Achnak, Safaa; Griep, Yannick; Vantilborgh, Tim (2018): I Am So Tired… How Fatigue May Exacerbate Stress Reactions to Psychological Contract Breach.
In: Frontiers in psychology 9, S. 231. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00231.
Previous research showed that perceptions of psychological contract (PC) breach have undesirable individual and organizational consequences. Surprisingly, the PC literature has paid little to no attention to the relationship between PC breach perceptions and stress. A better understanding of how PC breach may elicit stress seems crucial, given that stress plays a key role in employees’ physical and mental well-being. Based on Conservation of Resources Theory, we suggest that PC breach perceptions represent a perceived loss of valued resources, subsequently leading employees to experience higher stress levels resulting from emerging negative emotions. Moreover, we suggest that this mediated relationship is moderated by initial levels of fatigue, due to fatigue lowering the personal resources necessary to cope with breach events. To tests our hypotheses, we analyzed the multilevel data we obtained from two experience Sampling designs (Study 1: 51 Belgian employees; Study 2: 53 US employees). Note that the unit of analysis is “observations” rather than “respondents,” resulting in an effective sample size of 730 (Study 1) and 374 (Study 2) observations. In both studies, we found evidence for the mediating role of negative emotions in the PC breach-stress relationship. In the second study, we also found evidence for the moderating role of fatigue in the mediated PC breach-stress relationship. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Allen, Alicia M.; Carlson, Samantha; Eberly, Lynn E.; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Piper, Megan E. (2018): Use of hormonal contraceptives and smoking cessation: A preliminary report.
In: Addictive behaviors 76, S. 236–242. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.08.003.
Although endogenous sex hormones influence smoking-related outcomes, little is known about the effect of exogenous sex hormones. Therefore, the goal of this preliminary study was to examine differences in withdrawal symptoms and cessation between women using hormonal contraceptives (HC), women not using hormonal contraceptives (no-HC) and men. Utilizing data from two recently completed smoking cessation randomized clinical trials, we selected participants who were between the ages of 18–35years old. Participants were classified based on use of hormonal contraceptives and gender, then matched based on pharmacotherapy randomization assignment and baseline cigarettes per day. Participants provided self-reported assessments on withdrawal, craving and negative affect, and smoking status was assessed for 52weeks after quit date. Participants (N = 130) were 28.7 ± 0.4years old and smoked 16.8 ± 0.6 cigarettes/day. Compared to both no-HC and men, the HC group had significantly greater withdrawal one week prior to the quit date, on the quit date and one week after the quit date. During the first week of attempted abstinence, craving declined in HC and in men, but increased in no-HC. At end of treatment, the HC group was at 3.73 times higher odds of being abstinent compared to men (95% confidence interval: 1.12–12.40). There were no group differences in abstinence rates at Week 26 or 52. These data suggest that HC users may experience more adverse levels of withdrawal, though may be more likely to achieve short-term abstinence. Future research is needed to replicate our observations and explore mechanisms of action. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Anderson, Jayne L.; Green, Angela J.; Yoward, L. Samantha; Hall, Howard K. (2018): Validity and reliability of accelerometry in identification of lying, sitting, standing or purposeful activity in adult hospital inpatients recovering from acute or critical illness: A systematic review.
In: Clin Rehabil 32 (2), S. 233–242. DOI: 10.1177/0269215517724850.
Objective: To investigate the validity and reliability of accelerometers to detect lying, sitting and standing postures or purposeful activity in hospitalized adults recovering from acute or critical illness. Data sources: CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, Cochrane Library, PEDro, PsycINFO and SPORTDiscuss were searched from inception to June 2017. Professional networks and reference lists of relevant articles were also searched. The main selection criteria were hospitalized adults with acute or critical illness and studies investigating the validity or reliability of accelerometers to identify body position or purposeful activity. Review methods: Two authors individually assessed study eligibility and independently undertook methodological quality assessment and data extraction from selected articles. A narrative synthesis of the data was undertaken. Results: Fifteen studies, collectively enrolling 385 hospitalized participants, were identified. Populations included stroke, the elderly, acute exacerbation of chronic respiratory disease, abdominal surgery and those recovering from critical illness. Correlations of r = 0.36 to 0.98 and levels of agreement of κ = 0.28 to 0.98 were reported for identification of lying, sitting or standing postures. Correlations of r = 0.4 to 0.8 with general activity were found, with r = 0.94 and 0.96 reported for step count. The reliability of accelerometry measurement was investigated in one study evaluating step count quantification (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.99–1.00). Conclusion: The validity of accelerometers to determine lying, sitting and standing postures or quantify purposeful activity within hospitalized acute or critically ill populations is variable. The reliability of accelerometry measurement within this setting remains largely unexplored. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Bachmann, Olga; Grunschel, Carola; Fries, Stefan (2018): Multitasking and feeling good? Autonomy of additional activities predicts affect.
In: J Happiness Stud. DOI: 10.1007/s10902-018-9973-3.
There is a consensus that multitasking is becoming more frequent in students’ everyday lives. However, few studies investigated the relationship of multitasking and affect, and those that did found contradictory results. The aim of the current study was to disentangle these results by adopting a self-determination theory perspective. In accordance with self-determination theory, we predicted that multitasking is associated with higher positive and lower negative affect than mono-tasking when the additional activity is motivated autonomously, i.e. when the additional activity is done voluntarily. On the other hand, we hypothesised that multitasking is associated with higher negative and lower positive affect than mono-tasking when the additional activity is motivated because of controlled reasons. In an experience Sampling study, 51 students completed 1341 questionnaires over the course of 1 week. For each prompt, students specified their current affect, what they were currently doing as a main activity, whether they were engaged in any additional activity (i.e., multitasking), and how autonomously they were motivated to carry out each of their activities. Results showed that students multitasked 41% of the time. In line with self-determination theory, multitasking with an autonomous additional activity in comparison to mono-tasking was associated with higher positive affect, whereas multitasking with a controlled additional activity in comparison to mono-tasking was associated with higher negative affect. To our knowledge, the current study is the first to demonstrate that the relationship of multitasking and affect depends on the level of autonomy of the additional activity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Bakolis, Ioannis; Hammoud, Ryan; Smythe, Michael; Gibbons, Johanna; Davidson, Neil; Tognin, Stefania; Mechelli, Andrea (2018): Urban Mind: Using Smartphone Technologies to Investigate the Impact of Nature on Mental Well-Being in Real Time.
In: Bioscience 68 (2), S. 134–145. DOI: 10.1093/biosci/bix149.
Existing evidence on the beneficial effects of nature on mental health comes from studies using cross-sectional designs. We developed a smartphone-based tool (Urban Mind; www.urbanmind.info) to examine how exposure to natural features within the built environment affects mental well-being in real time. The tool was used to monitor 108 individuals who completed 3013 assessments over a 1-week period. Significant immediate and lagged associations with mental well-being were found for several natural features. These associations were stronger in people with higher trait impulsivity, a psychological measure of one’s tendency to behave with little forethought or consideration of the consequences, which is indicative of a higher risk of developing mental-health issues. Our investigation suggests that the benefits of nature on mental well-being are time-lasting and interact with an individual’s vulnerability to mental illness. These findings have potential implications from the perspectives of global mental health as well as urban planning and design.
Bassi, Marta; Delle Fave, Antonella; Steca, Patrizia; Caprara, Gian Vittorio (2018): Adolescents’ regulatory emotional self-efficacy beliefs and daily affect intensity.
In: Motiv Emot. DOI: 10.1007/s11031-018-9669-3.
Self-efficacy beliefs in emotion regulation were shown to foster well-being and psychosocial adaptation over time. In this study, we investigated their relationship with daily affect intensity among 199 adolescents aged 15–19. Participants completed the Regulatory Emotional Self-Efficacy Scale measuring perceived capability to manage the experience and expression of negative emotions (SE-NE) and positive emotions (SE-PO). Through Experience Sampling Method, for 1 week they also repeatedly rated their positive affect (happiness and contentment) and negative affect (anger, anxiety, sadness). Multilevel regression models revealed an additive intensifying predictive effect of SE-PO and SE-NE on happiness and contentment, and a single direct negative effect of SE-NE on sadness. Models also highlighted an interactive effect of SE-PO and SE-NE on all negative affect variables, such that only at low SE-PO levels did high SE-NE predict lower negative affect. Findings support the relation between adolescents’ regulatory emotional self-efficacy beliefs and their daily affect intensity, bringing forward suggestions for intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Bassi, Marta; Rassiga, Cecilia; Fumagalli, Natalia; Senes, Giulio (2018): Quality of experience during horticultural activities: an experience Sampling pilot study among older adults living in a nursing home.
In: Geriatric nursing (New York, N.Y.). DOI: 10.1016/j.gerinurse.2018.01.002.
Horticulture was shown to represent a well-being source for older adults, encompassing the physical, mental and social domains. Aim of this pilot study was to contribute to extant literature through the investigation of the quality of experience associated with horticultural versus occupational activities. A group of 11 older residents of a nursing home were involved in a crossover study with a baseline measure. Participants attended weekly horticultural and occupational sessions for two six-week cycles. Experience Sampling Method was administered before the program and after each session, to assess participants’ levels of happiness, concentration, sociability, involvement, challenges and stakes, and self-satisfaction. Altogether, 332 self-report questionnaires were collected. Findings showed that participants’ levels of the cognitive and motivational variables increased during both activities, but horticulture was also perceived as providing higher challenges and stakes, and improving self-satisfaction. Results can have practical implications for well-being promotion among older adults through meaningful activity engagement.
Berenson, Kathy R.; Dochat, Cara; Martin, Christiana G.; Yang, Xiao; Rafaeli, Eshkol; Downey, Geraldine (2018): Identification of mental states and interpersonal functioning in borderline personality disorder.
In: Personal Disord 9 (2), S. 172–181. DOI: 10.1037/per0000228.
Atypical identification of mental states in the self and others has been proposed to underlie interpersonal difficulties in borderline personality disorder (BPD), yet no previous empirical research has directly examined associations between these constructs. We examine 3 mental state identification measures and their associations with experience-sampling measures of interpersonal functioning in participants with BPD relative to a healthy comparison (HC) group. We also included a clinical comparison group diagnosed with avoidant personality disorder (APD) to test the specificity of this constellation of difficulties to BPD. When categorizing blended emotional expressions, the BPD group identified anger at a lower threshold than did the HC and APD groups, but no group differences emerged in the threshold for identifying happiness. These results are consistent with enhanced social threat identification and not general negativity biases in BPD. The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) showed no group differences in general mental state identification abilities. Alexithymia scores were higher in both BPD and APD relative to the HC group, and difficulty identifying one’s own emotions was higher in BPD compared to APD and HC. Within the BPD group, lower RMET scores were associated with lower anger identification thresholds and higher alexithymia scores. Moreover, lower anger identification thresholds, lower RMET scores, and higher alexithymia scores were all associated with greater levels of interpersonal difficulties in daily life. Research linking measures of mental state identification with experience-sampling measures of interpersonal functioning can help clarify the role of mental state identification in BPD symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Berge, Jerica M.; Tate, Allan; Trofholz, Amanda; Fertig, Angela; Crow, Scott; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Miner, Michael (2018): Examining within- and across-day relationships between transient and chronic stress and parent food-related parenting practices in a racially/ethnically diverse and immigrant population : Stress types and food-related parenting practices.
In: The international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity 15 (1), S. 7. DOI: 10.1186/s12966-017-0629-1.
BACKGROUND: Although prior research suggests that stress may play a role in parent’s use of food-related parenting practices, it is unclear whether certain types of stress (e.g., transient, chronic) result in different food-related parenting practices. Identifying whether and how transient (i.e., momentary; parent/child conflict) and chronic (i.e., long-term; unemployment >6 months) sources of stress are related to parent food-related parenting practices is important with regard to childhood obesity. This is particularly important within racially/ethnically diverse parents who may be more likely to experience both types of stress and who have higher levels of obesity and related health problems. The current study examined the association between transient and chronic stressors and food-related parenting practices in a racially/ethnically diverse and immigrant sample. METHODS: The current study is a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Parents (mean age = 35; 95% mothers) of children ages 5-7 years old (n = 61) from six racial/ethnic groups (African American, American Indian, Hispanic, Hmong, Somali, White) participated in this ten-day in-home observation with families. RESULTS: Transient stressors, specifically interpersonal conflicts, had significant within-day effects on engaging in more unhealthful food-related parenting practices the same evening with across-day effects weakening by day three. In contrast, financial transient stressors had stronger across-day effects. Chronic stressors, including stressful life events were not consistently associated with more unhealthful food-related parenting practices. CONCLUSIONS: Transient sources of stress were significantly associated with food-related parenting practices in racially/ethnically diverse and immigrant households. Chronic stressors were not consistently associated with food-related parenting practices. Future research and interventions may want to assess for transient sources of stress in parents and target these momentary factors in order to promote healthful food-related parenting practices.
Berrouiguet, Sofian; Perez-Rodriguez, Mercedes M.; Larsen, Mark; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Courtet, Philippe; Oquendo, Maria (2018): From eHealth to iHealth: Transition to Participatory and Personalized Medicine in Mental Health.
In: Journal of medical Internet research 20 (1), e2. DOI: 10.2196/jmir.7412.
Clinical assessment in psychiatry is commonly based on findings from brief, regularly scheduled in-person appointments. Although critically important, this approach reduces assessment to cross-sectional observations that miss essential information about disease course. The mental health provider makes all medical decisions based on this limited information. Thanks to recent technological advances such as mobile phones and other personal devices, electronic health (eHealth) data collection strategies now can provide access to real-time patient self-report data during the interval between visits. Since mobile phones are generally kept on at all times and carried everywhere, they are an ideal platform for the broad implementation of ecological momentary assessment technology. Integration of these tools into medical practice has heralded the eHealth era. Intelligent health (iHealth) further builds on and expands eHealth by adding novel built-in data analysis approaches based on (1) incorporation of new technologies into clinical practice to enhance real-time self-monitoring, (2) extension of assessment to the patient’s environment including caregivers, and (3) data processing using data mining to support medical decision making and personalized medicine. This will shift mental health care from a reactive to a proactive and personalized discipline.
Berry, Daniel R. (2018): Bridging the empathy gap: Effects of brief mindfulness training on helping outgroup members in need.
In: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 78 (9-B(E)).
Witnessing others in need can be felt similarly to experiencing it oneself (empathy) and motivates assistance of those in need (prosocial action ). It is well-documented that empathy can occur automatically, but when those in need are not members of a social ingroup, empathy and prosocial action are undermined. One major ingroup—outgroup division in American and in other countries is based on race. Although most condemn racial discrimination, empathy and prosocial action are often lower, however unintentionally, in interracial contexts. In light of this empathy gap, it is important to identify psychological factors that could bolster empathy and prosocial action toward racial outgroup members in need. This dissertation asked whether mindfulness training — cultivating present-centered, receptive attention to one’s ongoing experiences –increases social sensitivity toward racial outgroup members, and is based on pilot research indicating that a brief mindfulness induction increased empathy and prosocial action in such contexts. Healthy, self-identifying White women were randomized to either a brief (4-day) mindfulness training or a structurally-equivalent sham mindfulness training. Pre-post electroencephalographic measures of empathy toward video stimuli of outgroup members expressing sadness was assessed via prefrontal alpha frequency oscillations (i.e., frontal alpha asymmetry). Pre-post scenario-based spontaneous prosocial action toward Black individuals in need, and pre-post 14-day ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of empathy and prosocial action toward Black individuals (and other races) were conducted. Mindfulness training was expected to increase EEG- and EMA-based empathy toward Black individuals in need, as well as increase prosocial action toward such individuals in scenario and daily life (EMA) contexts. Opposite of what was hypothesized, MT reduced post-intervention empathic simulation, relative to ST, as measured by frontal alpha asymmetry. Consistent with hypotheses, however, MT increased empathic concern for outgroup members expressing sadness during video stimuli observation, and increased post-intervention scenario-based prosocial action. However, the hypothesis that MT would predict increases in pre- to post-intervention daily EMA-based prosocial action was not supported. Providing somewhat convergent evidence, trait mindfulness predicted more frequent pre-intervention scenario-based and daily prosocial action toward outgroup members; trait mindfulness was not related to pre-intervention video-based EEG and self-reported empathy outcomes. Together these results suggest that mindfulness can enhance some indicators or empathy and prosocial behavior in interracial contexts. Mechanisms and implications of the findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Beute, Femke; de Kort, Yvonne A. W. (2018): The natural context of wellbeing: Ecological momentary assessment of the influence of nature and daylight on affect and stress for individuals with depression levels varying from none to clinical.
In: Health Place 49, S. 7–18. DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2017.11.005.
This paper explores how everyday encounters with two natural phenomena -natural elements and daylight- influence affect and stress levels for people differing in mental health. Nature and daylight exposure both have well-documented beneficial effects on mental health and affect but to what extent their exposure has beneficial effects in daily life is currently under investigated, as is the question whether lower mental health would make one more, or instead, less responsive. To this end, an ecological momentary assessment protocol was employed for a period of 6 days. Fifty-nine participants varying in level of depressive symptoms from none to clinical completed momentary assessments of affect, stress, and their physical environment. Results indicate beneficial effects of nature and daylight on affect and some effects on stress and stress-related outcomes. For nature exposure, but not for daylight exposure, effects were stronger for those in higher need of restoration, stressing the importance of our everyday environment for mental wellbeing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Beymer, Patrick N.; Rosenberg, Joshua M.; Schmidt, Jennifer A.; Naftzger, Neil J. (2018): Examining relationships among choice, affect, and engagement in summer stem programs.
In: Journal of youth and adolescence. DOI: 10.1007/s10964-018-0814-9.
Out-of-school time programs focused on science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) have proliferated recently because they are seen as having potential to appeal to youth and enhance STEM interest. Although such programs are not mandatory, youth are not always involved in making the choice about their participation and it is unclear whether youth’s involvement in the choice to attend impacts their program experiences. Using data collected from experience Sampling, traditional surveys, and video recordings, we explore relationships among youth’s choice to attend out-of-school time programs (measured through a pre-survey) and their experience of affect (i.e., youth experience Sampling ratings of happiness and excitement) and engagement (i.e., youth experience Sampling ratings of concentration and effort) during program activities. Data were collected from a racially and ethnically diverse sample of 10–16 year old youth (n = 203; 50% female) enrolled in nine different summer STEM programs targeting underserved youth. Multilevel analysis indicated that choice and affect are independently and positively associated with momentary engagement. Though choice to enroll was a significant predictor of momentary engagement, positive affective experiences during the program may compensate for any decrements to engagement associated with lack of choice. Together, these findings have implications for researchers, parents, and educators and administrators of out-of-school time programming. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Blalock, Dan V.; Kashdan, Todd B.; McKnight, Patrick E. (2018): High risk, high reward: Daily perceptions of social challenge and performance in social anxiety disorder.
In: Journal of anxiety disorders 54, S. 57–64. DOI: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2018.01.006.
Individuals with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) have difficulty engaging in social situations because their actions are predicated on minimizing the subjectively biased high potential for rejection. That is, individuals with SAD frequently perceive social situations as challenging, and their performance as subpar. Yet when individuals perceive themselves as succeeding in challenging situations, they typically report these situations as enjoyable and rewarding. This subjective experience of succeeding in a challenging situation has been studied as flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975; 2000). Thirty-three adults with SAD and 34 matched healthy controls completed a baseline assessment, along with daily and experience Sampling entries for 14days. Results were analyzed using three-level generalized linear mixed effects models, with observations nested within days, nested within participants. Although individuals with and without SAD experienced the same frequency of flow in daily life, social situations led to proportionally more flow in participants with SAD than healthy controls. Both results were unexpected, and reasons for them are explored at length. Several experiential variables (positive emotions during and importance ascribed to the event) predicted the probability of flow during each situation. These results offer intervention-relevant suggestions for how individuals may benefit from seeking out challenging situations that offer maximal rewards.
Blanke, Elisabeth S.; Riediger, Michaela; Brose, Annette (2018): Pathways to happiness are multidirectional: Associations between state mindfulness and everyday affective experience.
In: Emotion (Washington, D.C.) 18 (2), S. 202–211. DOI: 10.1037/emo0000323.
