serve as new markers of risk/protective factors and potential points for intervention in families. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Burdett, Bridget R.D.; Charlton, Samuel G.; Starkey, Nicola J. (2017): Inside the commuting driver’s wandering mind.
In: Transp Res Part F Traffic Psychol Behav. DOI: 10.1016/j.trf.2017.11.002.
The aim of this study was to explore how frequently drivers report mind wandering during their daily commute, and to learn more about how conscious and unconscious processes combine during everyday driving. We recorded 587 thought samples across 110 drives by eleven female participants aged between 28 and 48/years who regularly drive between home and work. Using a probe-catch descriptive experience sampling procedure, thought samples were captured and categorised according to whether they were driving-related or not, and according to their trigger (sensory vs internal). We found that drivers on the daily commute reported mind wandering on 63% of reports, and were actively focused on the driving task for between 15% and 20% of samples. For the remaining one fifth of thought samples, drivers were not actively thinking about anything in particular. Over half of drivers’ mind wandering reports were related to things they saw or heard, suggesting that although they are not directly focused on driving all of the time, they frequently and habitually scan the road and roadside environment. When momentary driving task demands do not command attention, drivers’ minds wander towards personal current concerns. Mind wandering is often triggered by what drivers see or hear. These findings suggest that in familiar, undemanding situations, drivers are more likely to be found mind wandering than focusing on driving, however mind wandering is swiftly interrupted when driving task demands command effortful attention. The results have implications for research into mind wandering, implying that a baseline of sustained task focus is not the norm when driving the daily commute. Researchers and policy-makers ought to consider how to design road and traffic systems that align with drivers’ unconscious expectations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Burg, Matthew M.; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Kronish, Ian M.; Diaz, Keith M.; Alcantara, Carmela; Duer-Hefele, Joan; Davidson, Karina W. (2017): Does stress result in you exercising less? Or does exercising result in you being less stressed? Or is it both? Testing the bi-directional stress-exercise association at the group and person (N of 1) level.
In: Ann Behav Med 51 (6), S. 799–809. DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9902-4.
Background: Psychosocial stress contributes to heart disease in part by adversely affecting maintenance of health behaviors, while exercise can reduce stress. Assessing the bi-directional relationship between stress and exercise has been limited by lack of real-time data and theoretical and statistical models. This lack may hinder efforts to promote exercise maintenance. Purpose: We test the bi-directional relationship between stress and exercise using real-time data for the average person and the variability—individual differences—in this relationship. Methods: An observational study was conducted within a single cohort randomized controlled experiment. Healthy young adults, (n = 79) who reported only intermittent exercise, completed 12 months of stress monitoring by ecological momentary assessment (at the beginning of, end of, and during the day) and continuous activity monitoring by Fitbit. A random coefficients linear mixed model was used to predict end-of-day stress from the occurrence/non-occurrence of exercise that day; a logistic mixed model was used to predict the occurrence/non-occurrence of exercise from ratings of anticipated stress. Separate regression analyses were also performed for each participant. Sensitivity analysis tested all models, restricted to the first 180 days of observation (prior to randomization). Results: We found a significant average inverse (i.e., negative) effect of exercise on stress and of stress on exercise. There was significant between-person variability. Of N = 69, exercise was associated with a stress reduction for 15, a stress increase for 2, and no change for the remainder. We also found that an increase in anticipated stress reported the previous night or that morning was associated with a significant 20–22% decrease (OR = 0.78–0.80) in the odds of exercising that day. Of N = 69, this increase in stress reduced the likelihood of exercise for 17, increased the odds for 1, and had no effect for the remainder. We were unable to identify psychosocial factors that moderate the individual differences in these effects. Conclusions: The relationship of stress to exercise can be uni- or bi-directional and varies from person to person. A precision medicine approach may improve exercise uptake. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Burt, S. Alexandra; Alhabash, Saleem (2017): Illuminating the nomological network of digital aggression. Results from two studies.
In: Aggressive behavior. DOI: 10.1002/ab.21736.
We examined the nomological network surrounding digital aggression (DA), in regards to other forms of aggression/antisocial behavior and individual difference variables commonly associated with other forms of aggression/antisocial behavior. Two large samples of university students (N = 713 and 633, respectively) completed a series of questionnaires and in some cases, an additional experience sampling study. Results revealed that, in emerging adulthood, DA appears to have a unique demographic profile relative to the other forms of aggression and antisocial behavior. Results further suggested that, when examined simultaneously, only social aggression and non-aggressive rule-breaking evidenced independent associations with DA. These associations persisted even in the absence of social media use. Unique associations with most individual difference variables dissipated once we controlled for social aggression and rule-breaking, although DA was independently associated with extraversion and alcohol use problems. Such findings begin to embed DA in its broader nomological network and suggest clear functional links with both social aggression and non-aggressive rule-breaking.
Carpenter, Ryan W.; Trela, Constantine J.; Lane, Sean P.; Wood, Phillip K.; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Trull, Timothy J. (2017): Elevated rate of alcohol consumption in borderline personality disorder patients in daily life.
In: Psychopharmacology (Berl) 234 (22), S. 3395–3406. DOI: 10.1007/s00213-017-4727-1.
Rationale: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is highly associated with alcohol use disorder, but little is known about how BPD individuals consume alcohol or the immediate effects of their consumption. There is therefore a need for research investigating drinking behavior in BPD. Objectives: The current study examined rate of alcohol consumption in BPD (N = 54) and community individuals (COM; N = 59) within ecologically valid drinking episodes. We hypothesized that rate of consumption would be elevated in BPD individuals. We further hypothesized that rate of consumption would be positively associated with subjective stimulation, but not sedation, and that stimulation would be associated with increased positive affect (PA) and reduced negative affect (NA). Methods: Ambulatory assessment was used to assess rate of consumption, subjective alcohol response, and affect in the moment (Nobservations = 3444). Rate of consumption was defined as change in estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) relative to drinking episode start. Multilevel modeling was used to test hypotheses. Results: As hypothesized, BPD individuals demonstrated a faster increase in eBAC than COM individuals. Rate of consumption was associated with subjective stimulation, but not sedation, in both groups. Stimulation was associated with increased PA in both groups and reduced NA in the BPD group. Conclusions: BPD individuals consumed alcohol more rapidly than COM individuals. Faster consumption may serve as a means for BPD individuals to maximize the rewarding pharmacological effects of alcohol and to increase positive and reduce negative affect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Carson, Russell L.; Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; Ota, Carrie L.; Kuhn, Ann Pulling; Durr, Anthony (2017): An ecological momentary assessment of burnout, rejuvenation strategies, job satisfaction, and quitting intentions in childcare teachers.
In: Early Childhood Education Journal 45 (6), S. 801–808.
Guided by affective events theory, the purpose of this study was to examine the temporal aspects of childcare teacher burnout, particularly as to how feelings of exhaustion throughout the day relate to perceptions of end-of-day job satisfaction and quitting intentions. A secondary purpose of the study was to explore the frequency and type of rejuvenation strategies childcare teachers use to relieve perceived stress throughout the day. Ecological momentary assessment procedures were employed for 1 week to assess exhaustion levels (3 times/day), frequencies and types of rejuvenation strategies (3 times/day), and end-of-day job satisfaction perceptions and quitting intentions (1 time/day) among 50 childcare teachers. Results indicated that childcare teachers’ quitting intentions were positively predicted by emotional exhaustion (β = 0.52) and negatively predicted by overall job satisfaction (β = −0.28). Short (≤15 min), infrequently used (one to two times/day) physical or cognitive health reprieve strategies were reported by 86 % of teachers as the most effective for reducing daily stress. Findings suggest that daily accounts of burnout and quitting intentions have both exhaustive and restorative properties.
Cerrada, Christian Jules; Dzubur, Eldin; Blackman, Kacie C. A.; Mays, Vickie; Shoptaw, Steven; Huh, Jimi (2017):Development of a just-in-time adaptive intervention for smoking cessation among Korean American emerging adults.
In: International journal of behavioral medicine 24 (5), S. 665–672. DOI: 10.1007/s12529-016-9628-x.
Purpose: Cigarette smoking is a preventable risk factor that contributes to unnecessary lung cancer burden among Korean Americans and there is limited research on effective smoking cessation strategies for this population. Smartphone-based smoking cessation apps that leverage just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs) hold promise for smokers attempting to quit. However, little is known about how to develop and tailor a smoking cessation JITAI for Korean American emerging adult (KAEA) smokers. Method: This paper documents the development process of MyQuit USC according to design guidelines for JITAI. Our development process builds on findings from a prior ecological momentary assessment study by using qualitative research methods. Semi-structured interviews and a focus group were conducted to inform which intervention options to offer and the decision rules that dictate their delivery. Results: Qualitative findings highlighted that (1) smoking episodes are highly context-driven and that (2) KAEA smokers believe they need personalized cessation strategies tailored to different contexts. Thus, MyQuit USC operates via decision rules that guide the delivery of personalized implementation intentions, which are contingent on dynamic factors, to be delivered ‘just in time’ at user-scheduled, high-risk smoking situations. Conclusion: Through an iterative design process, informed by quantitative and qualitative formative research, we developed a smoking cessation JITAI tailored specifically for KAEA smokers. Further testing is under way to optimize future versions of the app with the most effective intervention strategies and decision rules. MyQuit USC has the potential to provide cessation support in real-world settings, when KAEAs need them the most. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Chan, Steven; Godwin, Haley; Gonzalez, Alvaro; Yellowlees, Peter M.; Hilty, Donald M. (2017): Review of use and integration of mobile apps Into psychiatric treatments.
In: Current psychiatry reports 19 (12), S. 96. DOI: 10.1007/s11920-017-0848-9.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mental health practitioners should understand the features of current, publicly available apps; the features of novel, research apps; and issues behind the integration of mobile apps and digital health services into clinical workflows. RECENT FINDINGS: The review is based on a research literature and the authors’ clinical and healthcare administration experiences. Articles searched-on telepsychiatry, telemental health, mobile mental health, informatics, cellular phone, ambulatory monitoring, telemetry, and algorithms-were restricted to 2016 and 2017. Technologies are used in a variety of clinical settings, including patients with varying mental illness severity, social supports, and technological literacy. Good practices for evaluating apps, understanding user needs, and training and educating users can increase success rates. Ethics and risk management should be considered. Mobile apps are versatile. Integrating apps into psychiatric treatment requires addressing both patient and clinical workflows, design and usability principles, accessibility, social concerns, and digital health literacy.
Cole, Casey A.; Anshari, Dien; Lambert, Victoria; Thrasher, James F.; Valafar, Homayoun (2017): Detecting smoking events using accelerometer data collected via smartwatch technology. Validation Study.
In: JMIR mHealth and uHealth 5 (12), e189. DOI: 10.2196/mhealth.9035.
BACKGROUND: Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the world today. Ecological research on smoking in context currently relies on self-reported smoking behavior. Emerging smartwatch technology may more objectively measure smoking behavior by automatically detecting smoking sessions using robust machine learning models. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the feasibility of detecting smoking behavior using smartwatches. The second aim of this study was to compare the success of observing smoking behavior with smartwatches to that of conventional self-reporting. METHODS: A convenience sample of smokers was recruited for this study. Participants (N=10) recorded 12 hours of accelerometer data using a mobile phone and smartwatch. During these 12 hours, they engaged in various daily activities, including smoking, for which they logged the beginning and end of each smoking session. Raw data were classified as either smoking or nonsmoking using a machine learning model for pattern recognition. The accuracy of the model was evaluated by comparing the output with a detailed description of a modeled smoking session. RESULTS: In total, 120 hours of data were collected from participants and analyzed. The accuracy of self-reported smoking was approximately 78% (96/123). Our model was successful in detecting 100 of 123 (81%) smoking sessions recorded by participants. After eliminating sessions from the participants that did not adhere to study protocols, the true positive detection rate of the smartwatch based-detection increased to more than 90%. During the 120 hours of combined observation time, only 22 false positive smoking sessions were detected resulting in a 2.8% false positive rate. CONCLUSIONS: Smartwatch technology can provide an accurate, nonintrusive means of monitoring smoking behavior in natural contexts. The use of machine learning algorithms for passively detecting smoking sessions may enrich ecological momentary assessment protocols and cessation intervention studies that often rely on self-reported behaviors and may not allow for targeted data collection and communications around smoking events.
Comulada, W. Scott; Swendeman, Dallas; Koussa, Maryann K.; Mindry, Deborah; Medich, Melissa; Estrin, Deborah et al. (2017): Adherence to self-monitoring healthy lifestyle behaviours through mobile phone-based ecological momentary assessments and photographic food records over 6 months in mostly ethnic minority mothers.
In: Public health nutrition, S. 1–10. DOI: 10.1017/S1368980017003044.
OBJECTIVE: Mobile phones can replace traditional self-monitoring tools through cell phone-based ecological momentary assessment (CEMA) of lifestyle behaviours and camera phone-based images of meals, i.e. photographic food records (PFR). Adherence to mobile self-monitoring needs to be evaluated in real-world treatment settings. Towards this goal, we examine CEMA and PFR adherence to the use of a mobile app designed to help mothers self-monitor lifestyle behaviours and stress. Design/Setting In 2012, forty-two mothers recorded CEMA of diet quality, exercise, sleep, stress and mood four times daily and PFR during meals over 6 months in Los Angeles, California, USA. SUBJECTS: A purposive sample of mothers from mixed ethnicities. RESULTS: Adherence to recording CEMA at least once daily was higher compared with recording PFR at least once daily over the study period (74 v. 11 %); adherence to both types of reports decreased over time. Participants who recorded PFR for more than a day (n 31) were more likely to be obese v. normal- to overweight and to have higher blood pressure, on average (all P<0.05). Based on random-effects regression, CEMA and PFR adherence was highest during weekdays (both P<0.01). Additionally, PFR adherence was associated with older age (P=0.04). CEMA adherence was highest in the morning (P<0.01). PFR recordings occurred throughout the day. CONCLUSIONS: Variations in population and temporal characteristics should be considered for mobile assessment schedules. Neither CEMA nor PFR alone is ideal over extended periods.
Connolly, Samantha L.; Alloy, Lauren B. (2017): Rumination interacts with life stress to predict depressive symptoms. An ecological momentary assessment study.
In: Behaviour research and therapy 97, S. 86–95. DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.07.006.
Rumination is a well-established vulnerability factor for depression that may exert deleterious effects both independently and in interaction with stress. The current study examined momentary ruminative self-focus (MRS) and stress-reactive rumination (SRR) as predictors of depressive symptoms utilizing a smartphone ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design. 121 undergraduates responded to four text message alerts per day for one week in which they indicated the occurrence of life stress, rumination, and depressed mood. SRR, but not MRS, independently predicted increases in depressive symptoms. MRS interacted with depressive symptoms to predict increases in symptoms at the subsequent timepoint, supporting the deleterious effects of depressive rumination on future mood state. Interactions emerged between stress and both MRS and SRR, such that experiencing higher levels of stressors and rumination at an observation predicted greater increases in depressive symptoms. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate that state rumination moderates the effect of stress in predicting depressive symptoms using EMA methodology. Results suggest that rumination levels in response to stress vary within individuals and can have an important effect on depressed mood. Findings may have important clinical implications, as lessening individuals’ tendency to engage in rumination following stress may help to alleviate depressive symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Cook, Paul F.; Schmiege, Sarah J.; Bradley-Springer, Lucy; Starr, Whitney; Carrington, Jane M. (2017): Motivation as a mechanism for daily experiences’ effects on HIV medication adherence.
In: The Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care : JANAC. DOI: 10.1016/j.jana.2017.09.003.
Medication adherence is a challenge for people living with HIV (PLWH), who may experience a gap between their intentions and everyday behaviors. We measured PLWH’s (n = 87) daily experiences and tested a model to explain the intention-behavior gap. Participants completed baseline questionnaires, then used a smartphone-based survey and an electronic pill bottle to provide daily data for the next 10 weeks. These PLWH, with generally well-controlled HIV, were nevertheless adherent on only 73% of study days. Multilevel analyses were used to test predicted relationships between variables (n = 58). Four of five theory-based daily measures predicted motivation for antiretroviral therapy (betas = 0.06-0.10), and motivation, in turn, predicted adherence. Consistent with our theory, control beliefs, mood, and social support had indirect effects on adherence. However, stress and coping did not. Daily experiences affect adherence, even in PLWH with well-controlled HIV. Providers should ask about everyday changes in motivation.
Coombes, Emma; Jones, Andy; Cooper, Ashley; Page, Angie (2017): Does home neighbourhood supportiveness influence the location more than volume of adolescent’s physical activity? An observational study using global positioning systems.
In: Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 14. DOI: 10.1186/s12966-017-0607-7.
Background: Environmental characteristics of home neighbourhoods are hypothesised to be associated with residents’ physical activity levels, yet many studies report only weak or equivocal associations. We theorise that this may be because neighbourhood characteristics influence the location of activity more than the volume. Using a sample of UK adolescents, we examine the role of home neighbourhood supportiveness for physical activity, both in terms of volume of activity undertaken and a measure of proximity to home at which activity takes place. Methods: Data were analysed from 967 adolescents living in and around the city of Bristol, UK. Each participant wore an accelerometer and a GPS device for 7 days during school term time. These data were integrated into a Geographical Information System containing information on the participants’ home neighbourhoods and measures of environmental supportiveness. We then identified the amount of out-of-school activity of different intensities that adolescents undertook inside their home neighbourhood and examined how this related to home neighbourhood supportiveness. Results: We found that living in a less supportive neighbourhood did not negatively impact the volume of physical activity that adolescents undertook. Indeed these participants recorded similar amounts of activity (e.g. 20.5 mins per day of moderate activity at weekends) as those in more supportive neighbourhoods (18.6 mins per day). However, the amount of activity adolescents undertook inside their home neighbourhood did differ according to supportiveness; those living in less supportive locations had lower odds of recording activity inside their home neighbourhood. This was observed across all intensities of activity including sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the supportiveness of the neighbourhood around home may have a greater influence on the location of physical activity than the volume undertaken. This finding is at odds with the premise of the socio-ecological models of physical activity that have driven this research field for the last two decades, and has implications for future research, as by simply measuring volumes of activity we may be underestimating the impact of the environment on physical activity behaviours. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Demiray, Burcu; Mischler, Marianne; Martin, Mike; Knight, Bob G. (2017): Reminiscence in everyday conversations. A naturalistic observation study of older adults.
In: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences. DOI: 10.1093/geronb/gbx141.
Objectives: We examined older adults’ social reminiscence behavior in everyday life, and the relation between reminiscence functions and well-being. Method: The sample included 2,164 sound snippets that included speech from 45 healthy older adults. We examined reminiscence in daily conversations using the Electronically Activated Recorder. Across four days, we collected a random sample of about 280 sound files (30 seconds long) per participant. Participants’ utterances were coded for whether they included reminiscence, for their functions and conversation partners. Participants completed mood and life satisfaction measures. Results: Participants reminisced in 5% of their utterances (range: 0%-29%). They reminisced in 40% of cases with friends, 32.8% with their partner and 8% with their children/relatives. Three reminiscence functions were observed: identity, teaching/informing, and conversation. Participants’ reminiscence served the identity function while they were reminiscing with their partner and children. Participants reminisced to teach/inform while reminiscing with their children and strangers. Reminiscing for conversation occurred mainly with partner and friends. We found positive relations between life satisfaction and identity, teach/inform, and conversation functions. Mood had a negative relation with identity and teach/inform functions. Discussion: This is the first study to take a naturalistic observation approach to reminiscence and to build on self-report data.
Denton, Christopher P.; Hachulla, Eric; Riemekasten, Gabriela; Schwarting, Andreas; Frenoux, Jean-Marie; Frey, Aline et al. (2017): Efficacy and safety of selexipag in adults with raynaud’s phenomenon secondary to systemic sclerosis. A randomized, placebo-controlled, phase II study.
In: Arthritis & rheumatology (Hoboken, N.J.) 69 (12), S. 2370–2379. DOI: 10.1002/art.40242.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of selexipag, an oral, selective IP prostacyclin receptor agonist, on the frequency of attacks of Raynaud’s phenomenon (RP) in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: Patients with SSc-related RP were randomized 1:1 to placebo (n = 38) or selexipag (n = 36) in individualized doses (maximum of 1,600 mug twice daily) during a 3-week titration period. The primary end point was the weekly average number of RP attacks during the study maintenance period, analyzed using a Bayesian approach with a negative binomial model adjusted for baseline number of RP attacks. Other outcome measures included Raynaud’s Condition Score (RCS), RP attack duration, and treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs). RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were comparable between treatment groups. For 83.3% of patients, the individualized maintenance dosage of selexipag was </=800 mug twice daily. No significant difference was observed between placebo and selexipag in weekly average number of electronic diary (eDiary)-recorded RP attacks during the maintenance period (14.2 attacks during the maintenance period and 21.5 attacks during the baseline week in the placebo group [n = 32] versus 18.0 attacks during the maintenance period and 22.4 attacks during the baseline week in the selexipag group [n = 27]; adjusted mean treatment difference of 3.4 in favor of placebo). No significant treatment effect was observed on RCS or RP attack duration. In the double-blind period, 86.8% of placebo-treated patients and 100% of selexipag-treated patients reported >/=1 AE; 55.3% and 91.7%, respectively, reported >/=1 prostacyclin-associated AE. CONCLUSION: Treatment with selexipag did not reduce the number of RP attacks compared with placebo. The safety profile of selexipag was similar to that previously reported. This study provides important information about the feasibility of eDiary reporting of RP attacks in clinical trials.
Derrick, Jaye L.; Eliseo-Arras, Rebecca K.; Haddad, Sana; Britton, Maggie; Hanny, Courtney (2017): Feasibility of using ecological momentary assessment to study unaided smoking cessation in couples.
In: Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. DOI: 10.1093/ntr/ntx240.
Introduction: Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is a valuable method for studying smoking cessation, but feasibility has not been examined in committed couples. The current study examines the feasibility of conducting an EMA study of unaided smoking cessation in single-smoker couples. Methods: Participants were 62 single-smoker couples recruited to participate in a 21-day study of unaided smoking cessation. Quitters and Partners were given instructions to complete one morning report, three signaled reports, and one evening report per day, as well as lapse reports when necessary. They also completed a series of questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. This paper examines predictors of compliance with the reporting instructions. Results: Compliance with scheduled reporting was reasonable (Quitters: 76%, Partners: 79%). Compliance with “on-time” lapse reporting (vs. make-up reporting) was poor (Quitters: 62%, Partners: 43%). Quitters’ compliance with lapse reporting was strongly associated with orientation toward quitting. Partners’ compliance with lapse reporting was associated with relationship motivation. Quitter compliance plummeted when Partners were non-compliant. Self-regulation and emotional instability were not associated with compliance but were associated with time to complete reports. Quitters’ and Partners’ experiences completing the study provide some insight into the dynamics of completing an EMA study as part of a dyad. Conclusions: Overall, this study suggests it is feasible and effective to collect EMA data on smoking cessation from couples. However, compliance with lapse reporting was poor, especially for Partners. Researchers could provide remuneration on a different schedule, provide shorter lapse reports, or omit Partner lapse reports altogether. Implications: This paper examined compliance with scheduled reporting and lapse reporting in single-smoker couples during an unaided quit attempt. Compliance with scheduled reporting was acceptable, but compliance with lapse reporting was poor, especially for Partners. Quitters’ compliance with lapse reporting was heavily influenced by orientation toward quitting, suggesting that improved screening for motivation to quit might improve compliance rates. Quitter compliance also plummeted when Partners were non-compliant. Partner demographics and relationship motivation were the best predictors of compliance. To enhance compliance, researchers might provide remuneration on a different scale, dramatically shorten lapse reports, or even omit Partner lapse reports.
Dingemans, Alexandra; Danner, Unna; Parks, Melissa (2017): Emotion regulation in binge eating disorder. A review.
In: Nutrients 9 (11). DOI: 10.3390/nu9111274.
The purpose of the present review is to provide a summary of the research findings on emotion regulation in Binge Eating Disorder (BED). Negative emotions and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies play a role in the onset and maintenance of binge eating in BED. Anger and sadness, along with negative emotions related to interpersonal experiences (i.e., disappointment, being hurt or loneliness), seem to be particularly relevant. Individuals with BED have a tendency to suppress and ruminate on their unwanted emotions, which leads to increased psychopathological thoughts and symptoms. Compared to healthy controls, they use adaptive strategies, such as reappraisal, less frequently. Evidence concerning the causal relation between negative affect and binge eating is inconclusive and still very limited. While experimental studies in a laboratory setting lack ecological validity, ecological momentary assessment studies offer more promise at unraveling the causal relationship between emotions and binge eating. Increases in negative affect are found to be antecedents of binge eating in BED. However, there seems to be less support for the possibility that binge eating serves as a means to alleviate negative affect. Finally, BED seems to be related to other forms of maladaptive emotion regulation strategies, such as substance abuse and self-harm.
Duncan, Dustin T.; Goedel, William C.; Williams, James H.; Elbel, Brian (2017): Acceptability of smartphone text- and voice-based ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods among low income housing residents in new york city.
In: BMC research notes 10 (1), S. 517. DOI: 10.1186/s13104-017-2850-z.
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the acceptability of smartphone-based text message- and voice-based ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods among a sample of low-income housing residents in New York City. Using data from the community-based NYC Low Income Housing, Neighborhoods and Health Study (n = 112), the acceptability of text message- and voice-based EMA methods were assessed via survey. RESULTS: Overall, 88.4% of participants reported that they would participate in a study that utilized text message-based EMA. These analyses showed no appreciable differences by sub-groups (p > .05). Overall, 80.2% of participants reported that they would participate in a study that used voice-based EMA. This voice-based method was least acceptable among participants younger than 25 years old compared to participants of all other ages, chi(2)(2) = 10.107, p = .006 (among the younger participants 60.7% reported “yes” regarding the anticipated acceptability of voice-based EMA and 39.3% reported “no”). Overall, this work suggests that text message- and voice-based EMA methods are acceptable for use among low-income housing residents. However, the association between age and the acceptability of voice-based EMA suggests that these methods may be less suited for younger populations.
Duresso, Samson W.; Bruno, Raimondo; Matthews, Allison J.; Ferguson, Stuart G. (2017): Stopping khat use. Predictors of success in an unaided quit attempt.
In: Drug and alcohol review. DOI: 10.1111/dar.12622.
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Despite the adverse effects of khat use and chewers interest in cessation, there are few studies that have reported on the outcome of khat cessation attempts, and limited resources available for potential quitters. We used electronic diaries to monitor the outcomes of an unassisted quit attempt among daily and near daily khat consumers, and examine predictors of success. DESIGN AND METHODS: Sixty participants between the ages of 18 and 35 years who regularly chewed khat and who were attempting to quit were purposively recruited from an Ethiopian University campus. Real-time prospective daily recording of khat use was obtained for an average of 10 days prior to quit day (range 6-13) and 28 post-quit days (range 9-31), using an electronic diary. RESULTS: Almost all (95%) achieved initial abstinence. Of these, 80% reached at least seven continuous days of abstinence; 7% maintained continuous abstinence for 28 days post-quit. While 93% lapsed (average 11 days post-quit, SD = 7), only a smaller proportion relapsed (41%: chewed for at least three consecutive days after at least 5 days of abstinence). No demographic factors were predictive of successful abstinence. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Regular khat chewers have difficulties in maintaining abstinence despite having motivation and desire to quit. This implies that treatment aids may be needed to assist chewers’ in their quit attempts. Controlled experimental trial through the use of available low cost quit aids and behavioural resources is crucial in order to increase success rates for those seeking to desist from khat use.
Dwyer, Ryan; Kushlev, Kostadin; Dunn, Elizabeth (2017): Smartphone use undermines enjoyment of face-to-face social interactions.
In: J Exp Soc Psychol. DOI: 10.1016/j.jesp.2017.10.007.