Mindfulness is commonly defined as a multidimensional mode of being attentive to, and aware of, momentary experiences while taking a nonjudgmental and accepting stance. These qualities have been linked to 2 different facets of affective well-being: being attentive is proposed to lead to an appreciation of experiences as they are, and thus to positive affect (PA). Accepting unpleasant experiences in a nonjudgmental fashion has been hypothesized to reduce negative affect (NA). Alternatively, however, attention may increase both positive and negative affectivity, whereas nonjudgmental acceptance may modify how people relate to their experiences. Previous research has considered such differential associations at the trait level, although a mindful mode may be understood as a state of being. Using an experience-sampling methodology (ESM) with smartphones, the present research therefore links different state mindfulness facets to positive and NA in daily life. Seventy students (50% female, 20–30 years old) of different disciplines participated in the study. Based on multidimensional assessments of self-reported state mindfulness and state affect, the findings corroborate the hypotheses on the differential predictive value of 2 mindfulness facets: Participants experienced more PA when they were attentive to the present moment and less NA when they nonjudgmentally accepted momentary experiences. Furthermore, only nonjudgmental acceptance buffered the impact of daily hassles on affective well-being. The study contributes to a more fine-grained understanding of the within-person mechanisms relating mindfulness to affective well-being in daily life. Future interventions may be able to enhance different aspects of affective well-being by addressing specific facets of mindfulness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Boesen, Victor Brun; Christoffersen, Thea; Watt, Torquil; Borresen, Stina Willemoes; Klose, Marianne; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla (2018): PlenadrEMA: effect of dual-release versus conventional hydrocortisone on fatigue, measured by ecological momentary assessments: a study protocol for an open-label switch pilot study.
In: BMJ open 8 (1), e019487. DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-019487.
INTRODUCTION: Patients with adrenal insufficiency have impaired health-related quality of life (QoL). The dual-release hydrocortisone preparation, Plenadren, has been developed to mimic the physiological cortisol release more closely than conventional hydrocortisone treatment. Plenadren has been shown to improve QoL, in particular fatigue, in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency. However, the effect has not been investigated in patients with secondary adrenal insufficiency; furthermore, no study has taken the diurnal variation of fatigue into account. To assess diurnal variations, it is necessary to use repeated daily measurements, such as ecological momentary assessments (EMAs). This study aims to evaluate EMAs of fatigue as outcome in future large-scale randomised clinical trials. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The PlenadrEMA trial is an investigator-initiated open-label switch pilot trial of the effect of Plenadren versus conventional hydrocortisone on fatigue in patients with secondary adrenal insufficiency. The trial will include 30 participants. After 5 weeks on their usual hydrocortisone treatment, patients will be shifted to Plenadren for 16 weeks. Fatigue will be assessed using momentary versions of the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20). Items will be administered to participants via a smartphone application four times daily during 20 days. Assessments will be performed before treatment shift and repeated after 12.5 weeks on Plenadren. The study will identify the best suited outcome for future randomised clinical trials, and in addition, estimate the variability and difference in fatigue between the two treatments to perform power calculations. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The trial will be conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and has been approved by the Regional Scientific Ethical Committee in Copenhagen (ID: H-1-2014-073). All patients will receive written and verbal information about the trial and will give informed consent before enrolment. Findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: EudraCT201400203932.
Bolman, Catherine; Verboon, Peter; Thewissen, Vivianne; Boonen, Viviane; Soons, Karin; Jacobs, Nele (2018): Predicting smoking lapses in the first week of quitting: An ecological momentary assessment study.
In: J Addict Med 12 (1), S. 65–71.
Objectives: This study focused on lapse shortly after an attempt to quit smoking. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) studies have mapped real-time situational factors that induce lapses in everyday life. However, the possible role of nonsmoking intention is disregarded in the dynamic context of daily life, whereas intention plays a key role in behavior change and shifts during smoking cessation. This study therefore aimed to capture the influence of intention on lapse, next to the known risk factors of negative affect, low self-efficacy, craving, positive outcome expectations towards smoking (POEs), being around smokers, and stress. It is hypothesized that scores on these factors shift during the day, especially shortly after quitting, which may induce lapse. Based on behavioral explanation models, intention is hypothesized to mediate the influence of the mentioned factors on lapse. Methods: An EMA study was conducted among 49 self-quitters in the first week of smoking cessation. Results: Generalized Linear Mixed Model regression analyses revealed that low nonsmoking intentions, low self-efficacy, and being around smokers (estimates were, respectively, −0.303, −0.331, and 2.083) predicted lapse. Nonsmoking intention partially mediated the influence of self-efficacy on lapse. Nonsmoking intention was predicted by not being around smokers, high self-efficacy, and low POEs (estimates were, respectively, −0.353, 0.293, and −0.072). Conclusions: This small-scale EMA study confirms the importance of nonsmoking intention on lapse, next to self-efficacy and being around smokers. It adds insights into the mediating role of intention on the relationship between self-efficacy and lapse, and into the predictors of nonsmoking intention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Bonham, Tim; Pepper, Gillian V.; Nettle, Daniel (2018): The relationships between exercise and affective states: a naturalistic, longitudinal study of recreational runners.
In: PeerJ 6, e4257. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.4257.
Background: Although people generally feel more positive and more energetic in the aftermath of exercise than before, longitudinal research on how exercise relates to within-person fluctuations in affect over the course of everyday life is still relatively limited. One constraint on doing such research is the need to provide participants with accelerometers to objectively record their exercise, and pagers to capture affective reports. Aims: We aimed to develop a methodology for studying affect and exercise using only technology that participants already possess, namely GPS running watches and smartphones. Using this methodology, we aimed to characterize within-individual fluctuations in affective valence and arousal in relation to bouts of exercise, and explore possible moderators of these fluctuations. Methods: We recruited a sample of 38 recreational runners. Participants provided daily affective reports for six weeks using their smartphones. Information on their runs was harvested from their own GPS devices via an online platform for athletes. Results: Average valence and arousal were higher on days when the person had run than on the next day, and higher the day after a run than on the days after that. Over the course of the day of a run, valence and arousal declined significantly as the time since the run increased. Physically fitter participants had more positive valence overall, and this was particularly true when they had not run recently. There was some evidence of higher-dose (i.e., longer and faster) runs being associated with lower arousal on the next and subsequent days. Gender did not moderate associations between running and valence or arousal. Discussion: Our study demonstrated the potential for studying the associations between affect and exercise in a way that is precise, undemanding for participants, and convenient for researchers, using technologies that participants already own and use.
Booij, Sanne H.; Snippe, Evelien; Jeronimus, Bertus F.; Wichers, Marieke; Wigman, Johanna T. W. (2018): Affective reactivity to daily life stress: Relationship to positive psychotic and depressive symptoms in a general population sample.
In: Journal of affective disorders 225, S. 474–481. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.08.051.
Introduction: Increased affective reactivity to daily life stress has been found in individuals with psychosis and depression, and in those at risk for these conditions. Because depressive and psychotic symptoms often co-occur, increased affective reactivity in these disorders may be explained by the presence of depressive symptoms, psychotic symptoms, or both. Therefore, we examined whether affective reactivity to daily stress is related to positive psychotic symptoms, independently of depressive symptoms, and vice versa. Methods: We used data from an intensive sampling study in the general population (n = 411), with three measurements a day (t = 90). The following subjective stressors were assessed: appraisal of activities, appraisal of social interactions, and experienced physical discomfort. Affective reactivity was conceptualized as both the positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) response to these stressors. By means of mixed model analyses, it was examined whether affective reactivity was independently related to depressive and/or positive psychotic symptoms. Results: The PA response to activities and NA response to social interactions were negatively and positively related to depressive symptoms, respectively, independent of psychotic symptoms. In contrast, no (in)dependent association was found between positive psychotic symptoms and affective reactivity to any of the daily life stressors. These findings were confirmed in a subsample with increased symptoms. Limitations: The prevalence of positive psychotic symptoms was relatively low in this general population sample. Conclusions: Increased affect reactivity predicts depressive symptoms, but not positive psychotic symptoms. Affective reactivity may still facilitate the development of psychotic symptomatology via its impact on depressive symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Bos, F. M.; Blaauw, F. J.; Snippe, E.; van der Krieke, L.; Jonge, P. de; Wichers, M. (2018): Exploring the emotional dynamics of subclinically depressed individuals with and without anhedonia: An experience Sampling study.
In: Journal of affective disorders 228, S. 186–193. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.12.017.
Background: Anhedonia has been linked to worse prognosis of depression. The present study aimed to construct personalized models to elucidate the emotional dynamics of subclinically depressed individuals with versus without symptoms of anhedonia. Methods: Matched subclinically depressed individuals with and without symptoms of anhedonia (N = 40) of the HowNutsAreTheDutch sample completed three experience Sampling methodology assessments per day for 30 days. For each individual, the impact of physical activity, stress experience, and high/low arousal PA/NA on each other was estimated through automated impulse response function analysis (IRF). These individual IRF associations were combined to compare anhedonic versus non-anhedonic individuals. Results: Physical activity had low impact on affect in both groups. In non-anhedonic individuals, stress experience increased NA and decreased PA and physical activity more strongly. In anhedonic individuals, PA high arousal showed a diminished favorable impact on affect (increasing NA/stress experience, decreasing PA/physical activity). Finally, large heterogeneity in the personalized models of emotional dynamics were found. Limitations: Stress experience was measured indirectly by assessing level of distress; the timeframe in between measurements was relatively long with 6h; and only information on one of the two hallmarks of anhedonia, loss of interest, was gathered. Conclusions: Our results suggest different pathways of emotional dynamics underlie depressive symptomatology. Subclinically depressed individuals with anhedonic complaints are more strongly characterized by diminished favorable impact of PA high arousal and heightened NA reactivity, whereas subclinically depressed individuals without these anhedonic complaints seem more characterized by heightened stress reactivity. The automatically generated personalized models may offer patient-specific insights in emotional dynamics, which may show clinical relevance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Bouwmans, Mara E. J.; Oude Oosterik, Nicole A. M.; Bos, Elisabeth H.; Groot, Izaäk W. de; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Jonge, Peter de (2018): The temporal order of changes in physical activity and subjective sleep in depressed versus nondepressed individuals: Findings from the MOOVD study.
In: Behav Sleep Med 16 (2), S. 154–168. DOI: 10.1080/15402002.2016.1180521.
Epidemiological studies have shown an association between physical activity and sleep, but it is unclear what the temporal order of this association is and whether it differs for depressed patients and healthy controls. Using a multiple repeated observations design, 27 depressed and 27 pair-matched nondepressed participants completed daily measurements of subjective sleep quality and duration during 30 consecutive days while an accelerometer continuously registered their physical activity. Changes in sleep duration, not quality, predicted next-day changes in physical activity (B = –0.21, p < .001), but not the other way around. Significant heterogeneity between individuals was observed, but the effect was not different for depressed and nondepressed participants. The findings underline the strength of a multiple repeated observations design in observational sleep research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Bracci, A.; Djukic, G.; Favero, L.; Salmaso, L.; Guarda-Nardini, L.; Manfredini, D. (2018): Frequency of awake bruxism behaviours in the natural environment. A 7-day, multiple-point observation of real-time report in healthy young adults.
In: Journal of oral rehabilitation. DOI: 10.1111/joor.12627.
The aim of this study was to assess awake bruxism (AB) behaviours in a sample of healthy young adults using a smartphone-based application for a real-time report (ie, ecological momentary assessment [EMA], also called experience Sampling method [ESM]). Forty-six dental students used a smartphone application that sent 15 alerts at random intervals during the day for 1 week to collect AB self-reports. They had to answer on time by tapping on the display icon that refers to their current condition of jaw muscles: relaxed; teeth contact; teeth clenching; teeth grinding; jaw clenching without teeth contact (ie, bracing). The average frequency of relaxed jaw muscles, as a percentage of answers over the 7 days, was 71.7%. Teeth contact (14.5%) and jaw clenching (10.0%) were the most frequent AB behaviours. No significant gender differences were detected. Interindividual differences were quite relevant, but the overall frequency was in general only moderately variable from day-to-day. Coefficient of variation (CV) was low for the condition “relaxed jaw muscles” (0.44). At the individual level, teeth contact was the most prevalent behaviour, with a 39.1%-52.2% proportion of subjects reporting it at least once a day. During a 7-day observation period, the frequency of real-time report of AB behaviours in a sample of healthy young adults was 28.3%. The low daily variability in the average frequency value for the relaxed jaw muscles condition suggests that EMA may be a reliable strategy to get deeper into the epidemiology of oral behaviours. This investigation introduced EMA principles to the study of AB and provided data on the frequency of AB behaviours in young adults that could be compared to populations with risk/associated factors and possible clinical consequences.
Brinberg, Miriam; Fosco, Gregory M.; Ram, Nilam (2017): Examining inter-family differences in intra-family (parent-adolescent) dynamics using grid-sequence analysis.
In: Journal of family psychology : JFP : journal of the Division of Family Psychology of the American Psychological Association (Division 43) 31 (8), S. 994–1004. DOI: 10.1037/fam0000371.
Family systems theorists have forwarded a set of theoretical principles meant to guide family scientists and practitioners in their conceptualization of patterns of family interaction-intra-family dynamics-that, over time, give rise to family and individual dysfunction and/or adaptation. In this article, we present an analytic approach that merges state space grid methods adapted from the dynamic systems literature with sequence analysis methods adapted from molecular biology into a “grid-sequence” method for studying inter-family differences in intra-family dynamics. Using dyadic data from 86 parent-adolescent dyads who provided up to 21 daily reports about connectedness, we illustrate how grid-sequence analysis can be used to identify a typology of intrafamily dynamics and to inform theory about how specific types of intrafamily dynamics contribute to adolescent behavior problems and family members’ mental health. Methodologically, grid-sequence analysis extends the toolbox of techniques for analysis of family experience Sampling and daily diary data. Substantively, we identify patterns of family level microdynamics that may serve as new markers of risk/protective factors and potential points for intervention in families. (PsycINFO Database Record
Buchholz, Laura J.; Crowther, Janis H.; Ciesla, Jeffrey A. (2018): Examination of the relationships between dietary restraint, alcohol, and adverse problems among women.
In: Journal of American college health : J of ACH, S. 1–9. DOI: 10.1080/07448481.2018.1431904.
OBJECTIVE: Women who report greater chronic dieting consume more alcohol, drink more frequently, and experience greater problems than women who report less chronic dieting. Alcohol may also temporarily disrupt a woman’s dietary rules, leading to increased caloric intake and subsequent restriction. This study examined whether alcohol use mediated the relationship between dietary restraint and alcohol problems in a woman’s daily life. PARTICIPANTS: Women (N = 59) completed the study by the fall of 2013. METHODS: Participants completed up to six assessments for 10 days, including intended dietary restraint, alcohol use, and problems. RESULTS: Drinking quantity partially mediated the relationship between dietary restraint and alcohol problems. For each drink consumed, there was a 1.4 times greater likelihood of eating after drinking, which was associated with greater intention to subsequently restrict calories. CONCLUSIONS: The types of drinks consumed and reasons for restricting one’s caloric intake may inform the relationship between these behaviors.
Buckner, Julia D.; Jeffries, Emily R.; Crosby, Ross D.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Cavanaugh, Courtenay E.; Wonderlich, Stephen A. (2018): The impact of PTSD clusters on cannabis use in a racially diverse trauma-exposed sample: An analysis from ecological momentary assessment.
In: The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse, S. 1–11. DOI: 10.1080/00952990.2018.1430149.
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence indicates a link between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and cannabis use and suggests that this link may vary as a function of the PTSD symptom cluster type. Consistent with negative reinforcement models of substance use, individuals with elevated Cluster D (Hyperarousal) symptoms may be more likely to use cannabis in response to elevated state anxiety and experience decreases in state anxiety after using cannabis. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to test hypotheses that the interaction of Cluster D and state anxiety would be related to subsequent cannabis use and that those with elevated Cluster D symptoms who used cannabis would report the greatest decreases in state anxiety. To test the specificity, we tested whether Clusters B (re-experiencing) and C (avoidance) showed similar relationships. METHODS: The present study used ecological momentary assessment to examine cannabis use among 87 cannabis-using individuals with PTSD symptoms (64.4% male, 56.3% non-Hispanic Caucasian). State anxiety and cannabis use were assessed over the two-week period via signal contingent (six random prompts per day), interval contingent (each bedtime), and event contingent (cannabis use episodes) assessments. RESULTS: Consistent with negative reinforcement models, participants with clinically significant Cluster D symptoms with elevated state anxiety had a greater likelihood of subsequent cannabis use and cannabis use resulted in less subsequent anxiety. The negative reinforcement hypothesis was only partially supported for those with Cluster B and C symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that negative reinforcement models may be especially relevant to understanding cannabis use among those with clinically elevated Cluster D symptoms.
Buonocore, Chris M.; Rocchio, Rosemary A.; Roman, Alfonso; King, Christine E.; Sarrafzadeh, Majid (2017): Wireless Sensor-Dependent Ecological Momentary Assessment for Pediatric Asthma mHealth Applications.
In: …IEEE…International Conference on Connected Health: Applications, Systems and Engineering Technologies. IEEE International Conference on Connected Health: Applications, Systems and Engineering Technologies 2017, S. 137–146. DOI: 10.1109/CHASE.2017.72.
Pediatric asthma is a prevalent chronic disease condition that can benefit from wireless health systems through constant symptom management. In this paper, we propose a smart watch based wireless health system that incorporates wireless sensing and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to determine an individual’s asthma symptoms. Since asthma is a multifaceted disease, this approach provides individualized symptom assessments through various physiological and environmental wireless sensor based EMA triggers specific to common asthma exacerbations. Furthermore, the approach described here improves compliance to use of the system through insightful EMA scheduling related to sensor detected environmental and physiological changes, as well as the patient’s own schedule. After testing under several real world conditions, it was found that the system is sensitive to both physiological and environmental conditions that would cause asthma symptoms. Furthermore, the EMA questionnaires that were triggered based on these changes were specific to the asthma trigger itself, allowing for invaluable context behind the data to be collected.
Burkhart, Margaret Lee (2018): Deconstructing the paradox of parenthood: Using experience Sampling methodology and attachment theory to understand mothers’ emotional experiences.
In: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 79 (1-B(E)).
Over the last few decades, researchers have operated under the assumption that parenthood has negative consequences for parents’ well-being. However, this premise has not been fully supported by empirical work, and existing studies actually present an abundance of inconsistent findings that prevent us from drawing any firm conclusions on how parenthood affects psychological well-being. The current dissertation project brings clarity to this area of work by providing two potential explanations for these inconsistent findings. First, innovative methodology is employed to assess in-the-moment experiences of parenthood, making this the first study to empirically examine intensity and variability of parents’ real-time emotional experiences. Second, previous work has overlooked the role of individual differences in parents’ emotional experiences. Given the maladaptive emotion regulation strategies characteristic of attachment insecurity, attachment theory is presented as a framework for understanding individual differences in parents’ emotional experiences. Data were collected from 145 mothers of young children using experience Sampling methodology (ESM) to assess their momentary experiences of positive and negative emotion across a ten-day period. Results demonstrated that mothers reported higher levels of positive emotion as well as more variability in both positive and negative emotion when interacting with their children compared to times when they were not interacting with their children. While anecdotal accounts have repeatedly described parenthood as a series of emotional highs and lows, this study is the first to empirically support the ‘emotional rollercoaster’ of parenthood. This work highlights the importance of distinguishing between parents’ real-time emotional experiences and their evaluative accounts of well-being using retrospective reports. With respect to attachment, both attachment anxiety and avoidance were associated with lower quality emotional experiences, and these associations were moderated by the amount of time mothers spent with their children. These findings suggest that the inconsistencies across the literature on parents’ well-being may be due to important individual differences, and support attachment as an important moderator of parents’ emotions. As the first study to explore intensity and variability in mothers’ momentary emotional experiences through an attachment lens, this work has important implications for developing interventions that enhance and improve parents’ emotional experiences in the service of improving the quality of the parent-child relationship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Cain, Nicole M.; Meehan, Kevin B.; Roche, Michael J.; Clarkin, John F.; Panfilis, Chiara de (2018): Effortful Control and Interpersonal Behavior in Daily Life.
In: Journal of personality assessment, S. 1–11. DOI: 10.1080/00223891.2018.1441151.
The Cognitive-Affective Processing System (CAPS) was used to examine effortful control (EC) as a moderator of daily interpersonal behavior. Participants (N = 240) were nonclinical young adults who completed a 7-day event-contingent experience Sampling study of interpersonal perception and affect. Multilevel linear models indicated that EC moderated within-person covariation of interpersonal warmth and affect activation; high EC individuals reported greater momentary warm behaviors when perceiving others as affectively activated. EC also amplified between-person covariation of interpersonal warmth between self and others; high EC individuals generally responded to perceptions of another’s warmth with a greater degree of warm behavior. Varying levels of EC predict responses to interpersonal perceptions and affect in daily life, suggesting an important dimension for interpersonal functioning.
Campbell, Katherine L.; Babiarz, Aleksandra; Wang, Yan; Tilton, Nicholas A.; Black, Maureen M.; Hager, Erin R. (2018): Factors in the home environment associated with toddler diet: an ecological momentary assessment study.
In: Public health nutrition, S. 1–10. DOI: 10.1017/S1368980018000186.
OBJECTIVE: To identify home environment factors associated with toddler dietary behaviours using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). DESIGN: Home environment and toddler’s diet were assessed by mothers through EMA (random beeps over </=8 d and a brief survey). Dietary outcomes were fruit/vegetable consumption, eating episode (‘snack’ v. ‘meal’) and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Home environment factors included interacting with mother, eating alone/with others, eating in a high chair/chair at the table, watching television and movement/translocation. Multilevel logistic mixed-effects regression models assessed both within- (individual toddlers across time) and between- (toddlers-on-average) subject effects. SUBJECTS: Low-income mother-toddler dyads (n 277). SETTING: Urban and suburban Maryland, USA. RESULTS: EMA captured eating/drinking episodes for 249/277 (89.9 %) toddlers (883 eating episodes, 1586 drinking episodes). Toddlers-on-average were more likely (adjusted OR, P value) to eat fruit/vegetables when not moving around (0.43, P=0.043), eat with the television off (0.33, P<0.001) and eat in a high chair/chair (3.38, P<0.001); no within-subject effects were shown. For eating episodes, both toddlers-on-average and individual toddlers were more likely to eat snacks when not in a high chair/chair (0.13, P<0.001 and 0.06, P<0.001, respectively) and when eating alone (0.30, P<0.001 and 0.31, P<0.001, respectively). Also, individual toddlers were more likely to eat snacks when moving around (3.61, P<0.001). Toddlers-on-average were more likely to consume SSB when not in a high chair/chair (0.21, P=0.001), eating alone (0.38, P=0.047) or during a snacking episode (v. a meal: 3.96, P=0.012); no within-subject effects shown. CONCLUSIONS: Factors in the home environment are associated with dietary behaviours among toddlers. Understanding the interplay between the home environment and toddler diet can inform future paediatric dietary recommendations.
Chandler, Megan M. (2018): The antecedents and consequences of core affect variability at work.
In: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences 78 (11-A(E)).
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the antecedents and consequences of intra-individual variability in affect at work. In particular, the current study sought to investigate how aspects of the job, social characteristics, and individual differences relate to the variability in affective experience over time using experience Sampling methodology. The current study also sought to investigate how affect variability relates to well-being and performance outcomes. The present study operationalized within-person affect variability using three calculations employed by Kuppens, van Mechelen, Nezlek, Dossche, and Timmermans (2007), and attempted to improve upon these operationalizations by testing key assumptions of the calculations used in Kuppens et al. (2007) and making modifications to the calculations as necessary. The current study found that various aspects of one’s work environment (i.e., role ambiguity, affect in others) and individual differences (i.e., BIS/BAS; Action-State Preoccupation) were related to the variability in one’s affective experience at work. Additionally, the present study found that the variability of one’s affective experiences, and more specifically Spin, were significantly related to important work outcomes such as task performance, emotional exhaustion, and job satisfaction. Thus, the present study contributed to the literature on workplace affect by (a) advancing the operationalization of within-person affect variability, (b) examining this variability in a work context, and (c) testing the links of both individual difference and work context variables with this within-person variability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Chen, Pin-Hao (2018): Can self-regulation be improved? An examination of neural and behavioral evidence.
In: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 79 (1-B(E)).
Although the self-regulatory capacity of humans is superior to other animals, failures in self-regulation are common. Self-regulation failures can cause several serious problems in modern society, such as obesity, sexual control problems, and drug addiction. As such, researchers have enthusiastically attempted to identify effective means to improve self-regulatory ability across domains. This thesis therefore aims to examine whether self-regulation ability can be enhanced in a domain-general fashion. Using a multimodal neuroimaging approach as well as an experience-sampling method, the present studies investigate the effectiveness of different self-regulatory enhancement techniques as well as their underlying neural mechanisms. Study 1 examines whether glucose consumption can modulate the neural reactivity to negative emotional scenes. Study 2 tests whether inducing self-awareness can change the relative engagement between the FP and reward system. Study 3 compares the effectiveness of a domain-general and a domain-specific training in reducing reward responsivity and daily food desires. Study 4 explores whether mindfulness-meditation training can lower reward responsivity and daily food desires. Study 5 creates an innovative smartphone self-regulatory training application and tests whether this app can help people lose weight. Study 6 investigates whether white matter integrity between executive control and reward regions predicts long-term success in dieting. Findings from these studies suggest that an effective self-regulatory training needs to be domain-specific. An effective domain-specific training can significantly lower the strength of impulse and enhance the communication between the brain system involved in cognitive control and the brain system involved in reward processing. Collectively, this thesis sheds light on understanding the neural mechanisms of self-regulatory training. Eventually, this thesis may inspire future applications of self-regulatory improvement techniques to clinical settings, such as treating pathological obesity and drug addiction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Chi, Nai-Wen; Yang, Jixia; Lin, Chia-Ying (2018): Service workers’ chain reactions to daily customer mistreatment: Behavioral linkages, mechanisms, and boundary conditions.
In: J Occup Health Psychol 23 (1), S. 58–70. DOI: 10.1037/ocp0000050.
Drawing on the stressor–emotion model, we examine how customer mistreatment can evoke service workers’ passive forms of deviant behaviors (i.e., work withdrawal behavior [WWB]) and negative impacts on their home life (i.e., work–family conflict [WFC]), and whether individuals’ core self-evaluations and customer service training can buffer the negative effects of customer mistreatment. Using the experience Sampling method, we collect daily data from 77 customer service employees for 10 consecutive working days, yielding 546 valid daily responses. The results show that daily customer mistreatment increases service workers’ daily WWB and WFC through negative emotions. Furthermore, employees with high core self-evaluations and employees who received customer service training are less likely to experience negative emotions when faced with customer mistreatment, and thus are less likely to engage in WWB or provoke WFC. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Conner, Tamlin S.; DeYoung, Colin G.; Silvia, Paul J. (2018): Everyday creative activity as a path to flourishing.
In: The Journal of Positive Psychology 13 (2), S. 181–189. DOI: 10.1080/17439760.2016.1257049.
Recent experience Sampling and diary studies have shown that spending time on creative goals during a day is associated with higher activated positive affect (PA) on that day. Based on models of creativity as a tool for promoting well-being, the present study examined cross-day relationships between creative activity, affect, and flourishing. A large sample of young adults (n = 658) took part in a 13-day daily diary study. Each day, they reported how much time they spent on creative activities, daily positive and negative affect, and daily flourishing. Lagged multilevel models revealed that people felt higher activated PA and flourishing following days when they reported more creative activity than usual. The other direction – PA predicting next-day creative activity – was not supported, suggesting that the cross-day effect was specific to creative activity predicting well-being. Overall, these findings support the emerging emphasis on everyday creativity as a means of cultivating positive psychological functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Connolly, Samantha L. (2018): Interplay between stress, rumination, and memory in predicting depression: An ecological momentary assessment study.
In: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 79 (1-B(E)).
Rumination is a well-established vulnerability factor for major depressive disorder (MDD) that may exert deleterious effects both independently and in interaction with life stress, and may contribute to the negative memory biases associated with MDD. Chapter 1 examines the role of both momentary ruminative self-focus (MRS) and stress-reactive rumination (SRR) as predictors of increases in depressive symptoms utilizing a smartphone ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design. SRR, but not MRS, independently predicted increases in depressive symptoms. Interactions emerged between negative life events (NLEs) and both MRS and SRR, such that experiencing higher levels of NLEs and rumination at an observation predicted greater increases in depressive symptoms. The results suggest that rumination levels in response to stress vary within individuals and can have an important effect on depressed mood. Chapter 2 tests the hypotheses that 1) engaging in greater SRR relative to an individual’s mean would lead to deeper encoding and improved retrieval of stressors, and 2) this biased memory for negative autobiographical information would predict increases in depressive symptoms over time. NLEs followed by increased SRR relative to individuals’ means were significantly more likely to be recalled two weeks later. In addition, a significant interaction emerged between the number of NLEs experienced and proportional recall of those events, such that individuals who endorsed and recalled greater numbers of stressors during the EMA week displayed increased depressive symptoms at follow-up. These findings support the role of rumination and memory biases as vulnerability factors for depression, and suggest potential clinical benefits of modifying ruminative response styles to daily stressors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Connolly, Samantha L.; Alloy, Lauren B. (2018): Negative Event Recall as a Vulnerability for Depression: Relationship between Momentary Stress-Reactive Rumination and Memory for Daily Life Stress.
In: Clinical psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science 6 (1), S. 32–47. DOI: 10.1177/2167702617729487.
The current research utilized ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methodology to test the hypotheses that: 1) engaging in greater rumination following stress (stress-reactive rumination; SRR) would lead to improved stressor recall, and 2) this improved memory for stress would predict increases in depressive symptoms. One hundred twenty-one participants received smartphone alerts in which they reported on their experience of negative life events (NLEs) as well as SRR and depressed mood after event occurrence. NLEs followed by increased SRR were more likely to be recalled two weeks later. Furthermore, individuals who endorsed and recalled more stressors displayed increased depressive symptoms. Contrary to hypotheses, no evidence was found for a mediational effect in which SRR predicted depressive symptoms and was mediated by memory for NLEs. Current findings demonstrate a relationship between rumination following stress and the subsequent recall of those stressors, and support the role of negative event recall as a vulnerability factor for depression.
Cook, Paul F.; Schmiege, Sarah J.; Reeder, Blaine; Horton-Deutsch, Sara; Lowe, Nancy K.; Meek, Paula (2018): Temporal Immediacy: A Two-System Theory of Mind for Understanding and Changing Health Behaviors.
In: Nursing research 67 (2), S. 108–121. DOI: 10.1097/NNR.0000000000000265.
BACKGROUND: Health promotion and chronic disease management both require behavior change, but people find it hard to change behavior despite having good intentions. The problem arises because patients’ narratives about experiences and intentions are filtered through memory and language. These narratives inaccurately reflect intuitive decision-making or actual behaviors. OBJECTIVES: We propose a principle-temporal immediacy-as a moderator variable that explains which of two mental systems (narrative or intuitive) will be activated in any given situation. We reviewed multiple scientific areas to test temporal immediacy as an explanation for findings. METHODS: In an iterative process, we used evidence from philosophy, cognitive neuroscience, behavioral economics, symptom science, and ecological momentary assessment to develop our theoretical perspective. These perspectives each suggest two cognitive systems that differ in their level of temporal immediacy: an intuitive system that produces behavior in response to everyday states and a narrative system that interprets and explains these experiences after the fact. FINDINGS: Writers from Plato onward describe two competing influences on behavior-often with moral overtones. People tend to identify with the language-based narrative system and blame unhelpful results on the less accessible intuitive system, but neither is completely rational, and the intuitive system has strengths based on speed and serial processing. The systems differ based on temporal immediacy-the description of an experience as either “now” or “usually”-with the intuitive system generating behaviors automatically in real time and the narrative system producing beliefs about the past or future. DISCUSSION: The principle of temporal immediacy is a tool to integrate nursing science with other disciplinary traditions and to improve research and practice. Interventions should build on each system’s strengths, rather than treating the intuitive system as a barrier for the narrative system to overcome. Nursing researchers need to study the roles and effects of both systems.
Cooper, Ashley Bell (2018): The directionality of person-situation transactions: Spill-over effects among and between situation experiences and personality states.
In: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 79 (2-B(E)).
To elucidate temporal sequences among and between person and situation variables, this work examines cross-measurement spill-overs between situation experiences S (on the Situational Eight DIAMONDS characteristics) and personality states P (on the Big Six HEXACO) in experience Sampling data in two studies. Multi-level modeling of lagged data at tn -1 and non-lagged data at tn grants the opportunity to examine (a) the stability (P → P, S → S), (b) cross-sectional associations (S ↔ P), and (c) cross-lagged associations among and between situation experiences and personality states (S → P, P → S). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Crowe, Eimear; Daly, Michael; Delaney, Liam; Carroll, Susan; Malone, Kevin M. (2018): The intra-day dynamics of affect, self-esteem, tiredness, and suicidality in major depression.
In: Psychiatry research. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2018.02.032.
Despite growing interest in the temporal dynamics of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), we know little about the intra-day fluctuations of key symptom constructs. In a study of momentary experience, the Experience Sampling Method captured the within-day dynamics of negative affect, positive affect, self-esteem, passive suicidality, and tiredness across clinical MDD (N=/31) and healthy control groups (N=/33). Ten symptom measures were taken per day over 6 days (N=/2231 observations). Daily dynamics were modeled via intra-day time-trends, variability, and instability in symptoms. MDD participants showed significantly increased variability and instability in negative affect, positive affect, self-esteem, and suicidality. Significantly different time-trends were found in positive affect (increased diurnal variation and an inverted U-shaped pattern in MDD, compared to a positive linear trend in controls) and tiredness (decreased diurnal variation in MDD). In the MDD group only, passive suicidality displayed a negative linear trend and self-esteem displayed a quadratic inverted U trend. MDD and control participants thus showed distinct dynamic profiles in all symptoms measured. As well as the overall severity of symptoms, intra-day dynamics appear to define the experience of MDD symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Davison, Brittany K.; Quigg, Robin; Skidmore, Paula M. L. (2018): Pilot Testing a Photo-Based Food Diary in Nine- to Twelve- Year Old- Children from Dunedin, New Zealand.
In: Nutrients 10 (2). DOI: 10.3390/nu10020240.
The purpose of the study was to investigate if an Evernote app-based electronic food diary is an acceptable method to measure nutrient intake in children aged 9-12 years. A convenience sample of 16 nine- to twelve-year-olds from Dunedin, New Zealand, completed a paper-based food dairy on four days, followed by four more days using a photo-based diary on an iPod. This photo-based diary used a combination of photographs and short written descriptions of foods consumed. The photo-based diaries produced similar results to written diaries for all macronutrients and major micronutrients (e.g., calcium, fibre, vitamin C). Spearman correlation coefficients between the two methods for all nutrients, except sugars, were above 0.3. However, burden on researchers and participants was reduced for the photo-based diary, primarily due to the additional information obtained from photographs. Participating children needed less help from parents with completing the electronic diaries and preferred them to the paper version. This electronic diary is likely to be suitable, after additional formal validity testing, for use in measuring nutrient intake in children.
Dejonckheere, Egon; Mestdagh, Merijn; Houben, Marlies; Erbas, Yasemin; Pe, Madeline; Koval, Peter et al. (2018): The bipolarity of affect and depressive symptoms.
In: Journal of personality and social psychology 114 (2), S. 323–341. DOI: 10.1037/pspp0000186.
People differ in the extent to which they experience positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) rather independently or as bipolar opposites. Here, we examine the proposition that the nature of the relation between positive and negative affect in a person’s emotional experience is indicative of psychological well-being, in particular the experience of depressive symptoms, typically characterized by diminished positive affect (anhedonia) and increased negative affect (depressed mood). In three experience Sampling studies, we examine how positive and negative affective states are related within people’s emotional experience in daily life and how the degree of bipolarity of this relation is associated with depressive symptom severity. In Study 1 and 2, we show both concurrently and longitudinally that a stronger bipolar PA–NA relationship is associated with, and in fact is predicted by, higher depressive symptom severity, even after controlling for mean levels of positive and negative affect. In Study 3, we replicate these findings in a daily diary design, with the two conceptually related main symptoms of depression, sadness, and anhedonia, as specific manifestations of high NA and low PA, respectively. Across studies, additional analyses indicate these results are robust across different time scales and various PA and NA operationalizations and that affective bipolarity shows particular specificity toward depressive symptomatology, in comparison with anxiety symptoms. Together, these findings demonstrate that depressive symptoms involve stronger bipolarity between positive and negative affect, reflecting reduced emotional complexity and flexibility. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Derrick, Jaye L.; Britton, Maggie; Baker, Zachary G.; Haddad, Sana (2018): A response surface analysis of expected and received support for smoking cessation: Expectancy violations predict greater relapse.
In: Addictive behaviors. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.01.026.
People attempting to stop smoking cigarettes (quitters) hold expectations about the extent to which their partner will provide helpful support during a quit attempt. However, these expectations may not align with their perceptions of the helpfulness of the support they receive. We examine expected and received helpful support during a quit attempt. We hypothesized that receiving less helpful support than expected (i.e., creating an expectancy violation) would be associated with the greatest return to smoking. Sixty-two quitters completed a 21-day ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study. They reported expected support at baseline and support receipt and smoking during the EMA phase. At follow-up, they completed an expelled breath carbon monoxide test. Analyses using polynomial generalized linear models with response surface analysis indicated that smoking outcomes depended on the joint influence of expected and received helpful support. As hypothesized, when quitters expected more helpful support than they received, they were more likely to smoke in the first 24h and the last seven days of the EMA, and they provided higher carbon monoxide readings at follow-up. These results are consistent with an expectancy violation explanation: quitters are more likely to smoke when they perceive their partner has failed to provide support that is as helpful as expected. Given the importance of support for smoking cessation, many researchers have attempted to experimentally increase provision of support. The current findings suggest that partner support interventions might backfire if the quitter is led to expect more helpful support than the partner is able to provide. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Dohle, Simone; Hofmann, Wilhelm (2018): Assessing self-control: The use and usefulness of the Experience Sampling Method. In: Denise de Ridder, Marieke Adriaanse, Kentaro Fujita, de Ridder, Denise, (Ed), Adriaanse, Marieke, (Ed) und Fujita, Kentaro, (Ed) (Hg.): The Routledge international handbook of self-control in health and well-being.
New York, NY, US: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group (Routledge international handbooks), S. 100–111.
Our goal in this chapter is to provide an overview of how Experience Sampling Method (ESM), can be applied to the assessment of self-control, with a particular focus on the use of smartphones in ESM research. We first offer an overview of ESM and present various sampling strategies that can be applied within the method. We then consider measures and methodological issues of ESM and compare different technological approaches of experience Sampling. In the following section, we report on studies that have used ESM to study the interplay of self-control, health, and well-being. We also present studies that have combined ESM with additional longitudinal designs to analyze long-term change in well-being and health behavior. Finally, we demonstrate how ESM can be combined with intervention designs and identify important areas for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Dubad, M.; Winsper, C.; Meyer, C.; Livanou, M.; Marwaha, S. (2018): A systematic review of the psychometric properties, usability and clinical impacts of mobile mood-monitoring applications in young people.
In: Psychological medicine 48 (2), S. 208–228. DOI: 10.1017/S0033291717001659.
Background: Mobile mood-monitoring applications are increasingly used by mental health providers, widely advocated within research, and a potentially effective method to engage young people. However, little is known about their efficacy and usability in young populations. Method: A systematic review addressing three research questions focused on young people: (1) what are the psychometric properties of mobile mood-monitoring applications; (2) what is their usability; and (3) what are their positive and negative clinical impacts? Findings were synthesised narratively, study quality assessed and compared with evidence from adult studies. Results: We reviewed 25 articles. Studies on the psychometric properties of mobile mood-monitoring applications were sparse, but indicate questionable to excellent internal consistency, moderate concurrent validity and good usability. Participation rates ranged from 30% to 99% across studies, and appeared to be affected by methodological factors (e.g. payments) and individual characteristics (e.g. IQ score). Mobile mood-monitoring applications are positively perceived by youth, may reduce depressive symptoms by increasing emotional awareness, and could aid in the detection of mental health and substance use problems. There was very limited evidence on potential negative impacts. Conclusions: Evidence for the use of mood-monitoring applications in youth is promising but limited due to a lack of high-quality studies. Future work should explicate the effects of mobile mood-monitoring applications on effective self-regulation, clinical outcomes across disorders and young people’s engagement with mental health services. Potential negative impacts in this population should also be investigated, as the adult literature suggests that application use could potentially increase negativity and depression symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Dunbar, Michael S.; Shiffman, Saul; Chandra, Siddharth (2018): Exposure to workplace smoking bans and continuity of daily smoking patterns on workdays and weekends.
In: Addictive behaviors 80, S. 53–58. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.01.006.
INTRODUCTION: Individuals may compensate for workplace smoking bans by smoking more before or after work, or escaping bans to smoke, but no studies have conducted a detailed, quantitative analysis of such compensatory behaviors using real-time data. METHODS: 124 daily smokers documented smoking occasions over 3weeks using ecological momentary assessment (EMA), and provided information on real-world exposure to smoking restrictions and type of workplace smoking policy (full, partial, or no bans). Mixed modeling and generalized estimating equations assessed effects of time of day, weekday (vs weekend), and workplace policy on mean cigarettes per hour (CPH) and reports of changing location to smoke. RESULTS: Individuals were most likely to change locations to smoke during business hours, regardless of work policy, and frequency of EMA reports of restrictions at work was associated with increased likelihood of changing locations to smoke (OR=1.11, 95% CI 1.05-1.16; p<0.0001). Workplace smoking policy, time block, and weekday/weekend interacted to predict CPH (p<0.01), such that individuals with partial work bans -but not those with full bans – smoked more at night (9pm – bed) on weekdays compared to weekends. CONCLUSIONS: There was little evidence that full bans interfered with subjects’ smoking during business hours across weekdays and weekends. Smokers largely compensate for exposure to workplace smoking bans by escaping restrictions during business hours. Better understanding the effects of smoking bans on smoking behavior may help to improve their effectiveness and yield insights into determinants of smoking in more restrictive environments.
Dzubur, Eldin; Huh, Jimi; Maher, Jaclyn P.; Intille, Stephen S.; Dunton, Genevieve F. (2018): Response patterns and intra-dyadic factors related to compliance with ecological momentary assessment among mothers and children.