Using a field experiment and experience sampling, we found the first evidence that phone use may undermine the enjoyment people derive from real world social interactions. In Study 1, we recruited over 300 community members and students to share a meal at a restaurant with friends or family. Participants were randomly assigned to keep their phones on the table or to put their phones away during the meal. When phones were present (vs. absent), participants felt more distracted, which reduced how much they enjoyed spending time with their friends/family. We found consistent results using experience sampling in Study 2; during in-person interactions, participants felt more distracted and reported lower enjoyment if they used their phones than if they did not. This research suggests that despite their ability to connect us to others across the globe, phones may undermine the benefits we derive from interacting with those across the table. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Elliston, Katherine G.; Ferguson, Stuart G.; Schüz, Benjamin (2017): Personal and situational predictors of everyday snacking. An application of temporal self‐regulation theory.
In: Br J Health Psychol 22 (4), S. 854–871. DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12259.
Objectives: This study aims at testing predictions derived from temporal self‐regulation theory (TST) in relation to discretionary food choices (snacks). TST combines a motivational sphere of influence (cognitions and temporal valuations resulting in intentions) with a momentary sphere (encompassing social and physical environmental cues). This dual approach differs from current health behaviour theories, but can potentially improve our understanding of the interplay of personal and environmental factors in health behaviour self‐regulation. Design: A mixed event‐based and time‐based (Ecological Momentary Assessment) study in 61 adults aged between 18 and 64, with a BMI range between 18.34 and 39.78 (M = 25.66, SD = 4.82) over two weeks. Methods: Participants recorded their food and drink intake for two weeks in real time using electronic diaries. Participants also responded to non‐consumption assessments at random intervals throughout each day. Momentary cues (individual, situational, and environmental factors) were assessed both during food logs and non‐consumption assessments. Motivational factors, past behaviour, and trait self‐regulation were assessed during baseline. Results: Multilevel logistic regression analyses showed that across all snack types, environmental cues and negative affect were associated with an increased likelihood of snacking. Perceiving a cost of healthy eating to occur before eating was associated with an increased likelihood of snacking, whereas intentions and self‐regulation were not. Conclusions: Discretionary food intake is largely guided by momentary cues, and motivational‐level factors, such as intention and self‐regulation, are less important in the initiation of discretionary food intake. Statement of contribution: What is already known on this subject? Overweight and obesity are a result of prolonged periods of energy imbalance between energy intake and expenditure (Hill & Peters, ). One of the key behavioural determinants of energy imbalances results from food intake, specifically from discretionary food choices (snacking). Temporal self‐regulation theory (Hall & Fong, ) takes into account both deliberate and momentary influences on health behaviour, which is especially relevant to exploring the drivers of snacking. What does this study add?: 1. Offers new insight into the application of TST in explaining momentary eating behaviours. 2. Snacking initiation is guided by momentary cues, not person‐level factors. 3. Dietary interventions should acknowledge the momentary cues that are associated with snacking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Everhart, Robin S.; Heron, Kristin E.; Leibach, Gillian G.; Miadich, Samantha A. (2017): Developing a mobile health intervention for low-income, urban caregivers of children with asthma. A pilot study.
In: Pediatric allergy, immunology, and pulmonology 30 (4), S. 252–256. DOI: 10.1089/ped.2017.0794.
Objective: This pilot study explored the initial feasibility and efficacy of providing feedback to low-income, urban caregivers of children with persistent asthma about their daily experiences reported via ecological momentary assessment (EMA) on caregiver emotional health (quality of life, perceived stress, and positive affect). Methods: Data were collected from 28 caregivers and their children (7-12 years). Caregivers completed a baseline session, 14 days of EMA surveys via smartphone, and were randomized to intervention or control groups. The intervention group received individualized EMA feedback regarding areas of daily life that may be making it harder to manage child asthma. The control group received information on general child health. Caregivers completed assessments 4 weeks and 4 months postintervention. Results: In the EMA group, caregivers experienced an increase in perceived stress from baseline to postintervention, but a decrease in perceived stress from postintervention to follow-up. There were no significant changes in outcome measures for the control group. Conclusion: Preliminary findings suggest that providing caregivers with feedback from daily assessments may reduce stress, which could be targeted in future mobile health interventions for low-income, urban families of children with asthma.
Farris, Samantha G.; Thomas, J. Graham; Abrantes, Ana M.; Lipton, Richard B.; Pavlovic, Jelena; Smitherman, Todd A. et al. (2017): Pain worsening with physical activity during migraine attacks in women with overweight/obesity. A prospective evaluation of frequency, consistency, and correlates.
In: Cephalalgia : an international journal of headache, 333102417747231. DOI: 10.1177/0333102417747231.
Background Migraine is a neurological disease involving recurrent attacks of moderate-to-severe and disabling head pain. Worsening of pain with routine physical activity during attacks is a principal migraine symptom; however, the frequency, individual consistency, and correlates of this symptom are unknown. Given the potential of this symptom to undermine participation in daily physical activity, an effective migraine prevention strategy, further research is warranted. This study is the first to prospectively evaluate (a) frequency and individual consistency of physical activity-related pain worsening during migraine attacks, and (b) potential correlates, including other migraine symptoms, anthropometric characteristics, psychological symptoms, and daily physical activity. Methods Participants were women (n = 132) aged 18-50 years with neurologist-confirmed migraine and overweight/obesity seeking weight loss treatment in the Women’s Health and Migraine trial. At baseline, participants used a smartphone diary to record migraine attack occurrence, severity, and symptoms for 28 days. Participants also completed questionnaires and 7 days of objective physical activity monitoring before and after diary completion, respectively. Patterning of the effect of physical activity on pain was summarized within-subject by calculating the proportion (%) of attacks in which physical activity worsened, improved, or had no effect on pain. Results Participants reported 5.5 +/- 2.8 (mean +/- standard deviation) migraine attacks over 28 days. The intraclass correlation (coefficient = 0.71) indicated high consistency in participants’ reports of activity-related pain worsening or not. On average, activity worsened pain in 34.8 +/- 35.6% of attacks, had no effect on pain in 61.8 +/- 34.6% of attacks and improved pain in 3.4 +/- 12.7% of attacks. Few participants (9.8%) reported activity-related pain worsening in all attacks. A higher percentage of attacks where physical activity worsened pain demonstrated small-sized correlations with more severe nausea, photophobia, phonophobia, and allodynia (r = 0.18 – 0.22, p < 0.05). Pain worsening due to physical activity was not related to psychological symptoms or total daily physical activity. Conclusions There is large variability in the effect of physical activity on pain during migraine attacks that can be accounted for by individual differences. For a minority of participants, physical activity consistently contributed to pain worsening. More frequent physical activity-related pain worsening was related to greater severity of other migraine symptoms and pain sensitivity, which supports the validity of this diagnostic feature. Study protocol ClinicalTrials.govIdentifier: NCT01197196.
Fazeli, Pariya L.; Turan, Janet M.; Budhwani, Henna; Smith, Whitney; Raper, James L.; Mugavero, Michael J.; Turan, Bulent (2017): Moment-to-moment within-person associations between acts of discrimination and internalized stigma in people living with HIV. An experience sampling study.
In: Stigma and health 2 (3), S. 216–228. DOI: 10.1037/sah0000051.
Internalized stigma related to HIV is associated with poorer outcomes for people living with HIV (PLWH). However, little is known about the association between experiences of daily acts of discrimination by others and the activation of internalized stigma, including factors that may moderate this association. One hundred nine men living with HIV responded to experience sampling method (ESM) questions 3 times a day for 7 days via smart-phones. ESM questions included experiences of recent acts of discrimination, internalized HIV stigma, avoidance coping with HIV, and recent social support. We also administered several traditional questionnaire measures assessing psychosocial constructs. In Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses controlling for age, race, socioeconomic status, and time on antiretroviral therapy, experiencing discrimination predicted internalized stigma within-persons. Individuals higher on attachment-related avoidance, attachment-related anxiety, avoidance coping, perceived community stigma, and helplessness, and individuals lower on social support, had stronger associations between discrimination and current internalized stigma. Similarly, results from two state moderator variables supported our trait analyses: State-level (ESM) social support and avoidance coping were significant moderators. Thus, when PLWH experience incidents of discrimination due to HIV, this may lead to increased feelings of internalized stigma. We extend the literature by demonstrating that the associations between experienced and internalized stigma are not just at the generalized trait level, but also occur at the state-level, accounting for within person variability. Results provide implications for interventions aiming to modify maladaptive interpersonal traits as well as interventions to increase social support to reduce the impact of discrimination on PLWH.
Felsman, Peter; Verduyn, Philippe; Ayduk, Ozlem; Kross, Ethan (2017): Being present. Focusing on the present predicts improvements in life satisfaction but not happiness.
In: Emotion (Washington, D.C.) 17 (7), S. 1047–1051. DOI: 10.1037/emo0000333.
Mindfulness theorists suggest that people spend most of their time focusing on the past or future rather than the present. Despite the prevalence of this assumption, no research that we are aware of has evaluated whether it is true or what the implications of focusing on the present are for subjective well-being. We addressed this issue by using experience sampling to examine how frequently people focus on the present throughout the day over the course of a week and whether focusing on the present predicts improvements in the 2 components of subjective well-being over time—how people feel and how satisfied they are with their lives. Results indicated that participants were present-focused the majority of the time (66%). Moreover, focusing on the present predicted improvements in life satisfaction (but not happiness) over time by reducing negative rumination. These findings advance our understanding of how temporal orientation and well-being relate. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Forman, Evan M.; Schumacher, Leah M.; Crosby, Ross; Manasse, Stephanie M.; Goldstein, Stephanie P.; Butryn, Meghan L. et al. (2017): Ecological momentary assessment of dietary lapses across behavioral weight loss treatment. Characteristics, predictors, and relationships with weight change.
In: Ann Behav Med 51 (5), S. 741–753. DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9897-x.
Background: Adherence to dietary prescriptions is critical for successful weight loss and weight loss maintenance. However, research on specific instances of inadherence (lapses) is limited, and findings regarding the frequency, nature, and causes of lapses are mixed. Additionally, no studies have examined lapses over the course of a weight loss program. Purpose: In the context of a reduced calorie diet prescribed as part of a behavioral treatment, we aimed to characterize lapse occurrence, examine lapse frequency across treatment, examine predictors of lapses, and assess the relationship between lapses and weight loss. Methods: Adults (n = 189) enrolled in a 12-month behavioral weight loss program completed ecological momentary assessment (EMA) at baseline, mid-treatment, and end of treatment. At each EMA survey, participants indicated whether a lapse had occurred, and responded to questions assessing situational, environmental, and affective states. Results: Lapse frequency showed a curvilinear relationship over time, such that frequency first decreased and then increased. Lapse frequency at baseline was negatively associated with early and overall weight loss. Lapses most often occurred at home, in the evenings, on the weekends, and entailed eating a forbidden food. Greater overall levels of assessed affective and environmental triggers predicted lapses, and greater momentary hunger and deprivation, and the presence of palatable food, also prospectively predicted lapses. Conclusions: In addition to characterizing lapse frequency, the current study identified prospective predictors of lapses across treatment. These findings support the importance of lapses to weight control and provide insight for potential targets of intervention to prevent lapse occurrence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Freeman, Lindsey K.; Gottfredson, Nisha C. (2017): Using ecological momentary assessment to assess the temporal relationship between sleep quality and cravings in individuals recovering from substance use disorders.
In: Addictive behaviors. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.11.001.
INTRODUCTION: The causal direction of the relationship between sleep disturbance and drug cravings is unknown. Based on resource depletion literature, we hypothesized that sleep difficulties lead to cravings. We tested whether sleep quality predicts craving at the within- or between-person level, with perceived willpower as a multilevel mediator. METHODS: We used ecological momentary assessments (EMA) to compare two models of temporal precedence. Participants in addiction treatment (N=122) were sent four surveys each day for three weeks. Participants rated previous night’s sleep quality and level of cravings and willpower. RESULTS: The between- (beta=-0.18, SE=0.06) and within-person (beta=-0.02, SE=0.02) effects of maximum daily craving on sleep quality were significant, as were the between- (beta=-0.33, SE=0.08) and within-person (beta=-0.08; SE=0.03) effects of daily sleep quality on maximum daily cravings. In the mediation analysis of the indirect effect of sleep quality on cravings via willpower, both the indirect effect for the between-person pathway (beta=-0.27, SE=0.07) and the indirect within-person pathway (beta=-0.01, SE=0.01) were significant. CONCLUSIONS: EMA methodology allowed for disentanglement of the temporal relationship between sleep and cravings. We found support for the resource depletion hypothesis, operationalized by linking sleep quality to cravings via willpower. However, the magnitude of the association between sleep quality and cravings was stronger at the between-person level, suggesting a potentially cumulative effect of poor sleep on cravings. These results suggest that clinicians should ask patients about chronic sleep problems, as these may pose a risk for relapse.
French, Megan; Bazarova, Natalya N. (2017): Is anybody out there? Understanding masspersonal communication through expectations for response across social media platforms.
In: J Comput Mediat Commun. DOI: 10.1111/jcc4.12197.
This work extends the masspersonal communication model (MPCM; O’Sullivan & Carr, 2017) by introducing anticipated interaction as a way to understand variations within the masspersonal continuum. Drawing from Thompson’s mediated communication framework (1995), we argue that anticipated interaction paves the way for establishing a communicative relationship between interactants. In social media, this relationship is rooted in a sender’s expectations for audience response and the imagined responsive audience. Using experience sampling, we show that anticipated interaction varies across social media. Further, we outline the relational and situational factors associated with expecting response and the specificity of imagined responsive audience. These variations and their sources characterize masspersonal communication as a socially and technologically situated practice shaped by multiple intersecting influences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Fuller, Daniel; Shareck, Martine; Stanley, Kevin (2017): Ethical implications of location and accelerometer measurement in health research studies with mobile sensing devices.
In: Soc Sci Med 191, S. 84–88. DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.08.043.
Quantification of individual behaviours using mobile sensing devices, including physical activity and spatial location, is a rapidly growing field in both academic research and the corporate world. In this case study, we summarize the literature examining the ethical aspects of mobile sensing and argue that a robust discussion about the ethical implications of mobile sensing for research purposes has not occurred sufficiently in the literature. Based on our literature summary and guided by basic ethical principles set out in Canadian, US, and International Ethics documents we propose four areas where further discussion should occur: consent, privacy and confidentiality, mitigating risk, and consideration of vulnerable populations. We argue that ongoing consent is crucial for participants to be aware of the precision and volume of data that is collected with mobile sensing devices. Related to privacy we discuss that participants may not agree that anonymized data is sufficient for privacy and confidentiality when mobile sensing data are collected. There has been some discussion about mitigating risk in the literature. We highlight that the researchers’ obligations toward mitigating risks that are not directly related to the study purpose are unclear and require considerable discussion. Finally, using mobile sensing devices to study vulnerable populations requires careful consideration, particularly with respect to balancing research needs with participant burden. Based on our discussion, we identify a broad set of unanswered questions about the ethics of mobile sensing that should be addressed by the research community. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Gerhart, James I.; Burns, John W.; Bruehl, Stephen; Smith, David A.; Post, Kristina M.; Porter, Laura S. et al. (2017): Variability in negative emotions among individuals with chronic low back pain. Relationships with pain and function.
In: Pain. DOI: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001102.
Chronic pain is associated with elevated negative emotions, and resources needed to adaptively regulate these emotions can be depleted during prolonged pain. Studies of links between pain, function, and negative emotions in people with chronic pain, however, have focused almost exclusively on relationships among mean levels of these factors. Indexes that may reflect aspects of emotion regulation have typically not been analyzed. We propose that 1 index of emotion regulation is variability in emotion over time as opposed to average emotion over time. The sample was 105 people with chronic low back pain and 105 of their pain-free spouses. They completed electronic diary measures 5x/d for 14 consecutive days, producing 70 observations per person from which we derived estimates of within-subject variance in negative emotions. Location-scale models were used to simultaneously model predictors of both mean level and variance in patient negative emotions over time. Patients reported significantly more variability in negative emotions compared to their spouses. Patients who reported higher average levels of pain, pain interference, and downtime reported significantly higher levels of variability in negative emotions. Spouse-observed pain and pain behaviors were also associated with greater variability in patients’ negative emotions. Test of the inverse associations between negative emotion level and variability in pain and function were significant but weaker in magnitude. These findings support the notion that chronic pain may erode negative emotion regulation resources, to the potential detriment of intra- and inter-personal function.
Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Crosby, Ross D.; Cao, Li; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Mitchell, James E.; Engel, Scott G.; Peterson, Carol B. (2018): A preliminary study of momentary, naturalistic indicators of binge-eating episodes in adults with obesity.
In: The International journal of eating disorders 51 (1), S. 87–91. DOI: 10.1002/eat.22795.
OBJECTIVES: Binge eating is common in adults with obesity. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Psychiatric Disorders describes five indicators of binge eating (eating more rapidly than usual; eating until uncomfortably full; eating large amounts of food when not physically hungry; eating alone because of embarrassment over how much one is eating; and feeling disgusted with oneself, depressed, or very guilty after overeating), but their validity is unclear. METHOD: We examined preliminary associations between the five indicators and binge versus nonbinge episodes among 50 adults with obesity via ecological momentary assessment. RESULTS: Generalized linear models revealed that, relative to nonbinge episodes, self-reported binge episodes were associated with lower pre-episode hunger (p = .004), higher postepisode fullness (p < .001), a greater likelihood of reporting moderate to extreme shame prior to eating in conjunction with eating alone (p < .001), and a greater likelihood of reporting moderate to extreme disgust, depression, and/or guilt after eating (p < .001), but not with eating more rapidly than usual (p = .85). DISCUSSION: Results support the validity of most binge-eating indicators, although the utility of the rapid eating criterion is questionable. Future research should examine whether modifying these indicators in binge-eating interventions would reduce the occurrence of loss of control and/or overeating.
Goodman, Fallon R.; Stiksma, Melissa C.; Kashdan, Todd B. (2017): Social anxiety and the quality of everyday social interactions. The moderating influence of alcohol consumption.
In: Behav Ther. DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.10.002.
Most research on the link between social anxiety and alcohol consumption has examined problematic outcomes without consideration of potential adaptive functions. Alcohol is an anxiolytic that has the short-term benefit of reducing anxiety; consumption may act as a social lubricant that facilitates higher quality social interactions. Using experience-sampling methodology, we examined how consuming alcohol attenuates the adverse effects of social anxiety in naturally occurring social interactions. Participants (N = 160) completed demographic and trait measures, then completed daily assessments for 14 consecutive days. Results from multilevel model analyses revealed that during face-to-face social interactions, state social anxiety was inversely related to 10 indicators of healthy social interactions (e.g., enjoyment, laughter, feelings of acceptance). Alcohol consumption moderated seven of these associations, such that when participants consumed alcohol in social situations, state social anxiety was no longer associated with social interaction quality. The quantity of alcoholic drinks consumed moderated two of these associations. Furthermore, we found evidence for directionality, such that social anxiety in a given social interaction predicted alcohol consumption in a subsequent social interaction, but not the reverse (i.e., alcohol consumption did not prospectively predict state social anxiety). In social situations that involved alcohol, experiences of social anxiety no longer thwarted one’s ability to derive social benefits. These results should be interpreted in the context of a participant sample with relatively low levels of trait social anxiety and frequency of alcohol use. Nonetheless, obtaining social rewards may be a reinforcement mechanism that maintains the link between social anxiety and alcohol consumption. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Graebener, Alexandra Heike; Michael, Tanja; Holz, Elena; Lass-Hennemann, Johanna (2017): Repeated cortisol administration does not reduce intrusive memories – a double blind placebo controlled experimental study.
In: Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 27 (11), S. 1132–1143. DOI: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2017.09.001.
PTSD is a severe mental disorder, which may develop after exposure to traumatic events and is characterized by intrusive memories. Intrusions are sudden brief sensory memories of the traumatic event, that cause immense distress and impairment in every day functioning. Thus, the reduction of intrusive memories is one of the main aims of PTSD therapy. Recently, the glucocorticoid cortisol has been proposed as a pharmacological option to reduce intrusive memories, because cortisol is known to have memory retrieval inhibiting effects. However, the research on the effects of cortisol administration on intrusive memories is not conclusive. The aim of the present study was to examine if repeated cortisol administration inhibits intrusions and recognition memory in an experimental study using the trauma film paradigm. In a randomized double-blind placebo controlled design participants were exposed to a traumatic film (known to induce intrusions in healthy participants) and received either a low dose of cortisol (20mg) or placebo on the three days following ‘trauma exposure’. Intrusive memories were assessed with an Electronic Diary and an Intrusion Triggering Task. Furthermore, we assessed explicit memory for the traumatic film clip with a recognition test. Contrary to our predictions, the cortisol group did not report fewer intrusions than the placebo group nor did it show diminished performance on the recognition test. Our results show that sole cortisol administration after a traumatic experience cannot reduce intrusive re-experiencing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Greene, T.; Gelkopf, M.; Grinapol, S.; Werbeloff, N.; Carlson, E.; Lapid, L. (2017): Trajectories of traumatic stress symptoms during conflict. A latent class growth analysis.
In: Journal of affective disorders 220, S. 24–30. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.05.036.
Background: The ways in which traumatic stress symptoms unfold under situations of ongoing threat and trauma exposure are poorly understood. The current study aims to identify traumatic stress symptom trajectories during conflict, as well as potential risk factors. Methods: Experience sampling methods were used to study traumatic stress symptoms during the 2014 Israel-Gaza conflict in 100 Israeli civilians exposed to rocket fire. Summary reports of traumatic symptoms were made twice-daily for 30 days via mobile phone. Results: Latent class growth analysis revealed four distinct classes (low, reducing, moderate, and high) characterised by their trajectory of traumatic stress symptoms during the conflict. Female gender, not being in a relationship, and higher prior trauma exposure were identified as potential risk factors. Limitations: Data were not collected in the early phase of the conflict, the sample was relatively small, and only traumatic stress symptoms were investigated as outcomes. Conclusions: This study identified heterogeneous traumatic stress symptom trajectories among civilians during a conflict, with different subgroups showing distinct response patterns over time, associated with various risk factors. Investigating responses to ongoing trauma, and identifying predictors of different stress symptom trajectories has clinical implications for the targeted delivery of interventions. Further exploration of heterogeneous trajectories could potentially elucidate mechanisms that drive resilience and recovery, including in situations of ongoing exposure such as during conflict. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Griffith, Julianne M.; Silk, Jennifer S.; Oppenheimer, Caroline W.; Morgan, Judith K.; Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Forbes, Erika E.; Dahl, Ronald E. (2017): Maternal affective expression and adolescents’ subjective experience of positive affect in natural settings.
In: Journal of research on adolescence : the official journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence. DOI: 10.1111/jora.12357.
This study investigated the association between maternal affective expression during laboratory-based interaction tasks and adolescents’ experience of positive affect (PA) in natural settings. Participants were 80 healthy adolescents and their mothers. Durations of maternal positive (PA) and negative affective (NA) expressions were observed during a conflict resolution task and a positive event planning interaction task. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) procedures were employed to assess adolescents’ momentary and peak experience of PA in daily life. Results indicated that maternal NA, but not maternal PA, was related to adolescents’ EMA-reported PA. Adolescents whose mothers expressed more NA experienced less PA in daily environments. Results suggest that adolescents’ exposure to maternal negative affective behavior is associated with adolescents’ subjective daily well-being.
Gundogdu, Didem; Finnerty, Ailbhe N.; Staiano, Jacopo; Teso, Stefano; Passerini, Andrea; Pianesi, Fabio; Lepri, Bruno (2017): Investigating the association between social interactions and personality states dynamics.
In: Royal Society open science 4 (9), S. 170194. DOI: 10.1098/rsos.170194.
The recent personality psychology literature has coined the name of personality states to refer to states having the same behavioural, affective and cognitive content (described by adjectives) as the corresponding trait, but for a shorter duration. The variability in personality states may be the reaction to specific characteristics of situations. The aim of our study is to investigate whether specific situational factors, that is, different configurations of face-to-face interactions, are predictors of variability of personality states in a work environment. The obtained results provide evidence that within-person variability in personality is associated with variation in face-to-face interactions. Interestingly, the effects differ by type and level of the personality states: adaptation effects for Agreeableness and Emotional Stability, whereby the personality states of an individual trigger similar states in other people interacting with them and complementarity effects for Openness to Experience, whereby the personality states of an individual trigger opposite states in other people interacting with them. Overall, these findings encourage further research to characterize face-to-face and social interactions in terms of their relevance to personality states.
Haan-Rietdijk, Silvia de; Voelkle, Manuel C.; Keijsers, Loes; Hamaker, Ellen L. (2017): Discrete- vs. continuous-time modeling of unequally spaced experience sampling method data.
In: Frontiers in psychology 8, S. 1849. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01849.
The Experience Sampling Method is a common approach in psychological research for collecting intensive longitudinal data with high ecological validity. One characteristic of ESM data is that it is often unequally spaced, because the measurement intervals within a day are deliberately varied, and measurement continues over several days. This poses a problem for discrete-time (DT) modeling approaches, which are based on the assumption that all measurements are equally spaced. Nevertheless, DT approaches such as (vector) autoregressive modeling are often used to analyze ESM data, for instance in the context of affective dynamics research. There are equivalent continuous-time (CT) models, but they are more difficult to implement. In this paper we take a pragmatic approach and evaluate the practical relevance of the violated model assumption in DT AR(1) and VAR(1) models, for the N = 1 case. We use simulated data under an ESM measurement design to investigate the bias in the parameters of interest under four different model implementations, ranging from the true CT model that accounts for all the exact measurement times, to the crudest possible DT model implementation, where even the nighttime is treated as a regular interval. An analysis of empirical affect data illustrates how the differences between DT and CT modeling can play out in practice. We find that the size and the direction of the bias in DT (V)AR models for unequally spaced ESM data depend quite strongly on the true parameter in addition to data characteristics. Our recommendation is to use CT modeling whenever possible, especially now that new software implementations have become available.
Hasmi, Laila; Drukker, Marjan; Guloksuz, Sinan; Menne-Lothmann, Claudia; Decoster, Jeroen; van Winkel, Ruud et al. (2017): Network approach to understanding emotion dynamics in relation to childhood trauma and genetic liability to psychopathology. Replication of a prospective experience sampling analysis.
In: Frontiers in psychology 8, S. 1908. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01908.
Background: The network analysis of intensive time series data collected using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) may provide vital information in gaining insight into the link between emotion regulation and vulnerability to psychopathology. The aim of this study was to apply the network approach to investigate whether genetic liability (GL) to psychopathology and childhood trauma (CT) are associated with the network structure of the emotions “cheerful,” “insecure,” “relaxed,” “anxious,” “irritated,” and “down”-collected using the ESM method. Methods: Using data from a population-based sample of twin pairs and siblings (704 individuals), we examined whether momentary emotion network structures differed across strata of CT and GL. GL was determined empirically using the level of psychopathology in monozygotic and dizygotic co-twins. Network models were generated using multilevel time-lagged regression analysis and were compared across three strata (low, medium, and high) of CT and GL, respectively. Permutations were utilized to calculate p values and compare regressions coefficients, density, and centrality indices. Regression coefficients were presented as connections, while variables represented the nodes in the network. Results: In comparison to the low GL stratum, the high GL stratum had significantly denser overall (p = 0.018) and negative affect network density (p < 0.001). The medium GL stratum also showed a directionally similar (in-between high and low GL strata) but statistically inconclusive association with network density. In contrast to GL, the results of the CT analysis were less conclusive, with increased positive affect density (p = 0.021) and overall density (p = 0.042) in the high CT stratum compared to the medium CT stratum but not to the low CT stratum. The individual node comparisons across strata of GL and CT yielded only very few significant results, after adjusting for multiple testing. Conclusions: The present findings demonstrate that the network approach may have some value in understanding the relation between established risk factors for mental disorders (particularly GL) and the dynamic interplay between emotions. The present finding partially replicates an earlier analysis, suggesting it may be instructive to model negative emotional dynamics as a function of genetic influence.