In: Translational behavioral medicine 8 (2), S. 233–242. DOI: 10.1093/tbm/ibx002.
Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is a real-time sampling strategy that may address limitations in health research, such as the inability to examine how processes unfold on a daily basis. However, EMA studies are prone to limited data availability due to difficulties in implementing sophisticated protocols and systematic non-compliance with prompts, resulting in biased estimates and limited statistical power. The objectives of this study were to describe the availability of data, to examine response patterns, and to analyze factors related to EMA prompt compliance in a dyadic EMA study with mothers and children. Participants (N = 404) each received up to eight EMA prompts (i.e., audible pings) per day for a total of 7 days. Each EMA survey consisted of items assessing affect, perceived stress, and social context. Participants responded to approximately 80% (range: 3.4%-100%) of prompted EMA surveys, and completed 92.6% of surveys once started. Mothers and children identifying as Hispanic, as well as mothers in lower-income households, were less likely to comply with any given EMA prompt. Participant dyads were more likely to comply with prompts when they were together. Understanding factors related to systematic EMA prompt non-compliance is an important step to reduce the likelihood of biased estimates and improve statistical power. Socioeconomic factors may impede mothers’ compliance with EMA protocols. Furthermore, mothers’ presence and involvement may enhance children’s compliance with EMA protocols.
Everhart, Robin S.; Borschuk, Adrienne P.; Miadich, Samantha A.; Barsell, Jeremy; Heron, Kristin E. (2018): Caregiver Daily Experiences Associated with Child Asthma Symptoms.
In: American journal of health behavior 42 (2), S. 50–60. DOI: 10.5993/AJHB.42.2.5.
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) delivered via smart- phones to determine how the daily experiences (comfort in neighborhood, ability to manage child’s asthma, positive/negative affect) of 59 caregivers (90% African-American/black) living in an urban setting are associated with asthma symptoms in children ages 7-12 years (M = 9.56 years). METHODS: Caregivers and their children with asthma completed a baseline research ses- sion, followed by 14 days of EMA surveys completed on smartphones. EMA enables researchers to examine within-person processes while preserving the ecological validity of the data and re- ducing retrospective recall bias. RESULTS: On days when caregivers reported more child asthma symptoms, they also reported feeling less comfortable in their neighborhoods and less able to control their child’s asthma at home. Baseline reports of caregiver quality of life were also associ- ated with child asthma symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight the need for researchers and clinicians to recognize that both asthma (ie, ability to control asthma) and non-asthma related factors (ie, factors related to neighborhoods) may be associated with caregivers’ perceptions of their children’s asthma symptoms. Perceptions of child symptoms have important consequences for daily asthma care, including decisions related to healthcare utilization.
Ferreri, Florian; Bourla, Alexis; Mouchabac, Stephane; Karila, Laurent (2018): e-Addictology: An Overview of New Technologies for Assessing and Intervening in Addictive Behaviors.
In: Frontiers in psychiatry 9, S. 51. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00051.
Background: New technologies can profoundly change the way we understand psychiatric pathologies and addictive disorders. New concepts are emerging with the development of more accurate means of collecting live data, computerized questionnaires, and the use of passive data. Digital phenotyping, a paradigmatic example, refers to the use of computerized measurement tools to capture the characteristics of different psychiatric disorders. Similarly, machine learning-a form of artificial intelligence-can improve the classification of patients based on patterns that clinicians have not always considered in the past. Remote or automated interventions (web-based or smartphone-based apps), as well as virtual reality and neurofeedback, are already available or under development. Objective: These recent changes have the potential to disrupt practices, as well as practitioners’ beliefs, ethics and representations, and may even call into question their professional culture. However, the impact of new technologies on health professionals’ practice in addictive disorder care has yet to be determined. In the present paper, we therefore present an overview of new technology in the field of addiction medicine. Method: Using the keywords [e-health], [m-health], [computer], [mobile], [smartphone], [wearable], [digital], [machine learning], [ecological momentary assessment], [biofeedback] and [virtual reality], we searched the PubMed database for the most representative articles in the field of assessment and interventions in substance use disorders. Results: We screened 595 abstracts and analyzed 92 articles, dividing them into seven categories: e-health program and web-based interventions, machine learning, computerized adaptive testing, wearable devices and digital phenotyping, ecological momentary assessment, biofeedback, and virtual reality. Conclusion: This overview shows that new technologies can improve assessment and interventions in the field of addictive disorders. The precise role of connected devices, artificial intelligence and remote monitoring remains to be defined. If they are to be used effectively, these tools must be explained and adapted to the different profiles of physicians and patients. The involvement of patients, caregivers and other health professionals is essential to their design and assessment.
Fischer, Sarah; Wonderlich, Joseph; Breithaupt, Lauren; Byrne, Catherine; Engel, Scott (2018): Negative urgency and expectancies increase vulnerability to binge eating in bulimia nervosa.
In: Eating disorders 26 (1), S. 39–51. DOI: 10.1080/10640266.2018.1418253.
Negative urgency (NU), the tendency to act impulsively when distressed, is associated with binge eating. Women who believe that eating alleviates negative affect are also more likely to binge eat. Thus, it is hypothesized that the individuals with high levels of NU, and who endorse these eating expectancies, will binge eat the following acute distress. This study tested these hypotheses using ecological momentary assessment. Sixteen women with the symptoms of BN completed clinical assessments, and were asked to report on distress and binges multiple times daily for two weeks. NU moderated the temporal relationship of negative affect to binges, such that women with lower scores on NU experienced a sharper increase in affect prior to binges. Individual differences in eating expectancies also moderated the relationship of affect to binge eating. Results suggest that women with high levels of NU and expectancy endorsement are triggered to binge by smaller shifts in negative affect than women who do not endorse these traits.
Foster, Katherine T.; Beltz, Adriene M. (2017): Advancing statistical analysis of ambulatory assessment data in the study of addictive behavior: A primer on three person-oriented techniques.
In: Addictive behaviors. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.12.018.
Ambulatory assessment (AA) methodologies have the potential to increase understanding and treatment of addictive behavior in seemingly unprecedented ways, due in part, to their emphasis on intensive repeated assessments of an individual’s addictive behavior in context. But, many analytic techniques traditionally applied to AA data – techniques that average across people and time – do not fully leverage this potential. In an effort to take advantage of the individualized, temporal nature of AA data on addictive behavior, the current paper considers three underutilized person-oriented analytic techniques: multilevel modeling, p-technique, and group iterative multiple model estimation. After reviewing prevailing analytic techniques, each person-oriented technique is presented, AA data specifications are mentioned, an example analysis using generated data is provided, and advantages and limitations are discussed; the paper closes with a brief comparison across techniques. Increasing use of person-oriented techniques will substantially enhance inferences that can be drawn from AA data on addictive behavior and has implications for the development of individualized interventions.
French, Kimberly A. (2018): Episodic work-family conflict and strain: A dynamic perspective.
In: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 79 (3-B(E)).
Given rising work and family demands in our society for both men and women, the experience of work-family conflict is commonplace. Work-family conflict occurs when the demands of work or family make it difficult to meet the demands of the alternate domain. A sizeable body of research has established work-family conflict and its nomological network. Despite decades of research, we have yet to form a precise understanding of when work-family conflicts occur and what happens when a conflict arises. The current research addresses these questions using an experience Sampling, episodic approach. Two primary research questions are addressed. First, I used border and boundary theory to identify when work-family conflict episodes are likely to occur. Second, I used stressor-strain and allostatic load theories to examine what happens with regard to psychological, physiological, and behavioral strain following an episodic work-family conflict over time. The results suggest work-family conflict occurs when individuals transition in between work and family domains. Further, family-to-work conflict tends to occur in the morning, while work-to-family conflict tends to occur in the afternoon. Fatigue showed significant reactivity at the time of a family-to-work conflict and recovered in the following time point. Unhealthy eating also showed a sleeper pattern, such that unhealthy eating increased at the end of the day, following a work-to-family conflict. Unexpectedly, fatigue decreased at the time of a family-to-work conflict, indicating family-to-work conflict may be a restorative, rather than taxing. Post-hoc analyses showed some evidence that work-to-family conflict accumulation is associated with increased strain over the course of three days. Again, results suggest family-to-work conflict accumulation may reduce, rather than increase, strain. Implications for the theoretical relationship between work-family conflict and strain, as well as border/boundary theory are discussed. In addition, practical implications for flexible work initiatives and episodic research design are considered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Richardson, Ben; Lewis, Vivienne; Smyth, Josh; Krug, Isabel (2018): Do women with greater trait body dissatisfaction experience body dissatisfaction states differently? An experience Sampling study.
In: Body image 25, S. 1–8. DOI: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2018.01.004.
The present study evaluated the relation of key features of state body dissatisfaction experiences – inertia, instability from moment-to-moment, and average level across time-points – to trait body dissatisfaction and/or eating disorder risk. Participants included 161 women who completed measures of trait body dissatisfaction and disordered eating pathology, and then completed reported state body dissatisfaction and contextual influences (binge eating, dietary restraint, exercise, and appearance comparison behaviors) 6 times daily for 7days. Results indicated that individuals with elevated trait body dissatisfaction were reliably different from those with healthier body image in terms of average state body dissatisfaction ratings, but not for inertia or instability. State mean and trait body dissatisfaction uniquely predicted eating pathology, although their predictive accuracy for clinical caseness was comparable. Cost vs. benefit of using state body image data for understanding trait body image and eating pathology is discussed.
George, Madeleine J.; Russell, Michael A.; Piontak, Joy R.; Odgers, Candice L. (2018): Concurrent and subsequent associations between daily digital technology use and high‐risk adolescents’ mental health symptoms.
In: Child Dev 89 (1), S. 78–88. DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12819.
Adolescents are spending an unprecedented amount of time using digital technologies (especially mobile technologies), and there are concerns that adolescents’ constant connectivity is associated with poor mental health, particularly among at‐risk adolescents. Participants included 151 adolescents at risk for mental health problems (Mage = 13.1) who completed a baseline assessment, 30‐day ecological momentary assessment, and 18 month follow‐up assessment. Results from multilevel regression models showed that daily reports of both time spent using digital technologies and the number of text messages sent were associated with increased same‐day attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms. Adolescents’ reported digital technology usage and text messaging across the ecological momentary assessment (EMA) period was also associated with poorer self‐regulation and increases in conduct problem symptoms between the baseline and follow‐up assessments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Gharibans, Armen A.; Smarr, Benjamin L.; Kunkel, David C.; Kriegsfeld, Lance J.; Mousa, Hayat M.; Coleman, Todd P. (2018): Artifact Rejection Methodology Enables Continuous, Noninvasive Measurement of Gastric Myoelectric Activity in Ambulatory Subjects.
In: Scientific reports 8 (1), S. 5019. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-23302-9.
The increasing prevalence of functional and motility gastrointestinal (GI) disorders is at odds with bottlenecks in their diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. Lack of noninvasive approaches means that only specialized centers can perform objective assessment procedures. Abnormal GI muscular activity, which is coordinated by electrical slow-waves, may play a key role in symptoms. As such, the electrogastrogram (EGG), a noninvasive means to continuously monitor gastric electrical activity, can be used to inform diagnoses over broader populations. However, it is seldom used due to technical issues: inconsistent results from single-channel measurements and signal artifacts that make interpretation difficult and limit prolonged monitoring. Here, we overcome these limitations with a wearable multi-channel system and artifact removal signal processing methods. Our approach yields an increase of 0.56 in the mean correlation coefficient between EGG and the clinical “gold standard”, gastric manometry, across 11 subjects (p < 0.001). We also demonstrate this system’s usage for Ecological Momentary Assessment, which reveals myoelectric dynamics in response to meals akin to gastric emptying patterns and circadian-related oscillations. Our approach is noninvasive, easy to administer, and has promise to widen the scope of populations with GI disorders for which clinicians can screen patients, diagnose disorders, and refine treatments objectively.
Godfrey, Kathryn M. (2018): Smartphones for smarter eating: Elucidating eating behaviors, stress, and heart rate variability.
In: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 79 (1-B(E)).
Rationale: Binge eating puts individuals at risk for dropout of weight loss treatments and weight regain after treatment. However, treatments for binge eating have not been successful at influencing weight. To improve obesity treatment, research needs to examine binge eating with new theoretical approaches, interdisciplinary paradigms that span physiological, psychological, and behavioral bases, and designs that enable study of eating behaviors within real world settings. The current study examined stress and binge eating, with a design that integrated ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of stress and binge eating behavior with psychophysiological monitoring of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The ANS is crucial for self-regulation, especially responding to and balance the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, and low ANS flexibility is related to numerous psychological and physical health stressors. Measures of heart rate variability (HRV) are indicators of ANS flexibility and can be obtained through noninvasive, ambulatory methods. The specific aims were to: 1) examine if lab-based HRV at baseline and when stressed by an experimental protocol is related to binge eating behaviors recalled from the previous four weeks and during a seven day at-home data collection period; 2) analyze if self-reported stress precedes binge eating during a seven day at-home data collection period; and 3) describe the experience of wearing a portable HR monitor and using a smartphone with EMA and the feasibility for clinical use in assessment and intervention. Design: 32 male and female participants with obesity completed a single lab visit to measure HRV and assess binge eating in the previous four weeks. HRV was measured through a lab protocol containing 5 minute recordings during a baseline period and a mental stressor. A subsample (n=16) of participants also completed a seven day at-home protocol for EMA assessment of stress and binge eating using a smartphone. During the seven days, participants self-reported stress using the 4-item version of the Cohen Perceived Stress Scale before each eating episode and reported their eating behaviors after they finished eating. Participants wore a HR monitor for one day of the seven days of the at-home protocol. At the end of the at-home protocol, these 16 participants underwent a semi-structured interviews and completed self-report questionnaires assessing their experience in the study and exploring the potential feasibility and clinical utility of systems using the study devices. Multiple linear regression, longitudinal multilevel mixed effects models, and qualitative, thematic content analysis were performed. Results: The sample was comprised of mostly female, non-Hispanic/Latino white or African American single participants, and a range of household incomes. At the first lab visit, many HRV measures (RMSSD, HF, LFn, HFn, LF/HF ratio) were significantly different between the baseline and stressed conditions (p = 0.01 to p < 0.001). Significant relationships were found between HRV variables at baseline and both loss of control (SDNN B = -1.26, p = 0.03, lnHF B = -0.06, p = 0.04) and overeating (LFn B = 0.01, p = 0.04) from the previous four weeks. No significant associations were found for HRV variables under stress, nor among HRV and binge eating behaviors from the at-home portion. Analyses of the at-home EMA data revealed that higher self-reported stress was linked to increased probability of overeating and loss of control overeating ( p = 0.011 to p < 0.001) but not of eating non-nutritious, high calorie foods, or breaking dietary rules. Results from adherence data, self-report questionnaires, and semi-structured interview suggest that participants were adherent to study procedures and found them to be straightforward. Participants expressed enthusiasm for elements of the study and for… (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Graham, Kristin Marie (2018): Development and preliminary feasibility of the Mobile Participation Assessment Tool: An ecological momentary assessment of participation in traumatic brain injury.
In: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 78 (8-B(E)).
Participation as a primary outcome of interest has gained increasing focus for disability and rehabilitation research and practice. Current means of assessing participation are limited by their static nature and reliance on an individual’s accurate and unbiased recall of past events. In particular, participation is an important outcome in traumatic brain injury (TBI) research and practice, and for these individuals accurate and unbiased recall can be impacted by the functional limitations that are commonly associated with this injury. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is an assessment approach that employs the repeated measurement of an outcome of interests in the natural, real-world environment. EMA may reduce the limitations of current measures of participation as well as enhance reporting accuracy and reliability of individuals with a history of TBI. The main objectives of this dissertation were to 1) develop a preliminary measure of participation that can be delivered using EMA techniques and 2) examine the feasibility and usability of EMA in a TBI population that exhibits cognitive impairment. The first aim of this study was the preliminary development of a participation assessment that could be delivered via EMA techniques. The Mobile Participation Assessment Tool (mPAT) was developed and underwent preliminary validation by the research team in conjunction with a group of experts in the field of rehabilitation and disability sciences and individuals with a history of TBI. A scoring algorithm was also developed by the group. The second aim of examining the feasibility of using EMA techniques to assess participation in community dwelling adults with TBI and presence of cognitive impairment was completed by asking adults with TBI (n=12) to complete a four week EMA protocol to assess participation in the real-world environment in which they live. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Grunberg, Rebecca L. (2018): Timing, mindset, and the link between stress and performance: Evidence from experience Sampling data.
In: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences 79 (2-A(E)).
This dissertation examines external stressors, perceived stress, and performance, using daily experience Sampling data from undergraduate students during their final exam week. First, I investigate external stressors and the timing of perceived stress. Consistent with prior literature, I find that overall perceived stress negatively predicts semester GPA. However, looking more closely at perceived stress over time, I find that perceived stress on exam days did not predict semester grade point average (GPA), while perceived stress on non-exam days significantly negatively predicted semester GPA. Those individuals who experience high perceived stress even outside the temporal bounds of external stressors never have time to recover from the exertion of coping with stress. Then, once individuals feel stressed, one factor that may change how they respond is their beliefs about whether stress is enhancing or debilitating. I investigate the effects of these stress mindsets on the relationship between stress and performance. Results show that stress mindset moderates the relationship between stress and performance, such that the relationship between stress and performance is more negative the more individuals endorse a stress-is-debilitating mindset. I also provide evidence that this effect is partially explained by stress mindset’s moderating effect on the relationship between stress and motivation. Together, these findings show that a more complete understanding of the relationship between stress and performance requires examination of both external stressors and perceived stress. Experience Sampling methods such as used here provide the opportunity to study all of these variables. This research also has practical implications. Traditional stress management techniques that focus solely on reducing stress may be inadequate at best; both the timing of perceived stress relative to external stressors and individuals’ stress mindset provide promising avenues for intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Hallensleben, Nina; Spangenberg, Lena; Forkmann, Thomas; Rath, Dajana; Hegerl, Ulrich; Kersting, Anette et al. (2018): Investigating the dynamics of suicidal ideation: Preliminary findings from a study using ecological momentary assessments in psychiatric inpatients.
In: Crisis 39 (1), S. 65–69. DOI: 10.1027/0227-5910/a000464.
Background: Although the fluctuating nature of suicidal ideation (SI) has been described previously, longitudinal studies investigating the dynamics of SI are scarce. Aim: To demonstrate the fluctuation of SI across 6 days and up to 60 measurement points using smartphone-based ecological momentary assessments (EMA). Method: Twenty inpatients with unipolar depression and current and/or lifetime suicidal ideation rated their momentary SI 10 times per day over a 6-day period. Mean squared successive difference (MSSD) was calculated as a measure of variability. Correlations of MSSD with severity of depression, number of previous depressive episodes, and history of suicidal behavior were examined. Results: Individual trajectories of SI are shown to illustrate fluctuation. MSSD values ranged from 0.2 to 21.7. No significant correlations of MSSD with several clinical parameters were found, but there are hints of associations between fluctuation of SI and severity of depression and suicidality. Limitations: Main limitation of this study is the small sample size leading to low power and probably missing potential effects. Further research with larger samples is necessary to shed light on the dynamics of SI. Conclusion: The results illustrate the dynamic nature and the diversity of trajectories of SI across 6 days in psychiatric inpatients with unipolar depression. Prediction of the fluctuation of SI might be of high clinical relevance. Further research using EMA and sophisticated analyses with larger samples is necessary to shed light on the dynamics of SI. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Han, Hui; Zhang, Jing Ying; Hser, Yih-Ing; Di Liang; Li, Xu; Wang, Shan Shan et al. (2018): Feasibility of a Mobile Phone App to Support Recovery From Addiction in China: Secondary Analysis of a Pilot Study.
In: JMIR mHealth and uHealth 6 (2), e46. DOI: 10.2196/mhealth.8388.
BACKGROUND: Mobile health technologies have been found to improve the self-management of chronic diseases. However, there is limited research regarding their feasibility in supporting recovery from substance use disorders (SUDs) in China. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of a mobile phone-based ecological momentary assessment (EMA) app by testing the concordance of drug use assessed by the EMA, urine testing, and a life experience timeline (LET) assessment. METHODS: A total of 75 participants dependent on heroin or amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) in Shanghai were recruited to participate in a 4-week pilot study. Of the participants, 50 (67% [50/75]) were randomly assigned to the experimental group and 25 (33% [25/75]) were assigned to the control group. The experimental group used mobile health (mHealth) based EMA technology to assess their daily drug use in natural environments and received 2 short health messages each day, whereas the control group only received 2 short health messages each day from the app. Urine tests and LET assessments were conducted each week and a post-intervention survey was administered to both groups. The correlations among the EMA, the LET assessment, and the urine test were investigated. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 41.6 (SD 8.0) years, and 71% (53/75) were male. During the 4 weeks of observation, 690 daily EMA survey data were recorded, with a response rate of 49.29% (690/1400). With respect to drug use, the percent of agreement between the EMA and the LET was 66.7%, 79.2%, 72.4%, and 85.8%, respectively, for each of the 4 weeks, whereas the percent of agreement between the EMA and the urine test was 51.2%, 65.1%, 61.9%, and 71.5%, respectively. The post-intervention survey indicated that 46% (32/70) of the participants preferred face-to-face interviews rather than the mHealth app. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated poor agreement between the EMA data and the LET and found that the acceptance of mHealth among individuals with SUDs in China was not positive. Hence, greater efforts are needed to improve the feasibility of mHealth in China.
Harvey, Emily J.; Rubin, Leslie F.; Smiley, Sabrina L.; Zhou, Yitong; Elmasry, Hoda; Pearson, Jennifer L. (2018): Mobile Phone Ownership Is Not a Serious Barrier to Participation in Studies: Descriptive Study.
In: JMIR mHealth and uHealth 6 (2), e21. DOI: 10.2196/mhealth.8123.
BACKGROUND: Rather than providing participants with study-specific data collection devices, their personal mobile phones are increasingly being used as a means for collecting geolocation and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) data in public health research. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to (1) describe the sociodemographic characteristics of respondents to an online survey screener assessing eligibility to participate in a mixed methods study collecting geolocation and EMA data via the participants’ personal mobile phones, and (2) examine how eligibility criteria requiring mobile phone ownership and an unlimited text messaging plan affected participant inclusion. METHODS: Adult (>/=18 years) daily smokers were recruited via public advertisements, free weekly newspapers, printed flyers, and word of mouth. An online survey screener was used as the initial method of determining eligibility for study participation. The survey screened for twenty-eight inclusion criteria grouped into three categories, which included (1) cell phone use, (2) tobacco use, and (3) additional criteria. RESULTS: A total of 1003 individuals completed the online screener. Respondents were predominantly African American (605/1003, 60.3%) (60.4%), male (514/1003, 51.3%), and had a median age of 35 years (IQR 26-50). Nearly 50% (496/1003, 49.5%) were unemployed. Most smoked menthol cigarettes (699/1003, 69.7%), and had a median smoking history of 11 years (IQR 5-21). The majority owned a mobile phone (739/1003, 73.7%), could install apps (86.8%), used their mobile phone daily (89.5%), and had an unlimited text messaging plan (871/1003, 86.8%). Of those who completed the online screener, 302 were eligible to participate in the study; 163 were eligible after rescreening, and 117 were enrolled in the study. Compared to employed individuals, a significantly greater proportion of those who were unemployed were ineligible for the study based on mobile phone inclusion criteria (P<.001); yet, 46.4% (333/717) of the individuals who were unemployed met all mobile phone inclusion criteria. CONCLUSIONS: Inclusion criteria requiring participants to use their personal mobile phones for data collection was not a major barrier to study participation for most respondents who completed the online screener, including those who were unemployed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02261363; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02261363 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6wOmDluSt).
Hasan, Syed Shabih (2018): Mobile Ecological Momentary Assessment for hearing aid evaluation.
In: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 78 (12-B(E)).
Hearing loss can significantly hinder an individual’s ability to engage socially and, when left untreated, can lead to anxiety, depression, and even dementia. The most common type of hearing loss is sensor-neural hearing loss that is treated using hearing aids (HAs). However, a significant fraction of individuals that may benefit from using HA do not use them and, the satisfaction of those that do, is only around 60%. Today, we have only a limited understanding regarding the factors that contribute to the low adoption and satisfaction rates. This is a limitation of existing laboratory-based assessment methods that cannot accurately predict the performance of HAs in the real-world as they do not fully reproduce the complexities of real-world environments. There four core contributions of my PhD thesis: i) the development new computer-based methods for assessing HAs in the real-world. Our approach is based on the insight that HA performance is intrinsically dependent on the context in which a HA is used. A context includes characteristics of the listening activity, social context, and acoustic environment. To evaluate this hypothesis, we have developed AudioSense, a system that uses mobile phones to jointly characterize the context of users and the performance of HAs. ii) We provide the first instance of characterization of the auditory lifestyle of hearing aid users, and the relationships that exist between the context and hearing aid outcomes. iii) We utilize the subjective data collected using AudioSense to build novel models that can predict the success of hearing aid prescriptions for new and experienced users. We also quantitatively prove the importance of collecting contextual information for evaluating hearing aids. iv) We use the objective audio data collected with AudioSense to predict contextual information like acoustic activity and noise level. This provides us a way to intelligently infer contextual information automatically and reduce the burden on the study participants. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Hasselmo, Karen; Mehl, Matthias R.; Tackman, Allison M.; Carey, Angela L.; Wertheimer, Anne M.; Stowe, Raymond P.; Sbarra, David A. (2018): Objectively Measured Social Integration Is Associated With an Immune Risk Phenotype Following Marital Separation.
In: Annals of behavioral medicine : a publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine 52 (2), S. 130–145. DOI: 10.1093/abm/kax034.
Background: Close relationships play an integral role in human development, and robust evidence links marital separation and divorce to poor health outcomes. Social integration may play a key role in this association. In many ways, the study of marital separation and divorce provides an ideal model system for a more complete understanding of the association between life stress and physical health. Purpose: The current study investigated associations among objectively measured social integration, psychological distress, and biomarkers of immune health in recently separated adults (N = 49). Methods: We collected four measures of immune functioning-interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and antibody titers to latent cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus-that were combined to yield a viral-Immune Risk Profile. To assess how variability in social integration is associated with immunological correlates following the end of a marriage, we incorporated observational ecological momentary assessment data using a novel methodology (the Electronically Activated Recorder). Results: We found that objectively measured social behaviors are associated with concurrent viral-Immune Risk Profile scores over and above the effects of psychological distress and that psychological distress may be linked to biomarkers of immune health through social integration. Conclusions: This research expands current knowledge of biomarkers of immune health after divorce and separation and includes a new methodology for objective measures of social engagement.
Haut, Sheryl R.; Lipton, Richard B.; Cornes, Susannah; Dwivedi, Alok K.; Wasson, Rachel; Cotton, Sian et al. (2018): Behavioral interventions as a treatment for epilepsy: A multicenter randomized controlled trial.
In: Neurology 90 (11), e963-e970. DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000005109.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a stress-reduction intervention in participants with medication-resistant epilepsy. METHODS: Adults with medication-resistant focal epilepsy (n = 66) were recruited from 3 centers and randomized to 1 of 2 interventions: (1) progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) with diaphragmatic breathing, or (2) control focused-attention activity with extremity movements. Following an 8-week baseline period, participants began 12 weeks of double-blind treatment. Daily self-reported mood and stress ratings plus seizure counts were completed by participants using an electronic diary, and no medication adjustments were permitted. The primary outcome was percent reduction in seizure frequency per 28 days comparing baseline and treatment; secondary outcomes included stress reduction and stress-seizure interaction. RESULTS: In the 66 participants in the intention-to-treat analysis, seizure frequency was reduced from baseline in both treatment groups (PMR: 29%, p < 0.05; focused attention: 25%, p < 0.05). PMR and focused attention did not differ in seizure reduction (p = 0.38), although PMR was associated with stress reduction relative to focused attention (p < 0.05). Daily stress was not a predictor of seizures. CONCLUSIONS: Both PMR and the focused-attention groups showed reduced seizure frequency compared to baseline in participants with medication-resistant focal seizures, although the 2 treatments did not differ. PMR was more effective than focused attention in reducing self-reported stress. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER: NCT01444183.
Hebert, Emily T.; Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Businelle, Michael S.; Harrell, Melissa B.; Kelder, Steven H.; Perry, Cheryl L. (2018): Real Time Assessment of Young Adults’ Attitudes toward Tobacco Messages.
In: Tobacco regulatory science 4 (1), S. 644–655. DOI: 10.18001/TRS.4.1.10.
Objectives: We used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to examine young adults’ attitudes towards pro-tobacco messages encountered in real time and their association with intentions to use tobacco. Methods: Young adults (N = 92, ages 18-29) recorded sightings of marketing or social media related to tobacco in real time via mobile app for 28 days. Participants reported message characteristics, their attitudes towards the message, and intentions to use the depicted product for each submission. We used generalized linear mixed models to examine factors related to attitude towards message and intentions to use tobacco. Results: Messages depicting e-cigarettes (p < .001) or hookah (p < .05) were associated with significantly more favorable attitudes compared with traditional cigarettes. Positive attitude towards the message was significantly associated with intention to use the depicted product (p < .001). Messages depicting e-cigarettes and hookah were significantly associated with higher intention to use. Message source was not significantly related to attitudes towards the message or product use intentions. Conclusions: Marketing featuring e-cigarettes and hookah is an important target for future regulation. Given that pro-tobacco and e-cigarette messages are prevalent online, future research should consider the Internet and social media as important venues for counter-marketing and intervention efforts.
Hennig, Timo; Lincoln, Tania M. (2018): Sleeping paranoia away? An actigraphy and experience-sampling study with adolescents.
In: Child psychiatry and human development 49 (1), S. 63–72. DOI: 10.1007/s10578-017-0729-9.
Paranoid symptoms co-occur with distress and poor functioning and constitute a risk for psychosis and other mental disorders. Poor sleep is known to be associated with paranoid symptoms, but the direction of the effect and the mediating factors have not been studied thoroughly. In an experience-sampling study, 61 adolescents wore an actigraph over eight nights and also rated their sleep, symptoms of paranoia, and potentially mediating factors. Shorter sleep time and more dreaming predicted paranoid symptoms in multilevel regression models. Paranoid symptoms did not significantly predict sleep parameters. Positive and negative affect partially mediated the effect of sleep time on paranoid symptoms. The effects were small, but encourage further research that might then be used to improve the prevention of paranoid symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Hepp, Johanna; Lane, Sean P.; Wycoff, Andrea M.; Carpenter, Ryan W.; Trull, Timothy J. (2018): Interpersonal stressors and negative affect in individuals with borderline personality disorder and community adults in daily life: A replication and extension.
In: Journal of abnormal psychology 127 (2), S. 183–189. DOI: 10.1037/abn0000318.
Affective instability and interpersonal stress are key features of borderline personality disorder (BPD). They were shown to covary in the daily lives of patients in a recent ambulatory assessment study (Hepp et al., 2017) that observed comparatively larger positive associations between interpersonal stressors and negative affect in individuals with BPD than those with depressive disorders. The present study sought to replicate these findings, collecting data on hostility, sadness, fear, and rejection or disagreement events from 56 BPD and 60 community control participants for 21 days, 6 times a day. Using identical statistical procedures, the positive associations between momentary rejection/disagreement and hostility, sadness, and fear were replicated. Again replicating the original study, the rejection–hostility, rejection–sadness, and disagreement–hostility associations were significantly stronger in the BPD group. Time-lagged analyses extended the original study, revealing that rejection was associated with subsequent hostility and sadness more strongly in the BPD group, as was disagreement with subsequent hostility and fear. Though small, we argue that the observed group differences reflect meaningful pervasive responses in a daily life context. Future research should consider these when implementing affect regulation strategies that are applicable in interpersonal contexts for all individuals, but particularly those with BPD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
General Scientific Summary—The experience of intense and quickly changing negative emotions is a key symptom of borderline personality disorder (BPD). We found that stressful interpersonal events, such as feeling rejected or having a disagreement, increase the intensity of negative emotions, especially anger, sadness, and fear, in the daily lives of individuals with BPD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Horowitz, Sarah (2018): An Ecological Momentary Assessment study of the functions of non-suicidal self-injury in young adults with and without a history of interpersonal trauma.
In: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 78 (8-B(E)).
Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) involves acute deliberate damage to one’s body without suicidal intent. Considerable heterogeneity has been reported in NSSI characteristics and in the functions NSSI serves for individuals who engage in it. The present study investigated a theorized link between NSSI functions, particularly self-punishment, and interpersonal trauma history. As well, cross-sectional and experience Sampling methodologies were compared. Participants were 39 community-based young adults (ages 18 to 30; 90% female) with a history of repeated NSSI and at least 2 NSSI urges in the previous 2 weeks. The sample was diverse: 44% identified non-European ethnocultural backgrounds and 46% identified nonheterosexual orientations. Electronic daily diary methodology was used. Participants tracked NSSI urges and acts for 21 days, completing measures of NSSI characteristics, urge severity, and functions. All participants completed the study (M = .49 missed days). All participants reported NSSI urges or acts (M = 5, SD = 4.21). NSSI characteristics related to trauma severity were number of NSSI methods, number of NSSI functions, and urge severity. NSSI functions related to trauma severity were affect regulation, interpersonal boundaries, anti-dissociation, self-care, and marking distress. In multiple regression analysis, a model including number of NSSI functions and the relevance scores for anti-dissociation and interpersonal boundaries functions predicted 34.2% of the variance in trauma severity and remained significant when controlling for the number of NSSI functions (p = .002). Although self-punishment did not correlate with trauma severity, it was endorsed by 95% of participants and for 81% of NSSI urges and acts. Experience Sampling data reflected cross-sectional data, with significant correlations between measures of NSSI functions, urge severity, and NSSI method use. However, experience Sampling contributed information about variation over time both across and within participants. Relevant to explanatory models of NSSI, some NSSI functions (e.g. anti-dissociation) exhibited more variation between participants and over time than others (e.g. affect regulation). Findings indicate that interpersonal trauma is important in explaining the heterogeneity of NSSI functions. Explanatory models of NSSI should account for the role of contextual factors such as trauma, and address the multiplicity of NSSI functions and the importance of self-punishment. Clinical and research implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Horowitz, Sarah; Stermac, Lana (2018): The relationship between interpersonal trauma history and the functions of non-suicidal self-injury in young adults: An experience Sampling study.
In: J Trauma Dissociation 19 (2), S. 232–246. DOI: 10.1080/15299732.2017.1330228.
Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) has been reported to serve a range of functions for individuals who engage in it. Despite considerable variation in NSSI functions between individuals, limited attention has been paid to exploring relationships between NSSI functions and other characteristics of self-injuring individuals, such as trauma history. This is despite allusion to trauma history in the suggested etiology of some NSSI functions (e.g., anti-dissociation, self-punishment). The present study used a 21-day online daily diary to explore possible relationships between common NSSI functions and past interpersonal trauma in community young adults (n = 38). The interpersonal boundaries and anti-dissociation functions significantly related to interpersonal trauma severity in multiple regression analyses; the interpersonal boundaries function continued to significantly relate to interpersonal trauma severity when controlling for the number of NSSI functions endorsed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Hou, Wai Kai; Bonanno, George A. (2018): Emotions in everyday life during social movements: Prospective predictions of mental health.
In: Journal of counseling psychology 65 (1), S. 120–131. DOI: 10.1037/cou0000236.
Emotion mobilizes and demobilizes a social movement while the movement itself impacts people’s emotions. An evidence base is needed for developing timely emotion-focused counseling services for affected populations worldwide. This experience Sampling study investigated the impact of a social movement on everyday emotional reactivity, variability, instability, and persistence, and whether and how these predicted subsequent psychological distress and well-being among 108 community-dwelling adults. Fifty-four participants reported momentary events and emotions 5 times daily over 7 days during the Umbrella Movement in Hong Kong. An age-matched, sex-matched comparison group (n = 54) participated during a period without major social/political movement. Psychological distress and well-being were assessed at baseline (Time 1 [T1]) and 3-month follow-up (Time 2 [T2]). Hierarchical linear modeling revealed lower valence ratings of positive events during the Umbrella Movement. Lower positive emotional reactivity and higher negative emotional reactivity in positive events were reported during the movement. Controlling for demographics and T1 scores, the positive association between negative emotional reactivity in positive events and T2 depressive symptoms, and the inverse association between positive emotional instability and T2 positive emotions, were significant only among the comparison group. The positive association between positive emotions in positive events and T2 life satisfaction was significant only among the Umbrella Movement group. People could experience significant changes in their emotions in everyday life during a social movement, even if it is short and relatively nonviolent like the Umbrella Movement. Maximizing positive emotions in positive events during a social movement can uniquely contribute to higher subsequent psychological well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Public Significance Statement—The current study provides one of the first empirical findings on the unique everyday emotional experiences during a social movement relative to ordinary time. Counseling services that enhance positive emotions in positive events during a social movement could contribute to higher subsequent psychological well-being among affected populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Hülsheger, Ute R.; Walkowiak, Alicia; Thommes, Marie S. (2018): How can mindfulness be promoted? Workload and recovery experiences as antecedents of daily fluctuations in mindfulness.
In: Journal of occupational and organizational psychology. DOI: 10.1111/joop.12206.
While previous work on mindfulness has focused predominantly on the benefits of mindfulness and of mindfulness interventions, the present article addresses the question of how natural experiences of mindfulness can be promoted in the context of work. Accordingly, this article sheds light on day‐to‐day fluctuations in workload and recovery experiences (psychological detachment and sleep quality) as antecedents of state mindfulness. Furthermore, this study extends extant research that has documented beneficial effects of mindfulness on subsequent recovery experiences by arguing that the relationship between mindfulness and recovery experiences is reciprocal rather than unidirectional. Using an experience‐sampling design across five workdays and involving three daily measurement occasions, we found that sleep quality and workload were related to subsequent levels of mindfulness. While not displaying a significant direct relationship with mindfulness, psychological detachment was indirectly related to mindfulness via sleep quality. Fatigue was identified as an important mechanism explaining these relationships. Furthermore, findings confirmed that the relationship between mindfulness and recovery experiences is reciprocal rather than unidirectional. Taken together, this study contributes to an enriched understanding of the role of mindfulness in organizations by shedding light on factors that precede the experience of mindfulness and by pointing to the existence of gain spirals associated with recovery experiences and mindfulness. Practitioner points Organizations seeking to promote mindfulness among their workforce should try to keep workload to a manageable degree. Organizations may also pay attention to care for employees’ day‐to‐day recovery as it has been shown to facilitate mindfulness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Itzhacki, Jacob; te Lindert, Bart H. W.; van der Meijden, Wisse P.; Kringelbach, Morten L.; Mendoza, Jorge; Van Someren, Eus J. W. (2018): Environmental light and time of day modulate subjective liking and wanting.
In: Emotion (Washington, D.C.). DOI: 10.1037/emo0000402.
Several studies demonstrated effects of light on affect via projections from the retina of the eye to the circadian clock or via projections to areas involved in mood and reward. Few field studies investigated how naturally fluctuating light levels affect positive and negative mood in everyday life, but none addressed two key components of the reward system: wanting and liking. To elucidate diurnal profiles and immediate effects of dynamically changing light intensity in everyday life, subjective wanting and liking were assessed using experience Sampling, while continuously monitoring environmental illuminance. Using a smartphone and light sensors, healthy volunteers (n = 27, 14 females, 23.7 ± 3.8 [M ± SD] years of age) were probed for 1 week, 9 times a day, to rate positive and negative mood, and 6 novel dedicated questions each on subjective liking and wanting. The multiband light spectrum was continuously recorded from sensors worn on the chest and intensities were averaged over the intervals between subsequent probes. Mixed effect models were used to evaluate how time of day and light intensity modulated subjective ratings. A total of 1,102 valid observations indicated that liking and wanting peaked around 6 p.m. and increased, respectively, by 13 ± 4% and 11 ± 4% across an individual’s range of experienced light intensities. More traditional mood questions were less sensitive to modulation by light intensity. Combined experience Sampling and environmental monitoring opens up the possibility for field studies on light in disorders in which the reward system is highly relevant, like addiction, depression and insomnia. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Jaffe, Anna E. (2018): Effects of peritraumatic alcohol intoxication on intrusive memories following exposure to an analog trauma.
In: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 79 (1-B(E)).
Intrusive memories and associated symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) represent a significant public health problem, often leading to persistent physical and psychological difficulties experienced by victims long after the traumatic event, contributing to healthcare costs and loss of productivity. Research examining etiological factors that contribute to PTSD is needed in order to expand basic knowledge and to inform the development of prevention and intervention strategies. Although acute alcohol intoxication has the potential to impact established risk factors for the development of intrusive memories (e.g., via stress response, cognitive processing), and trauma—particularly sexual assault—often occurs under the influence of alcohol, the influence of peritraumatic (i.e., at the time of assault) alcohol intoxication on post-assault trauma symptoms is not well understood. To address this issue, the current study utilized an experimental design, including lab-based alcohol administration (high dose of .72 g/kg, low dose of .36 g/kg, and a placebo beverage), a well-accepted analog trauma exposure paradigm (a film with distressing or ‘traumatic’ content), and ecological momentary assessment of intrusive memories. Results from 98 community women (ages 21 to 30, without a personal history of victimization) revealed peritraumatic intoxication did impact the occurrence of intrusive memories. Specifically, a marginally significant indirect effect showed that alcohol myopia disrupted cognitive processing and formation of trauma memories, resulting in increased intrusive memories at high levels of intoxication. At the same time, those who consumed high or low doses of alcohol displayed a dampened stress response, which reduced intrusive memories. Findings highlight the influence of peritraumatic cognitive impairment and stress response on the development of intrusive memories. Though alcohol influenced these risk factors simultaneously and in opposite directions, overall, participants in the high dose condition reported more intrusive memories than those in the placebo and low dose conditions. These findings reflect the importance of prevention and intervention programs aimed at reducing alcohol-involved victimization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Jakubowski, Kelly; Bashir, Zaariyah; Farrugia, Nicolas; Stewart, Lauren (2018): Involuntary and voluntary recall of musical memories: A comparison of temporal accuracy and emotional responses.