Hebert, Emily T.; Stevens, Elise M.; Frank, Summer G.; Kendzor, Darla E.; Wetter, David W.; Zvolensky, Michael J. et al. (2017): An ecological momentary intervention for smoking cessation. The associations of just-in-time, tailored messages with lapse risk factors.
In: Addictive behaviors 78, S. 30–35. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.10.026.
BACKGROUND: Smartphone apps can provide real-time, tailored interventions for smoking cessation. The current study examines the effectiveness of a smartphone-based smoking cessation application that assessed risk for imminent smoking lapse multiple times per day and provided messages tailored to current smoking lapse risk and specific lapse triggers. METHODS: Participants (N=59) recruited from a safety-net hospital smoking cessation clinic completed phone-based ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) 5 times/day for 3 consecutive weeks (1week pre-quit, 2weeks post-quit). Risk for smoking lapse was estimated in real-time using a novel weighted lapse risk estimator. With each EMA, participants received messages tailored to current level of risk for imminent smoking lapse and self-reported presence of smoking urge, stress, cigarette availability, and motivation to quit. Generalized linear mixed model analyses determined whether messages tailored to specific lapse risk factors were associated with greater reductions in these triggers than messages not tailored to specific triggers. RESULTS: Overall, messages tailored to smoking urge, cigarette availability, or stress corresponded with greater reductions in those triggers than messages that were not tailored to specific triggers (p’s=0.02 to <0.001). Although messages tailored to stress were associated with greater reductions in stress than messages not tailored to stress, the association was non-significant (p=0.892) when only moments of high stress were included in the analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Mobile technology can be used to conduct real-time smoking lapse risk assessment and provide tailored treatment content. Findings provide initial evidence that tailored content may impact users’ urge to smoke, stress, and cigarette availability.
Hébert, Emily T.; Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Businelle, Michael S.; Harrell, Melissa B.; Kelder, Steven H.; Perry, Cheryl L. (2017): Feasibility and reliability of a mobile tool to evaluate exposure to tobacco product marketing and messages using ecological momentary assessment.
In: Addictive behaviors 73, S. 105–110. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.05.004.
Introduction: Existing measures of tobacco marketing and messaging exposure are limited, relying on recall, recognition, or proxy measures. This study aimed to determine the feasibility and reliability of a mobile application for the measurement of tobacco and e-cigarette marketing and message exposure using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Methods: Young adults from Austin, TX (n = 181, ages 18–29) were instructed to use a mobile application to record all sightings of marketing or social media related to tobacco (including e-cigarettes) in real-time for 28 days (Event EMAs). Tobacco product use and recall of message encounters were assessed daily using an app-initiated EMA (Daily EMAs). Results: The mobile app was a feasible and acceptable method to measure exposure to tobacco messages. The majority of messages (45.0%) were seen on the Internet, and many were user-generated. Thirty-day recall of messages at baseline was poorly correlated with messages reported via Event EMA during the study period; however, the correlation between post-study 30-day recall and Event EMA was much stronger (r = 0.603 for industry-sponsored messages, r = 0.599 for user-generated messages). Correlations between Daily EMAs and 30-day recall of message exposure (baseline and post-study) were small (baseline: r = 0.329–0.389) to large (post-study: r = 0.656–0.766). Conclusions: These findings suggest that EMA is a feasible and reliable method for measuring tobacco message exposure, especially given the prevalence of messages encountered online and on social media. Recall measures are limited in their ability to accurately represent marketing exposure, but might be improved by a period of priming or clearer response categories. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Heininga, Vera E.; van Roekel, Eeske; Wichers, Marieke; Oldehinkel, Albertine J. (2017): Reward and punishment learning in daily life. A replication study.
In: PloS one 12 (10), e0180753. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0180753.
Day-to-day experiences are accompanied by feelings of Positive Affect (PA) and Negative Affect (NA). Implicitly, without conscious processing, individuals learn about the reward and punishment value of each context and activity. These associative learning processes, in turn, affect the probability that individuals will re-engage in such activities or seek out that context. So far, implicit learning processes are almost exclusively investigated in controlled laboratory settings and not in daily life. Here we aimed to replicate the first study that investigated implicit learning processes in real life, by means of the Experience Sampling Method (ESM). That is, using an experience-sampling study with 90 time points (three measurements over 30 days), we prospectively measured time spent in social company and amount of physical activity as well as PA and NA in the daily lives of 18-24-year-old young adults (n = 69 with anhedonia, n = 69 without anhedonia). Multilevel analyses showed a punishment learning effect with regard to time spent in company of friends, but not a reward learning effect. Neither reward nor punishment learning effects were found with regard to physical activity. Our study shows promising results for future research on implicit learning processes in daily life, with the proviso of careful consideration of the timescale used. Short-term retrospective ESM design with beeps approximately six hours apart may suffer from mismatch noise that hampers accurate detection of associative learning effects over time.
Hennig, Timo; Krkovic, Katarina; Lincoln, Tania M. (2017): What predicts inattention in adolescents? An experience-sampling study comparing chronotype, subjective, and objective sleep parameters.
In: Sleep medicine 38, S. 58–63. DOI: 10.1016/j.sleep.2017.07.009.
OBJECTIVE: Many adolescents sleep insufficiently, which may negatively affect their functioning during the day. To improve sleep interventions, we need a better understanding of the specific sleep-related parameters that predict poor functioning. We investigated to which extent subjective and objective parameters of sleep in the preceding night (state parameters) and the trait variable chronotype predict daytime inattention as an indicator of poor functioning. METHODS: We conducted an experience-sampling study over one week with 61 adolescents (30 girls, 31 boys; mean age = 15.5 years, standard deviation = 1.1 years). Participants rated their inattention two times each day (morning, afternoon) on a smartphone. Subjective sleep parameters (feeling rested, positive affect upon awakening) were assessed each morning on the smartphone. Objective sleep parameters (total sleep time, sleep efficiency, wake after sleep onset) were assessed with a permanently worn actigraph. Chronotype was assessed with a self-rated questionnaire at baseline. We tested the effect of subjective and objective state parameters of sleep on daytime inattention, using multilevel multiple regressions. Then, we tested whether the putative effect of the trait parameter chronotype on inattention is mediated through state sleep parameters, again using multilevel regressions. RESULTS: We found that short sleep time, but no other state sleep parameter, predicted inattention to a small effect. As expected, the trait parameter chronotype also predicted inattention: morningness was associated with less inattention. However, this association was not mediated by state sleep parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that short sleep time causes inattention in adolescents. Extended sleep time might thus alleviate inattention to some extent. However, it cannot alleviate the effect of being an ‘owl’.
Henry, Shayna L.; Jamner, Larry D.; Choi, Sarah E.; Pahl, Madeleine V. (2017): The effect of the interdialytic interval on cognitive function in patients on haemodialysis.
In: Journal of renal care. DOI: 10.1111/jorc.12231.
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are common among individuals on haemodialysis (HD). The degree of dysfunction may shift over the course of the interdialytic interval. OBJECTIVES: To use ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to examine the relationship between the length of the interdialytic interval and reports of cognitive dysfunction. DESIGN: A quantitative study whereby each patient’s cognitive functioning was measured during both short and long interdialytic intervals. PARTICIPANTS: Adults maintained on HD (Female n = 15, Male n = 11; MAge = 42.7 +/- 15.8 years) were drawn from a standalone HD unit within a large university medical centre. MEASUREMENTS: Tests of baseline neurocognitive functioning were undertaken (Mini-Mental Status Examination, Digit Span, California Verbal Learning Test, Benton Visual Retention Test, Trail-Making Test) and smartphone-based electronic diary reports of cognitive impairment were made around six times each day for one week. RESULTS: Cognitive function and aptitude in this sample, although low, did not reflect clinically-significant impairment, with a mean Mini-Mental Status Exam score of 25.7 +/- 3.0. Diary reports of cognitive impairment were also minimal, with an overall mean rating of .22 out of 5. Contrary to expectations, cognitive impairment was significantly greater on the one-day interdialytic days than on Day 2 of the two-day interdialytic interval (beta = .094, p = .017). CONCLUSIONS: Although cognitive impairment appears to be mild in stable, young patients with end stage renal disease, volumetric disruptions caused by HD may exacerbate such dysfunction.
Heron, Kristin E.; Everhart, Robin S.; McHale, Susan M.; Smyth, Joshua M. (2017): Using mobile-technology-based ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods with youth. A systematic review and recommendations.
In: J Pediatr Psychol 42 (10), S. 1087–1107. DOI: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsx078.
Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods are increasingly used in social and health sciences, but the feasibility and best practices for using EMA with youth are not yet clear. We conducted a systematic review of studies that used self-report EMA methods with youth; the goal was to identify common approaches and challenges to implementation and develop recommendations for future research. We examined 54 peer-reviewed papers that reported on 24 unique studies. Papers were evaluated using a standardized, three-dimensional coding scheme focused on the following: (1) sample characteristics; (2) EMA data collection methods (sampling duration, frequency, hardware/software); (3) study implementation methods (technical/logistical challenges, training participants, compliance). Overall, the research suggests EMA can be successfully implemented with youth (age ∼ ≥ 7) from diverse backgrounds, but protocol adaptations may be necessary for younger children. Study design and implementation challenges and recommendations for research on youth are provided. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Hoeppner, Bettina B.; Hoeppner, Susanne S.; Kelly, Lourah; Schick, Melissa; Kelly, John F. (2017): Smiling instead of smoking. Development of a positive psychology smoking cessation smartphone app for non-daily smokers.
In: International journal of behavioral medicine 24 (5), S. 683–693. DOI: 10.1007/s12529-017-9640-9.
Purpose: The usefulness of mobile technology in supporting smoking cessation has been demonstrated, but little is known about how smartphone apps could best be leveraged. The purpose of this paper is to describe the program of research that led to the creation of a smoking cessation app for non-daily smokers, so as to stimulate further ideas to create ‘smart’ smartphone apps to support health behavior change. Method: Literature reviews to evaluate the appropriateness of the proposed app, content analyses of existing apps, and smoking cessation sessions with non-daily smokers (n = 38) to inform the design of the app. Results: The literature reviews showed that (1) smoking cessation apps are sought after by smokers, (2) positive affect plays an important role in smoking cessation, (3) short, self-administered exercises consistently bring about enduring positive affect enhancements, and (4) low treatment-seeking rates of non-daily smokers despite high motivation to quit indicate a need for novel smoking cessation support. Directed content analyses of existing apps indicated that tailoring, two-way interactions, and proactive features are under-utilized in existing apps, despite the popularity of such features. Conventional content analyses of audio-recorded session tapes suggested that difficulty in quitting was generally linked to specific, readily identifiable occasions, and that social support was considered important but not consistently sought out. Conclusion: The ‘Smiling Instead of Smoking’ (SIS) app is an Android app that is designed to act as a behavioral, in-the-pocket coach to enhance quitting success in non-daily smokers. It provides proactive, tailored behavioral coaching, interactive tools (e.g., enlisting social support), daily positive psychology exercises, and smoking self-monitoring. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Hofmans, Joeri (2017): Modeling psychological contract violation using dual regime models. An event-based approach.
In: Frontiers in psychology 8, S. 1948. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01948.
A good understanding of the dynamics of psychological contract violation requires theories, research methods and statistical models that explicitly recognize that violation feelings follow from an event that violates one’s acceptance limits, after which interpretative processes are set into motion, determining the intensity of these violation feelings. Whereas theories-in the form of the dynamic model of the psychological contract-and research methods-in the form of daily diary research and experience sampling research-are available by now, the statistical tools to model such a two-stage process are still lacking. The aim of the present paper is to fill this gap in the literature by introducing two statistical models-the Zero-Inflated model and the Hurdle model-that closely mimic the theoretical process underlying the elicitation violation feelings via two model components: a binary distribution that models whether violation has occurred or not, and a count distribution that models how severe the negative impact is. Moreover, covariates can be included for both model components separately, which yields insight into their unique and shared antecedents. By doing this, the present paper offers a methodological-substantive synergy, showing how sophisticated methodology can be used to examine an important substantive issue.
Holt, Nicola J. (2018): Using the experience-sampling method to examine the psychological mechanisms by which participatory art improves wellbeing.
In: Perspectives in public health 138 (1), S. 55–65. DOI: 10.1177/1757913917739041.
AIMS: To measure the immediate impact of art-making in everyday life on diverse indices of wellbeing (‘in the moment’ and longer term) in order to improve understanding of the psychological mechanisms by which art may improve mental health. METHODS: Using the experience-sampling method, 41 artists were prompted (with a ‘beep’ on a handheld computer) at random intervals (10 times a day, for one week) to answer a short questionnaire. The questionnaire tracked art-making and enquired about mood, cognition and state of consciousness. This resulted in 2,495 sampled experiences, with a high response rate in which 89% of questionnaires were completed. RESULTS: Multi-level modelling was used to evaluate the impact of art-making on experience, with 2,495 ‘experiences’ (experiential-level) nested within 41 participants (person-level). Recent art-making was significantly associated with experiential shifts: improvement in hedonic tone, vivid internal imagery and the flow state. Furthermore, the frequency of art-making across the week was associated with person-level measures of wellbeing: eudemonic happiness and self-regulation. Cross-level interactions, between experiential and person-level variables, suggested that hedonic tone improved more for those scoring low on eudemonic happiness, and further that, those high in eudemonic happiness were more likely to experience phenomenological features of the flow state and to experience inner dialogue while art-making. CONCLUSION: Art-making has both immediate and long-term associations with wellbeing. At the experiential level, art-making affects multiple dimensions of conscious experience: affective, cognitive and state factors. This suggests that there are multiple routes to wellbeing (improving hedonic tone, making meaning through inner dialogue and experiencing the flow state). Recommendations are made to consider these factors when both developing and evaluating public health interventions that involve participatory art.
Husky, Mathilde; Swendsen, Joel; Ionita, Adela; Jaussent, Isabelle; Genty, Catherine; Courtet, Philippe (2017): Predictors of daily life suicidal ideation in adults recently discharged after a serious suicide attempt. A pilot study.
In: Psychiatry research 256, S. 79–84. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.06.035.
The aims of the study are to examine the predictive role of fluctuations in daily life mood, social contexts, and behavior on subsequent suicidal ideation (SI); and to identify clinical and psychological factors associated with the general frequency of SI in a high-risk sample. The sample comprised 42 adults (73.8% female) hospitalized for a suicide attempt. Immediately following hospital discharge, they used Ecological Momentary Assessment for seven consecutive days, providing repeated measures of SI, environmental, contextual, and behavioral factors. Controlling for prior SI, a number of contextual variables were associated with subsequent SI. Being at home or at work were both associated with an increased probability of SI, while being in the home of close others, or in a festive or leisure environment decreased SI probability. Working, passive leisure and inactivity all increased the likelihood of SI. Being alone increased SI while being with close others significantly reduced this risk. Finally, no overall effect for stressful events was found but negative family events specifically were associated with increased likelihood of SI (γ = 0.448, t = 2.255, df = 29, p < 0.05). The findings provide preliminary results regarding proximal environmental and behavioral factors associated with the occurrence of suicidal ideation in a high-risk sample. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Jahnel, Tina; Ferguson, Stuart G.; Shiffman, Saul; Thrul, Johannes; Schuz, Benjamin (2017): Momentary smoking context as a mediator of the relationship between SES and smoking.
In: Addictive behaviors. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.12.014.
There is a well-established socioeconomic gradient in smoking behavior: those with lower socioeconomic status smoke more. However, much less is known about the mechanisms explaining how SES is linked to smoking. This study takes a social-ecological perspective by examining whether socioeconomic status affects smoking behavior by differential exposure to places where smoking is allowed. Exposure to smoking restrictions was assessed in real-time using Ecological Momentary Assessment methods. A sample of 194 daily smokers, who were not attempting to quit, recorded their smoking and information about situational and contextual factors for three weeks using an electronic diary. We tested whether a smoker’s momentary context mediated the relationship between socioeconomic status (educational attainment) and cigarettes smoked per day (CPD). Momentary context was operationalized as the proportion of random assessments answered in locations where smoking was allowed versus where smoking was not allowed. Data were analysed using multilevel regression (measurements nested within participants) with a lower level mediation model (2-1-1 mediation). Although no significant direct effect of SES on CPD were observed, there was a significant indirect effect of SES on CPD via the momentary context. Compared to participants with higher education, lower educated participants were more likely to encounter places where smoking was allowed, and this in turn, was associated with a higher number of CPD. These findings suggest that SES is associated with smoking at least partially via differential exposure to smoking-friendly environments, with smokers from lower SES backgrounds accessing more places where smoking is allowed. Implications for current smoke-free legislation are discussed.
Jones, Malia; Taylor, Anais; Liao, Yue; Intille, Stephen S.; Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund (2017): Real-Time subjective assessment of pscyhological stress. Associations with objectively-measured physical activity levels.
In: Psychology of sport and exercise 31, S. 79–87. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2017.03.013.
Psychosocial stress may be a factor in the link between physical activity and obesity. This study examines how the daily experience of psychosocial stress influences physical activity levels and weight status in adults. This study reports temporally ordered relationships between sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity levels and real-time reports of subjective psychosocial stress levels. Adults (n=105) wore an accelerometer and participated in an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of stress by answering prompts on a mobile phone several times per day over 4 days. Subjective stress was negatively related to sedentary activity in the minutes immediately preceding and immediately following an EMA prompt. Light activity was positively associated with a subsequent EMA report of higher stress, but there were no observed associations between stress and moderate-to-vigorous activity. Real-time stress reports and accelerometer readings for the same 4-day period showed no association. Nor were there associations between real-time stress reports and weight status.
Karnowski, Veronika; Kümpel, Anna S.; Leonhard, Larissa; Leiner, Dominik J. (2017): From incidental news exposure to news engagement. How perceptions of the news post and news usage patterns influence engagement with news articles encountered on Facebook.
In: Comput Human Behav 76, S. 42–50. DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2017.06.041.
On social network sites (SNS), people are increasingly confronted with news content—even if they have not actively been looking for it. Although it is widely recognized that SNS have become a main driver for such incidental news exposure, we know little about the factors that influence whether users engage with news encountered on SNS. Thus, this study investigates under which conditions incidental news exposure becomes actual engagement with news by asking how both the perception of the news post and general news usage patterns influence the intention to read news articles encountered on SNS as well as the intention to look for further information about the covered issues. Building on a mobile forced experience sampling study consisting of 840 Facebook news encounters reported from 124 participants, we find that news engagement is mostly determined by participants’ perceived interestingness of and prior knowledge about the issue of the news post and to a much lesser degree by social factors unique to SNS (i.e., feelings towards the spreader of the news). In contrast, no influence of content-independent news usage patterns on news engagement could be observed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Kasanova, Zuzana; Ceccarini, Jenny; Frank, Michael J.; van Amelsvoort, Therese; Booij, Jan; van Duin, Esther et al. (2017): Intact striatal dopaminergic modulation of reward learning and daily-life reward-oriented behavior in first-degree relatives of individuals with psychotic disorder.
In: Psychological medicine, S. 1–6. DOI: 10.1017/S0033291717003476.
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in reward learning in psychotic disorders have been proposed to be linked to dysregulated subcortical dopaminergic (DA) neurotransmission, which in turn is a suspected mechanism for predisposition to psychosis. We therefore explored the striatal dopaminergic modulation of reward processing and its behavioral correlates in individuals at familial risk for psychosis. METHODS: We performed a DA D2/3 receptor [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography scan during a probabilistic reinforcement learning task in 16 healthy first-degree relatives of patients with psychosis and 16 healthy volunteers, followed by a 6-day ecological momentary assessment study capturing reward-oriented behavior in the everyday life. RESULTS: We detected significant reward-induced DA release in bilateral caudate, putamen and ventral striatum of both groups, with no group differences in its magnitude nor spatial extent. In both groups alike, greater extent of reward-induced DA release in all regions of interest was associated with better performance in the task, as well as in greater tendency to be engaged in reward-oriented behavior in the daily life. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest intact striatal dopaminergic modulation of reinforcement learning and reward-oriented behavior in individuals with familial predisposition to psychosis. Furthermore, this study points towards a key link between striatal reward-related DA release and pursuit of ecologically relevant rewards.
Kirchner, Teresa; Magallon-Neri, Ernesto; Ortiz, Manuel S.; Planellas, Irina; Forns, Maria; Calderon, Caterina (2017): Adolescents’ daily perception of internalizing emotional states by mof smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment.
In: The Spanish journal of psychology 20, E71. DOI: 10.1017/sjp.2017.70.
This study uses ecological momentary assessment (EMA) with smartphone devices to examine community adolescents’ perceptions regarding both the intensity of and variability in their daily sadness/depression, anxiety, and somatic problems over the period of one week. Participants were 90 high-school students (M age = 14.61, SD = 1.64; range 12-18). The sample was divided according to gender (61.1% girls), migratory status (68.5% Spanish nationals and 31.5% Latin American immigrants), and level of psychological symptoms (17% risk group). Sadness/depression, anxiety, and somatic problems were examined using a smartphone app, five times per day, semi-randomly, for seven days (35 possible moments). A high proportion of adolescents did not report feelings of sadness (80.0%) or worry (79.3%) or physical symptoms on a daily basis (84.9%). Girls and the risk group reported greater intensity levels for the three analyzed problems than did boys and the normal group, respectively (p .05 in all cases). Day-to-day fluctuations in mood during the week were statistically significant but not meaningful (b = 0.0004, 95% CI [0.0001, 0.0008], p = .001).
Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Priebe, Kathlen; Petri, Mirja; Hecht, Amelie; Santangelo, Philip; Bohus, Martin; Schulte-Herbruggen, Olaf (2017): Trauma-related memories in PTSD after interpersonal violence. An ambulatory assessment study.
In: European journal of psychotraumatology 8 (1), S. 1409062. DOI: 10.1080/20008198.2017.1409062.
Background: Ambulatory assessment (AA) is increasingly recommended for assessing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Previous AA studies provided new insights into the phenomenology of trauma-related memories, but also divergent findings. Notably, the range of trauma-related memories (a major target of psychotherapeutic interventions) reported in AA studies was as wide as 7.3 to 74.5 per week which might result from different methods used in these studies. Objective: We aimed at assessing the frequency of trauma-related memories in PTSD related to interpersonal violence and investigated whether this frequency is dependent upon the method. Method: For each patient trauma-related memories were assessed using two variants of smartphone-based AA: (1) Event-based sampling (EBS), i.e. participants entered data on each intrusive memory as it occurred; (2) Time-based sampling (TBS), i.e. participants reported the number of trauma-related memories they had experienced during the last two hours after they had been alerted by the smartphone. The numbers reported during the TBS-block were either analysed as reported by the participants or restricted to one per hour (rTBS). The impact of smartphone-assessments on trauma-related memories was assessed during a post-monitoring questionnaire. Results: While trauma-related memories were frequent across assessments, the methodology had a huge impact on the numbers: EBS (median = 7) and rTBS (median = 6) yielded significantly lower weekly numbers of intrusive trauma-related memories than TBS (median = 49). Accordingly, the possibility to report unrestricted numbers of trauma-related memories clearly impacted the results. The post-monitoring questionnaire identified another source for the divergent findings: while feeling disrupted by the smartphone-assessments was unrelated to the numbers reported during EBS, feeling disrupted was related to an increase of trauma-related memories during TBS and rTBS. Conclusions: The method clearly impacts the recorded number of trauma-related memories. Future research should clarify whether other variables (e.g. the subjective stress related to intrusive memories) are less dependent on the methodology.
Kluge, Agne; Kirschner, Matthias; Hager, Oliver M.; Bischof, Martin; Habermeyer, Benedikt; Seifritz, Erich et al. (2017): Combining actigraphy, ecological momentary assessment and neuroimaging to study apathy in patients with schizophrenia.
In: Schizophrenia research. DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2017.09.034.
BACKGROUND: Apathy can be defined as a reduction of goal-directed behavior and is a strong predictor for poor functional outcome in schizophrenia. However, no objective measure of apathy has been identified and assessment is limited to retrospective interview-based ratings. Here we aimed to identify more precise objective readouts of apathy for translational research and clinical practice. METHODS: We employed a combined approach including interview-based ratings of the two negative symptom factors apathy and diminished expression, actigraphy based measures of spontaneous motor activity and the evaluation of daily activities using ecological momentary assessment. Furthermore, a functional magnetic resonance imaging task for reward anticipation was applied to investigate shared and divergent neural correlates of interview-based and behaviorally measured apathy. RESULTS: We found in 18 schizophrenia patients with high interview-based apathy levels that motor activity was negatively correlated with apathy but not with diminished expression. In contrast, measures of daily activities were not associated with apathy. Neural activation during reward anticipation revealed an association between hypoactivation of the ventral striatum and interview-based apathy as well as hypoactivation of the inferior frontal gyrus and motor activity level. CONCLUSIONS: Spontaneous motor activity is an objective readout of apathy, which was specific and not present for diminished expression. On a neural level, interview-based and objective measures of apathy showed divergent neural correlates in the cortical-striatal network, which suggests dissociable neural processes. Finally, motor activity provides a promising readout for quantifying apathy in both translational research and clinical practice.
Kockler, Tobias D.; Tschacher, Wolfgang; Santangelo, Philip S.; Limberger, Matthias F.; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W. (2017): Specificity of emotion sequences in borderline personality disorder compared to posttraumatic stress disorder, bulimia nervosa, and healthy controls. An e-diary study.
In: Borderline personality disorder and emotion dysregulation 4, S. 26. DOI: 10.1186/s40479-017-0077-1.
Background: Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) exhibit dysregulated emotion sequences in daily life compared to healthy controls (HC). Empirical evidence regarding the specificity of these findings is currently lacking. Methods: To replicate dysregulated emotion sequences in patients with BPD and to investigate the specificity of the sequences, we used e-diaries of 43 female patients with BPD, 28 patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 20 patients with bulimia nervosa (BN), and 28 HC. To capture the rapid dynamics of emotions, we prompted participants every 15 min over a 24-h period to assess their current perceived emotions. We analyzed group differences in terms of activation, persistence, switches, and down-regulation of emotion sequences. Results: By comparing patients with BPD to HC, we replicated five of the seven previously reported dysregulated emotion sequences, as well as 111 out of 113 unaltered sequences. However, none of the previously reported dysregulated emotion sequences exhibited specificity, i.e., none revealed higher frequencies compared to the PTSD group or the BN group. Beyond these findings, we revealed a specific finding for patients with BN, as they most frequently switched from anger to disgust. Conclusions: Replicating previously found dysregulated and unaltered emotional sequences strengthens the significance of emotion sequences. However, the lack of specificity points to emotion sequences as transdiagnostic features.
Koffer, Rachel E.; Ram, Nilam; Almeida, David M. (2017): More than counting. An intraindividual variability approach to categorical repeated measures.
In: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences 73 (1), S. 87–99. DOI: 10.1093/geronb/gbx086.
Objectives: Age-related differences in daily experiences are often described using summaries of categorical repeated measures, including typologies of stressors, activities, social partners, and coping strategies. This paper illustrates how an intraindividual variability (IIV) framework can be used to extract additional meaning from categorical IIV data. Method: Using 8-occasion categorical data on daily stressors from the National Study of Daily Experiences (N = 1,499, MAge = 46.74, SDAge= 12.91), we derive and compute six IIV metrics that invoke numeric and nominal measurement of the central tendency, dispersion, and asymmetry of individuals’ stressor experiences and examine how these metrics, relative dominance, diversity, log-skew and mode, spread, order, are related to age and interindividual differences in negative affect. Results: Results demonstrate the utility of the numeric and nominal categorical IIV metrics, with theoretically meaningful age gradients in the three numeric IIV stressor metrics and five of six IIV metrics mapping differences in negative affect. Discussion: Findings highlight how the unique constructs measured by these six metrics of categorical IIV may be used to examine dynamic process, study interindividual and age-related differences, and expand the variety of developmental research questions that may be answered using categorical repeated measures data.