In: Mem Cognit. DOI: 10.3758/s13421-018-0792-x.
Comparisons between involuntarily and voluntarily retrieved autobiographical memories have revealed similarities in encoding and maintenance, with differences in terms of specificity and emotional responses. Our study extended this research area into the domain of musical memory, which afforded a unique opportunity to compare the same memory as accessed both involuntarily and voluntarily. Specifically, we compared instances of involuntary musical imagery (INMI, or ‘earworms’)—the spontaneous mental recall and repetition of a tune—to deliberate recall of the same tune as voluntary musical imagery (VMI) in terms of recall accuracy and emotional responses. Twenty participants completed two 3-day tasks. In an INMI task, participants recorded information about INMI episodes as they occurred; in a VMI task, participants were prompted via text message to deliberately imagine each tune they had previously experienced as INMI. In both tasks, tempi of the imagined tunes were recorded by tapping to the musical beat while wearing an accelerometer and additional information (e.g., tune name, emotion ratings) was logged in a diary. Overall, INMI and VMI tempo measurements for the same tune were strongly correlated. Tempo recall for tunes that have definitive, recorded versions was relatively accurate, and tunes that were retrieved deliberately (VMI) were not recalled more accurately in terms of tempo than spontaneous and involuntary instances of imagined music (INMI). Some evidence that INMI elicited stronger emotional responses than VMI was also revealed. These results demonstrate several parallels to previous literature on involuntary memories and add new insights on the phenomenology of INMI. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Jazaieri, Hooria; McGonigal, Kelly; Lee, Ihno A.; Jinpa, Thupten; Doty, James R.; Gross, James J.; Goldin, Philippe R. (2018): Altering the trajectory of affect and affect regulation: The impact of compassion training.
In: Mindfulness (N Y) 9 (1), S. 283–293. DOI: 10.1007/s12671-017-0773-3.
A growing literature has begun to document the effects of compassion training on a variety of important interpersonal behaviors (e.g., helping behavior). What is not yet well understood, however, is what impact compassion training has on affect and affect regulation. To examine this issue, we implemented a 9-week compassion training program in which 51 adults provided twice-daily ratings of four affective states (anxiety, calm, fatigue, alertness) as well as their desire and capability to regulate these affective states. In addition, participants provided weekly responses regarding five specific regulatory strategies. Analysis of day-to-day trajectories of affective experience showed a decrease in anxiety and increase in calmness. Day-to-day trajectories of affect regulation demonstrated that participants were more likely to choose to accept and thus not influence or modulate affective experience (as opposed to dampen, enhance, or hold on to or maintain the affective state). At the same time, participants also reported being more capable in meeting their respective regulatory goals. Finally, analysis of week-to-week trajectories of specific regulatory strategies over the course of the compassion training program demonstrated that participants shifted to lesser use of expressive suppression and greater acceptance when experiencing stress/anxiety. These results suggest that interventions such as compassion training may help modulate specific affective states and modify the use of and self-efficacy for specific regulatory strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Jones, Andrew; Tiplady, Brian; Houben, Katrijn; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Field, Matt (2018): Do daily fluctuations in inhibitory control predict alcohol consumption? An ecological momentary assessment study.
In: Psychopharmacology. DOI: 10.1007/s00213-018-4860-5.
Rationale: Deficient inhibitory control is predictive of increased alcohol consumption in the laboratory; however, little is known about this relationship in naturalistic, real-world settings.Objectives: In the present study, we implemented ecological momentary assessment methods to investigate the relationship between inhibitory control and alcohol consumption in the real world.Methods: Heavy drinkers who were motivated to reduce their alcohol consumption (N = 100) were loaned a smartphone which administered a stop signal task twice per day at random intervals between 10 a.m. and 6 p.m. for 2 weeks. Each day, participants also recorded their planned and actual alcohol consumption and their subjective craving and mood. We hypothesised that day-to-day fluctuations in inhibitory control (stop signal reaction time) would predict alcohol consumption, over and above planned consumption and craving.Results: Multilevel modelling demonstrated that daily alcohol consumption was predicted by planned consumption (β = .816; 95% CI .762–.870) and craving (β = .022; 95% CI .013–.031), but inhibitory control did not predict any additional variance in alcohol consumption. However, secondary analyses demonstrated that the magnitude of deterioration in inhibitory control across the day was a significant predictor of increased alcohol consumption on that day (β = .007; 95% CI .004–.011), after controlling for planned consumption and craving.Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that short-term fluctuations in inhibitory control predict alcohol consumption, which suggests that transient fluctuations in inhibition may be a risk factor for heavy drinking episodes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Jongeneel, Alyssa; Scheffers, Dorien; Tromp, Nynke; Nuij, Chani; Delespaul, Philippe; Riper, Heleen et al. (2018): Reducing distress and improving social functioning in daily life in people with auditory verbal hallucinations: study protocol for the ‘Temstem’ randomised controlled trial.
In: BMJ open 8 (3), e020537. DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-020537.
INTRODUCTION: Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are prevalent experiences that can induce distress and impede social functioning. While most voice hearers benefit from antipsychotic medication or cognitive-behavioural therapy, additional effective interventions are needed to reduce the burden of experiencing AVH. ‘Temstem’ is an easily accessible and useable smartphone application that was developed by designers in close cooperation with voice hearers and experts. By using language games, Temstem aims to reduce distress and improve social functioning. METHODS: This is a single-blind multicentre randomised controlled trial with two arms: ‘Temstem+AVH monitoring’ versus ‘AVH monitoring’ (total n=100). Participants are adult patients who suffer daily from AVH and will be recruited in outpatient units. Primary assessment in daily life is made by the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) and daily monitoring with the PsyMate app. During an ESM period of 6 days, participants assess their mental state (including AVH and context) several times a day by filling in short questionnaires. There are three 6-day ESM periods: at baseline (week 0-1), post-treatment (weeks 5-6) and follow-up (weeks 9-10). In addition, during the entire 10-week study period, all participants monitor their AVH two times a day with a short assessment via the PsyMate app. Participants in the Temstem+AVH monitoring condition are provided with the Temstem app from week 1 to 6. Other assessments made at baseline, post-treatment and follow-up are based on questionnaires and a clinical interview. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The results from this study will provide an evaluation of the effectiveness of Temstem, a non-invasive and easily accessible app for voice hearers, and insight into the determinants of optimal use. Results will be disseminated unreservedly, irrespective of the magnitude or direction of the effects. This study protocol was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of the VU University Medical Centre (METC number: 2015.435/NL53684.029.15). TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN75717636; Pre-results.
Ketonen, Elina E.; Dietrich, Julia; Moeller, Julia; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Lonka, Kirsti (2018): The role of daily autonomous and controlled educational goals in students’ academic emotion states: An experience Sampling method approach.
In: Learn Instr 53, S. 10–20. DOI: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2017.07.003.
The present study examines antecedents of university students’ academic emotions (Pekrun, Goetz, Titz, & Perry, 2002) in the context of self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985; 2000), using real-time assessment and intra-individual analyses. We investigated whether daily autonomous and controlled-motivated educational goals predicted students’ academic emotions. University students (N = 55) completed smartphone diaries over 14 consecutive days. The two-week intensive longitudinal data were organized in a hierarchical three-level structure, with situations (Level 1) nested within days (Level 2) nested within students (Level 3). Students’ goal motivation was assessed in morning questionnaires, and academic emotions in three daytime questionnaires. The results of the multilevel structural equation models showed that setting self-determined autonomous educational goals predicted positive emotions, whereas controlled motivation predicted negative emotions in everyday academic situations, applying both to within-person processes and between-person differences. Both kinds of goal motivation, autonomous and controlled, were associated with determination in students’ daily lives. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Kim, Sooyeol; Park, YoungAh; Headrick, Lucille (2018): Daily micro-breaks and job performance: General work engagement as a cross-level moderator.
In: The Journal of applied psychology. DOI: 10.1037/apl0000308.
Despite the growing research on work recovery and its well-being outcomes, surprisingly little attention has been paid to at-work recovery and its job performance outcomes. The current study extends the work recovery literature by examining day-level relationships between prototypical microbreaks and job performance as mediated by state positive affect. Furthermore, general work engagement is tested as a cross-level moderator weakening the indirect effects of microbreaks on job performance via positive affect. Using multisource experience Sampling method, the authors collected two daily surveys from 71 call center employees and obtained objective records of daily sales performance for two consecutive weeks (n = 632). Multilevel path analysis results showed that relaxation, socialization, and cognitive microbreaks were related to increased positive affect at work which, in turn, predicted greater sales performance. However, breaks for nutrition-intake (having snacks and drinks) did not show significant effects. Importantly, microbreaks had significant indirect effects on job performance via positive affect only for workers who had lower general work engagement, whereas the indirect effects did not exist for workers who had higher general work engagement. Furthermore, Bayesian multilevel analyses confirmed the results. Theoretical and practical implications, limitations, and future research directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Koch, Elena D.; Tost, Heike; Braun, Urs; Gan, Gabriela; Giurgiu, Marco; Reinhard, Iris et al. (2018): Mood Dimensions Show Distinct Within-Subject Associations With Non-exercise Activity in Adolescents: An Ambulatory Assessment Study.
In: Frontiers in psychology 9, S. 268. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00268.
Physical activity is known to preserve both physical and mental health. However, the physical activity levels of a large proportion of adolescents are insufficient. This is critical, since physical activity levels in youth have been shown to translate into adulthood. Whereas in adult populations, mood has been supposed to be one important psychological factor that drives physical activity in everyday life, this issue has been poorly studied in adolescent populations. Ambulatory Assessment is the state-of-the-art approach to investigate how mood and non-exercise activity fluctuate within persons in everyday life. Through assessments in real time and real life, this method provides ecological validity, bypassing several limitations of traditional assessment methods (e.g., recall biases). To investigate whether mood is associated with non-exercise activity in adolescents, we equipped a community-based sample comprising 113 participants, aged 12-17 years, with GPS-triggered e-diaries querying for valence, energetic arousal, and calmness, and with accelerometers continuously measuring physical activity in their everyday lives for 1 week. We excluded all acceleration data due to participants’ exercise activities and thereafter we parameterized non-exercise activity as the mean value across 10-min intervals of movement acceleration intensity following each e-diary prompt. We used multilevel analyses to compute the effects of the mood dimensions on non-exercise activity within 10-min intervals directly following each e-diary prompt. Additionally, we conducted explorative analyses of the time course of the effects, i.e., on different timeframes of non-exercise activity up to 300 min following the mood assessment. The results showed that valence (p < 0.001) and energetic arousal (p < 0.001) were positively associated with non-exercise activity within the 10 min interval, whereas calmness (p < 0.001) was negatively associated with non-exercise activity. Specifically, adolescents who felt more content, full of energy, or less calm were more physically active in subsequent timeframes. Overall, our results demonstrate significant associations of mood with non-exercise activity in younger ages and converge with the previously observed association between mood and physical activity in adults. This knowledge on distinct associations of mood-dimensions with non-exercise activity may help to foster physical activity levels in adolescents.
Kockler, Tobias D.; Santangelo, Philip S.; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W. (2018): Investigating Binge Eating Using Ecological Momentary Assessment: The Importance of an Appropriate Sampling Frequency.
In: Nutrients 10 (1). DOI: 10.3390/nu10010105.
With great interest, we read the recently published review on emotion regulation in binge eating disorder (BED) by Dingemans et al. .[...].
König, Laura M.; Renner, Britta (2018): Colourful = healthy? Exploring meal colour variety and its relation to food consumption.
In: Food Qual Prefer 64, S. 66–71. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodqual.2017.10.011.
Visual properties of food including colour are important cues when deciding what and how much to eat. Colour variety might be an intuitive cue for healthy food choices. In order to explore a colourful equals healthy association, the present study examined 486 real-life meal choices recorded by 108 participants. Participants recorded their lunch meals via mobile visual food recording, indicated the perceived meal colour variety, and added a short meal description using smartphone based ecological momentary assessment. All visual food records and description were coded by trained experts according to seven main food groups (fruit, vegetables, grains and starches, protein sources, dairy, fried foods, sugary foods). Supporting the colourful equals healthy association, increased perceived meal colour variety was related to an increased intake of vegetables and a decreased intake of sugary foods. Hence, eating colourfully seems to be a promising avenue for promoting a more intuitive but also healthy food choice strategy in consumers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Korner Gustafsson, Joakim; Sodersten, Maria; Ternstrom, Sten; Schalling, Ellika (2018): Long-term effects of Lee Silverman Voice Treatment on daily voice use in Parkinson’s disease as measured with a portable voice accumulator.
In: Logopedics, phoniatrics, vocology, S. 1–10. DOI: 10.1080/14015439.2018.1435718.
This study examines the effects of an intensive voice treatment focusing on increasing voice intensity, LSVT LOUD((R)) Lee Silverman Voice Treatment, on voice use in daily life in a participant with Parkinson’s disease, using a portable voice accumulator, the VoxLog. A secondary aim was to compare voice use between the participant and a matched healthy control. Participants were an individual with Parkinson’s disease and his healthy monozygotic twin. Voice use was registered with the VoxLog during 9 weeks for the individual with Parkinson’s disease and 2 weeks for the control. This included baseline registrations for both participants, 4 weeks during LSVT LOUD for the individual with Parkinson’s disease and 1 week after treatment for both participants. For the participant with Parkinson’s disease, follow-up registrations at 3, 6, and 12 months post-treatment were made. The individual with Parkinson’s disease increased voice intensity during registrations in daily life with 4.1 dB post-treatment and 1.4 dB at 1-year follow-up compared to before treatment. When monitored during laboratory recordings an increase of 5.6 dB was seen post-treatment and 3.8 dB at 1-year follow-up. Changes in voice intensity were interpreted as a treatment effect as no significant correlations between changes in voice intensity and background noise were found for the individual with Parkinson’s disease. The increase in voice intensity in a laboratory setting was comparable to findings previously reported following LSVT LOUD. The increase registered using ambulatory monitoring in daily life was lower but still reflecting a clinically relevant change.
Kranzler, Amy (2018): An ecological momentary assessment study of the emotion regulation functions of nonsuicidal self-injury among adolescents and young adults.
In: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 78 (7-B(E)).
Emotion regulation functions have been consistently implicated in the reinforcement and maintenance of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). However, few studies have used Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to examine the way specific negative and positive emotions are experienced immediately before and after NSSI behaviors. The current study used a smartphone app called Track It to examine the emotional antecedents and consequences of NSSI in real time. Participants were 24 adolescents and young adults, ages 15-21, who used the Track It app to monitor their affective experiences and NSSI thoughts and behaviors for two weeks. Results indicated the presence of distinct emotional antecedents to NSSI thoughts and behaviors. In addition, immediately following NSSI behaviors there were significant reductions in high-arousal negative emotions and increases in low-arousal positive emotions, suggesting that the behavior may serve as an effective method of emotion regulation. Lastly, the magnitude of changes in positive emotion following NSSI behaviors predicted increased frequency of NSSI thoughts, suggesting that these behaviors may be positively reinforced. In contrast, greater changes in negative emotion following NSSI predicted fewer NSSI thoughts, suggesting that individuals who engage in NSSI for negative reinforcement may do so more impulsively. These findings extend current understandings of the emotional regulation functions of NSSI and have important implications for interventions targeting NSSI. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Krkovic, Katarina; Krink, Stephanie; Lincoln, Tania M. (2018): Emotion regulation as a moderator of the interplay between self-reported and physiological stress and paranoia.
In: European psychiatry : the journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists 49, S. 43–49. DOI: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2017.12.002.
Experience Sampling method (ESM) studies have found an association between daily stress and paranoid symptoms, but it is uncertain whether these findings generalize to physiological indicators of stress. Moreover, the temporality of the association and its moderating factors require further research. Here, we investigate whether physiological and self-rated daily stress predict subsequent paranoid symptoms and analyze the role of emotion regulation as a putative moderator. We applied ESM during 24h to repeatedly assess heart rate, self-rated stress, and subclinical paranoia in a sample of 67 psychosis-prone individuals as measured with Community Assessment for Psychotic Experiences (CAPE). Adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation was assessed at baseline with the Emotion Regulation Skills Questionnaire (ERSQ-ES) and the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ). Linear mixed models were used to analyze the data. Heart rate (b=0.004, p<0.05) and self-rated stress (b=0.238, p<0.001) predicted subsequent paranoia. The reverse effect, paranoia as a predictor of subsequent heart rate (b=0.230, p=0.615) or self-rated stress (b=-0.009, p=0.751) was non-significant. Maladaptive emotion regulation was a significant predictor of paranoia (b=0.740, p<0.01) and moderated the path from self-rated stress to paranoia (b=0.188, p<0.05) but not the path from heart rate to paranoia (b=0.005, p=0.09). Our findings suggest a one-way temporal link between daily stress and paranoia and highlight the importance of emotion regulation as a vulnerability factor relevant to this process.
Kuerbis, Alexis; Treloar Padovano, Hayley; Shao, Sijing; Houser, Jessica; Muench, Frederick J.; Morgenstern, Jon (2018): Comparing daily drivers of problem drinking among older and younger adults: An electronic daily diary study using smartphones.
In: Drug and alcohol dependence 183, S. 240–246. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.11.012.
BACKGROUND: By 2030, numbers and proportions of older adults with substance-use problems are expected to increase. While risk factors for problem drinking in late life have been identified, it remains unknown whether these factors drive daily drinking among older problem drinkers. This study examined the daily drivers of drinking among problem drinkers, moderated by age, utilizing ecological momentary assessment (EMA). METHOD: Participants (N=139), ages 20-73, received daily EMA online surveys completed via a smartphone prior to initiation of treatment. Multilevel modeling tested the moderating impact of age on within- and between-person relationships between drinking and focal predictors (mood, loneliness, boredom, stress, poor sleep, social factors, alcohol salience, commitment and confidence not to drink heavily). RESULTS: Older adults reported greater alcohol consumption when daily boredom levels were higher. Heavier drinking among younger adults was associated with poorer sleep quality. Greater daily confidence, daily commitment and daily alcohol salience did not impact drinking to the same extent for older adults as for younger adults. Greater person-level commitment predicted reduced drinking equivalently across age, but low person-level commitment predicted greater drinking among older adults compared to their younger counterparts. CONCLUSION: Older adults may have unique daily drivers of drinking that are not fully realized in current research and intervention efforts. Addressing the growing substance-use treatment needs among this population will require identifying the unique drivers of drinking among older adults, such as boredom, when compared to younger adults.
Kumar, Divya; Tully, Laura M.; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Zakskorn, Lauren N.; Nye, Kathleen E.; Zia, Aqsa; Niendam, Tara Ann (2018): A Mobile Health Platform for Clinical Monitoring in Early Psychosis: Implementation in Community-Based Outpatient Early Psychosis Care.
In: JMIR mental health 5 (1), e15. DOI: 10.2196/mental.8551.
BACKGROUND: A growing body of literature indicates that smartphone technology is a feasible add-on tool in the treatment of individuals with early psychosis (EP) . However, most studies to date have been conducted independent of outpatient care or in a research clinic setting, often with financial incentives to maintain user adherence to the technology. Feasibility of dissemination and implementation of smartphone technology into community mental health centers (CMHCs) has yet to be tested, and whether young adults with EP will use this technology for long periods of time without incentive is unknown. Furthermore, although EP individuals willingly adopt smartphone technology as part of their treatment, it remains unclear whether providers are amenable to integrating smartphone technology into treatment protocols. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to establish the feasibility of implementing a smartphone app and affiliated Web-based dashboard in 4 community outpatient EP clinics in Northern California. METHODS: EP individuals in 4 clinics downloaded an app on their smartphone and responded to daily surveys regarding mood and symptoms for up to 5 months. Treatment providers at the affiliated clinics viewed survey responses on a secure Web-based dashboard in sessions with their clients and between appointments. EP clients and treatment providers filled out satisfaction surveys at study end regarding usability of the app. RESULTS: Sixty-one EP clients and 20 treatment providers enrolled in the study for up to 5 months. Forty-one EP clients completed the study, and all treatment providers remained in the study for their duration in the clinic. Survey completion for all 61 EP clients was moderate: 40% and 39% for daily and weekly surveys, respectively. Completion rates were slightly higher in the participants who completed the study: 44% and 41% for daily and weekly surveys, respectively. Twenty-seven of 41 (66%) EP clients who completed the study and 11 of 13 (85%) treatment providers who responded to satisfaction surveys reported they would continue to use the app as part of treatment services. Six (15%; 6/41) clients and 3 providers (23%; 3/13) stated that technological glitches impeded their engagement with the platform. CONCLUSIONS: EP clients and treatment providers in community-based outpatient clinics are responsive to integrating smartphone technology into treatment services. There were logistical and technical challenges associated with enrolling individuals in CMHCs. To be most effective, implementing smartphone technology in CMHC EP care necessitates adequate technical staff and support for utilization of the platform.
Kuo, Pei-Yi (2018): EcoSante: Using daily prompts and photo capturing to encourage multiple behavior change in a Sustainable Lifestyle Intervention.
In: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences 79 (2-A(E)).
The United States has a weight problem. It’s not just about food intake but also about energy consumption [97, 153]. This dissertation asks: ‘How can we encourage people to act in ways that are mutually beneficial for themselves and the environment?’ To date, there is no single behavior intervention in the literature targets behavioral changes containing both health and pro-environmental implications. Based on emerging knowledge from research in HCI, health communication, behavior interventions, psychology, pro-environmental psychology, habit formation (tiny habit theory), and experience Sampling, this work describes the design and study of the EcoSante Lifestyle Intervention, a mobile behavior intervention app that engages participants with daily challenge prompts designed to engage health and environmental action simultaneously. A study of EcoSante engaged a total of 139 participants (83.5% women, 82.1% under 35 years old) in a 20-day intervention on sustainable lifestyle. Participants were asked to complete one unique behavioral challenge on sustainable lifestyle each day (e.g., challenges related to physical activity, purchasing decisions, travel mode, healthy diet). The study used a 2 x 2 design to manipulate two independent design variables: stating health benefits of a challenge with environmental benefits together (conditions 3 & 4) versus only stating environmental benefits (conditions 1 & 2); and, asking participants to complete only researcher generated challenges (conditions 1 & 3) versus challenges generated by both researcher (on odd days) and participants themselves (on even days) (conditions 2 & 4). To complete a challenge, participants were asked to record and describe what they had done in the app. Behavior changes were measured using self-reported survey data assessed at three time stamps (pre-study survey as baseline data, post-study survey, and one-month follow-up survey) on behaviors (eating, exercise, pro-environmental), self-efficacy (general and domain-specific self-efficacies), and psychological well-being. There are six major findings: (1) A total of 1,921 challenges were completed by 139 participants – the average completion rate across all 20 challenges was 69.1%. (2) There were few between-subject effects of experimental condition — stated health benefit in challenges and higher level of user-involvement during intervention did not lead to better performance in most outcome measures. (3) Participants’ eating behavior (p<0.01) and general self-efficacy (p<0.05) improved right after the 20-day mobile intervention. (4) Participants’ eating (p<0.01), exercise (p<0.05), pro-environmental (p<0.05) behaviors and general self-efficacy (p<0.05) improved in the delayed one-month post-intervention, comparing to where they were before participating in the intervention. (5) Domain-specific self-efficacies did not improve post-intervention nor one-month post-intervention. (6) More challenge completions led to improvement in pro-environmental behavior (b=0.012, 95% CI = 0.0019, 0.0213). The survey and interview data along with participants’ photo and challenge descriptions also have design implications. While the majority of participants enjoyed receiving a different challenge every day, the results suggest that repetition of challenges matters. Moreover, while the content variety of challenges boosted participants’ motivation and engagement, no improvements were observed in participants’ domain-specific self-efficacies (nutritional and physical activity self-efficacy, personal efficacy for global warming). This could be due to the gaps in participant perception of the actual number of challenge themes and its associated benefits (health and/or environmental benefits). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Lami, Francesca; Egberts, Kristine; Ure, Alexandra; Conroy, Rowena; Williams, Katrina (2018): Measurement properties of instruments that assess participation in young people with autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review.
In: Dev Med Child Neurol 60 (3), S. 230–243. DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.13631.
Aim: To systematically review the measurement properties of instruments assessing participation in young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method: A search was performed in MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and PubMed combining three constructs (‘ASD’, ‘test of participation’, ‘measurement properties’). Results were restricted to articles including people aged 6 to 29 years. The 2539 identified articles were independently screened by two reviewers. For the included articles, data were extracted using standard forms and their risk of bias was assessed. Results: Nine studies (8 cross‐sectional) met the inclusion criteria, providing information on seven different instruments. The total sample included 634 participants, with sex available for 600 (males=494; females=106) and age available for 570, with mean age for these participants 140.58 months (SD = 9.11; range = 36–624). Included instruments were the school function assessment, vocational index, children’s assessment of participation and enjoyment/preferences for activities of children, experience Sampling method, Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory, Computer Adaptive Test, adolescent and young adult activity card sort, and Patient‐Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System parent‐proxy peer relationships. Seven studies assessed reliability and validity; good properties were reported for half of the instruments considered. Most studies (n = 6) had high risk of bias. Overall the quality of the evidence for each tool was limited. Interpretation: Validation of these instruments, or others that comprehensively assess participation, is needed. Future studies should follow recommended methodological standards. What this paper adds Seven instruments have been used to assess participation in young people with autism. One instrument, with excellent measurement properties in one study, does not comprehensively assess participation. Studies of three instruments that incorporate a more comprehensive assessment of participation have methodological limitations. Overall, limited evidence exists regarding measurement properties of participation assessments for young people with autism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Lapping-Carr, Leiszle R.; Heavey, Christopher L. (2017): Pristine Inner Experience and Descriptive Experience Sampling: Implications for Psychology.
In: Frontiers in psychology 8, S. 2170. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02170.
Pristine inner experience is that which is directly present in awareness before it is distorted by attempts at observation or interpretation. Many psychological methods, including most introspective methods, attempt to measure some aspect of pristine inner experience (thoughts, feelings, mental imagery, sensations, etc.). We believe, however, that these methods produce unspecifiable combinations of pristine inner experience, beliefs about the self, beliefs about what inner experience should be like, inaccurate recollections, miscommunications, and other confounding influences. We argue that descriptive experience Sampling (DES) can produce high fidelity descriptions of pristine inner experience. These descriptions are used to create idiographic profiles, carefully crafted, in-depth characterizations of the pristine inner experience of individuals. We believe these profiles, because they are built from moments apprehended via a method that confronts the challenges inherent in examining inner experience, are uniquely valuable in advancing the science of inner experience and psychology broadly. For example, DES observations raise important questions about the veracity of results gathered via questionnaires and other introspective methods, like casual introspection. DES findings also provide high fidelity phenomenological data that can be useful for those developing psychological theories, such as theories of emotional processing. Additionally, DES procedures may allow clinicians and clients to practice valuable skills, like bracketing presuppositions and attending to internal experiences. This paper will describe difficulties inherent in the study of pristine inner experience and discuss implications of high fidelity descriptions of pristine inner experience for psychological research, theory development, and clinical practice.
Leendertse, Pien; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Lataster, Tineke; Simons, Claudia J.P.; Oorschot, Margreet; Lardinois, Mariëlle et al. (2018): Subjective quality of life in psychosis: Evidence for an association with real world functioning?
In: Psychiatry research 261, S. 116–123. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.11.074.
Subjective quality of life (SQOL) is an established patient-reported outcome in psychosis. However, current self-report measures of SQOL may be affected by recall bias and may not fully capture dynamic changes in SQOL over time. This study aimed to examine the ecological validity of self-reported and momentary assessment measures of SQOL, and their association with emotional experience, social interaction and activity in real life, in both patients with psychotic disorder (n = 56) and controls (n = 71). Self-reported QOL was assessed with the WHO-QOL, momentary QOL and real life experiences were assessed with the Experience Sampling Method (ESM). Results show that both measures were significantly associated in patients and controls, and associations with emotional experience were most relevant, momentary QOL being a stronger predictor than self-reported QOL. The association between momentary QOL and negative affect was stronger in patients than in controls. Overall, momentary QOL was more consistently associated with affect, social interaction and activity, while self-reported QOL displayed a more narrow association with mostly affect. Concluding, concurrent assessment of self-reported QOL and momentary QOL showed that momentary QOL may enhance the ecological validity of SQOL measurement. Experience Sampling research may broaden our perspective on SQOL and its associations with real life functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Leraas, Bethany C.; Smith, Kathryn E.; Utzinger, Linsey M.; Cao, Li; Engel, Scott G.; Crosby, Ross D. et al. (2018): Affect-based profiles of bulimia nervosa: The utility and validity of indicators assessed in the natural environment.
In: Psychiatry research 259, S. 210–215. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.09.080.
Theoretical conceptualizations of bulimia nervosa (BN) emphasize the role of emotion dysregulation in the development and maintenance of symptoms, which has been supported by ecological momentary assessment studies. Given the importance of affective disturbances in BN, this study aimed to classify a sample of adult women with BN (N = 130) based on primarily momentary affective indicators, including negative and positive affect, negative and positive affective lability, and depression. Participants completed baseline assessments followed by a two-week ecological momentary assessment protocol. Latent profile analysis revealed four groups: (1) a ‘stable normal’ group characterized by low affective lability and intensity; (2) a ‘stable depressed’ group characterized by low affective lability and higher affect intensity; (3) an ‘unstable normal’ group characterized by higher affective lability but lower affect intensity; and (4) an ‘unstable depressed’ group characterized by higher affective lability and intensity. The stable depressed group evidenced the highest levels of eating psychopathology, borderline personality traits, and childhood trauma history, while the stable normal group generally evidenced the lowest levels of psychopathology. The findings demonstrate significant heterogeneity in the topography of affect experienced by individuals with BN, and suggest that chronic, intense negative affect may be particularly important to address in treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Lewis, Adam Michael (2018): A terror management theory based intervention for anxiety in spouses of cancer patients: A multiple-baseline study.
In: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 78 (8-B(E)).
As the U.S. population ages the number of family caregivers is expected to rise. Family caregivers are a valuable source of informal healthcare services for patients and the public, in terms of reducing healthcare costs. However, research suggests family caregiving is not only financially costly for individuals, but associated with a number of medical and mental health risks, with spouses at higher risk for negative outcomes compared to other family mfcembers. Traditional evidence-based therapies for stress in family caregivers have been shown to be minimally efficacious with spouses. No therapies take into account the existential nature of spouse caregiver stress, including the potential nonconscious role of loss of life meaning/purpose and death anxiety. This study of multiple baseline design preliminarily explored the effects of a novel 8-week Terror Management Theory integrated existential psychotherapy (TIE) on stress and nonconscious mechanisms believed to function as buffers for existential anxiety, in five women with spouses receiving cancer treatment. Methods included ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of anxiety and self-esteem states via text message sent three times daily — and intermittent assessment of death anxiety, self-compassion, meaning in life, and quality of life at baseline, intervention, immediate post, and 1-month follow-up. Visual and statistical analyses indicated significant between-phase trend changes in anxiety and self-esteem within participants, although direction of changes varied across participants. Additionally, changes in death anxiety, self-compassion, meaning in life, and quality of life between phases varied across participants in directions inconsistent with intervention aims and participants’ subjective impressions of intervention-related changes. Mixed findings point to the complexity of spouse caregiver psychology and highlight the need for more effective therapies with this population. Results may also guide future research and development of existentially-informed therapies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Liao, Yue; Schembre, Susan M.; O’Connor, Sydney G.; Belcher, Britni R.; Maher, Jaclyn P.; Dzubur, Eldin; Dunton, Genevieve F. (2018): An Electronic Ecological Momentary Assessment Study to Examine the Consumption of High-Fat/High-Sugar Foods, Fruits/Vegetables, and Affective States Among Women.
In: Journal of nutrition education and behavior. DOI: 10.1016/j.jneb.2018.02.003.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between high-fat/high-sugar foods (HFHS) and fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption and affective states in women. METHODS: The researchers used electronic ecological momentary assessment to capture HFHS and FV consumption in the past 2 hours (predictor) and current affective states (outcome) across 1 week among 202 women. Multilevel linear regression was conducted. Weight status was tested as a moderator. RESULTS: Consumption of FV in the past 2 hours was positively associated with feeling happy (P < .05). Women who consumed more HFHS or fewer FV than others in the study reported higher average sadness (both P < .05). Overweight or obese women who reported more frequent HFHS consumption than others had higher average stress than normal weight women (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The association between HFHS consumption and stress might be stronger in overweight or obese than normal weight women. Future studies could further enhance the electronic ecological momentary assessment method to explore other time-varying moderators and mediators of food consumption and affect.
Lin, Xiaolei; Mermelstein, Robin J.; Hedeker, Donald (2018): A 3-level Bayesian mixed effects location scale model with an application to ecological momentary assessment data.
In: Statistics in medicine. DOI: 10.1002/sim.7627.
Ecological momentary assessment studies usually produce intensively measured longitudinal data with large numbers of observations per unit, and research interest is often centered around understanding the changes in variation of people’s thoughts, emotions and behaviors. Hedeker et al developed a 2-level mixed effects location scale model that allows observed covariates as well as unobserved variables to influence both the mean and the within-subjects variance, for a 2-level data structure where observations are nested within subjects. In some ecological momentary assessment studies, subjects are measured at multiple waves, and within each wave, subjects are measured over time. Li and Hedeker extended the original 2-level model to a 3-level data structure where observations are nested within days and days are then nested within subjects, by including a random location and scale intercept at the intermediate wave level. However, the 3-level random intercept model assumes constant response change rate for both the mean and variance. To account for changes in variance across waves, as well as clustering attributable to waves, we propose a more comprehensive location scale model that allows subject heterogeneity at baseline as well as across different waves, for a 3-level data structure where observations are nested within waves and waves are then further nested within subjects. The model parameters are estimated using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. We provide details on the Bayesian estimation approach and demonstrate how the Stan statistical software can be used to sample from the desired distributions and achieve consistent estimates. The proposed model is validated via a series of simulation studies. Data from an adolescent smoking study are analyzed to demonstrate this approach. The analyses clearly favor the proposed model and show significant subject heterogeneity at baseline as well as change over time, for both mood mean and variance. The proposed 3-level location scale model can be widely applied to areas of research where the interest lies in the consistency in addition to the mean level of the responses.
Long, Erin Cooke (2018): What makes us mindful and why does it matter? Relationships among meaningfulness, state mindfulness, and counterproductive work behavior.
In: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences 79 (1-A(E)).
Mindfulness has received increased attention in organizational research and practice, with the majority of work focusing on the beneficial, buffering effects of trait mindfulness and mindfulness interventions. I extend work on mindfulness in the workplace by examining the causes and consequences of daily and momentary within-person fluctuations in state mindfulness. Grounded in theories of self-regulation, this research helps shed light on dynamic, everyday antecedents and outcomes of state mindfulness in work contexts. Specifically, I argue that increases in meaningful work perceptions activate mindful states, which in turn have important associations with counterproductive work behavior (CWB). Across two studies—one laboratory experiment and a second experience Sampling study conducted in the field—I test a mediated moderation model whereby fluctuations in meaningful work perceptions indirectly impact employee CWB through state mindfulness. Study 1 examines the impact of meaningful work on state mindfulness and CWB in a sample of undergraduate business students in a laboratory experiment. Study 2 extends the first study by examining dynamic fluctuations among nurses’ experiences of meaningfulness, mindful states, and their CWB using an experience Sampling methodology (ESM). Evidence from both studies converge to support the indirect effect of meaningfulness on CWB through state mindfulness, although these relationships were not conditional on controlled motivation. Implications and future research directions are discussed in light of these findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Makela, Mika J.; Gyllfors, Par; Valovirta, Erkka; Steffensen, Maria A.; Gronager, Pernille M.; Savolainen, Johannes; Winther, Lone (2018): Immunotherapy With the SQ Tree SLIT-tablet in Adults and Adolescents With Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis.
In: Clinical therapeutics 40 (4), 574-586.e4. DOI: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2018.02.012.
PURPOSE: The SQ tree sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT)-tablet containing allergen extracts with the major allergen Bet v 1 from birch pollen is currently being developed for the treatment of tree pollen-induced allergic rhinitis/conjunctivitis with or without asthma. The aim of this Phase II trial was to investigate the dose-related efficacy and safety of the SQ tree SLIT-tablet. METHODS: This study was a randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-national trial conducted in Europe. A total of 637 participants were randomized equally to receive placebo or treatment with the SQ tree SLIT-tablet in doses of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 7, or 12 development units (DU). Treatment was initiated ~16 weeks before onset of the 2013 birch pollen season (BPS) and was continued throughout the BPS with a total duration of at least 6 months. During the BPS and tree pollen season (TPS), subjects assessed rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms and medication use on a daily basis in an electronic diary; weekly assessments of rhinoconjunctivitis quality of life were also made. FINDINGS: Analysis of the average daily symptom score during the BPS and the TPS showed that the difference between active treatment and placebo was statistically significant for the 7 DU group (BPS, P = 0.02; TPS, P = 0.03), with no clear dose-response relationship. All doses of the SQ tree SLIT-tablet induced changes from baseline in birch-specific IgE and IgG4 that were statistically significant compared with placebo at all time points assessed (P < 0.0001) with a clear dose-response relationship for birch specific IgG4. In general, the SQ tree SLIT-tablet was well tolerated, with the majority of treatment-related adverse events (>/=95%) being mild or moderate in severity. The most frequently reported treatment-related adverse events were generally related to the sublingual administration of the tablet (ie, they occurred in the oral cavity). IMPLICATIONS: The results from this trial suggest that the SQ tree SLIT-tablet in doses up to 12 DU has a tolerability profile suitable for at-home administration. The immunomodulatory changes indicate a dose-response relationship, but clinical efficacy parameters were inconclusive, probably due to low pollen counts, emphasizing the importance of pollen exposure for the outcome of a pollen allergy immunotherapy trial. EudraCT no: 2012-000031-59.
Manasse, Stephanie M. (2018): Novel measurement of affective distress intolerance: Behavioral paradigm development and ecological momentary assessment in individuals with binge eating.
In: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 79 (1-B(E)).
Distress intolerance is defined as the inability and/or unwillingness to endure negative emotional or physical experiences, specifically by engaging in maladaptive behaviors to alleviate the experience. Affective distress intolerance (pertaining specifically to negative emotional experiences) is theorized to be a key dimension underlying a wide range of maladaptive behaviors, such as loss-of-control (LOC) eating. Those with poor affective distress tolerance engage in behaviors that achieve temporary relief from negative affect, despite the potential long-term negative consequences of such behaviors. As such, affective distress intolerance is a key theoretical target for change in the development and evaluation of promising new psychological treatments. However, nearly all examinations in the current literature have relied on retrospective self-report measurement of affective distress intolerance, which is laden with problematic biases that may halt treatment development and evaluation. As such, the current project aimed to (1) iteratively develop a novel behavioral paradigm that tapped specifically into affective distress intolerance and (2) use ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to examine the interaction between momentary distress tolerance and negative affect in predicting subsequent episodes of LOC eating. We recruited 69 individuals with (n = 39) and without (n = 30) LOC eating to test seven iterations of the behavioral paradigm developed in the current study. A subset of individuals with LOC eating (n = 12; data collection ongoing) completed an EMA protocol over the course of two weeks. While the iterations of the behavioral paradigm developed were largely successful in inducing dysphoric emotional experiences, qualitative and quantitative data suggested we were unable to successfully tap into behavioral affective distress intolerance with any iteration of the paradigm. EMA results provided preliminary support for the model that the relation between momentary changes negative affect and subsequent episodes of LOC is strongest for those with lower levels of affective distress tolerance. Ideas for future iterations of the behavioral paradigm, including methods for increasing distress induced by the task, alternative mood induction paradigms, and ways of assessing behavioral escape, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Manasse, Stephanie M.; Schumacher, Leah M.; Goldstein, Stephanie P.; Martin, Gerald J.; Crosby, Ross D.; Juarascio, Adrienne S. et al. (2018): Are individuals with loss-of-control eating more prone to dietary lapse in behavioural weight loss treatment? An ecological momentary assessment study.
In: European eating disorders review : the journal of the Eating Disorders Association 26 (3), S. 259–264. DOI: 10.1002/erv.2583.
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with overweight/obesity and loss-of-control eating (LOC) may experience poorer outcomes from behavioural weight loss due to reactivity to internal (e.g., affective and physical) states that impact treatment adherence (e.g., dietary lapses). This study examined (a) whether the presence of LOC increased risk for dietary lapses and (b) the moderating role of LOC on the relation between internal states and dietary lapses. METHOD: Individuals (n = 189) with overweight and obesity completed ecological momentary assessment early in behavioural weight loss. RESULTS: LOC was positively associated with dietary lapse. LOC did not moderate the relation between momentary changes in internal states and dietary lapses. However, the effect of average levels of internal states on lapses was attenuated for those with LOC. DISCUSSION: Results suggest that those with LOC are at higher risk of dietary lapse, whereas elevated average levels of internal states may contribute to early inadherence for those without LOC.
Martino, Steven C.; Setodji, Claude M.; Dunbar, Michael S.; Gong, Min; Shadel, William G. (2018): Effects of antismoking media on college students’ smoking-related beliefs and intentions.
In: Psychol Addict Behav 32 (1), S. 76–83. DOI: 10.1037/adb0000332.