Koslovsky, Matthew D.; Swartz, Michael D.; Chan, Wenyaw; Leon-Novelo, Luis; Wilkinson, Anna V.; Kendzor, Darla E.; Businelle, Michael S. (2017): Bayesian variable selection for multistate Markov models with interval-censored data in an ecological momentary assessment study of smoking cessation.
In: Biometrics. DOI: 10.1111/biom.12792.
The application of sophisticated analytical methods to intensive longitudinal data, collected with ecological momentary assessments (EMA), has helped researchers better understand smoking behaviors after a quit attempt. Unfortunately, the wealth of information captured with EMAs is typically underutilized in practice. Thus, novel methods are needed to extract this information in exploratory research studies. One of the main objectives of intensive longitudinal data analysis is identifying relations between risk factors and outcomes of interest. Our goal is to develop and apply expectation maximization variable selection for Bayesian multistate Markov models with interval-censored data to generate new insights into the relation between potential risk factors and transitions between smoking states. Through simulation, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our method in identifying associated risk factors and its ability to outperform the LASSO in a special case. Additionally, we use the expectation conditional-maximization algorithm to simplify estimation, a deterministic annealing variant to reduce the algorithm’s dependence on starting values, and Louis’s method to estimate unknown parameter uncertainty. We then apply our method to intensive longitudinal data collected with EMA to identify risk factors associated with transitions between smoking states after a quit attempt in a cohort of socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers who were interested in quitting.
Krone, Tanja; Albers, Casper J.; Kuppens, Peter; Timmerman, Marieke E. (2017): A multivariate statistical model for emotion dynamics.
In: Emotion (Washington, D.C.). DOI: 10.1037/emo0000384.
In emotion dynamic research, one distinguishes various elementary emotion dynamic features, which are studied using intensive longitudinal data. Typically, each emotion dynamic feature is quantified separately, which hampers the study of relationships between various features. Further, the length of the observed time series in emotion research is limited and often suffers from a high percentage of missing values. In this article, we propose a vector autoregressive Bayesian dynamic model that is useful for emotion dynamic research. The model encompasses 6 elementary properties of emotions and can be applied with relatively short time series, including missing data. The individual elementary properties covered are within-person variability, innovation variability, inertia, granularity, cross-lag regression, and average intensity. The model can be applied to both univariate and multivariate time series, allowing one to model the relationships between emotions. One may include external variables and non-Gaussian observed data. We illustrate the usefulness of the model on data involving 50 participants self-reporting on their experience of 3 emotions across the period of 1 week using experience sampling. (PsycINFO Database Record
Lami, Francesca; Egberts, Kristine; Ure, Alexandra; Conroy, Rowena; Williams, Katrina (2017): Measurement properties of instruments that assess participation in young people with autism spectrum disorder. A systematic review.
In: Developmental medicine and child neurology. DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.13631.
AIM: To systematically review the measurement properties of instruments assessing participation in young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHOD: A search was performed in MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and PubMed combining three constructs (‘ASD’, ‘test of participation’, ‘measurement properties’). Results were restricted to articles including people aged 6 to 29 years. The 2539 identified articles were independently screened by two reviewers. For the included articles, data were extracted using standard forms and their risk of bias was assessed. RESULTS: Nine studies (8 cross-sectional) met the inclusion criteria, providing information on seven different instruments. The total sample included 634 participants, with sex available for 600 (males=494; females=106) and age available for 570, with mean age for these participants 140.58 months (SD=9.11; range=36-624). Included instruments were the school function assessment, vocational index, children’s assessment of participation and enjoyment/preferences for activities of children, experience sampling method, Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory, Computer Adaptive Test, adolescent and young adult activity card sort, and Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System parent-proxy peer relationships. Seven studies assessed reliability and validity; good properties were reported for half of the instruments considered. Most studies (n=6) had high risk of bias. Overall the quality of the evidence for each tool was limited. INTERPRETATION: Validation of these instruments, or others that comprehensively assess participation, is needed. Future studies should follow recommended methodological standards. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: Seven instruments have been used to assess participation in young people with autism. One instrument, with excellent measurement properties in one study, does not comprehensively assess participation. Studies of three instruments that incorporate a more comprehensive assessment of participation have methodological limitations. Overall, limited evidence exists regarding measurement properties of participation assessments for young people with autism.
Le Vigouroux, Sarah; Pavani, Jean-Baptiste; Dauvier, Bruno; Kop, Jean-Luc; Congard, Anne (2017): Reactive or proactive? Age differences in the use of affective regulation strategies.
In: Psychology and aging 32 (7), S. 621–627. DOI: 10.1037/pag0000197.
We examined age-related differences in the reactive and proactive use of affect regulation strategies. We collected data from 209 participants 13-80 years of age, using an experience sampling method. The most interesting finding was that, as hypothesized, compared with those under 20, adults 20 and over used the 2 strategies we focused on (i.e., problem solving and positive reappraisal) more intensely and in a reactive manner. By contrast, from the age of about 55 upward, adults were characterized by a more intensely proactive use of these strategies. Results are discussed in the light of age differences in motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record
Leaberry, Kirsten D.; Rosen, Paul J.; Fogleman, Nicholas D.; Walerius, Danielle M.; Slaughter, Kelly E. (2017): Comorbid internalizing and externalizing disorders predict lability of negative emotions among children with ADHD.
In: Journal of attention disorders, 1087054717734647. DOI: 10.1177/1087054717734647.
OBJECTIVE: A subset of children with ADHD experience more frequent, sudden, and intense shifts toward negative emotions. The current study utilized ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to provide a valid assessment of the impact of comorbid internalizing and externalizing disorders on negative emotional lability (EL) among children with ADHD. METHOD: Parents of 58, 8- to 12-year-old children with ADHD were administered a diagnostic interview to assess for ADHD and for the presence of comorbid disorders. Parents completed EMA-based ratings of their child’s negative emotions three times daily for a total of 28 days. RESULTS: Children with a comorbid internalizing disorder or children with comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) experienced significantly greater EMA-derived negative EL than children without comorbid disorders over time. Children with multiple comorbidities experienced greater EL than children with single comorbidities. CONCLUSION: Overall, this study suggested that both comorbid ODD and comorbid internalizing disorders contribute to negative EL among children with ADHD.
Leikas, Sointu; Ilmarinen, Ville-Juhani (2017): Happy now, tired later? Extraverted and conscientious behavior are related to immediate mood gains, but to later fatigue.
In: Journal of personality 85 (5), S. 603–615. DOI: 10.1111/jopy.12264.
Objective: Experience sampling studies on Big Five–related behavior show that people display the whole spectrum of each trait in their daily behavior, and that desirable Big Five states—especially state Extraversion—are related to positive mood. However, other research lines suggest that extraverted and conscientious behavior may be mentally depleting. The present research examined this possibility by extending the time frame of the measured personality processes. Method: A 12‐day experience sampling study (N = 48; observations = 2,328) measured Big Five states, mood, stress, and fatigue five times a day. Results: Extraverted and conscientious behavior were concurrently related to positive mood and lower fatigue, but to higher fatigue after a 3‐hour delay. These relations were not moderated by personality traits. The relation between extraverted behavior and delayed fatigue was mediated by the number of people the person had encountered. Whether the person had a goal mediated the relation between conscientious behavior and delayed fatigue. Conclusion: Extraverted and conscientious behavior predict mental depletion after a 3‐hour delay. The results help reconcile previous findings regarding the consequences of state Extraversion and provide novel information about the consequences of state Conscientiousness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Leraas, Bethany C.; Smith, Kathryn E.; Utzinger, Linsey M.; Cao, Li; Engel, Scott G.; Crosby, Ross D. et al. (2018): Affect-based profiles of bulimia nervosa. The utility and validity of indicators assessed in the natural environment.
In: Psychiatry research 259, S. 210–215. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.09.080.
Theoretical conceptualizations of bulimia nervosa (BN) emphasize the role of emotion dysregulation in the development and maintenance of symptoms, which has been supported by ecological momentary assessment studies. Given the importance of affective disturbances in BN, this study aimed to classify a sample of adult women with BN (N = 130) based on primarily momentary affective indicators, including negative and positive affect, negative and positive affective lability, and depression. Participants completed baseline assessments followed by a two-week ecological momentary assessment protocol. Latent profile analysis revealed four groups: (1) a “stable normal” group characterized by low affective lability and intensity; (2) a “stable depressed” group characterized by low affective lability and higher affect intensity; (3) an “unstable normal” group characterized by higher affective lability but lower affect intensity; and (4) an “unstable depressed” group characterized by higher affective lability and intensity. The stable depressed group evidenced the highest levels of eating psychopathology, borderline personality traits, and childhood trauma history, while the stable normal group generally evidenced the lowest levels of psychopathology. The findings demonstrate significant heterogeneity in the topography of affect experienced by individuals with BN, and suggest that chronic, intense negative affect may be particularly important to address in treatment.
Linnemann, Alexandra; Wenzel, Mario; Grammes, Jennifer; Kubiak, Thomas; Nater, Urs M. (2017): Music listening and stress in daily life-a matter of timing.
In: International journal of behavioral medicine. DOI: 10.1007/s12529-017-9697-5.
PURPOSE: Despite increasing evidence suggesting that music listening in daily life has stress-reducing effects, studies mostly rely on subjective, retrospective data on music listening. Thus, the temporal dynamics underlying the stress-reducing effect of music listening remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to examine the temporal dynamics of the associations between stress and music listening by assessing subjective and objective data on music in daily life. DESIGN: An exploratory Ambulatory Assessment study examining a total of 60 participants (37 women), aged 18 to 34 years (M = 22.4 years, SD = 3.5) was conducted. METHODS: For 1 week, participants answered questions on music listening and stress six times per day via an electronic diary device, which additionally objectively sampled the exact time point of music listening and its duration. RESULTS: Self-reports on mere music listening were associated with lower stress reports, whereas objectively assessed data was not. However, concerning duration of music listening, both subjective and objective data on music listening showed associations between a minimum of 20 min of music listening and lower stress reports. Concerning the latency, objective data on music listening revealed that the association between stress reports and music listening occurs in a time-delayed manner. CONCLUSIONS: Although the study design does not allow for causal inferences, substantial associations among subjectively and objectively assessed data on music listening were found to differentially affect the experience of stress after music listening. In particular, when focusing on the temporal dynamics, objectively assessed data allowed for a more fine-grained analysis. In consequence, subjectively and objectively reported data on music listening should be assessed jointly when investigating effects of music listening on health. Experimental research with rigorous methodological control is required in order to corroborate our findings in a laboratory setting.
Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Finan, Laura J.; Grube, Joel W. (2017): Social and situational characteristics associated with adolescents’ drinking at party and non-party events.
In: Addictive behaviors. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.12.001.
We investigated social and situational characteristics associated with adolescents’ drinking at party and non-party events and whether these associations vary by party location (homes versus other locations). Ecological momentary assessment data were obtained over two weekends from 149 adolescents in California (46% female, M age=16.4years), using smartphone surveys administered early and late in the evening and the following morning. We assessed whether, where, and with whom adolescents drank alcohol. Social contexts with more people (RRR=1.05, p</=0.005) and with mixed gender composition (RRR=3.15, p</=0.05) were positively associated with increased risks of alcohol use at parties, but not at non-party events. Conversely, social contexts with friends were positively associated with alcohol use at non-party events (RRR=4.32, p</=0.005), but not at parties. Perceived access to alcohol was associated with increased risks for alcohol use at both party and non-party events, but the association was stronger for alcohol use at parties than non-parties (RRR=1.85, p<0.005 versus 4.01, p</=0.005). Additional analyses showed that contexts with mixed gender composition were positively associated with alcohol use at parties not in homes (RRR=11.29, p</=0.05), and perceptions of getting caught by parents or police were negatively associated with non-party alcohol use in homes (RRR=0.57, p</=0.005). This study identified social-ecological contexts of underage drinking parties, which are high risk settings for heavier drinking and other alcohol-related problems. Findings can inform context-based interventions to target these high-risk settings, whether at homes or other locations.
Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Grube, Joel W.; Bersamin, Melina (2017): Adolescents, alcohol, and marijuana. Context characteristics and problems associated with simultaneous use.
In: Drug Alcohol Depend 179, S. 55–60. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.06.023.
We investigated contexts of simultaneous use of alcohol and marijuana and the impact of simultaneous use on problems among adolescents. Ecological momentary assessment data were obtained over two weekends from 150 adolescents in California (47% female, M age = 16.36years), using smartphone surveys administered early and late in the evening and again the following morning. We assessed whether, in what context, and with whom adolescents drank alcohol and used other substances over 3 evening hours. We assessed problems they experienced each evening on the following morning. Results showed that greater adult supervision in every context was associated with a 55% lower risk of simultaneous use (RRR = 0.45, p ≤ .05). Contexts with no other underage drinkers were associated with 99% lower risk of simultaneous use (RRR=0.01, p ≤ .005). Each occasion of simultaneous use was related to 110% increase in the number of problems (IRR = 2.10, p ≤ .005), with 83%, 221% and 311% greater odds of violence (OR = 1.83, p ≤ .05), driving under the influence or riding with a drunk driver (OR = 3.21, p ≤ .05), or being drunk (OR = 4.11, p ≤ .005). Additional analyses showed that these problems may be attributed largely to the alcohol consumed in each context. Results demonstrate that it is essential to consider situational and social characteristics of substance use contexts to better understand adolescent simultaneous use of alcohol and drugs and problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Livingston, Nicholas A.; Flentje, Annesa; Heck, Nicholas C.; Szalda-Petree, Allen; Cochran, Bryan N. (2017): Ecological momentary assessment of daily discrimination experiences and nicotine, alcohol, and drug use among sexual and gender minority individuals.
In: Journal of consulting and clinical psychology 85 (12), S. 1131–1143. DOI: 10.1037/ccp0000252.
OBJECTIVE: Sexual and gender minority (SGM) individuals experience elevated rates of minority stress, which has been linked to higher rates of nicotine and substance use. Research on this disparity to date is largely predicated on methodology that is insensitive to within day SGM-based discrimination experiences, or their relation to momentary nicotine and substance use risk. We address this knowledge gap in the current study using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). METHOD: Fifty SGM individuals, between 18 and 45 years of age, were recruited from an inland northwestern university, regardless of their nicotine or substance use history, and invited to participate in an EMA study. Each were prompted to provide data, six times daily (between 10:00 a.m. and 10:00 p.m.) for 14 days, regarding SGM-based discrimination, other forms of mistreatment, and nicotine, drug, and alcohol use since their last prompt. RESULTS: Discrimination experiences that occurred since individuals’ last measurement prompt were associated with greater odds of nicotine and substance use during the same measurement window. Substance use was also more likely to occur in relation to discrimination reported two measurements prior in lagged models. Relative to other forms of mistreatment, discrimination effects were consistently larger in magnitude and became stronger throughout the day/evening. CONCLUSION: This study adds to existing minority stress research by highlighting the both immediate and delayed correlates of daily SGM-based discrimination experiences. These results also contribute to our understanding of daily stress processes and provide insight into ways we might mitigate these effects using real-time monitoring and intervention technology. (PsycINFO Database Record
Ludwigs, Kai; Lucas, Richard; Burger, Martijn; Veenhoven, Ruut; Arends, Lidia (2017): How does more attention to subjective well-being affect subjective well-being?
In: Appl Res Qual Life. DOI: 10.1007/s11482-017-9575-y.
There is an ongoing debate as to whether pursuing happiness is beneficial for people’s subjective well-being (SWB). To address this question, we tested whether attention to SWB – measured by participation in SWB surveys – is related to experienced SWB in two longitudinal studies. The initial study was conducted from November to December 2013 (N = 129), and the replication study, three years later from November to December 2016 (N = 120). The studies include two groups: one group (the control group) answered three SWB surveys over 4 weeks, and the other group (the experimental group) followed the same procedure but additionally tracked their SWB in detail using the experience sampling method four times a day and the day reconstruction method once a day using a smartphone application for two weeks to heighten their attention to their SWB. Both studies show higher SWB scores at later measurements compared to the first ones. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Manwaring, Kristine C.; Larsen, Ross; Graham, Charles R.; Henrie, Curtis R.; Halverson, Lisa R. (2017): Investigating student engagement in blended learning settings using experience sampling and structural equation modeling.
In: The Internet and Higher Education 35, S. 21–33. DOI: 10.1016/j.iheduc.2017.06.002.
We investigated activity-level student engagement in blended learning classes at the university level. We used intensive longitudinal methodology to collect activity level engagement data throughout a semester for 68 students enrolled in six blended courses across two universities. We used structural equation modeling to gain a holistic understanding of learning environments, including the influence of personal characteristics, course design, and student perceptions of the learning experience on in-the-moment cognitive and emotional engagement. To investigate longitudinal relationships between emotional and cognitive engagement, we employed cross-lagged modeling techniques. Findings showed that course design and student perception variables had a greater influence on engagement than individual student characteristics and that student multitasking had a strong negative influence on engagement. Students’ perceptions of the importance of the activity had a strong positive influence on both cognitive and emotional engagement. An important outcome of engagement was the students’ perceptions that they were learning and improving. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Marquet, Oriol; Alberico, Claudia; Adlakha, Deepti; Hipp, J. Aaron (2017): Examining motivations to play pokemon GO and their influence on perceived outcomes and physical activity.
In: JMIR serious games 5 (4), e21. DOI: 10.2196/games.8048.
BACKGROUND: Pokemon GO is the most played augmented reality game in history. With more than 44 million players at the peak of its popularity, the game has sparked interest on its effects on the young population’s health. OBJECTIVE: This pilot study examined motivations to start playing Pokemon GO among a sample of US college students, and how motivations were associated with perceived outcomes of the playing experience and physical activity derived while playing. METHODS: In November 2016, we asked a sample of 47 US college students (all Pokemon GO players) to complete online surveys and install an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) tool and step counter on their smartphones. The EMA tool prompted a set of questions on playing behavior and physical activity, 3 times per day (12:00 PM, 7:00 PM, and 10:00 PM), for 7 days. We used a factorial analysis to identify 3 distinctive groups of players based on their motivations to start playing Pokemon GO. We tested differences across motivation groups related to 5 unique outcomes using 1-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: We extracted 3 interpretable factors from the clustering of motivations to start playing Pokemon GO: Pokemon and video game fans (n=26, 55% of the sample), physical activity seekers (n=8, 17%), and curious & social (n=13, 28%). The clusters differed significantly on the enjoyment of different aspects of the game, particularly battling, discovering new places, and meeting new people, as well as differences in agreement that playing improved mood and made them more social. Days when playing Pokemon GO were associated with higher number of steps reported at the end of the day, especially among physical activity seekers, but also for Pokemon and video game fans. All groups perceived traffic as a major threat to playing. CONCLUSIONS: Days during which Pokemon GO was played were positively associated with a set of beneficial health behaviors, including higher physical activity levels, more socialization, and better mood. Results, however, depended on personal motivations and expectations when joining the game. These results highlight the importance of taking motivation into account when attempting to extract conclusions from the Pokemon GO phenomenon to enhance future exergames’ designs or health interventions.
Martino, Steven C.; Setodji, Claude M.; Dunbar, Michael S.; Gong, Min; Shadel, William G. (2017): Effects of antismoking media on college students’ smoking-related beliefs and intentions.
In: Psychology of addictive behaviors : journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors. DOI: 10.1037/adb0000332.
Ecological momentary assessment was used to examine immediate changes in 87 college students’ smoking-related attitudes, beliefs, and intentions as a joint function of their exposure to antismoking media and smoking status. Students (37 never smokers, 41 experimental smokers, and 9 current intermittent smokers) carried handheld data-collection devices for 3 weeks to record naturally occurring exposures to antismoking media and respond to investigator-initiated control prompts. At each reported exposure to antismoking media and each control prompt, participants reported their smoking-related attitudes, perceptions of the prevalence of smoking among their peers, resistance self-efficacy, and intentions to smoke. Mixed-effects regression was used to compare responses between encounters with antismoking media and control prompts. Experimental smokers reported weaker intentions to smoke and greater resistance self-efficacy at moments of exposure to antismoking media than at control prompts. Regardless of smoking experience, participants reported higher perceived prevalence of smoking at times of exposure to antismoking media than at control prompts. These findings generally support the value of antismoking media messages for shifting the beliefs and intentions of experimental smokers, who are at high risk for becoming committed regular smokers. (PsycINFO Database Record
Masuda, Masaharu; Fujita, Masashi; Iida, Osamu; Okamoto, Shin; Ishihara, Takayuki; Nanto, Kiyonori et al. (2017): Pace-capture-guided ablation after contact-force-guided pulmonary vein isolation. Results of the randomized controlled DRAGON trial.
In: Europace : European pacing, arrhythmias, and cardiac electrophysiology : journal of the working groups on cardiac pacing, arrhythmias, and cardiac cellular electrophysiology of the European Society of Cardiology. DOI: 10.1093/europace/eux319.
Aims: Before the discovery of contact-force guidance, eliminating pacing capture along the pulmonary vein (PV) isolation line had been reported to improve PV isolation durability and rhythm outcomes. DRAGON (UMIN-CTR, UMIN000015332) aimed to elucidate the efficacy of pace-capture-guided ablation following contact-force-guided PV isolation ablation in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. Methods and results: A total of 156 paroxysmal AF patients with AF-trigger ectopies from any of the four PVs induced by isoproterenol were randomly assigned to undergo pace-capture-guided ablation along a contact-force-guided isolation line around AF-trigger PVs (PC group, n = 76) or contact-force-guided PV isolation ablation alone (control group, n = 80). Follow-up of at least 1 year commenced with serial 24 h Holter and symptom-triggered ambulatory monitoring. There was no significant difference in acute PV reconnection rates during a 20 min waiting period after the last ablation or adenosine infusion testing between the PC and the control groups (per patient, 21% vs. 27%, P = 0.27; per AF-trigger PV, 5.9% vs. 7.3%, P = 0.70; and per non-AF-trigger PV, 7.1% vs. 7.4%, P = 0.92). Atrial tachyarrhythmia-free survival rates off antiarrhythmic drugs after the initial session were comparable at 19.3 +/- 6.2 months between the two groups (82% vs. 80%, P = 0.80). Among 22 patients who required a second ablation procedure, there was no difference between the PC and the control groups in the PV reconnection rates at both previously AF-trigger (29% vs. 43%, P = 0.70) and non-AF-trigger PVs (18% vs. 19%, P = 0.88). Conclusions: Pace-capture-guided ablation performed after contact-force-guided PV isolation demonstrated no improvement in PV isolation durability or rhythm outcome.
McCarroll, Rebecca; Eyles, Helen; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni (2017): Effectiveness of mobile health (mHealth) interventions for promoting healthy eating in adults. A systematic review.
In: Prev Med 105, S. 156–168. DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2017.08.022.
Unhealthy eating is a major risk factor for chronic disease. However, many current strategies to promote healthy eating are not sustainable over the longer-term. More cost-effective wide-reaching initiatives are urgently needed. Mobile health (mHealth) interventions, delivered via mobile devices, could provide a solution. This systematic review summarized the evidence on the effect of mHealth interventions for promoting healthy eating in adults. A comprehensive systematic search of five scientific databases was conducted using methods adapted from the Cochrane Handbook. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs), published up to 1 July 2016, which examined healthy eating interventions delivered via mobile device. Of 879 articles identified, 84 full text articles were potentially eligible and further assessed, and 23 included. Narrative review results indicated small positive effects of mHealth interventions on healthy eating (5/8 trials) and weight loss (5/13 trials). However, the current evidence base is insufficient (studies are of poor quality) to determine conclusive positive effects. More rigorous RCTs with longer-term (> 6months) follow-up are warranted to determine if effects are maintained. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
McCarthy, Danielle E.; Minami, Haruka; Bold, Krysten W.; Yeh, Vivian M.; Chapman, Gretchen (2017): Momentary assessment of impulsive choice and impulsive action. Reliability, stability, and correlates.
In: Addictive behaviors. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.11.031.
Impulsivity is associated with substance use, including tobacco use. The degree to which impulsivity fluctuates over time within persons, and the degree to which such intra-individual changes can be measured reliably and validly in ambulatory assessments is not known, however. The current study evaluated two novel ambulatory measures of impulsive choice and impulsive action. Impulsive choice was measured with an eight-item delay discounting task designed to estimate the subjective value of delayed monetary rewards. Impulsive action was measured with a two-minute performance test to assess behavioral disinhibition (the inability to inhibit a motor response when signaled that such a response will not be rewarded). Valid data on impulsive choice were collected at 70% of scheduled reports and valid data on impulsive action were collected on 55% of scheduled reports, on average. Impulsive choice and action data were not normally distributed, but models of relations of these measures with within- and between-person covariates were robust across distributional assumptions. Intra-class correlations were substantial for both impulsive choice and action measures. Between persons, random intercepts in impulsive choice and action were significantly related to laboratory levels of their respective facets of impulsivity, but not self-reported or other facets of impulsivity. Validity of the ambulatory measures is supported by associations between abstinence from smoking and increased impulsivity, but challenged by an association between strong temptations to smoke and reduced impulsive choice. Results suggest that meaningful variance in impulsive choice and action can be captured using ambulatory methods, but that additional measure refinement is needed.
Michael, Brendan; Howard, Matthew (2017): Activity recognition with wearable sensors on loose clothing.
In: PloS one 12 (10), e0184642. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0184642.
Observing human motion in natural everyday environments (such as the home), has evoked a growing interest in the development of on-body wearable sensing technology. However, wearable sensors suffer from motion artefacts introduced by the non-rigid attachment of sensors to the body, and the prevailing view is that it is necessary to eliminate these artefacts. This paper presents findings that suggest that these artefacts can, in fact, be used to distinguish between similar motions, by exploiting additional information provided by the fabric motion. An experimental study is presented whereby factors of both the motion and the properties of the fabric are analysed in the context of motion similarity. It is seen that while standard rigidly attached sensors have difficultly in distinguishing between similar motions, sensors mounted onto fabric exhibit significant differences (p < 0.01). An evaluation of the physical properties of the fabric shows that the stiffness of the material plays a role in this, with a trade-off between additional information and extraneous motion. This effect is evaluated in an online motion classification task, and the use of fabric-mounted sensors demonstrates an increase in prediction accuracy over rigidly attached sensors.
Mills, Caitlin; Raffaelli, Quentin; Irving, Zachary C.; Stan, Dylan; Christoff, Kalina (2017): Is an off-task mind a freely-moving mind? Examining the relationship between different dimensions of thought.
In: Consciousness and cognition. DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2017.10.003.
Mind wandering is frequently defined as task-unrelated or perceptually decoupled thought. However, these definitions may not capture the dynamic features of a wandering mind, such as its tendency to ‘move freely’. Here we test the relationship between three theoretically dissociable dimensions of thought: freedom of movement in thought, task-relatedness, and perceptual decoupling (i.e., lack of awareness of surroundings). Using everyday life experience sampling, thought probes were randomly delivered to participants’ phones for ten days. Results revealed weak intra-individual correlations between freedom of movement in thought and task-unrelatedness, as well as perceptual decoupling. Within our dataset, over 40% of thoughts would have been misclassified under the assumption that off-task thought is inherently freely moving. Overall, freedom of movement appears to be an independent dimension of thought that is not captured by the two most common measures of mind wandering. Future work focusing on the dynamics of thought may be crucial for improving our understanding of the wandering mind.
Minami, Haruka; Brinkman, Hannah R.; Nahvi, Shadi; Arnsten, Julia H.; Rivera-Mindt, Monica; Wetter, David W. et al. (2017): Rationale, design and pilot feasibility results of a smartphone-assisted, mindfulness-based intervention for smokers with mood disorders. Project mSMART MIND.
In: Contemporary clinical trials. DOI: 10.1016/j.cct.2017.12.014.
BACKGROUND: Although individuals with psychiatric disorders are disproportionately affected by cigarette smoking, few outpatient mental health treatment facilities offer smoking cessation services. In this paper, we describe the development of a smartphone-assisted mindfulness smoking cessation intervention with contingency management (SMI-CM), as well as the design and methods of an ongoing pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) targeting smokers receiving outpatient psychiatric treatment. We also report the results of an open-label pilot feasibility study. METHODS: In phase 1, we developed and pilot-tested SMI-CM, which includes a smartphone intervention app that prompts participants to practice mindfulness, complete ecological momentary assessment (EMA) reports 5 times per day, and submit carbon monoxide (CO) videos twice per day. Participants earned incentives if submitted videos showed CO</=6ppm. In phase 2, smokers receiving outpatient treatment for mood disorders are randomized to receive SMI-CM or enhanced standard treatment plus non-contingent CM (EST). RESULTS: The results from the pilot feasibility study (N=8) showed that participants practiced mindfulness an average of 3.4times/day (>/=3min), completed 72.3% of prompted EMA reports, and submitted 68.0% of requested CO videos. Participants reported that the program was helpful overall (M=4.85/5) and that daily mindfulness practice was helpful for both managing mood and quitting smoking (Ms=4.50/5). CONCLUSIONS: The results from the feasibility study indicated high levels of acceptability and satisfaction with SMI-CM. The ongoing RCT will allow evaluation of the efficacy and mechanisms of action underlying SMI-CM for improving cessation rates among smokers with mood disorders.
Minami, Haruka; Frank, Brandon E.; Bold, Krysten W.; McCarthy, Danielle E. (2017): Ecological momentary analysis of the relations among stressful events, affective reactivity, and smoking among smokers with high versus low depressive symptoms during a quit attempt.
In: Addiction. DOI: 10.1111/add.13964.
Aims To assess whether individuals trying to quit smoking who have high depressive symptoms (HD), compared with low depressive symptoms (LD): (1) report more frequent stressful events (SEs), (2) are more likely to smoke after SEs, (3) experience greater acute or persistent changes in affect after an SE, and (4) are at greater risk of smoking following affective changes. Design Smoking cessation data were analyzed using multi‐level path modeling to examine the moderating effects of depressive symptoms on relations among SEs, subsequent affect, and smoking. Setting An academic research center in Central New Jersey, USA. Participants Seventy‐one adult treatment‐seeking daily smokers recruited from 2010 to 2012. Measurements Baseline depressive symptoms [HD: Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES‐D) ≥ 16 versus LD: CES‐D < 16]; and real‐time ecological momentary assessment (EMA) reports of SEs, affect, and smoking assessed during 21 days post‐quit. Findings Multi‐level models indicated that HD smokers were more likely than LD smokers to report stressful events [odds ratio (OR) = 2.323, P = 0.009], but had similar post‐stress acute affective changes (negative affect: b = −0.117, P = 0.137, positive affect: b = 0.020, P = 0.805). Only HD smokers reported increased negative affect (NA) (b = 0.199, P = 0.030) and decreased positive affect (PA) up to 12 hours later (b = −0.217, P = 0.021), and greater lapse risk up to 24 hours after an SE (OR = 3.213, P = 0.017). The persistence of elevated NA and suppressed PA was partially explained by increased odds of subsequent SEs among HD smokers. However, the heightened stress–lapse association over 24 hours found in HD smokers was not fully explained by sustained aversive affect or subsequent SEs. Conclusions Depressed and non‐depressed smokers trying to quit appear to experience similar acute affective changes following stress: however, depressed smokers experience higher rates of exposure to stress, longer‐lasting post‐stress affective disturbance and greater risk of smoking lapse 12–24 hours after a stressful event than non‐depressed smokers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Minor, Kyle S.; Davis, Beshaun J.; Marggraf, Matthew P.; Luther, Lauren; Robbins, Megan L. (2017): Words matter. Implementing the electronically activated recorder in schizotypy.
In: Personality disorders. DOI: 10.1037/per0000266.
In schizophrenia-spectrum populations, analyzing the words people use has offered promise for unlocking information about affective states and social behaviors. The electronically activated recorder (EAR) is an application-based program that is combined with widely used smartphone technology to capture a person’s real-world interactions via audio recordings. It improves on the ecological validity of current methodologies by providing objective and naturalistic samples of behavior. This study is the first to implement the EAR in people endorsing elevated traits of schizophrenia-spectrum personality disorders (i.e., schizotypy), and we expected the EAR to (a) differentiate high and low schizotypy groups on affective disturbances and social engagement and (b) show that high schizotypy status moderates links between affect and social behavior using a multimethod approach. Lexical analysis of EAR recordings revealed greater negative affect and decreased social engagement in those high in schizotypy. When assessing specific traits, EAR and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) converged to show that positive schizotypy predicted negative affect. Finally, high schizotypy status moderated links between negative affect and social engagement when the EAR was combined with EMA. Adherence did not influence results, as both groups wore the EAR more than 90% of their waking hours. Findings supported using the EAR to assess real-world expressions of personality and functioning in schizotypy. Evidence also showed that the EAR can be used alongside EMA to provide a mixed-method, real-world assessment that is high in ecological validity and offers a window into the daily lives of those with elevated traits of schizophrenia-spectrum personality disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record
Monin, Joan K.; Poulin, Michael J.; Brown, Stephanie L.; Langa, Kenneth M. (2017): Spouses’ daily feelings of appreciation and self-reported well-being.
In: Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association 36 (12), S. 1135–1139. DOI: 10.1037/hea0000527.
Objective: Research shows that active support provision is associated with greater well-being for spouses of individuals with chronic conditions. However, not all instances of support may be equally beneficial for spouses’ well-being. The theory of communal responsiveness suggests that because spouses’ well-being is interdependent, spouses benefit most from providing support when they believe their support increases their partner’s happiness and is appreciated. Two studies tested this hypothesis. Method: Study 1 was a 7-day ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study of 73 spouses of persons with dementia (74%) and other conditions. In Study 1, spouses self-reported active help, perceptions of how happy the help made the partner and how much the help improved the partner’s well-being, and spouses’ positive and negative affect at EMA time points. Study 2 was a 7-day daily assessment study of 43 spouses of persons with chronic pain in which spouses reported their emotional support provision, perceived partner appreciation, and their own physical symptoms. Results: Study 1 showed that active help was associated with more positive affect for spouses when they perceived the help increased their partner’s happiness and improved their partner’s well-being. Study 2 showed that emotional support provision was associated with fewer spouse reported physical symptoms when perceptions of partner appreciation were high. Conclusion: Results suggest that interventions for spouses of individuals with chronic conditions take into account spouses’ perceptions of their partners’ positive emotional responses. Highlighting the positive consequences of helping may increase spouses’ well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Moody, Lara N.; Tegge, Allison N.; Poe, Lindsey M.; Koffarnus, Mikhail N.; Bickel, Warren K. (2017): To drink or to drink less? Distinguishing between effects of implementation intentions on decisions to drink and how much to drink in treatment-seeking individuals with alcohol use disorder.
In: Addictive behaviors. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.11.010.
INTRODUCTION: For many people with alcohol use disorders, alcohol drinking is a highly ingrained and automatized behavior with negative long-term health consequences. Implementation intentions, a behavioral intervention that links high-risk drinking situations with alternative, healthier responses, provide a means to intervene on habitual drinking behaviors. Here, a pilot treatment using implementation intentions was assessed with remote assessments and treatment prompts. METHODS: Treatment-seeking individuals with alcohol use disorder between the ages of 18 and 65 were recruited from the community from October 2014 to November 2016. Participants (N=35) were quasi-randomly assigned to complete either active (n=18) or control (n=17) two-week implementation intention interventions. Active implementation intentions linked high-risk situations with alternative responses whereas the control condition selected situations and responses but did not link these together. Daily ecological momentary interventions of participant-tailored implementation intentions were delivered via text message. Alcohol consumption was assessed once daily with self-reported ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) of drinks consumed the previous day and thrice daily remotely submitted breathalyzer samples to assess reliability of self-reports. RESULTS: On drinking days (80% of days), the active implementation intentions group reduced alcohol consumption during the intervention period compared to the control condition; however the difference between consumption was not observed at one-month follow-up. DISCUSSION: The implementation intention intervention was associated with a 1.09 drink per day decrease in alcohol consumption on drinking days compared to a decrease of 0.29 drinks per day in the control condition. Future studies may combine implementation intentions with other treatments to help individuals to reduce alcohol consumption.
Morgan, Judith K.; Lee, Grace E.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Gilchrist, Danielle E.; Forbes, Erika E.; McMakin, Dana L. et al. (2017): Altered positive affect in clinically anxious youth. The role of social context and anxiety subtype.
In: J Abnorm Child Psychol 45 (7), S. 1461–1472. DOI: 10.1007/s10802-016-0256-3.
Anxious youth may experience altered positive affect (PA) relative to healthy youth, perhaps because of greater sensitivity to social experiences. Altered PA may be especially evident during the transition to adolescence, a period in which positive social events increase in salience and value. The current study evaluated whether anxious youth show differences in baseline PA, rate of return to baseline, and variability around baseline PA and tested whether these differences would depend on social context and anxiety subtype. Participants were 176 9- to 14-year-old youth, including 130 clinically anxious (with Social Anxiety Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and/or Separation Anxiety Disorder) and 46 healthy youth. Youth reported their current PA, peak PA in the past hour, and social context in natural settings using ecological momentary assessment. Hierarchical linear models showed that both socially anxious and other anxious youth showed greater variability of PA relative to healthy youth. Youth with other anxiety disorders showed higher peak PA to a positive event relative to healthy youth. Feeling close to a friend was associated with higher peak PA, especially for socially anxious youth. Socially anxious youth showed significantly lower peak PA relative to both healthy and other anxious youth when interacting with a less close peer, but similar levels to these youth when interacting with a close friend. These findings suggest that clinically anxious youth may more sensitive to positive events and social interactions than healthy youth. Findings provide potential treatment targets for anxious youth, including applying regulatory strategies to positive events. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Neubauer, Andreas B.; Lerche, Veronika; Voss, Andreas (2017): Interindividual differences in the intraindividual association of competence and well‐being. Combining experimental and intensive longitudinal designs.
In: Journal of personality. DOI: 10.1111/jopy.12351.
Objective The aim of the present study is to assess whether people differ in the degree to which their well‐being is affected by fulfillment of the need for competence. Specifically, we want to examine (a) whether interindividual differences in the within‐person coupling of competence satisfaction and well‐being (competence satisfaction effect) and of competence dissatisfaction and well‐being (competence dissatisfaction effect) exist, and (b) whether these differences moderate the effects of an experimentally induced frustration of the need for competence. Method A daily diary study (N = 89) and a laboratory based experiment (N = 150) were conducted to investigate interindividual differences in need effects. In a third study, participants of an additional daily diary study (N = 129) were subsequently subjected to an experimental frustration of the need for competence. Results Including interindividual differences in the within‐person coupling of need fulfillment and well‐being improved model fit significantly, indicating that there were statistically meaningful interindividual differences in need effects. The interaction of competence satisfaction effect and competence dissatisfaction effect moderated the effect of an experimental competence frustration on negative affect. Conclusion Results show that interindividual differences in the association of competence fulfillment and well‐being are a matter of degree, but not quality. They also support the claim that need satisfaction and dissatisfaction are more than psychometric opposites. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Neubauer, Andreas B.; Smyth, Joshua M.; Sliwinski, Martin J. (2017): When you see it coming. Stressor anticipation modulates stress effects on negative affect.
In: Emotion (Washington, D.C.). DOI: 10.1037/emo0000381.
Research on the effect of exposure to minor stressors in people’s daily lives consistently reports negative effects on indicators of well-being, often coined stress reactivity. Recent advances in the intensity of data collection have brought about an increasing interest in within-day associations of stress exposure and indicators of well-being, including dynamic aspects of the stress response such as stress recovery. In the present work, we investigated the other end of the stress response: the anticipation of a stressor. We hypothesized that anticipation of an upcoming stressor would be accompanied by higher negative affect. Based on the anticipatory coping account, lower negative affect after occurrence of anticipated (vs. not anticipated) stressors was predicted. We approached this question with a measurement burst study that allowed us to disentangle variation in stress processes across different time scales. One-hundred and seventy-five participants (mean age = 50, range 20-79) completed up to 3 measurement bursts. Each burst consisted of an ecological momentary assessment with 5 assessments per day over 7 days. In line with our expectations, negative affect was significantly higher after stressor anticipation, especially on days with high levels of intrusive thoughts. However, negative affect was not lower after anticipated (vs. not anticipated) stressors. Findings point to the role of perseverative cognition in the effect of stressor anticipation. Directions for future research including the role of controllability and effects on stress recovery are outlined. (PsycINFO Database Record
Odgers, Candice L.; Russell, Michael A. (2017): Violence exposure is associated with adolescents’ same‐ and next‐day mental health symptoms.
In: J Child Psychol Psychiatry 58 (12), S. 1310–1318. DOI: 10.1111/jcpp.12763.
Background: Young people exposed to violence are at increased risk for mental health and behavioral problems. However, very little is known about the immediate, or same-day, associations between violence exposure and adolescents’ mental health symptoms or whether daily symptom or behavioral reactivity marks future problems. Methods: Young adolescents were assessed three times a day for 30 consecutive days using mobile-phone-based Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) (N = 151 adolescents). Over 12,500 assessments and 4,329 person days were obtained via the EMA. Adolescents were recruited from low-income neighborhoods based on parent-reported risk for externalizing symptoms. Mental health symptoms were assessed via parent and child report at baseline, multiple times per day via EMA assessments of the adolescents, and again 18 months later when 93% of the adolescents were reinterviewed. Results: Results from multilevel models illustrated that young adolescents were more likely to experience symptoms of anger (OR = 1.74, CI: 1.31–2.30), depression (OR = 1.66, CI: 1.26–2.19), and conduct problems (OR = 2.63, CI: 1.71–4.04) on days that they were exposed versus not exposed to violence. Increases in depressive symptoms were also observed on days following violence exposure (OR = 1.46, CI: 1.09–1.97). Adolescents with the highest levels of violence exposure across the 30-day EMA were less behaviorally reactive to violence exposures in daily life, and heightened behavioral reactivity predicted increased risk for substance use across early adolescence. Conclusions: Findings support the need to focus on both the immediate and long-term associations between violence exposure and adolescents’ mental health and behavior. Results also suggest that heightened behavioral reactivity during early adolescence may signal emerging substance use problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Onorati, Francesco; Regalia, Giulia; Caborni, Chiara; Migliorini, Matteo; Bender, Daniel; Poh, Ming-Zher et al. (2017): Multicenter clinical assessment of improved wearable multimodal convulsive seizure detectors.
In: Epilepsia 58 (11), S. 1870–1879. DOI: 10.1111/epi.13899.
OBJECTIVE: New devices are needed for monitoring seizures, especially those associated with sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). They must be unobtrusive and automated, and provide false alarm rates (FARs) bearable in everyday life. This study quantifies the performance of new multimodal wrist-worn convulsive seizure detectors. METHODS: Hand-annotated video-electroencephalographic seizure events were collected from 69 patients at six clinical sites. Three different wristbands were used to record electrodermal activity (EDA) and accelerometer (ACM) signals, obtaining 5,928 h of data, including 55 convulsive epileptic seizures (six focal tonic-clonic seizures and 49 focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures) from 22 patients. Recordings were analyzed offline to train and test two new machine learning classifiers and a published classifier based on EDA and ACM. Moreover, wristband data were analyzed to estimate seizure-motion duration and autonomic responses. RESULTS: The two novel classifiers consistently outperformed the previous detector. The most efficient (Classifier III) yielded sensitivity of 94.55%, and an FAR of 0.2 events/day. No nocturnal seizures were missed. Most patients had <1 false alarm every 4 days, with an FAR below their seizure frequency. When increasing the sensitivity to 100% (no missed seizures), the FAR is up to 13 times lower than with the previous detector. Furthermore, all detections occurred before the seizure ended, providing reasonable latency (median = 29.3 s, range = 14.8-151 s). Automatically estimated seizure durations were correlated with true durations, enabling reliable annotations. Finally, EDA measurements confirmed the presence of postictal autonomic dysfunction, exhibiting a significant rise in 73% of the convulsive seizures. SIGNIFICANCE: The proposed multimodal wrist-worn convulsive seizure detectors provide seizure counts that are more accurate than previous automated detectors and typical patient self-reports, while maintaining a tolerable FAR for ambulatory monitoring. Furthermore, the multimodal system provides an objective description of motor behavior and autonomic dysfunction, aimed at enriching seizure characterization, with potential utility for SUDEP warning.
Panaite, Vanessa; Whittington, Alana; Cowden Hindash, Alexandra (2017): The role of appraisal in dysphoric affect reactivity to positive laboratory films and daily life events in depression.
In: Cognition & emotion, S. 1–12. DOI: 10.1080/02699931.2017.1388216.
Hedonic deficits are linked to protracted dysphoric affect (DA) in depression, a disorder characterised by emotion context insensitivity (ECI). Recent findings from daily life studies contradict the ECI view. This study longitudinally investigated DA across laboratory and daily life contexts and the conditions associated with discrepancies in DA reactivity. Thirty-three healthy controls and 41 adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) provided responses to neutral and positive (a) films viewed in the laboratory and (b) daily events recorded over the course of three days using ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methodology. The current study reports on participants’ appraisals of films and events and their subsequent DA, both rated individually after each task and daily event. Despite large group similarities in appraisals of the positive film and life events, MDDs appraised the neutral film and neutral life events as less important (film: d = .58; event: eta(2) = .07) and less pleasant (film: d = .56; event: eta(2) = .18) relative to controls. While MDDs reported higher DA both in the laboratory and in daily life, they experienced larger decreases in DA during positive life events (B = -.77, SE = .28, t(73) = -2.70, p = .009), but not in response to the positive film relative to controls. Results indicate that higher pleasantness appraisals in daily life predicted larger decreases in DA among MDDs than controls (B = -.24, SE = .06, t(73) = -4.10, p < .001). Finally, lower pleasantness appraisals of a standardised neutral film predicted larger DA decreases among MDDs during positive life events (B = 1.28, SE = .46, t(73) = 2.77, p = .006). The implications of valence and relevance of context for DA reactivity and mood repair are discussed.
Paolillo, Emily W.; Obermeit, Lisa C.; Tang, Bin; Depp, Colin A.; Vaida, Florin; Moore, David J.; Moore, Raeanne C. (2017): Smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of alcohol and cannabis use in older adults with and without HIV infection.
In: Addictive behaviors. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.10.016.
INTRODUCTION: Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) has been used to characterize substance use among adult populations; however, little is known about the validity of EMA and the patterns and predictors of substance use among older adults with and without HIV infection. METHODS: Thirty-five (22 HIV-positive, 13 HIV-negative) older adults aged 50-74 were assessed for 14days and completed up to four smartphone-based surveys per day. RESULTS: Participants completed an average of 89.5% of possible EMA surveys. EMA self-reported alcohol and cannabis use were significantly positively correlated with laboratory-assessed, self-reported days of alcohol (r=0.52, p=0.002) and cannabis (r=0.61, p<0.001) used and quantity of alcohol (r=0.42, p=0.013) and cannabis (r=0.41, p=0.016) used in the 30days prior to baseline assessment. In a subset of 15 alcohol or cannabis users, preliminary analyses of the effects of mood and pain on alcohol or cannabis use showed: 1) greater anxious mood predicted substance use at the next EMA survey (OR=1.737, p=0.023), 2) greater happiness predicted substance use later in the day (OR=1.383, p<0.001), and 3) higher pain level predicted substance use earlier in the day (OR=0.901, p=0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Findings demonstrate that EMA-measured alcohol and cannabis use has convergent validity among older adults with and without HIV infection. Preliminary results showing predictors of substance use highlight the importance of gathering EMA data to examine daily variability and time-dependent antecedents of substance use among this population.
Parke, Michael R.; Weinhardt, Justin M.; Brodsky, Andrew; Tangirala, Subrahmaniam; DeVoe, Sanford E. (2017): When daily Planning improves employee performance. The importance of planning type, engagement, and interruptions.
In: The Journal of applied psychology. DOI: 10.1037/apl0000278.
Does planning for a particular workday help employees perform better than on other days they fail to plan? We investigate this question by identifying 2 distinct types of daily work planning to explain why and when planning improves employees’ daily performance. The first type is time management planning (TMP)-creating task lists, prioritizing tasks, and determining how and when to perform them. We propose that TMP enhances employees’ performance by increasing their work engagement, but that these positive effects are weakened when employees face many interruptions in their day. The second type is contingent planning (CP) in which employees anticipate possible interruptions in their work and plan for them. We propose that CP helps employees stay engaged and perform well despite frequent interruptions. We investigate these hypotheses using a 2-week experience-sampling study. Our findings indicate that TMP’s positive effects are conditioned upon the amount of interruptions, but CP has positive effects that are not influenced by the level of interruptions. Through this study, we help inform workers of the different planning methods they can use to increase their daily motivation and performance in dynamic work environments. (PsycINFO Database Record
Patel, Mitesh S.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Volpp, Kevin G.; Fox, Caroline S.; Small, Dylan S.; Massaro, Joseph M. et al. (2017): Effect of a game-based intervention designed to enhance social incentives to increase physical activity among families. The BE FIT randomized clinical trial.
In: JAMA internal medicine 177 (11), S. 1586–1593. DOI: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2017.3458.
Importance: Gamification, the application of game design elements such as points and levels in nongame contexts, is often used in digital health interventions, but evidence on its effectiveness is limited. Objective: To test the effectiveness of a gamification intervention designed using insights from behavioral economics to enhance social incentives within families to increase physical activity. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Behavioral Economics Framingham Incentive Trial (BE FIT) was a randomized clinical trial with a 12-week intervention period and a 12-week follow-up period. The investigation was a community-based study between December 7, 2015, and August 14, 2016. Participants in the modified intent-to-treat analysis were adults enrolled in the Framingham Heart Study, a long-standing cohort of families. Interventions: All participants tracked daily step counts using a wearable device or a smartphone, established a baseline, selected a step goal increase, and received daily individual feedback on goal performance by text message or email for 24 weeks. Families in the gamification arm could earn points and progress through levels based on physical activity goal achievement during the 12-week intervention. The game design was meant to enhance collaboration, accountability, and peer support. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the proportion of participant-days that step goals were achieved during the intervention period. Secondary outcomes included the proportion of participant-days that step goals were achieved during the follow-up period and the change in the mean daily steps during the intervention and follow-up periods. Results: Among 200 adults comprising 94 families, the mean age was 55.4 years, and 56.0% (n = 112) were female. During the intervention period, participants in the gamification arm achieved step goals on a significantly greater proportion of participant-days (0.53 vs 0.32; adjusted difference, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.20-0.33; P < .001) and had a significantly greater increase in the mean daily steps compared with baseline (1661 vs 636; adjusted difference, 953; 95% CI, 505-1401; P < .001) than the control arm. During the follow-up period, physical activity in the gamification arm declined but remained significantly greater than that in the control arm for the proportion of participant-days achieving step goals (0.44 vs 0.33; adjusted difference, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.05-0.19; P < .001) and the mean daily steps compared with baseline (1385 vs 798; adjusted difference, 494; 95% CI, 170-818; P < .01). Conclusions and Relevance: Gamification designed to leverage insights from behavioral economics to enhance social incentives significantly increased physical activity among families in the community. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02531763.
Perogamvros, Lampros; Baird, Benjamin; Seibold, Mitja; Riedner, Brady; Boly, Melanie; Tononi, Giulio (2017): The phenomenal contents and neural correlates of spontaneous thoughts across wakefulness, NREM sleep, and REM sleep.
In: J Cogn Neurosci 29 (10), S. 1766–1777. DOI: 10.1162/jocn_a_01155.
Thoughts occur during wake as well as during dreaming sleep. Using experience sampling combined with high-density EEG, we investigated the phenomenal qualities and neural correlates of spontaneously occurring thoughts across wakefulness, non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, and REM sleep. Across all states, thoughts were associated with activation of a region of the midcingulate cortex. Thoughts during wakefulness additionally involved a medial prefrontal region, which was associated with metacognitive thoughts during wake. Phenomenologically, waking thoughts had more metacognitive content than thoughts during both NREM and REM sleep, whereas thoughts during REM sleep had a more social content. Together, these results point to a core neural substrate for thoughts, regardless of behavioral state, within the midcingulate cortex, and suggest that medial prefrontal regions may contribute to metacognitive content in waking thoughts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Pihet, Sandrine; Moses Passini, Christina; Eicher, Manuela (2017): Good and bad days. Fluctuations in the burden of informal dementia caregivers, an experience sampling study.
In: Nursing research 66 (6), S. 421–431. DOI: 10.1097/NNR.0000000000000243.
BACKGROUND: Informal dementia caregivers (IDCs) are often confronted with important fluctuations in care-related burden, commonly described as “good and bad days.” These fluctuations are overlooked by traditional questionnaires focusing on the average experience. The experience sampling method (ESM) is based on the repeated collection of data in everyday life, thereby allowing the description of day-to-day fluctuations in IDC burden, and the identification of their correlates. ESM studies are still scarce among IDCs, with none focusing on day-to-day fluctuations in burden. OBJECTIVES: This ESM study aimed to examine day-to-day fluctuations in the burden of IDCs and test their associations with six moment-to-moment predictors. METHODS: Primary IDCs (N = 26, median age = 68 years, 77% women, 73% spouses) volunteered to answer questions about their daily burdens, patients’ memories and behavioral problems (MBP), caregivers’ MBP-related distress, psychological distress, self-efficacy and positive affects, and relationship quality; volunteers did this every evening for 2 weeks on a touchpad, resulting in 206 measures. Data were analyzed with multilevel linear regression. RESULTS: Day-to-day fluctuations covered about two thirds of the total variance for most study variables. All six predictors had a significant bivariate relation with daily burden, explaining 15%-32% of its fluctuations, with significant differences between caregivers in the strength of these relations. The best multivariate model explained 51% of the day-to-day fluctuations in burden. It included caregiver MBP-related distress, psychological distress, and relationship quality. DISCUSSION: This innovative study of IDC burden shows that day-to-day fluctuations are an important part of caregivers’ real-life experiences and that half of this variability is predicted by currently understudied factors. Inviting caregivers to monitor clinical outcomes daily over 1 or 2 weeks could help tailor interventions to their individual needs and also empower them.
Poulton, Antoinette; Pan, Jason; Bruns, Loren Richard, JR; Sinnott, Richard O.; Hester, Robert (2017): Assessment of alcohol intake. Retrospective measures versus a smartphone application.
In: Addictive behaviors. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.11.003.
INTRODUCTION: Research investigating problem drinking often relies on retrospective measures to assess alcohol consumption behaviour. Limitations associated with such instruments can, however, distort actual consumption levels and patterns. We developed the smartphone application (app), CNLab-A, to assess alcohol intake behaviour in real-time. METHODS: Healthy individuals (N=671, M age 23.12) completed demographic questions plus the Alcohol Use Questionnaire and a 21-day Timeline Followback before using CNLab-A for 21days. The app asked participants to record alcohol consumption details in real time. We compared data reported via retrospective measures with that captured using CNLab-A. RESULTS: On average, participants submitted data on 20.27days using CNLab-A. Compared to Timeline Followback, a significantly greater percentage of drinking days (24.79% vs. 26.44%) and significantly higher total intake (20.30 vs. 24.26 standard drinks) was recorded via the app. CNLab-A captured a substantially greater number of high intake occasions at all levels from 8 or more drinks than Timeline Followback. Additionally, relative to the Alcohol Use Questionnaire, a significantly faster rate of consumption was recorded via the app. CONCLUSIONS: CNLab-A provided more nuanced information regarding quantity and pattern of alcohol intake than the retrospective measures. In particular, it revealed higher levels of drinking than retrospective reporting. This will have implications for how particular at-risk alcohol consumption patterns are identified in future and might enable a more sophisticated exploration of the causes and consequences of drinking behaviour.
Powell, Daniel J. H.; Liossi, Christina; Schlotz, Wolff; Moss-Morris, Rona (2017): Tracking daily fatigue fluctuations in multiple sclerosis. Ecological momentary assessment provides unique insights.
In: J Behav Med 40 (5), S. 772–783. DOI: 10.1007/s10865-017-9840-4.
Studies investigating the prevalence, cause, and consequence of multiple sclerosis (MS) fatigue typically use single measures that implicitly assume symptom-stability over time, neglecting information about if, when, and why severity fluctuates. We aimed to examine the extent of moment-to-moment and day-to-day variability in fatigue in relapsing-remitting MS and healthy individuals, and identify daily life determinants of fluctuations. Over 4 weekdays, 76 participants (38 relapsing-remitting MS; 38 controls) recruited from multiple sites provided real-time self-reports six times daily (n = 1661 observations analyzed) measuring fatigue severity, stressors, mood, and physical exertion, and daily self-reports of sleep quality. Fatigue fluctuations were evident in both groups. Fatigue was highest in relapsing-remitting MS, typically peaking in late-afternoon. In controls, fatigue started lower and increased steadily until bedtime. Real-time stressors and negative mood were associated with increased fatigue, and positive mood with decreased fatigue in both groups. Increased fatigue was related to physical exertion in relapsing-remitting MS, and poorer sleep quality in controls. In relapsing-remitting MS, fatigue fluctuates substantially over time. Many daily life determinants of fluctuations are similar in relapsing-remitting MS and healthy individuals (stressors, mood) but physical exertion seems more relevant in relapsing-remitting MS and sleep quality most relevant in healthy individuals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Rauschenberg, C.; van Os, J.; Cremers, D.; Goedhart, M.; Schieveld, J. N. M.; Reininghaus, U. (2017): Stress sensitivity as a putative mechanism linking childhood trauma and psychopathology in youth’s daily life.
In: Acta Psychiatr Scand 136 (4), S. 373–388. DOI: 10.1111/acps.12775.
Objective: Childhood trauma (CT) is associated with a range of psychopathologies, including psychosis. However, evidence on underlying mechanisms remains limited. The study aimed to investigate whether CT impacts on youth mental health by modifying sensitivity to stress in daily life. Method: The experience sampling method (ESM) was used to measure momentary stress, negative affect and psychotic experiences in 99 adolescents and young adults (43 help‐seeking service users, 16 siblings and 40 controls). Before ESM assessments, CT and depressive, anxiety and psychotic symptoms were assessed. Results: Stress sensitivity, that is, the association between momentary stress and (i) negative affect and (ii) psychotic experiences, was modified by physical and emotional abuse and, partially, emotional and physical neglect, but not sexual abuse in service users and controls. While there was strong evidence for increased stress sensitivity in service users when high vs. low levels of CT were compared, a pattern of resilience was evident in controls, with attenuated, or no differences in, stress sensitivity in those with high vs. low CT levels. Less consistent findings were observed in siblings. Conclusions: Stress sensitivity may be an important risk and resilience mechanism through which CT impacts on mental health in youth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Reichenberger, Julia; Smyth, Joshua M.; Blechert, Jens (2017): Fear of evaluation unpacked. Day-to-day correlates of fear of negative and positive evaluation.
In: Anxiety, stress, and coping, S. 1–16. DOI: 10.1080/10615806.2017.1396826.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Social interactions inevitably go along with repeated evaluations. Some individuals are particularly sensitive to social evaluations: Psychometric studies suggest stable and distinct individual differences on fear of negative evaluations (FNE) and fear of positive evaluation (FPE). However, little is known about day-to-day correlates of FNE and FPE, particularly their respective contribution to positive/negative affect level and affect reactivity to different stressor types. DESIGN: Two studies naturalistically assessed the level of negative/positive affect and its reactivity to different stressor types (from distant or close social network, work and daily hassles, assessed daily) as a function of FNE/FPE. METHOD: Ecological Momentary Assessment employed five daily prompts during 12/10 days in convenience samples of 50/59 participants. RESULTS: FNE predicted lower positive affect level only in Study 2. Consistent across studies negative affect reactivity to stressors emanating from the distant social network was increased in individuals high in FNE or FPE. CONCLUSIONS: Results document the relevance of both types of evaluation fears (FNE/FPE) for day-to-day affect and stress reactivity. They further specify whose evaluations are well tolerated (close network) or feared (distant network), thereby refining current psycho-evolutionary accounts of FNE/FPE.
Reid, Michael J. A.; Steenhoff, Andrew P.; Thompson, James; Gabaitiri, Lesego; Cary, Mark S.; Steele, Katherine et al. (2017): Evaluation of the effect of cellular SMS reminders on consistency of antiretroviral therapy pharmacy pickups in HIV-infected adults in Botswana. A randomized controlled trial.
In: Health psychology and behavioral medicine 5 (1), S. 101–109. DOI: 10.1080/21642850.2016.1271333.
OBJECTIVE: Several studies have demonstrated that cellular phone short message service (SMS) improve antiretroviral adherence for people living with HIV in Africa, although less data are available to support using SMS reminders to improve timeliness of antiretroviral therapy (ART) pharmacy pick up. This study tested the efficacy of SMS reminders on timeliness of ART pharmacy pickups at an urban clinic in Gaborone, Botswana. DESIGN: A randomized-controlled trial evaluating the effect of SMS reminders on ART collection for patients with HIV on treatment. METHODS: One hundred and eight treatment-experienced adult patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to a control group or an intervention group. Participants in the intervention group received SMS reminders that were sent in advance of monthly ART refills that needed to be collected. The primary outcome was 100% timeliness of pharmacy ART pickups. Secondary outcomes included frequency of physician visits, CD4 cell counts and viral loads. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics in the intervention (n = 54) and control arms (n = 54) were similar. After six months, 85% of those receiving SMS reminders were 100% on time picking up monthly ART refills compared to 70% in the control group (p = 0.064). In secondary analysis, there were no significant changes in the CD4 counts and viral loads over the course of the study. CONCLUSIONS: Timeliness of ART pickup was not significantly improved by SMS reminders. Additionally, the intervention had no impact on immunologic or virologic outcomes in treatment-experienced patients.
Rendina, H. Jonathon; Millar, Brett M.; Parsons, Jeffrey T. (2017): The critical role of internalized HIV-related stigma in the daily negative affective experiences of HIV-positive gay and bisexual men.
In: Journal of affective disorders 227, S. 289–297. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.11.005.
BACKGROUND: Research suggests that HIV stigma exerts a detrimental impact on the mental health of HIV-positive gay and bisexual men (GBM). We sought to better understand these processes by examining two forms of HIV stigma (i.e., anticipated and internalized) at two levels (i.e., individual and situational) in association with daily negative affective experiences. METHODS: We conducted a 21-day twice-daily ecological momentary assessment study of 51 HIV-positive GBM. Twice-daily stigma measures were disaggregated into individual-level averages and situational fluctuations, and we utilized multilevel models to examine both concurrent and time-lagged effects of HIV stigma on anxious affect, depressed affect, anger, fatigue, and emotion dysregulation. RESULTS: Situational experiences of internalized HIV stigma were associated with increased levels of anxious and depressed affect, anger, and emotion dysregulation in both concurrent and time-lagged analyses. Situational experiences of anticipated HIV stigma were only associated with anger and only within concurrent analyses. Individual-level internalized HIV stigma was associated with anxious affect and emotion dysregulation in both concurrent and time-lagged models, and with depressed affect and fatigue in time-lagged models. LIMITATIONS: The small and high-risk sample limits generalizability and results should be replicated in larger and more diverse samples. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that, independent of the effects of individual-level stigma, situational experiences of internalized HIV stigma are associated with increases in event-level negative affective experiences. A combination of individually-delivered and mobile interventions may be successful at reducing the impact of internalized HIV stigma on negative affect and emotion dysregulation.
Robert, Christopher; da Motta Veiga, Serge P. (2017): Conversational humor and job satisfaction at work. Exploring the role of humor production, appreciation, and positive affect.
In: Humor: International Journal of Humor Research 30 (4), S. 417–438. DOI: 10.1515/humor-2017-0034.
This study examined whether everyday conversational humor is related to job satisfaction, and if the relationship is mediated by positive affect. We also explored differences between the roles of humor production and humor appreciation, and tested the cyclical nature of the relationship by examining whether job satisfaction stimulates subsequent humor. Data were obtained through an experience sampling study in which participants completed two brief surveys each day for 10 consecutive workdays (Level 1 n = 237–279, Level 2 N= 35). Results revealed a positive relationship between humor and job satisfaction that was partially mediated by positive affect, and also indicated that job satisfaction on day t predicted humor production the morning of day t + 1. This study contributes to the literature by examining the previously theorized but untested hypothesis that humor’s effects stem from their impact on affect, and also by exploring the distinction between humor production and appreciation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Robinson, Cendrine D.; Muench, Christine; Brede, Emily; Endrighi, Romano; Szeto, Edwin H.; Sells, Joanna R. et al. (2017): Pro-tobacco advertisement exposure among African American smokers. An ecological momentary assessment study.
In: Addictive behaviors. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.10.015.
INTRODUCTION: Many African Americans live in communities with a disproportionately high density of tobacco advertisements compared to Whites. Some research indicates that point-of-sale advertising is associated with impulse purchases of cigarettes and smoking. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) can be used to examine associations between tobacco advertisement exposure and smoking variables in the natural environment. METHODS: Non-treatment seeking African American smokers were given a mobile device for 2weeks (N=56). They were prompted four times per day and responded to questions about recent exposure to tobacco advertisements. Participants were also asked to indicate the number of cigarettes smoked, and if they made any purchase, or an impulse purchase, since the last assessment. Linear mixed models (LMMs) analyzed between- and within-subject associations between exposure and outcomes. RESULTS: Participants reported seeing at least one advertisement on 33% of assessments. Of those assessments, they reported seeing menthol advertisements on 87% of assessments. Between-subject analyses revealed that participants who on average saw more advertisements were generally more likely to report purchasing cigarettes and to purchase cigarettes on impulse. Within-subject analyses revealed that when an individual participant reported seeing more advertisements than usual they were more likely to have reported purchasing cigarettes, making an impulse purchase and smoking more cigarettes during the same period, but not the subsequent time period. CONCLUSIONS: Many African American smokers are frequently exposed to pro-tobacco marketing. Advertisement exposure is cross-sectionally associated with impulse purchases and smoking. Future research should assess prospective associations in more detail.
Rodgers, Rachel F.; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Holmes, Millicent; Skouteris, Helen; Broadbent, Jaclyn (2018): When does behavior follow intent? Relationships between trait level dietary restraint and daily eating behaviors.
In: Appetite 120, S. 449–455. DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.09.030.
BACKGROUND: The relationship between self-report trait level restriction and daily engagement in restriction behaviors is not well understood, and as a result the usefulness of such trait level measures is unclear. The present study aimed both to examine the validity of self-reported trait dietary restraint behaviors, and to examine the respective relationships among self-reported trait dietary restraint intentions and behaviors and both restrained and disinhibited eating at the daily level. METHODS: A sample of 109 women (Mage = 24.72, SD = 4.15) completed a self-report trait level measure of dietary restraint before providing EMA data on their daily engagement in dietary restraint and disinhibited eating behaviors, as well as mood, over a period of 7 days. Multilevel hurdle models were used to test the relationship between trait levels of dietary restraint, and daily level reports of restraint and disinhibited eating behaviors. RESULTS: Trait restraint behavior was a consistent predictor of daily presence and frequency of restraint behaviors. In contrast, trait restraint intentions was not a predictor of daily restraint behaviors, however it did predict daily frequency of overeating. In addition, daily negative affect emerged as a predictor of comfort eating, but was not predictive of restraint behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: Findings confirm the usefulness of assessments of self-reported trait dietary restraint behaviors as a method of capturing dieting behaviors. In contrast, trait level dietary restraint intentions was a poor predictor of eating outcomes and more research on the way that restraint intentions affect eating behaviors is warranted.
Roos, Corey R.; Witkiewitz, Katie (2017): A contextual model of self-regulation change mechanisms among individuals with addictive disorders.
In: Clin Psychol Rev 57, S. 117–128. DOI: 10.1016/j.cpr.2017.08.008.
Numerous behavioral treatments for addictive disorders include components explicitly aimed at targeting self-regulation (e.g., coping and emotion regulation). We first provide a summary of key findings to date among studies that have examined self-regulation as a mechanism of behavior change (MOBC) in behavioral treatments for addictive disorders. Based on our review, we conclude that the role of self-regulation as a MOBC across behavioral treatments for addictive disorders is not well-characterized and findings are inconsistent across studies. For example, our review indicates that there is still inconsistent evidence that coping is a unique MOBC in cognitive-behavioral approaches for addictive behaviors. We propose that there has been slow progress in understanding self-regulation as a MOBC in addiction treatment because of a lack of attention to contextual factors. Accordingly, in the second half of this paper, we propose a contextual model of self-regulation change mechanisms, which emphasizes that the role of various facets of self-regulation as MOBC may depend on contextual factors in the immediate situational context (e.g., fluctuating internal and external cues) and in the broader context in which an individual is embedded (e.g., major life stressors, environmental conditions, dispositions). Additionally, we provide specific recommendations to guide future research for understanding both between-person and within-person self-regulation MOBC in addiction treatment. In particular, we provide key recommendations for how to capitalize on intensive longitudinal measurement methods (e.g., ecological momentary assessment) when bringing a contextual perspective to the study of self-regulation as MOBC in various addiction treatments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Roth, Alexis M.; Felsher, Marisa; Reed, Megan; Goldshear, Jesse L.; Truong, Quan; Garfein, Richard S.; Simmons, Janie (2017): Potential benefits of using ecological momentary assessment to study high-risk polydrug use.
In: mHealth 3, S. 46. DOI: 10.21037/mhealth.2017.10.01.
Background: While studies have documented both the feasibility and acceptability of using ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to study drug use, there is little empirical research assessing participants’ perceptions of utilizing this technology-driven approach. Methods: Participants were English-speaking persons >/=18 years old who reported injection drug use and sequential (e.g., alcohol followed by opioid use) or simultaneous (i.e., injecting heroin and cocaine in one shot) polydrug use within 30 days recruited in San Diego, CA and Philadelphia, PA. Participants (N=36) completed two cell phone-based EMA simulations assessing mood, drug use, HIV risk behaviors, and daily activities, followed by semi-structured interviews that probed for potential benefits of participation over time. Qualitative analysis involved an iterative process of reviewing texts from the interviews to create a coding framework, which was then applied to all transcripts to identify themes. Results: Findings suggest participants may derive indirect benefits from participation in EMA studies including: improved self-worth from helping others; experiencing increased social support through utilization of the study-provided mobile device for non-research purposes; and most importantly, increased self-reflection, which could lead to therapeutic and intervention-like effects such as decreased substance use or reduced HIV risk. Conclusions: Participants identified a variety of potential benefits from participating in a study that utilizes EMA. This research suggests that benefits are highly salient for individuals involved in studies of polydrug use.
Rummel, Jan; Nied, Laura (2017): Do drives drive the train of thought?—effects of hunger and sexual arousal on mind-wandering behavior.
In: Consciousness and cognition 55, S. 179–187. DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2017.08.013.
Physiological needs that are currently unfulfilled are known to affect human cognition and behavior. The present study investigates whether and how the temporary activation of two primary physiological needs, namely hunger and sexual arousal, influence both the frequency and the contents of mind-wandering episodes. To induce hunger, one group of participants fasted for a minimum of five hours whereas another group of participants was exposed to audio material with explicit sexual content to provoke sexual arousal. Both groups as well as an additional control group, which had not received hunger instructions and had not been exposed to arousing material of any kind beforehand, performed a reading task during which mind wandering was assessed using a standard experience-sampling method. Results showed that acute hunger but not elevated sexual arousal renders the occurrence of mind-wandering episodes more likely. Induction of both hunger and sexual arousal rendered the occurrence of need-related off-task thoughts more likely and changed time orientations of mind wandering. The present findings are well in line with the assumption that unfulfilled needs regularly achieve cognitive priority and extend the cognitive-priority idea to self-generated thoughts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Sala, Margarita; Brosof, Leigh C.; Rosenfield, David; Fernandez, Katya C.; Levinson, Cheri A. (2017): Stress is associated with exercise differently among individuals with higher and lower eating disorder symptoms. An ecological momentary assessment study.
In: The International journal of eating disorders 50 (12), S. 1413–1420. DOI: 10.1002/eat.22799.
OBJECTIVE: Stress is associated with the maintenance of eating disorders and exercise behaviors. However, it is unclear how stress is associated with exercise and vice-versa among individuals with higher levels of eating disorder symptoms in daily life. The current study tested the moderating effect of eating disorder symptoms on the relationships between (1) daily stress and later exercise behavior and (2) daily exercise behavior and later stress. METHOD: Female college students [N = 129, mean age = 19.19 (SD = 1.40)] completed the Eating Disorder Inventory-2. Participants then completed measures of stress and exercise four times daily across seven days using an automated telephone ecological momentary assessment system. Data were analyzed using multilevel models. RESULTS: Drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms, and body dissatisfaction significantly moderated the relationship between daily stress and later exercise (ps = .01-.05), such that higher daily stress predicted higher later exercise only in individuals who were low (but not average or high) in drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms, and body dissatisfaction symptoms. DISCUSSION: Stress is associated with exercise differentially depending on individuals’ eating disorder symptoms. Our findings suggest that only individuals with lower levels of eating disorder symptoms exercise when stressed.
Santa Maria, Diane; Padhye, Nikhil; Yang, Yijiong; Gallardo, Kathryn; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Jung, Julie; Businelle, Michael (2017): Drug use patterns and predictors among homeless youth. Results of an ecological momentary assessment.
In: The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse, S. 1–10. DOI: 10.1080/00952990.2017.1407328.
BACKGROUND: Alcohol and drug use is associated with significant morbidity and mortality and is highly prevalent among homeless youth. Ecological Momentary Assessments (EMA) have been used to examine the effect of urges on drug use, though not among homeless youth. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the patterns of drug use and the correlation between real-time contextual factors and drug use using EMA collected daily. We identified predictors of drug use among a sample of homeless youth 18-25 years old in Houston, Texas. METHODS: Homeless youth (n = 66, 62% male) were recruited from a drop-in center between September 2015 and May 2016. We used generalized linear mixed models and cross-validation methods to determine the best predictive model of drug use. RESULTS: The overall drug use was high: 61% and 32% of participants reported using drugs or alcohol at least one day, respectively. Marijuana and synthetic marijuana use (i.e., Kush, K2, incense packs) were reported most frequently; 86% and 13% of the total drug use EMAs, respectfully. Drug use urge was reported on 26% of days and was the highest on drug use days. Drug use was predicted by discrimination, pornography use, alcohol use, and urges for drugs, alcohol, and to steal. CONCLUSIONS: EMA can be used to predict drug use among homeless youth. Drug use treatment among homeless youth should address the role of experiencing discrimination, pornography and alcohol use, and urge management strategies on drug use. Research is needed to determine if EMA informed just-in-time interventions targeting these predictors can reduce use.
Santangelo, Philip S.; Koenig, Julian; Funke, Vera; Parzer, Peter; Resch, Franz; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W.; Kaess, Michael (2017): Ecological momentary assessment of affective and interpersonal instability in adolescent non-suicidal self-injury.
In: J Abnorm Child Psychol 45 (7), S. 1429–1438. DOI: 10.1007/s10802-016-0249-2.
Affective and interpersonal instability, both core features of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), have been suggested to underlie non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is the method of choice when investigating dynamic processes. Previously no study addressed affective and interpersonal instability in daily life of adolescents engaging in NSSI. Female adolescents with NSSI (n = 26) and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 20) carried e-diaries on 2 consecutive weekends and were prompted in hourly intervals to rate their momentary affective state and feelings of attachment towards their mother and best friend. The majority of participants in the NSSI group also fulfilled diagnostic criteria for BPD (73%). Squared successive differences were calculated to quantify instability. Adolescents with NSSI reported less positive affect, t(44) = 6.94, p < 0.01, lower levels of attachment to the mother, t(44) = 5.53, p < 0.01, and best friend, t(44) = 4.36, p < 0.01. Both affective, t(44) = −5.55, p < 0.01, and interpersonal instability, mother: t(44) = −4.10, p < 0.01; best friend: t (44) = −4.57, p < 0.01, were significantly greater in adolescents engaging in NSSI. In the NSSI group, the number of BPD criteria met was positively correlated with affective instability, r = 0.40, p < 0.05, and instability of attachment to the best friend, r = 0.42, p < 0.05, but not instability of attachment towards the mother, r = 0.06, p = 0.79. In line with previous work in adults, NSSI is associated with affective and interpersonal instability assessed by EMA in adolescents. Preliminary findings highlight the association of affective and interpersonal instability with diagnostic criteria for BPD. Clinical implications and avenues for further research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Santangelo, Philip S.; Reinhard, Iris; Koudela-Hamila, Susanne; Bohus, Martin; Holtmann, Jana; Eid, Michael; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W. (2017): The temporal interplay of self-esteem instability and affective instability in borderline personality disorder patients’ everyday lives.
In: Journal of abnormal psychology 126 (8), S. 1057–1065. DOI: 10.1037/abn0000288.
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is defined by a pervasive pattern of instability. Although there is ample empirical evidence that unstable self-esteem is associated with a myriad of BPD-like symptoms, self-esteem instability and its temporal dynamics have received little empirical attention in patients with BPD. Even worse, the temporal interplay of affective instability and self-esteem instability has been neglected completely, although it has been hypothesized recently that the lack of specificity of affective instability in association with BPD might be explained by the highly intertwined temporal relationship between affective and self-esteem instability. To investigate self-esteem instability, its temporal interplay with affective instability, and its association with psychopathology, 60 patients with BPD and 60 healthy controls (HCs) completed electronic diaries for 4 consecutive days during their everyday lives. Participants reported their current self-esteem, valence, and tense arousal levels 12 times a day in approximately one-hr intervals. We used multiple state-of-the-art statistical techniques and graphical approaches to reveal patterns of instability, clarify group differences, and examine the temporal interplay of self-esteem instability and affective instability. As hypothesized, instability in both self-esteem and affect was clearly elevated in the patients with BPD. In addition, self-esteem instability and affective instability were highly correlated. Both types of instability were related to general psychopathology. Because self-esteem instability could not fully explain affective instability and vice versa and neither affective instability nor self-esteem instability was able to explain psychopathology completely, our findings suggest that these types of instability represent unique facets of BPD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
General Scientific Summary—This study found that patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have heightened instability in both self-esteem and affect. The results of an analysis of the temporal pattern of self-esteem instability in BPD suggest sudden dramatic worsening of self-esteem and slow recovery. Both self-esteem and affective instability were related to general, BPD-specific, and depressive psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Schulte, Mieke H. J.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Boendermaker, Wouter J.; Goudriaan, Anna E.; van den Brink, Wim; van Deursen, Denise S. et al. (2017): The effect of N-acetylcysteine and working memory training on cocaine use, craving and inhibition in regular cocaine users. Correspondence of lab assessments and Ecological Momentary Assessment.
In: Addictive behaviors 79, S. 24–31. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.11.044.
INTRODUCTION: Effective treatment for cocaine use disorder should dampen hypersensitive cue-induced motivational processes and/or strengthen executive control. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention, the primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) and working memory (WM)-training to reduce cocaine use and craving and to improve inhibition assessed in the laboratory and during Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA). The second aim was to examine correspondence between laboratory and EMA data. METHODS: Twenty-four of 38 cocaine-using men completed a 25-day intervention with 2400mg/day NAC or placebo and WM-training as well as two lab-visits assessing cocaine use, craving and inhibition (Stop Signal task). Additionally, cocaine use, craving and cognition (Stroop task) were assessed using EMA during treatment, with 26 participants completing 819 assessments. RESULTS: Cocaine problems according to the Drug Use Disorder Identification Test (DUDIT) decreased more after NAC than after placebo, and the proportion of cocaine-positive urines at lab-visit 2 was lower in the NAC group. No NAC effects were found on craving. For cocaine use and craving, results from the lab data were generally similar to EMA results. NAC also showed some effects on cognitive control: improved inhibition assessed with the Stop Signal task in the lab, and decreased classic Stroop performance during EMA. There were no significant effects of number of completed WM-training sessions. CONCLUSIONS: Overall this study revealed mixed findings regarding the treatment of cocaine use disorders with NAC and WM-training. The effect of NAC on inhibition should be further investigated.
Schumacher, Leah M.; Martin, Gerald J.; Goldstein, Stephanie P.; Manasse, Stephanie M.; Crosby, Ross D.; Butryn, Meghan L. et al. (2017): Ecological momentary assessment of self-attitudes in response to dietary lapses.
In: Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association. DOI: 10.1037/hea0000565.
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether self-attitudes and self-efficacy after dietary lapses relate to lapse frequency or predict risk for lapsing again on the same day. METHOD: Adults with overweight/obesity (n = 91) completed ecological momentary assessment for 14 days at the start of a lifestyle modification program. At each survey, participants reported whether they had experienced a dietary lapse, and, if so, reported their self-attitudes (i.e., self-criticism, self-forgiveness, self-regard) and self-efficacy. The relationships between participants’ typical (i.e., average level for each participant across lapses) self-attitudes/self-efficacy after lapsing and lapse frequency were examined using correlations. Generalized estimating equations examined whether participants’ typical (average across lapses; between-person effect) self-attitudes/self-efficacy or momentary (i.e., level of each variable at a particular lapse relative to one’s typical level; within-person effect) self-attitudes/self-efficacy predicted same-day lapse occurrence. RESULTS: Lower typical self-efficacy and more negative typical self-regard related to greater lapse frequency. Additionally, lower momentary self-criticism predicted greater likelihood of same-day lapse occurrence. There also was a quadratic relationship between typical self-regard and risk of same-day lapse occurrence, such that individuals with either more negative or more positive typical self-regard were more likely to lapse on the same day. CONCLUSION: Findings provide preliminary support for the relevance of self-attitudes and self-efficacy to lapses during early lifestyle modification. While greater typical self-efficacy and more positive typical self-regard are associated with fewer lapses, lower momentary self-criticism and very positive or negative typical self-regard may confer risk for same-day lapses. (PsycINFO Database Record
Schuz, Benjamin; Papadakis, Thalia; Ferguson, Stuart G. (2017): Situation-specific social norms as mediators of social influence on snacking.
In: Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association. DOI: 10.1037/hea0000568.
OBJECTIVE: Social factors are among the most powerful and pervasive influences on eating behavior, snacking in particular. Previous research has shown that being in the presence of people who are eating significantly increases the likelihood of eating and affects the types as well as the amount of food consumed. Much less is known about the processes underlying social influence, but previous research has suggested social norms as mediators. In this study, we extended this perspective to everyday settings and examined whether the presence of other people eating leads to a change in perceived momentary norms, and whether this change predicts snack consumption in real life. METHOD: We applied ecological momentary assessment to study 61 individuals in the normal-obese weight range (M BMI = 24.97 kg/m2; SD = 4.07) over a 14-day monitoring period. We used a combination of event-based snacking reports and randomly timed assessments. The presence of others eating and momentary perceptions of injunctive norms (facets of perceived appropriateness and encouragement) were measured for both assessment types. RESULTS: Mediated, multilevel logistic regression showed that social cues predict snacking (OR = 3.06), and that momentary perceptions of appropriateness (a*b = 0.14) and encouragement (a*b = 0.18) partially mediated these effects. CONCLUSION: Perceptions of momentary norms mediated the effects of social influence on everyday snacking, which highlights the importance of the social environment for understanding eating behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record
Sells, Joanna R.; Waters, Andrew J.; MacLean, R. Ross (2017): Evaluating the influence of at-risk alcohol use on factors associated with smoking cessation. Combining laboratory and ecological momentary assessment.
In: Drug Alcohol Depend 179, S. 267–270. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.06.003.
Objective: Most smokers want to quit but most cessation attempts end in failure. Alcohol consumption is associated with smoking behavior and relapse. We examined the associations between severity of drinking and psychological processes during a cessation attempt in the laboratory and during a quit attempt. Methods: Smokers (N = 209) enrolled in a smoking cessation study were followed from 2 weeks pre-quit through 4 weeks post-quit. Participants scoring 0–7 and 8–15 on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) were classified as low-risk and high-risk drinkers, respectively. Participants attended one pre-quit laboratory session before which they were required to abstain from smoking and another pre-quit session before which they smoked normally. Craving was assessed in the laboratory with the Questionnaire for Smoking Urges (QSU). A subsample of the participants also completed a 1-week ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study starting on the quit day. During EMA, craving for cigarettes was assessed, and attentional bias was assessed using a smoking Stroop task (n = 119). Results: High (vs. low) risk participants reported greater abstinence-induced increases in craving in the laboratory, and also exhibited greater attentional bias on the smoking Stroop task during EMA. Conclusions: High-risk drinkers exhibited a stronger increase in desire to smoke in abstinence and greater attentional bias to smoking cues early in a quit attempt, both of which may motivate continued smoking behaviors. High-risk drinkers may require more intensive or different smoking cessation interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Sels, Laura; Ceulemans, Eva; Kuppens, Peter (2017): Partner-expected affect. How you feel now is predicted by how your partner thought you felt before.
In: Emotion (Washington, D.C.) 17 (7), S. 1066–1077. DOI: 10.1037/emo0000304.
Romantic partners can modulate each other’s emotions in many ways, resulting in interwoven emotional lives. Here, building on findings from basic psychological research, we propose a novel way of such interconnectedness, termed partner-expected affect, in which perceptions of a partner’s feelings may positively predict how this partner will actually feel at a later moment in time. We evaluated this hypothesis by means of an experience sampling study in which 100 romantic partners (50 couples) reported on the level of valence and arousal of their own feelings and of the perceived feelings of their partners 10 times a day throughout a week. In line with expectations, we found that how individuals were feeling at a particular moment was positively predicted by how their partner thought they felt at the previous moment (on top of how they felt at the previous moment and how their partner felt at the previous moment), at least when they had interacted with each other in between. This finding identifies a novel potential way in which people may shape each other’s feelings and paves the way to further examine the nature and boundary conditions of such partner-expected affect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Shiffman, Saul; Terhorst, Lauren (2017): Intermittent and daily smokers’ subjective responses to smoking.
In: Psychopharmacology (Berl) 234 (19), S. 2911–2917. DOI: 10.1007/s00213-017-4682-x.
Rationale: One third of US smokers are intermittent smokers (ITS) who do not smoke daily. Unlike daily smokers (DS), whose smoking is negatively reinforced by withdrawal relief, ITS may be motivated by immediate positive reinforcement. In contrast, incentive salience theory posits hypothesis that ‘liking’ of drug effects fades in established users, such as DS. Objective: This study aims to compare ITS’ and DS’ hedonic responses to smoking. Methods: Participants were 109 ITS (smoking 4–27 days/month) and 52 DS (smoking daily 5–25 cigarettes/day), aged ≥ 21, smoking ≥ 3 years, and not quitting smoking. For 3 weeks, participants engaged in ecological momentary assessment, carrying an electronic diary that asked them to rate their most recent smoking experience on 0–100 visual analog scales (satisfaction, enjoyment [averaged as 'pleasure'], feeling sick, feeling a ‘rush,’ enjoying upper respiratory sensations, and immediate craving relief). Hierarchical random effect regression analyzed 4476 ratings. Results: ITS found smoking pleasurable (mean = 69.7 ± 1.7 [SE]) but significantly less so than DS did (77.6 ± 2.3; p < 0.006). ITS also reported more aversive response (ITS 18.2 ± 1.4, DS 11.6 ± 2.0; p < 0.007). Even though ITS are more likely to smoke at bars/restaurants, when drinking alcohol, or when others were present, they did not report more pleasure in these settings (compared to DS). More extensive smoking experience was unrelated to craving or smoking effects among DS, but predicted greater craving, greater pleasure, and less aversion among ITS. Conclusions: The findings were largely inconsistent with incentive-salience models of drug use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Short, Nicole A.; Allan, Nicholas P.; Schmidt, Norman B. (2017): Sleep disturbance as a predictor of affective functioning and symptom severity among individuals with PTSD. An ecological momentary assessment study.
In: Behaviour research and therapy 97, S. 146–153. DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.07.014.
Recent research has highlighted the etiological role of sleep disturbance in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however it is currently unknown how daily changes in sleep are associated with next-day PTSD symptoms. Furthermore, sleep is critical for maintaining appropriate affect, leading some to hypothesize that affective dysfunction may account for the link between sleep disturbances and PTSD symptoms. Thus, the current study tested the relationship between sleep disturbances, affective valence, and PTSD symptoms utilizing an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design among individuals with PTSD (n = 30) who participated in 4 EMA-based assessments daily over 8 days. Multilevel modeling indicated that, after accounting for prior evening’s PTSD symptoms, poor sleep quality and reduced sleep efficiency were associated with increased PTSD symptoms and negative affect. Furthermore, results supported the indirect effect of poor sleep quality on elevated PTSD symptoms through increased negative affect in the morning. Findings add to the body of research demonstrating the negative impact of poor sleep for individuals with PTSD by indicating that daily variations in sleep can affect next-day PTSD symptoms, and identifying negative affect as a mechanism of this relationship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Shrier, Lydia A.; Sarda, Vishnudas; Jonestrask, Cassandra; Harris, Sion Kim (2017): Momentary factors during marijuana use as predictors of lapse during attempted abstinence in young adults.
In: Addictive behaviors. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.12.032.
INTRODUCTION: Young adults using marijuana heavily often try multiple times to quit on their own. We sought to identify momentary experiences during marijuana use that could aid in predicting lapse when young adults subsequently attempt abstinence. METHODS: Young adults (N=34) age 18–25 using marijuana e5days/week and planning to quit completed a survey of sociodemographic characteristics, substance use, marijuana expectancies, use motives, perceived social support, and confidence to abstain. They completed ecological momentary assessment (EMA) smartphone reports several times/day for two weeks prior to, then during two weeks of attempted abstinence. Use period EMA reports assessed affect, craving, accessibility, situational permissibility, use, and motivation to abstain. Baseline survey and EMA data were examined in relation to subsequent lapse during attempted abstinence. RESULTS: Nearly 3 in 4 participants (73.5%) reported lapsing during attempted abstinence from marijuana. On bivariate analyses, lower baseline dependence severity score, negative effect expectancies, perceived family support, and confidence to abstain were each associated with lapse. Of the use period EMA variables, greater percent of days with marijuana use, reports of easy accessibility, and reports of situational permissibility were each associated with lapse. Modeled together, negative effect expectancies, perceived family support, confidence to abstain, and situational permissibility during use were highly accurate in predicting lapse during attempted abstinence. CONCLUSIONS: Momentary factors may add to conventionally-surveyed characteristics to enhance prediction of lapse during attempted abstinence among young adults with heavy marijuana use. Momentary assessment prior to a quit attempt may thus enable more effective personalized approaches to preventing lapse. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Simons, Claudia J. P.; Drukker, Marjan; Evers, Silvia; van Mastrigt, Ghislaine A. P. G.; Hohn, Petra; Kramer, Ingrid et al. (2017): Economic evaluation of an experience sampling method intervention in depression compared with treatment as usual using data from a randomized controlled trial.
In: BMC psychiatry 17 (1), S. 415. DOI: 10.1186/s12888-017-1577-7.
BACKGROUND: Experience sampling, a method for real-time self-monitoring of affective experiences, holds opportunities for person-tailored treatment. By focussing on dynamic patterns of positive affect, experience sampling method interventions (ESM-I) accommodate strategies to enhance personalized treatment of depression-at potentially low-costs. This study aimed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of an experience sampling method intervention in patients with depression, from a societal perspective. METHODS: Participants were recruited between January 2010 and February 2012 from out-patient mental health care facilities in or near the Dutch cities of Eindhoven and Maastricht, and through local advertisements. Out-patients diagnosed with major depression (n = 101) receiving pharmacotherapy were randomized into: (i) ESM-I consisting of six weeks of ESM combined with weekly feedback regarding the individual’s positive affective experiences, (ii) six weeks of ESM without feedback, or (iii) treatment as usual only. Alongside this randomised controlled trial, an economic evaluation was conducted consisting of a cost-effectiveness and a cost-utility analysis, using Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and quality adjusted life years (QALYs) as outcome, with willingness-to-pay threshold for a QALY set at euro50,000 (based on Dutch guidelines for moderate severe to severe illnesses). RESULTS: The economic evaluation showed that ESM-I is an optimal strategy only when willingness to pay is around euro3000 per unit HDRS and around euro40,500 per QALY. ESM-I was the least favourable treatment when willingness to pay was lower than euro30,000 per QALY. However, at the euro50,000 willingness-to-pay threshold, ESM-I was, with a 46% probability, the most favourable treatment (base-case analysis). Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of these results. CONCLUSIONS: We may tentatively conclude that ESM-I is a cost-effective add-on intervention to pharmacotherapy in outpatients with major depression. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial register, NTR1974 .
Smyth, Joshua M.; Juth, Vanessa; Ma, Jun; Sliwinski, Martin (2017): A slice of life. Ecologically valid methods for research on social relationships and health across the life span.
In: Soc Personal Psychol Compass 11 (10). DOI: 10.1111/spc3.12356.
This paper describes ‘slice of life’ methods—detailed observations of moment‐to‐moment intraindividual processes that occur over short timescales in the natural environment—as an important research tool in exploring social relationships and health across the life span. Such methods, including ecological momentary assessment, experience sampling, daily diaries, measurement burst, and other slice of life designs, are important supplements to more traditional laboratory, epidemiological, and long‐term longitudinal research methods. Specifically, we highlight how slice of life methods (with a focus on ecological momentary assessment) allow researchers to compare the relative importance of different social relationships (or features thereof) for health outcomes, understand temporal dynamics, identify potentially causal mechanistic pathways at different timescales through which social relationships influence health, and design, implement, and evaluate innovative interventions that target these pathways at different timescales. We conclude with recommendations and future directions for slice of life methods for research on social relationships and health across the life span. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Smyth, Joshua M.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Zawadzki, Matthew J.; Scott, Stacey B.; Conroy, David E.; Lanza, Stephanie T. et al. (2017): Everyday stress response targets in the science of behavior change.
In: Behaviour research and therapy. DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.09.009.
Stress is an established risk factor for negative health outcomes, and responses to everyday stress can interfere with health behaviors such as exercise and sleep. In accordance with the Science of Behavior Change (SOBC) program, we apply an experimental medicine approach to identifying stress response targets, developing stress response assays, intervening upon these targets, and testing intervention effectiveness. We evaluate an ecologically valid, within-person approach to measuring the deleterious effects of everyday stress on physical activity and sleep patterns, examining multiple stress response components (i.e., stress reactivity, stress recovery, and stress pile-up) as indexed by two key response indicators (negative affect and perseverative cognition). Our everyday stress response assay thus measures multiple malleable stress response targets that putatively shape daily health behaviors (physical activity and sleep). We hypothesize that larger reactivity, incomplete recovery, and more frequent stress responses (pile-up) will negatively impact health behavior enactment in daily life. We will identify stress-related reactivity, recovery, and response in the indicators using coordinated analyses across multiple naturalistic studies. These results are the basis for developing a new stress assay and replicating the initial findings in a new sample. This approach will advance our understanding of how specific aspects of everyday stress responses influence health behaviors, and can be used to develop and test an innovative ambulatory intervention for stress reduction in daily life to enhance health behaviors.
Snir, Avigal; Bar-Kalifa, Eran; Berenson, Kathy R.; Downey, Geraldine; Rafaeli, Eshkol (2017): Affective instability as a clinical feature of avoidant personality disorder.
In: Personality disorders 8 (4), S. 389–395. DOI: 10.1037/per0000202.
The current study’s main goal was to examine whether affective instability is elevated among individuals suffering from avoidant personality disorder (APD) by comparing it to the affective instability found among individuals suffering from borderline personality disorder (BPD) as well that found among healthy controls. Adults (N = 152, aged 18–65 years) with BPD, APD, or no psychopathology participated in a 3-week computerized diary study. We examined temporal instability in negative affect using experience-sampling methods. Both within and between days, individuals with APD showed greater affective instability compared to the healthy control individuals, although less affective instability compared to individuals with BPD. The findings are in line with affective instability (or emotional lability) as a key dimension relevant across personality disorders. Additionally, they emphasize the need for research and clinical attention to affective characteristics (alongside the more readily recognized interpersonal characteristics) of APD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Sperry, Sarah H.; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Kwapil, Thomas R. (2017): The association of affective temperaments and bipolar spectrum psychopathology. An experience sampling study.
In: Motiv Emot. DOI: 10.1007/s11031-017-9652-4.
Affective temperaments are trait-like expressions of affect that underlie mood psychopathology. Numerous studies have examined affective temperaments in laboratory-based studies; however, few have examined the expression of these temperaments in daily life. The present study examined affective temperaments and their associations with the expression of bipolar spectrum characteristics in daily life using experience sampling methodology. Young adults (n = 290) completed the TEMPS-A and were signaled eight times daily for 1 week to complete smartphone surveys assessing affect, cognition, and behavior. Hyperthymic temperament was associated with positive affect, sense of self, and success. In contrast, cyclothymic/irritable temperament was associated with negative affect, impulsivity, negative sense of self, and difficulty concentrating. Those high in cyclothymic/irritable temperament were especially reactive to the experience of stress. Affective temperaments were differentially associated with the expression of bipolar spectrum psychopathology in daily life. The findings offer validation of the TEMPS-A, as well as the adaptive and maladaptive characteristics of hyperthymic and cyclothymic/irritable temperaments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Sperry, Sarah H.; Lynam, Donald R.; Kwapil, Thomas R. (2017): The convergence and divergence of impulsivity facets in daily life.
In: Journal of personality. DOI: 10.1111/jopy.12359.
OBJECTIVE: Impulsivity appears to be best conceptualized as a multidimensional construct. For example, the UPPS-P model posits that there are five underlying facets of impulsivity. The present study examined the expression of the UPPS-P facets in daily life using experience sampling methodology. A specific goal of the study was to examine positive urgency, a facet added to the original UPPS model, and its convergence and divergence from the negative urgency facet. METHOD: A large nonclinical sample of young adults (n = 294) completed the UPPS-P scale and was signaled to complete questionnaires assessing daily affect, cognitions, sense of self, and impulsive behaviors eight times a day for 7 days. RESULTS: Results indicated that the UPPS-P facets are associated with disruptions in affect, cognitions, and behavior in daily life. Furthermore, all of the UPPS-P facets were associated with impulsivity in daily life. Contrary to expectation, positive urgency was associated with negative affect rather than positive affect and had a profile indistinguishable from negative urgency. CONCLUSIONS: These results generally support a four-factor model of multidimensional impulsivity with a general overall urgency factor instead of separate positive and negative urgency facets.
Stahl, Sarah T.; Emanuel, James; Albert, Steven M.; Dew, Mary Amanda; Schulz, Richard; Robbins-Welty, Gregg; Reynolds, Charles F. 3rd (2017): Design and rationale for a technology-based healthy lifestyle intervention in older adults grieving the loss of a spouse.
In: Contemporary clinical trials communications 8, S. 99–105. DOI: 10.1016/j.conctc.2017.09.002.
Introduction: Experiencing the death of a spouse during late life is associated with an increased risk of developing debilitating mental health problems. Healthy lifestyle practices, such as regular exercise, healthy eating, and good sleep hygiene are promising strategies to influence the mental health and associated physical symptoms of late-life spousal bereavement. Objective: This paper describes the design and rationale of an intervention development study addressing selective and indicated prevention of depression, anxiety, and/or complicated grief disorder(s) among adults 60 years and older who are grieving the recent loss (within 8 months) of a spouse or partner. Methods: In Phase I, now complete, we developed and standardized behavioral self-monitoring of daily lifestyle choices via an electronic diary (BSM) and the combined BSM + motivational interviewing-based lifestyle coaching (BSM+MI) to be administered to participants grieving the loss of loved one. In Phase II, we have been implementing the interventions in a randomized controlled trial and addressing challenges related to recruitment. Randomization is to one of three cells: BSM, BSM+MI, or an enhanced usual care condition. Discussion: Several challenges in implementing our lifestyle interventions to older widow(er)s who are at risk for common mental disorders have been identified. Direct outreach to hospice organizations is an effective way to identify older adults in the early months following spousal death. Results from study may advance the field of grief support and promote a healthy adaptation to widowhood.
Stein, Jeffrey S.; Sze, Yan Yan; Athamneh, Liqa; Koffarnus, Mikhail N.; Epstein, Leonard H.; Bickel, Warren K. (2017): Think fast. Rapid assessment of the effects of episodic future thinking on delay discounting in overweight/obese participants.
In: J Behav Med 40 (5), S. 832–838. DOI: 10.1007/s10865-017-9857-8.
Accumulating laboratory-based evidence indicates that reducing delay discounting (devaluation of delayed outcomes) with the use of episodic future thinking (EFT; mental simulation of future events) improves dietary decision-making and other maladaptive behaviors. Recent work has adapted EFT for use in the natural environment to aid in dietary and weight control by engaging participants in EFT repeatedly throughout the day. These efforts may benefit from minimizing the amount of time required for measurement and implementation of EFT. Using Amazon Mechanical Turk in the present study, we show that EFT effectively reduces delay discounting in overweight/obese participants (N = 131) using the recently developed 5-trial, adjusting-delay discounting task, which can be completed rapidly (25 s) and is therefore ideally suited for ecological momentary assessment. Moreover, measures of delay discounting from this task were strongly correlated with those from the commonly used adjusting-amount task (r = .859). Significant effects of EFT on discounting, however, depended on the number of future events participants generated and imagined. Use of a range of events and future time frames (as is typical in the literature) significantly reduced delay discounting, whereas use of only a single event did not. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Stephenson, Ellen; DeLongis, Anita; Bruel, Brian; Badr, Hoda (2017): Outpatient pain medication use. An electronic daily diary study in metastatic breast cancer.
In: Journal of pain and symptom management. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2017.11.032.
CONTEXT: Understanding cancer patients’ everyday pain experiences and their concomitant use of pain medication may help identify ways to improve pain management among outpatients. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the between-person and within-person associations between pain intensity and analgesic use in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients. METHODS: 53 women who were initiating treatment for MBC completed electronic diary assessments 6 times per day for 14 days. RESULTS: The likelihood of taking medication was found to depend on patients’ average pain levels and on whether their pain was better or worse than usual at the time. Patients who typically experienced moderate to high pain were more likely to be prescribed and to take analgesics than were patients who typically experienced low pain. However, these patients tended not to vary their medication use based on within-person fluctuations in pain. In contrast, patients who typically experienced low pain tended to increase their medication use at times when their pain was higher than usual, but were less likely to use medication than were patients who typically experienced higher levels of pain. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide some evidence that patients with advanced cancer tend to use their pain medications appropriately. Those with lower pain appear to be taking medications in response to increases in pain, whereas, patients whose pain is typically more intense may be relying on other cues to prompt them to take analgesic medication. Clinicians may need to be sensitive to individual differences in the factors associated with pain medication use in daily life.
Stieger, Stefan; Lewetz, David; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich (2017): Can smartphones be used to bring computer-based tasks from the lab to the field? A mobile experience-sampling method study about the pace of life.
In: Behavior research methods. DOI: 10.3758/s13428-017-0991-6.
Researchers are increasingly using smartphones to collect scientific data. To date, most smartphone studies have collected questionnaire data or data from the built-in sensors. So far, few studies have analyzed whether smartphones can also be used to conduct computer-based tasks (CBTs). Using a mobile experience-sampling method study and a computer-based tapping task as examples (N = 246; twice a day for three weeks, 6,000+ measurements), we analyzed how well smartphones can be used to conduct a CBT. We assessed methodological aspects such as potential technologically induced problems, dropout, task noncompliance, and the accuracy of millisecond measurements. Overall, we found few problems: Dropout rate was low, and the time measurements were very accurate. Nevertheless, particularly at the beginning of the study, some participants did not comply with the task instructions, probably because they did not read the instructions before beginning the task. To summarize, the results suggest that smartphones can be used to transfer CBTs from the lab to the field, and that real-world variations across device manufacturers, OS types, and CPU load conditions did not substantially distort the results.
Suchting, Robert; Hebert, Emily T.; Ma, Ping; Kendzor, Darla E.; Businelle, Michael S. (2017): Using elastic net penalized cox proportional hazards regression to identify predictors of imminent smoking lapse.
In: Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. DOI: 10.1093/ntr/ntx201.
Introduction: Machine learning algorithms such as elastic net regression and backwards selection provide a unique and powerful approach to model building given a set of psychosocial predictors of smoking lapse measured repeatedly via ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Understanding these predictors may aid in developing interventions for smoking lapse prevention. Methods: In a randomized controlled smoking cessation trial, smartphone-based EMAs were collected from 92 participants following a scheduled quit date. This secondary analysis utilized elastic net penalized cox proportional hazards regression and model approximation via backward elimination to (a) optimize a predictive model of time to first lapse and (b) simplify that model to its core constituent predictors to maximize parsimony and generalizability. Results: Elastic net proportional hazards regression selected 17 of 26 possible predictors from 2065 EMAs to model time to first lapse. The predictors with the highest magnitude regression coefficients were having consumed alcohol in the past hour, being around and interacting with a smoker, and having cigarettes easily available. This model was reduced using backward elimination, retaining five predictors and approximating to 93.9% of model fit. The retained predictors included those mentioned above as well as feeling irritable and being in areas where smoking is either discouraged or allowed (as opposed to not permitted). Conclusions: The strongest predictors of smoking lapse were environmental in nature (e.g., being in smoking-permitted areas) as opposed to internal factors such as psychological affect. Interventions may be improved by a renewed focus of interventions on these predictors. IMPLICATIONS: The present study demonstrated the utility of machine learning algorithms to optimize the prediction of time to smoking lapse using EMA data. The two models generated by the present analysis found that environmental factors were most strongly related to smoking lapse. The results support the use of machine learning algorithms to investigate intensive longitudinal data, and provide a foundation for the development of highly tailored, just-in-time interventions that can target upon multiple antecedents of smoking lapse.
Suffoletto, Brian; Gharani, Pedram; Chung, Tammy; Karimi, Hassan (2017): Using phone sensors and an artificial neural network to detect gait changes during drinking episodes in the natural environment.
In: Gait & posture 60, S. 116–121. DOI: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2017.11.019.
BACKGROUND: Phone sensors could be useful in assessing changes in gait that occur with alcohol consumption. This study determined (1) feasibility of collecting gait-related data during drinking occasions in the natural environment, and (2) how gait-related features measured by phone sensors relate to estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC). METHODS: Ten young adult heavy drinkers were prompted to complete a 5-step gait task every hour from 8pm to 12am over four consecutive weekends. We collected 3-axis accelerometer, gyroscope, and magnetometer data from phone sensors, and computed 24 gait-related features using a sliding window technique. eBAC levels were calculated at each time point based on Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) of alcohol use. We used an artificial neural network model to analyze associations between sensor features and eBACs in training (70% of the data) and validation and test (30% of the data) datasets. RESULTS: We analyzed 128 data points where both eBAC and gait-related sensor data were captured, either when not drinking (n=60), while eBAC was ascending (n=55) or eBAC was descending (n=13). 21 data points were captured at times when the eBAC was greater than the legal limit (0.08mg/dl). Using a Bayesian regularized neural network, gait-related phone sensor features showed a high correlation with eBAC (Pearson’s r>0.9), and >95% of estimated eBAC would fall between -0.012 and +0.012 of actual eBAC. CONCLUSIONS: It is feasible to collect gait-related data from smartphone sensors during drinking occasions in the natural environment. Sensor-based features can be used to infer gait changes associated with elevated blood alcohol content.
Teixeira, Ana; Freire, Teresa (2017): From therapy to daily life of a depressed adolescent. Crossing psychopathology and optimal functioning.
In: Curr Psychol. DOI: 10.1007/s12144-017-9748-8.
Recently, scientific literature has seen significant development and evaluation of several positive psychology interventions. However, there are still lacking studies that evaluate the efficacy of this type of interventions in clinically depressed adolescents. This paper aims to demonstrate the preliminary results of a new therapy implemented to a 14-year-old female adolescent diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder: the Optimal Functioning Therapy for Adolescent. This therapy seeks to promote adolescents’ optimal functioning by reducing depressive symptoms and increasing well-being. The innovation of this therapy lies in the integration of techniques from Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Positive Psychology Interventions. The assessment of this therapy was made using retrospective and real-time or ecological measures (Experience Sampling Method – Csikszentmihalyi and Larson in Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 175, 526–536, 1987) in three moments: baseline; post-intervention; and 4-month follow-up. Retrospective results showed improvement in positive trait characteristics and elimination of depressive symptoms maintained until follow-up. Real-time results showed the benefits of the therapy on the participant’s daily life regarding external contexts (increased engagement and diversification of activities, places, and companies) and state characteristics (increase in positive mood and self-satisfaction, and a decrease in the negative mood), maintained until follow-up. The Optimal Functioning Therapy for Adolescents contributed to the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder and optimal functioning enhancement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Thomaes, Sander; Brummelman, Eddie; Miller, Joshua D.; Lilienfeld, Scott O. (2017): The dark personality and psychopathology. Toward a brighter future.
In: Journal of abnormal psychology 126 (7), S. 835–842. DOI: 10.1037/abn0000305.
The young field of research on dark personality traits (i.e., socially aversive traits such as psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism) is gaining momentum. This Special Section examines the nature, origins, development, and sequelae of dark traits, underscoring their largely unappreciated relevance to abnormal psychology. The articles in this section adopt diverse perspectives (e.g., clinical, developmental, organizational, social personality), use diverse methods (e.g., longitudinal, experience sampling), and sample diverse populations (e.g., offenders, psychiatric outpatients, schoolchildren). As an introduction to the Special Section, this article identifies key conceptual and methodological challenges to the field of dark personality research. Its aim is to spur novel approaches to how dark personality traits are implicated in psychopathology and abnormal behavior more broadly. (PsycINFO Database Record
Thompson, Renee J.; Spectre, Aleksandr; Insel, Philip; Mennin, Douglas; Gotlib, Ian H.; Gruber, June (2017): Positive and negative affective forecasting in remitted individuals with bipolar I disorder, and major depressive disorder, and healthy controls.
In: Cognit Ther Res 41 (5), S. 673–685. DOI: 10.1007/s10608-017-9840-2.
Although emotional disturbances characterize mood disorders, little is known about the affective forecasts of these individuals. We examined forecasted intensity and accuracy for negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA) among two remitted clinical groups: individuals with Bipolar I (BD; n = 31) and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD; n = 21), and healthy controls (CTL; n = 32). We also examined whether each group’s forecasting accuracy varied by valence. At the lab, participants forecasted their short-term (next day) and long-term (next week) NA and PA; then they completed a week of experience sampling. The MDD group forecasted lower PA and higher NA than the CTL group; the BD group’s forecasts varied across time frames. There were no group differences in forecasting accuracies. Regarding within group forecasting accuracy, the CTL group was more accurate in PA than NA; the BD group was similarly accurate across valence, and the MDD group’s accuracy varied based on the time frame. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Thomson, Simon J.; Tavakkolizadeh, Moein; Love-Jones, Sarah; Patel, Nikunj K.; Gu, Jianwen Wendy; Bains, Amarpreet et al. (2018): Effects of rate on analgesia in kilohertz frequency spinal cord stimulation. Results of the PROCO randomized controlled trial.
In: Neuromodulation : journal of the International Neuromodulation Society 21 (1), S. 67–76. DOI: 10.1111/ner.12746.
OBJECTIVE: The PROCO RCT is a multicenter, double-blind, crossover, randomized controlled trial (RCT) that investigated the effects of rate on analgesia in kilohertz frequency (1-10 kHz) spinal cord stimulation (SCS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were implanted with SCS systems and underwent an eight-week search to identify the best location (“sweet spot”) of stimulation at 10 kHz within the searched region (T8-T11). An electronic diary (e-diary) prompted patients for pain scores three times per day. Patients who responded to 10 kHz per e-diary numeric rating scale (ED-NRS) pain scores proceeded to double-blind rate randomization. Patients received 1, 4, 7, and 10 kHz SCS at the same sweet spot found for 10 kHz in randomized order (four weeks at each frequency). For each frequency, pulse width and amplitude were titrated to optimize therapy. RESULTS: All frequencies provided equivalent pain relief as measured by ED-NRS (p </= 0.002). However, mean charge per second differed across frequencies, with 1 kHz SCS requiring 60-70% less charge than higher frequencies (p </= 0.0002). CONCLUSIONS: The PROCO RCT provides Level I evidence for equivalent pain relief from 1 to 10 kHz with appropriate titration of pulse width and amplitude. 1 kHz required significantly less charge than higher frequencies.
Timmer, Barbra H. B.; Hickson, Louise; Launer, Stefan (2017): Ecological momentary assessment. Feasibility, construct validity, and future applications.
In: American journal of audiology 26 (3S), S. 436–442. DOI: 10.1044/2017_AJA-16-0126.
Purpose: This research assessed the feasibility and construct validity of ecological momentary assessment in capturing the hearing experiences of adults with mild hearing impairment in natural environments. Method: Twenty-nine adults between the ages of 55 and 79 years (M = 69 years) answered multiple surveys on a smartphone app over a 2-week trial. Participants also wore 1 environmental classifier and a streamer allowing bidirectional communication between smartphone and classifier. Surveys were triggered based on defined criteria, or by the participants. A paper-based self-report questionnaire was administered before and after the trial. Results: Feasibility was indicated by high compliance rates, with a total of 1,128 surveys completed. Of these, 72% were completed during a listening event, 26% within 1 hr, and only 2% of the surveys more than 1 hr after the listening event. The mean survey completion time was 1 min 40 s. Mean pre- and post-trial self-report scores were not significantly different, indicating no reactivity. Construct validity was indicated by the close agreement between subjective ratings of listening situations and objective data from the hearing aid classifier. Conclusions: Ecological momentary assessment is a feasible and valid research methodology for older adults with mild hearing impairment. The methodology has potential as a clinical counseling and outcome tool.
van Nierop, Martine; Lecei, Aleksandra; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Collip, Dina; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Jacobs, Nele et al. (2017): Stress reactivity links childhood trauma exposure to an admixture of depressive, anxiety, and psychosis symptoms.
In: Psychiatry research 260, S. 451–457. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.12.012.
Childhood trauma exposure has been associated with a clinically relevant mixed phenotype of psychopathology composed of depressive, anxiety, and psychosis symptoms, across healthy and clinical samples. Altered stress-reactivity after exposure to childhood trauma may be a plausible underlying mechanism explaining this association. In a general population sample of female twins (T0 = 564; T1 = 483), associations between childhood trauma exposure and symptom profile (no symptoms, isolated symptoms, or a mixed phenotype) on the one hand, and daily life stress reactivity on the other were investigated. Daily life stress reactivity was measured using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM), and was defined as negative affect reactivity to minor daily life stressors. Individuals exposed to childhood trauma who reported a mixed phenotype of psychopathology showed a significant increase in emotional reactivity to daily life stress (activity and social stress), compared with trauma-exposed individuals without a mixed phenotype. In the trauma-exposed mixed phenotype group, increased emotional reactivity to event-stress predicted more severe symptoms at +/- 14 month follow-up. This study found evidence that may link heightened emotional reactivity to stress in individuals with a trauma history to the risk for later comorbid psychopathology.
Verhagen, Simone J. W.; Berben, Julienne A.; Leue, Carsten; Marsman, Anne; Delespaul, Philippe A. E. G.; van Os, Jim; Lousberg, Richel (2017): Demonstrating the reliability of transdiagnostic mHealth Routine Outcome Monitoring in mental health services using experience sampling technology.
In: PloS one 12 (10), e0186294. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0186294.
BACKGROUND: Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM) should provide a dynamic, within-treatment forward feedback loop to guide individual treatment decisions across diagnostic categories. It has been suggested that the Experience Sampling Method (ESM), capturing the film of daily life adaptive processes, offers a flexible, personalised and transdiagnostic feedback system for monitoring and adapting treatment strategies. This is the first study that uses an ESM application (the PsyMate) as a routine mobile-ROM (mROM) tool in an ambulatory mental health setting. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate adequate psychometric properties of the PsyMate app assessing both symptom severity levels as well as daily life functioning. METHOD: In a transdiagnostic sample of 64 outpatients, an mROM protocol (ESM for 6 days, at 10 semi-random moments a day) and a standard ROM instrument (HADS) were administered at baseline and at three-month follow-up. We measured positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), quality of sleep, positive social interaction, activity-related stress, tiredness, and feeling unwell. RESULTS: Subjects completed 53% of the measurements at baseline (N = 64) and 48% at follow-up (N = 29). Factor analysis and subsequent reliability analysis of PA and NA confirmed the two constructs. Significant and meaningful correlations were found between PA, NA and HADS scores (ranging from r = .4 to r = .7). Multilevel analyses yielded significant change scores for all measures. CONCLUSION: The ESM-based, transdiagnostic mROM tool can be used reliably in clinical settings: it shows adequate psychometric properties, as well as concurrent validity and sensitivity to change over time with respect to relevant ROM constructs. Person-tailored items can be added. In addition, mROM offers added value over standard symptom-based ROM, as it provides information on adaptive functioning in the daily environment of patients.
Verhagen, Simone J. W.; Simons, Claudia J. P.; van Zelst, Catherine; Delespaul, Philippe A. E. G. (2017): Constructing a reward-related quality of life statistic in daily life-a proof of concept study using positive affect.
In: Frontiers in psychology 8, S. 1917. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01917.
Background: Mental healthcare needs person-tailored interventions. Experience Sampling Method (ESM) can provide daily life monitoring of personal experiences. This study aims to operationalize and test a measure of momentary reward-related Quality of Life (rQoL). Intuitively, quality of life improves by spending more time on rewarding experiences. ESM clinical interventions can use this information to coach patients to find a realistic, optimal balance of positive experiences (maximize reward) in daily life. rQoL combines the frequency of engaging in a relevant context (a ‘behavior setting’) with concurrent (positive) affect. High rQoL occurs when the most frequent behavior settings are combined with positive affect or infrequent behavior settings co-occur with low positive affect. Methods: Resampling procedures (Monte Carlo experiments) were applied to assess the reliability of rQoL using various behavior setting definitions under different sampling circumstances, for real or virtual subjects with low-, average- and high contextual variability. Furthermore, resampling was used to assess whether rQoL is a distinct concept from positive affect. Virtual ESM beep datasets were extracted from 1,058 valid ESM observations for virtual and real subjects. Results: Behavior settings defined by Who-What contextual information were most informative. Simulations of at least 100 ESM observations are needed for reliable assessment. Virtual ESM beep datasets of a real subject can be defined by Who-What-Where behavior setting combinations. Large sample sizes are necessary for reliable rQoL assessments, except for subjects with low contextual variability. rQoL is distinct from positive affect. Conclusion: rQoL is a feasible concept. Monte Carlo experiments should be used to assess the reliable implementation of an ESM statistic. Future research in ESM should asses the behavior of summary statistics under different sampling situations. This exploration is especially relevant in clinical implementation, where often only small datasets are available.
Vigo, Markel; Hassan, Lamiece; Vance, William; Jay, Caroline; Brass, Andrew; Cruickshank, Sheena (2018): Britain breathing. Using the experience sampling method to collect the seasonal allergy symptoms of a country.
In: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA 25 (1), S. 88–92. DOI: 10.1093/jamia/ocx148.
Objective: Allergies are increasing, but the reasons for this are unclear. Although environmental factors are thought to be important, there is a lack of data on how they contribute to symptom development. To understand this relationship better, we need accurate data about both symptoms and environmental factors. Our objective here is to ascertain whether experience sampling is a reliable approach for collecting allergy symptom data in the general population, allowing us to map symptoms and understand etiology. Materials and Methods: We conducted a 32-week cross-sectional study where individuals reported their seasonal allergy symptoms and severity via a mobile application. Symptom geographical location and timestamp were also collected automatically. Results: The experience sampling method reliably infers the incidence of seasonal allergies as indicated by the strong correlation (r = 0.93, P < .003) between the reported lack of wellness and the number of antihistamines prescribed by General Practitioners. Discussion and Conclusion: The project has resulted in the first dataset to map allergy symptoms over time and place and reveals periods of peak hay fever symptoms in the UK.
Vinci, Christine; Li, Liang; Wu, Cai; Lam, Cho Y.; Guo, Lin; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie et al. (2017): The association of positive emotion and first smoking lapse. An ecological momentary assessment study.
In: Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association 36 (11), S. 1038–1046. DOI: 10.1037/hea0000535.
Objective: Individuals attempting to quit smoking typically have poor success rates, and the majority fail to maintain long-term abstinence. Although a large body of evidence documents the impact of negative affect on reducing abstinence, there is a much smaller body of research on positive emotions, which could be an important mechanism that is associated with successful cessation. As such, this study examined positive emotions in real-time via ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to determine whether discrete positive emotions were uniquely related to 2 cessation milestones: quit day lapse and first lapse. Method: Participants were 391 smokers who received tobacco cessation treatment. EMAs were completed pre- and postquit, and positive emotion was assessed with 3 items (enthusiastic, happy, and relaxed) rated on 5-point Likert scales. Analyses examined the associations of the means and slopes of each emotion on the current day with the likelihood of lapse on the following day. Results: When controlling for relevant covariates, prequit positive emotions were not related to quit day lapse. However, postquit positive emotions were associated with first lapse. Specifically, high levels of happiness and relaxation, as well as increasing levels of enthusiasm, happiness, and relaxation were related to a lower likelihood of next day lapse. Conclusions: These are some of the first real-time, real-world data to demonstrate that distinct positive emotions are associated with a lower risk of lapse during the postquit period among smokers attempting to quit. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Vork, L.; Keszthelyi, D.; Mujagic, Z.; Kruimel, J. W.; Leue, C.; Ponten, I. et al. (2017): Development, content validity, and cross-cultural adaptation of a patient-reported outcome measure for real-time symptom assessment in irritable bowel syndrome.
In: Neurogastroenterology and motility : the official journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society. DOI: 10.1111/nmo.13244.
BACKGROUND: End-of-day questionnaires, which are considered the gold standard for assessing abdominal pain and other gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), are influenced by recall and ecological bias. The experience sampling method (ESM) is characterized by random and repeated assessments in the natural state and environment of a subject, and herewith overcomes these limitations. This report describes the development of a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) based on the ESM principle, taking into account content validity and cross-cultural adaptation. METHODS: Focus group interviews with IBS patients and expert meetings with international experts in the fields of neurogastroenterology & motility and pain were performed in order to select the items for the PROM. Forward-and-back translation and cognitive interviews were performed to adapt the instrument for the use in different countries and to assure on patients’ understanding with the final items. KEY RESULTS: Focus group interviews revealed 42 items, categorized into five domains: physical status, defecation, mood and psychological factors, context and environment, and nutrition and drug use. Experts reduced the number of items to 32 and cognitive interviewing after translation resulted in a few slight adjustments regarding linguistic issues, but not regarding content of the items. CONCLUSIONS AND INFERENCES: An ESM-based PROM, suitable for momentary assessment of IBS symptom patterns was developed, taking into account content validity and cross-cultural adaptation. This PROM will be implemented in a specifically designed smartphone application and further validation in a multicenter setting will follow.
Wahl, Deborah R.; Villinger, Karoline; Konig, Laura M.; Ziesemer, Katrin; Schupp, Harald T.; Renner, Britta (2017): Healthy food choices are happy food choices. Evidence from a real life sample using smartphone based assessments.
In: Scientific reports 7 (1), S. 17069. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-17262-9.
Research suggests that “healthy” food choices such as eating fruits and vegetables have not only physical but also mental health benefits and might be a long-term investment in future well-being. This view contrasts with the belief that high-caloric foods taste better, make us happy, and alleviate a negative mood. To provide a more comprehensive assessment of food choice and well-being, we investigated in-the-moment eating happiness by assessing complete, real life dietary behaviour across eight days using smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment. Three main findings emerged: First, of 14 different main food categories, vegetables consumption contributed the largest share to eating happiness measured across eight days. Second, sweets on average provided comparable induced eating happiness to “healthy” food choices such as fruits or vegetables. Third, dinner elicited comparable eating happiness to snacking. These findings are discussed within the “food as health” and “food as well-being” perspectives on eating behaviour.
Wang, Hao-Ting; Poerio, Giulia; Murphy, Charlotte; Bzdok, Danilo; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Smallwood, Jonathan (2017): Dimensions of experience. Exploring the heterogeneity of the wandering mind.
In: Psychological science, 956797617728727. DOI: 10.1177/0956797617728727.
The tendency for the mind to wander to concerns other than the task at hand is a fundamental feature of human cognition, yet the consequences of variations in its experiential content for psychological functioning are not well understood. Here, we adopted multivariate pattern analysis to simultaneously decompose experience-sampling data and neural functional-connectivity data, which revealed dimensions that simultaneously describe individual variation in self-reported experience and default-mode-network connectivity. We identified dimensions corresponding to traits of positive-habitual thoughts and spontaneous task-unrelated thoughts. These dimensions were uniquely related to aspects of cognition, such as executive control and the ability to generate information in a creative fashion, and independently distinguished well-being measures. These data provide the most convincing evidence to date for an ontological view of the mind-wandering state as encompassing a broad range of different experiences and show that this heterogeneity underlies mind wandering’s complex relationship to psychological functioning.
Webber, Chelsea J.; O’Hea, Erin C.; Abar, Beau; Bock, Beth; Boudreaux, Edwin D. (2017): Ecological momentary assessment and first smoking cessation lapse after an acute cardiac event. A pilot study.
In: Journal of health psychology, 1359105317746731. DOI: 10.1177/1359105317746731.
This 28-day pilot study assessed the feasibility of cell phone ecological momentary assessment in 40 smokers who received emergency department evaluations for acute coronary syndrome. Ecological momentary assessments used familiar touch tone response technology during a cell phone call to capture ratings of illness perceptions, emotion, behavioral intentions, and smoking. Ecological momentary assessments were conducted 1-8 times/day and took 1-2 minutes to complete. The mean ecological momentary assessment call compliance for all 40 subjects was 56.3 percent (standard deviation = 29.4), and during an ecological momentary assessment, 72.5 percent of participants reported a first lapse. We found that first-week call compliance was significantly correlated with subsequent compliance ( r = 0.55, p < 0.001).
Weinstein, Netta; Legate, Nicole; Ryan, William S.; Sedikides, Constantine; Cozzolino, Philip J. (2017): Autonomy support for conflictual and stigmatized identities. Effects on ownership and psychological health.
In: J Couns Psychol 64 (5), S. 584–599. DOI: 10.1037/cou0000224.
Important others’ perceptions influence self-perceptions. This presents a challenge for the critical developmental task of integrating all aspects of identity, as identities that are devalued or stigmatized by society are harder to own than valued ones. Across 3 studies, we tested the idea that conflictual or stigmatized identities are harder to own, or integrate into the self, than are nonconflictual ones, and we examine how receiving autonomy support for an identity—support for authentic identity exploration and expression—can facilitate ownership of that identity. Cross-sectional (n = 543), experience-sampling (n = 66), and experimental methods (n = 209) tested the dynamics of autonomy-supportive others on identity ownership. Data from these studies converge to show that conflictual identities are indeed harder to own than nonconflictual ones, but that autonomy support predicts greater ownership and psychological health, especially for conflictual identities. In the final study, we replicate these dynamics in 3 identities stigmatized by society: sexual minority, ethnic minority, and gender minority identities. Findings reveal the importance of integrating all aspects of identity—particularly those that are conflictual or stigmatized—into one’s self-concept. We consider implications for counseling and clinical practice, as well as broadly for the psychological health of stigmatized individuals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Public Significance Statement—Findings reveal that perceiving important others as autonomy supportive of one’s identity—particularly when that identity is conflictual or stigmatized—facilitates ownership of that identity and greater psychological health. This work highlights the psychological benefits of accepting and supportive family members, friends, coworkers, and others, and speaks to the utility of counselors and clinicians providing autonomy support to clients grappling with a conflictual or stigmatized identity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Westermann, Stefan; Grezellschak, Sarah; Oravecz, Zita; Moritz, Steffen; Lüdtke, Thies; Jansen, Andreas (2017): Untangling the complex relationships between symptoms of schizophrenia and emotion dynamics in daily life. Findings from an experience sampling pilot study.
In: Psychiatry research 257, S. 514–518. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.08.023.
The unfolding of emotions over time (i.e., emotion dynamics) has been characterized by baseline, intraindividual variability and regulatory tendency (return time to baseline after deflection). Mounting evidence suggests that compared to healthy individuals, individuals with schizophrenia are characterized by a more negatively valenced baseline and a higher intraindividual variability. However, the regulatory tendency has not been investigated in schizophrenia so far. We hypothesize that the severity of positive symptoms is linked to increased emotional variability and that the severity of negative symptoms is associated with an increased regulatory tendency. Fifteen individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia took part in this pilot experience sampling study and reported their emotional state ten times a day. The dynamics of valence and arousal and their relationship with symptomatology were estimated with the DynAffect model. Regulatory tendency in valence and arousal was positively associated with negative symptom severity and negatively associated with positive symptom severity. However, the severity of positive symptoms was not credibly associated with the variability of valence. The study only partly corroborates findings on increased stress reactivity in schizophrenia, which might be due to the small sample size. However, results suggest that negative symptoms could stem from over-regulated emotion dynamics, which may impede goal-directed behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Wijewardena, Nilupama; Härtel, Charmine E. J.; Samaratunge, Ramanie (2017): Using humor and boosting emotions. An affect-based study of managerial humor, employees’ emotions and psychological capital.
In: Hum Relat 70 (11), S. 1316–1341. DOI: 10.1177/0018726717691809.
Evidence from emerging scholarly investigations consistently points to managerial humor as fruitful new grounds to expand management knowledge and practice. In light of this, the present study examined managerial humor as an affective event at work that has short-term emotional and long-term psychological outcomes for employees. To test this empirically, we recruited a sample of 2498 Australian employees to participate in a field experience sampling study. We also considered the potential moderating effect of leader–member exchange on the humor–emotions relationship. Findings provide initial support for managerial humor as an affective event such that when employees perceived their manager’s humor as positive they reported experiencing positive emotions, and vice versa. Importantly, employees with high-quality relationships with their managers responded to their manager’s humor use with a greater number of positive emotions and fewer negative emotions than did employees with low-quality relationships with their managers. We argue that humor is an event that managers must responsibly manage in order to produce positive emotional experiences for employees and support healthy emotion regulation at work. We also discuss the conditions under which it is advisable for managers to use humor with employees, and suggest future research directions to develop this growing field of inquiry. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Wilt, Joshua; Revelle, William (2017): The big five, everyday contexts and activities, and affective experience.
In: Pers Individ Dif. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2017.12.032.
Prior research shows that personality traits predict time spent with different people and frequency of engagement in different activities. Further, personality traits, company, and activity are related to the experience of affect. However, little research has examined personality, context, and affect together in the same study. In the current study, 78 people described their Big Five traits and took part in a 1-week experience sampling study using mobile phones as a means for data collection. Participants indicated their current company, activity, and momentary affect along the dimensions of energetic arousal (EA), tense arousal (TA), and hedonic tone (HT). Poisson regressions revealed that traits predicted higher frequencies of trait-consistent contexts: for example, extraversion was related to more frequently being with various types of company. Results predicting contexts from multilevel logistic regressions were sparser. Multilevel models revealed that traits and contexts had main effects on affect, yet there were relatively few interactions of traits X contexts predicting affect. We discuss more specific implications of these findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Woolum, Andrew; Foulk, Trevor; Lanaj, Klodiana; Erez, Amir (2017): Rude color glasses. The contaminating effects of witnessed morning rudeness on perceptions and behaviors throughout the workday.
In: The Journal of applied psychology 102 (12), S. 1658–1672. DOI: 10.1037/apl0000247.
Using an experimental experience sampling design, we investigate how witnessing morning rudeness influences workers’ subsequent perceptions and behaviors throughout the workday. We posit that a single exposure to rudeness in the morning can contaminate employees’ perceptions of subsequent social interactions leading them to perceive greater workplace rudeness throughout their workday. We expect that these contaminated perceptions will have important ramifications for employees’ work behaviors. In a 10-day study of 81 professional and managerial employees, we find that witnessed morning rudeness leads to greater perceptions of workplace rudeness throughout the workday and that those perceptions, in turn, predict lower task performance and goal progress and greater interaction avoidance and psychological withdrawal. We also find that the contaminating effect of morning rudeness depends on core self-evaluations (CSE)—employees high (vs. low) in CSE are affected less by exposure to morning rudeness. We discuss implications for practice and theory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Wouters, Saskia; Jacobs, Nele; Duif, Mira; Lechner, Lilian; Thewissen, Viviane (2017): Negative affective stress reactivity. The dampening effect of snacking.
In: Stress and health : journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress. DOI: 10.1002/smi.2788.
The present study sets out to further elucidate the complex relationship between daily hassles, snacking, and negative affect (NA). The aim of the present study was to examine whether or not moment-to-moment energy intake from snacks moderates the association between momentary stress and NA. And, if so, can this moderating effect be replicated by using the amount of macronutrient intake (i.e., carbohydrates, fat, and protein) as moderator on the association between momentary stress and NA? Adults (N = 269), aged 20-50 years, participated in this study. Stress, NA, and snack intake were assessed 10 times a day for 7 consecutive days in daily life with an experience sampling smartphone application. Multilevel regression analyses were performed to assess the hypothesized associations. Our study revealed a dampening effect of snacking on negative affective stress reactivity. However, this dampening effect could not be replicated by the amount of macronutrient intake from snacks. On the contrary, the amount of carbohydrates has an enhancing effect on negative affective stress reactivity. In the end, our study suggests that the critical question is which mechanisms are decisive in the dampening role of snacking on stress reactivity. A multidisciplinary approach may provide a full perspective.
Wright, Aidan G. C.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Scott, Lori N.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Beeney, Joseph E.; Lazarus, Sophie A.; Pilkonis, Paul A. (2017): The effect of pathological narcissism on interpersonal and affective processes in social interactions.
In: Journal of abnormal psychology 126 (7), S. 898–910. DOI: 10.1037/abn0000286.
Narcissism has significant interpersonal costs, yet little research has examined behavioral and affective patterns characteristic of narcissism in naturalistic settings. Here we studied the effect of narcissistic features on the dynamic processes of interpersonal behavior and affect in daily life. We used interpersonal theory to generate transactional models of social interaction (i.e., linkages among perceptions of others’ behavior, affect, and one’s own behavior) predicted to be characteristic of narcissism. Psychiatric outpatients (N = 102) completed clinical interviews and a 21-day ecological momentary assessment protocol using smartphones. After social interactions (N = 5,781), participants reported on perceptions of their interaction partner’s behavior (scored along the dimensions of dominant-submissive and affiliative-quarrelsome), their own affect, and their own behavior. Multilevel structural equation modeling was used to examine dynamic links among behavior and affect across interactions, and the role of narcissism in moderating these links. Results showed that perceptions of others’ dominance did not predict dominant behavior, but did predict quarrelsome behavior, and this link was potentiated by narcissism. Furthermore, the link between others’ dominance and one’s own quarrelsome behavior was mediated by negative affect. Moderated mediation was also found: Narcissism amplified the link between ratings of others’ dominance and one’s own quarrelsomeness and negative affect. Narcissism did not moderate the link between other dominance and own dominance, nor the link between other affiliation and own affiliation. These results suggest that narcissism is associated with specific interpersonal and affective processes, such that sensitivity to others’ dominance triggers antagonistic behavior in daily life. (PsycINFO Database Record
Xie, Tao; Zheng, Qinghua; Zhang, Weizhan (2017): Recognizing physical contexts of mobile video learners via smartphone sensors.
In: Knowl Based Syst 136, S. 75–84. DOI: 10.1016/j.knosys.2017.09.002.
Current studies can effectively recognize several human activities in a single semantic context, but don’t recognize the semantics of a single activity in different contexts. The main challenge is the conflicting phone usages as well as the special requirements of the energy consumption. This paper tests a classic learning scenario regarding mobile video viewing and validates the proposed recognition method by comprehensively taking the recognizing accuracy, effectiveness and the energy consumption into consideration. Readings of four carefully-selected sensors are collected and a wide range of machine learning algorithms are investigated. The results show the combination of accelerometer, light and sound sensors is better than that of acceleration, light and gyroscope sensors, the features with respect to energy spectral don’t improve the recognition accuracy, and the system reaches robustness in a few minutes. The proposed method is simple, effective and practical in real applications of pervasive learning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Yang, Liyun; Grooten, Wilhelmus J. A.; Forsman, Mikael (2017): An iPhone application for upper arm posture and movement measurements.
In: Appl Ergon 65, S. 492–500. DOI: 10.1016/j.apergo.2017.02.012.
There is a need for objective methods for upper arm elevation measurements for accurate and convenient risk assessments. The aims of this study were (i) to compare a newly developed iOS application (iOS) for measuring upper arm elevation and angular velocity with a reference optical tracking system (OTS), and (ii) to compare the accuracy of the iOS incorporating a gyroscope and an accelerometer with using only an accelerometer, which is standard for inclinometry. The iOS–OTS limits of agreement for static postures (9 subjects) were −4.6° and 4.8°. All root mean square differences in arm swings and two simulated work tasks were <6.0°, and all mean correlation coefficients were >0.98. The mean absolute iOS–OTS difference of median angular velocity was <13.1°/s, which was significantly lower than only using an accelerometer (<43.5°/s). The accuracy of this iOS application compares well to that of today’s research methods and it can be useful for practical upper arm measurements. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Yuan, Ming; Guo, Xucheng; Li, Xi; Chen, Xijing; Wang, Chunguang; Li, Yonghui (2017): The moderating role of regulatory emotional self-efficacy on smoking craving. An ecological momentary assessment study.
In: PsyCh journal. DOI: 10.1002/pchj.188.
Emotion is presumed as a major reason for smoking, but this hypothesis needs support from data with high ecological validity. Regulatory emotional self-efficacy (RESE) is key for emotion regulation, therefore RESE is likely to moderate the relationship between emotional states and smoking. The present study used the ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to record the levels of pleasure, arousal, and smoking craving in 33 male current smokers’ daily lives, and examined the moderating effect of RESE in the prediction relationship between emotion and craving. The results showed that either end of the pleasure dimension, namely the high positive or high negative affect, predicted higher smoking craving. A similar pattern was also discovered in the arousal dimension, in which either of the activation and deactivation ends predicted higher smoking craving. Moreover, the prediction of negative affect on smoking craving was weakened by higher RESE, especially by the higher self-efficacy in managing negative emotions. In conclusion, smoking craving is closely related with immediate emotional states, and RESE reveals promising value in the reduction of smoking behavior. We discuss the possibility of expanding the RESE frame.
Zajchowski, Chris A. B.; Schwab, Keri A.; Dustin, Daniel L. (2017): The experiencing self and the remembering self. Implications for leisure science.
In: Leis Sci 39 (6), S. 561–568. DOI: 10.1080/01490400.2016.1209140.
In this research reflection we question the way leisure experience is commonly understood and how leisure science is commonly conducted. Specifically, we focus on advances in multiple self-theory popularized by Daniel Kahneman in Thinking, Fast and Slow, an in-depth examination of human thought processes. After establishing Kahneman’s foundational perspective, we apply his thinking to leisure experience and leisure science by reviewing recent scholarship focused on the ‘experiencing’ and ‘remembering’ selves (2000). We conclude the reflection by discussing the implications of Kahneman’s thinking for the use of self-reports by leisure scientists, as well as call for greater congruence between the selves we seek to research and our selected research methods. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)