Ecological momentary assessment was used to examine immediate changes in 87 college students’ smoking-related attitudes, beliefs, and intentions as a joint function of their exposure to antismoking media and smoking status. Students (37 never smokers, 41 experimental smokers, and 9 current intermittent smokers) carried handheld data-collection devices for 3 weeks to record naturally occurring exposures to antismoking media and respond to investigator-initiated control prompts. At each reported exposure to antismoking media and each control prompt, participants reported their smoking-related attitudes, perceptions of the prevalence of smoking among their peers, resistance self-efficacy, and intentions to smoke. Mixed-effects regression was used to compare responses between encounters with antismoking media and control prompts. Experimental smokers reported weaker intentions to smoke and greater resistance self-efficacy at moments of exposure to antismoking media than at control prompts. Regardless of smoking experience, participants reported higher perceived prevalence of smoking at times of exposure to antismoking media than at control prompts. These findings generally support the value of antismoking media messages for shifting the beliefs and intentions of experimental smokers, who are at high risk for becoming committed regular smokers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Marx, Jenna M. (2018): Health kick: Promoting healthy eating in youth sport using an acceptance and commitment therapy based intervention.
In: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 79 (1-B(E)).
Prior research has called into question the health benefit of participating in youth athletics for children. This two-part study identified the need for, developed and implemented, and assessed an ACT-based healthy eating intervention for parents of youth athletes ages 8-14. Participants of Study I ( N = 29) responded to twelve Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) prompts, and indicated that youth athletes consumed significantly more fast food on game days than practice days (t(21) = 3.4, p = 0.002) or non-sport days (t(24) = 4.4, p < 0.001). Based on these results, fast food consumption on game days was targeted most centrally during the Study II intervention. Participants of Study II (N = 31) attended an individual 1-hour ACT-based healthy eating intervention that included psychoeducation and experiential components incorporating defusion, values, and committed action. Theory of Planned Behavior measures were given before and immediately following the workshop, and at two month follow-up. Behavioral intention and perceived behavioral control to provide homemade meals and snacks on game days significantly increased from pre-workshop to immediate follow up ( t(30) = 4.1, p < 0.001; t(30) = 2.2, p = 0.038), and was maintained at two-month follow up (t(24) = 3.3, p = 0.003; t(24) = 2.1, p = 0.05). Subjective norms about other’s views increased from pre-workshop levels to two-month follow up (t(24) = 2.3, p = 0.029), and attitudes shifted more positively immediately following the workshop (t(30) = 4.7, p < 0.001). Analysis using the SPSS PROCESS macro found significant effects of attitudes on intention (b = 0.8, SE = 0.3, p = 0.0097). Intention did not significantly predict fast food consumption on game days (b = -0.1, SE = 0.1, p > 0.05), but subjective norms had a significant direct effect on fast food consumption (b = 0.3, SE = 0.1, p = .0207). Indirect effects on fast food consumption through intention were not significant, thus the model does not support mediation. Consumption of fast food decreased somewhat from Study I to Study II (t(26) = 1.6, p = 0.123), but this change was not significant. Implications and future directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Matias, Gabriela Margarida de Paiva F. (2018): Quality of subjective experience and psychophysiology: Implications for optimal human functioning.
In: Dissertation Abstracts International Section C: Worldwide 75 (1-C).
Theoretical background: The flow state, characterized by intense engagement, high levels of concentration, intrinsic motivation, and enjoyment, seems to influence personal and societal development. Furthermore, some individuals (autotelic personality) have a greater propensity to experience engagement in daily life, which translates into a better mental and physical functioning. Although there has been extensive research about the flow state and the autotelic personality for the past decades, there is still little known about their physiological correlates in daily life. Aims: The main aims of this research project were to investigate the associations between momentary experiences of engagement (flow) and subjective experiences in the daily contexts of female college students – study and solitude –, and investigate whether the autotelic personality and affectivity were associated with subjective experience and neuroendocrine response to daily contexts and cortisol secretion. Method: Sixty-seven female college students from the University of Minho, Portugal, used the Experience Sampling Method during a week, completing questionnaires and collecting saliva 8 times daily. Effects of current daily contexts (solitude and study activity), engagement, and personal characteristics (autotelic personality and affectivity) on subjective experience and cortisol secretion were tested. Results: Engagement levels were associated with better subjective experience in daily contexts, but not with cortisol. Daily solitude was associated with heightened affective and neuroendocrine responses, especially in students with high negative affectivity. High autotelic traits and positive affectivity were associated with better affective experiences in solitude and greater motivation and engagement levels in study activities; high negative affectivity showed the opposite pattern. Finally, autotelic personality was not associated with other measures of cortisol secretion. Conclusions: Current findings offered new clues about the assessment of the psychophysiology of flow and autotelic personality. Findings may help clarify how daily contexts heighten affective and neuroendocrine response in individuals vulnerable to depression and other negative health outcomes. Current research leads to questions about possible gender differences in neuroendocrine responses to flow in daily life and offers future directions in the study of the physiological functioning of engagement and the autotelic personality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
May, Marcella; Junghaenel, Doerte U.; Ono, Masakatsu; Stone, Arthur A.; Schneider, Stefan (2018): Ecological momentary assessment methodology in chronic pain research: A systematic review.
In: The journal of pain : official journal of the American Pain Society. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpain.2018.01.006.
Self-reported pain intensity assessments are central to chronic pain research. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methodologies are uniquely positioned to collect these data, and are indeed being used in the field. However, EMA protocols are complex, and many decisions are necessary in the design of EMA research studies. A systematic literature review identified 105 articles drawing from 62 quantitative EMA research projects examining pain intensity in adult chronic pain patients. Study characteristics were tabulated to summarize and describe the use of EMA, with an emphasis placed on various dimensions of decision-making involved in executing EMA methodologies. Most identified studies considered within-person relationships between pain and other variables, and a few examined interventions on chronic pain. There was a trend toward the use of smartphones as EMA data collection devices more recently, and completion rates were not reported in nearly one third of studies. Pain intensity items varied widely with respect to number of scale points, anchor labels, and length of reporting period; most used numeric rating scales. Recommendations are provided for reporting to improve reproducibility, comparability, and interpretation of results, and for opportunities to clarify the importance of design decisions. PERSPECTIVE: Studies that use EMA methodologies to assess pain intensity are heterogeneous. Aspects of protocol design, including data input modality and pain item construction, have the potential to influence the data collected. Thorough reporting on design features and completion rates therefore facilitates reproducibility, comparability, and interpretation of study results. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
McQuoid, Julia; Thrul, Johannes; Ling, Pamela (2018): A geographically explicit ecological momentary assessment (GEMA) mixed method for understanding substance use.
In: Social science & medicine (1982) 202, S. 89–98. DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.02.014.
Tobacco use is increasingly concentrated within marginalized groups, including LGBTQ+ young adults. Developing tailored interventions to reduce tobacco-related health disparities requires understanding the mechanisms linking individual and contextual factors associated with tobacco use to behavior. This paper presents an in-depth exploration of three cases from a novel mixed method study designed to identify the situational factors and place-based practices of substance use among high-risk individuals. We combined geographically explicit ecological momentary assessment (GEMA) with an adapted travel diary-interview method. Participants (young adult bisexual smokers, ages 18-26) reported on non-smoking and smoking situations for 30 days with a smartphone app. GEMA surveys captured internal and external situational factors (e.g., craving intensity, location type, seeing others smoking). Continuous locational data was collected via smartphone GPS. Subsequently, participants completed in-depth interviews reviewing maps of their own GEMA data. GEMA data and transcripts were analyzed separately and integrated at the case level in a matrix. Using GEMA maps to guide the interview grounded discussion in participants’ everyday smoking situations and routines. Interviews clarified participant interpretation of GEMA measures and revealed experiences and meanings of smoking locations and practices. The GEMA method identified the most frequent smoking locations/times for each participant (e.g., afternoons at university). Interviews provided description of associated situational factors and perceptions of smoking contexts (e.g., peer rejection of bisexual identity) and the roles of smoking therein (e.g., physically escape uncomfortable environments). In conclusion, this mixed method contributes to advancing qualitative GIS and other hypothesis-generating approaches working to reveal the richness of individuals’ experiences of the everyday contexts of health behavior, while also providing reliable measures of situational predictors of behaviors of interest, such as substance use. Limitations of and future directions for the method are discussed.
Mennis, Jeremy; Mason, Michael; Ambrus, Andreea (2018): Urban Greenspace is Associated with Reduced Psychological Stress among Adolescents: A Geographic Ecological Momentary Assessment (GEMA) Analysis of Activity Space.
In: Landscape and urban planning 174, S. 1–9. DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.02.008.
This study investigates the momentary association between urban greenspace, captured using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from Landsat imagery, and psychological stress, captured using Geographic Ecological Momentary Assessment (GEMA), in the activity spaces of a sample of primarily African American adolescents residing in Richmond, Virginia. We employ generalized estimating equations (GEE) to estimate the effect of exposure to urban greenspace on stress and test for moderation by sex, emotional dysregulation, season, neighborhood disadvantage, and whether the observation occurs at home or elsewhere. Results indicate that urban greenspace is associated with lower stress when subjects are away from home, which we speculate is due to the properties of stress reduction and attention restoration associated with exposure to natural areas, and to the primacy of other family dynamics mechanisms of stress within the home. Subjects may also seek out urban greenspaces at times of lower stress or explicitly for purposes of stress reduction. The greenspace-stress association away from home did not differ by sex, emotional dysregulation, neighborhood disadvantage, or season, the latter of which suggests that the observed greenspace-stress relationship is associated with being in a natural environment rather than strictly exposure to abundant green vegetation. Given the association of urban greenspace with lower stress found here and in other studies, future research should address the mediated pathways between greenspace, stress, and stress-related negative health outcomes for different population subgroups as a means toward understanding and addressing health disparities.
Mill, Aire; Koots-Ausmees, Liisi; Allik, Juri; Realo, Anu (2018): The Role of Co-occurring Emotions and Personality Traits in Anger Expression.
In: Frontiers in psychology 9, S. 123. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00123.
The main aim of the current study was to examine the role of co-occurring emotions and their interactive effects with the Big Five personality traits in anger expression. Everyday anger expression (“anger-in” and “anger-out” behavior) was studied with the experience-sampling method in a group of 110 participants for 14 consecutive days on 7 random occasions per day. Our results showed that the simultaneously co-occurring emotions that buffer against anger expression are sadness, surprise, disgust, disappointment, and irritation for anger-in behavior, and fear, sadness and disappointment for anger-out reactions. While previous studies have shown that differentiating one’s current affect into discrete emotion categories buffers against anger expression (Pond et al., 2012), our study further demonstrated the existence of specific interactive effects between the experience of momentary emotions and personality traits that lead to higher levels of either suppression or expression of anger behavior (or both). For example, the interaction between the trait Openness and co-occurring surprise, in predicting anger-in behavior, indicates that less open people hold their anger back more, and more open people use less anger-in behavior. Co-occurring disgust increases anger-out reactions in people low in Conscientiousness, but decreases anger-out reactions in people high in Conscientiousness. People high in Neuroticism are less likely to engage in anger-in behavior when experiencing disgust, surprise, or irritation alongside anger, but show more anger out in the case of co-occurring contempt. The results of the current study help to further clarify the interactions between the basic personality traits and the experience of momentary co-occurring emotions in determining anger behavior.
Milyavskaya, Marina; Saffran, Mark; Hope, Nora; Koestner, Richard (2018): Fear of missing out: Prevalence, dynamics, and consequences of experiencing fomo.
In: Motiv Emot. DOI: 10.1007/s11031-018-9683-5.
Fear of missing out, known colloquially as FOMO, appears to be a common experience, and has recently become part of the vernacular, receiving frequent mentions in the popular media. The present paper provides a multi-method empirical examination of FOMO. In a first study, experience Sampling was used to assess FOMO experiences among college freshmen. Nightly diaries and end-of-semester measures provided data on the short and long-term consequences of experiencing FOMO. Results showed that students experience FOMO frequently, particularly later in the day and later in the week, and while doing a required task like studying or working. More frequent experiences of FOMO were associated with negative outcomes both daily and over the course of the semester, including increasing negative affect, fatigue, stress, physical symptoms, and decreased sleep. A second experimental study investigated FOMO on a conceptual level, distinguishing FOMO from general self-regulation and exploring its links with social media. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Minor, Kyle S.; Davis, Beshaun J.; Marggraf, Matthew P.; Luther, Lauren; Robbins, Megan L. (2018): Words matter: Implementing the electronically activated recorder in schizotypy.
In: Personal Disord 9 (2), S. 133–143. DOI: 10.1037/per0000266.
In schizophrenia-spectrum populations, analyzing the words people use has offered promise for unlocking information about affective states and social behaviors. The electronically activated recorder (EAR) is an application-based program that is combined with widely used smartphone technology to capture a person’s real-world interactions via audio recordings. It improves on the ecological validity of current methodologies by providing objective and naturalistic samples of behavior. This study is the first to implement the EAR in people endorsing elevated traits of schizophrenia-spectrum personality disorders (i.e., schizotypy), and we expected the EAR to (a) differentiate high and low schizotypy groups on affective disturbances and social engagement and (b) show that high schizotypy status moderates links between affect and social behavior using a multimethod approach. Lexical analysis of EAR recordings revealed greater negative affect and decreased social engagement in those high in schizotypy. When assessing specific traits, EAR and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) converged to show that positive schizotypy predicted negative affect. Finally, high schizotypy status moderated links between negative affect and social engagement when the EAR was combined with EMA. Adherence did not influence results, as both groups wore the EAR more than 90% of their waking hours. Findings supported using the EAR to assess real-world expressions of personality and functioning in schizotypy. Evidence also showed that the EAR can be used alongside EMA to provide a mixed-method, real-world assessment that is high in ecological validity and offers a window into the daily lives of those with elevated traits of schizophrenia-spectrum personality disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Miranda, Robert; Treloar Padovano, Hayley; Gray, Joshua C.; Wemm, Stephanie E.; Blanchard, Alexander (2018): Real-time assessment of alcohol craving and naltrexone treatment responsiveness in a randomized clinical trial.
In: Addictive behaviors. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.01.009.
INTRODUCTION: This secondary data analysis examined whether and how the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) influenced naltrexone treatment responsiveness in a randomized clinical trial. We leveraged intensive experience Sampling methods to test the hypothesis that craving recorded at drinking and non-drinking moments would mediate naltrexone effects on the likelihood of heavy drinking, but only among carriers of the DRD4 long (DRD4-L) allele. METHODS: Participants (Mage=29.8years, SD=12.1) were non-treatment seeking heavy drinkers (n=104, 54.8% female, 61.5% alcohol dependent) randomized to 3weeks of daily naltrexone (50mg) or placebo. During these 3weeks, participants used handheld electronic devices to complete real-time reports of alcohol use and craving multiple times per day in their natural environments. This approach afforded intensive repeated assessment of focal variables and provided in-the-moment data to test whether craving when not drinking or early in drinking episodes explained naltrexone effects on drinking. RESULTS: Moderated-mediation multilevel structural equation models showed that craving during non-drinking moments mediated the treatment effect of naltrexone on heavy drinking but only among carriers of the DRD4-L allele. The same pattern of associations was not shown when evaluating craving while participants were consuming alcoholic beverages. CONCLUSIONS: Findings provide the first in vivo evidence that, among carriers of the DRD4-L allele, naltrexone blunts craving in real-world settings, and this effect in turn reduces the likelihood of heavy drinking. This work highlights the utility of EMA methods for elucidating how treatments work and further demonstrates the importance of genetic factors for understanding individual differences in pharmacotherapy responsiveness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Mneimne, Malek; Fleeson, William; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Furr, R. Michael (2018): Differentiating the everyday emotion dynamics of borderline personality disorder from major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder.
In: Personal Disord 9 (2), S. 192–196. DOI: 10.1037/per0000255.
A major barrier to the understanding of emotion dynamics in borderline personality disorder (BPD) lies in its substantial comorbidity with major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Whereas BPD has often been characterized in terms of dynamic emotional processes, including instability, reactivity, and inertia, its substantial comorbidity with MDD and BD makes it difficult to discern the specificity of these dynamics. To differentiate the emotion dynamics of BPD from those of MDD and BD, an experience Sampling study of 38 participants with BPD, 15 participants with MDD, 14 participants with BD, and 62 healthy controls obtained reports of interpersonal challenges and emotions 5 times daily for 2 weeks. Interpersonal challenges included rejection, betrayal, abandonment, offense, disappointment, and self-image challenge; emotions included anger, excitement, guilt, happiness, irritability, and shame. Multilevel analyses revealed that heightened interpersonal reactivity of guilt and shame and heightened inertia of shame were relatively specific to BPD. These findings could not be accounted for by the presence of current MDD or BD. By contrast, heightened instability of anger and irritability and heightened inertia of irritability appeared to be largely transdiagnostic. Implications for clinical assessment, research, and theory are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Moeller, Julia; Ivcevic, Zorana; Brackett, Marc A.; White, Arielle E. (2018): Mixed Emotions: Network Analyses of Intra-Individual Co-Occurrences Within and Across Situations.
In: Emotion (Washington, D.C.). DOI: 10.1037/emo0000419.
This study revisits the structure of emotions by using a co-occurrence network analysis. While previous studies have examined the structure of emotions primarily through interindividual correlations, we investigated how often and which specific positive and negative emotions occur together within individuals. Two studies were conducted with high school students, one (N = 21,678) using retrospective emotion measures (open-ended questions and 28 rated items) and the other (N = 472) using in-the-moment emotion measures (experience Sampling). As in previous studies, positive and negative emotion ratings were negatively correlated across individuals, and this negative correlation became stronger when measurement error was controlled. Nevertheless, network analyses of both the open-ended responses and of emotion rating scales found frequent co-occurrences between both positive and negative emotions within individuals and within situations. Across all networks, happy, tired, and stressed were among the most frequent emotions that occurred together with emotions of opposite valence. The network analyses presented in this article open new directions to the long-lasting debate about the structure of emotions by revealing co-occurrences that interindividual correlations would not show. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Nittel, Clara Marie; Lincoln, Tania Marie; Lamster, Fabian; Leube, Dirk; Rief, Winfried; Kircher, Tilo; Mehl, Stephanie (2018): Expressive suppression is associated with state paranoia in psychosis: An experience Sampling study on the association between adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies and paranoia.
In: The British journal of clinical psychology. DOI: 10.1111/bjc.12174.
Objectives Although emotional instability and problems in emotion regulation (ER) are known to be linked to the formation and maintenance of psychosis and paranoia, it remains unclear whether the use of specific ER strategies is associated with it. The first aim of the study was to explore the association between emotional instability and paranoia. The second and third aims were to investigate whether the use of maladaptive ER strategies leads to paranoia in patients with psychosis in daily life and whether the use of more adaptive ER strategies reduces paranoia. Design A prospective momentary assessment study over the course of 6 days was performed. Method Participants with psychosis (n = 32) reported repeatedly over six consecutive days on the presence and instability of positive and negative emotions, their use of adaptive (reappraisal, acceptance, distraction, social sharing, reflection) and maladaptive ER strategies (rumination, expressive suppression) and momentary paranoia in their daily life. Results Hierarchical linear regression analysis revealed that patients with psychosis who presented pronounced instability of negative emotions showed more severe levels of state paranoia. In addition, patients with psychosis who used expressive suppression when confronted with negative emotions at one point in time presented more pronounced levels of state paranoia at the following point in time. Conclusion The results presented here suggest that both emotional instability and the use of expressive suppression might cause state paranoia and thus add to our understanding of causal mechanisms related to paranoia such as instability of negative emotions and the use of less adaptive ER strategies. Practitioner points Maladaptive emotion regulation strategies and more pronounced instability of negative emotions are relevant to paranoia in patients with psychosis and should be a special focus of CBTp interventions. Future interventions designed for patients suffering from paranoia should promote coping with unstable negative emotions and replacing or reducing maladaptive emotion regulation strategies with adaptive ones. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Notthoff, Nanna; Drewelies, Johanna; Kazanecka, Paulina; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Norman, Kristina; Düzel, Sandra et al. (2018): Feeling older, walking slower—but only if someone’s watching. Subjective age is associated with walking speed in the laboratory, but not in real life.
In: Eur J Ageing. DOI: 10.1007/s10433-017-0450-3.
The huge inter-individual differences in how people age have prompted researchers to examine whether people’s own perception of how old they are—their subjective age—could be a better predictor of relevant outcomes than their actual chronological age. Indeed, how old people feel does predict mortality hazards, and health-related measures such as walking speed may account for this association. In the present study, we extended this line of work by investigating whether subjective age also predicts walking speed and running speed in daily life or whether the predictive effects of subjective age for behavior manifest only within a controlled performance situation. We used data from 80 older participants (age range 62–82 years; M = 69.50, SD = 4.47) from the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II). Subjective age was assessed by self-report. Walking speed in the laboratory was measured with the Timed Up and Go test, and walking speed and running speed in real life were measured with an accelerometer. Results showed that compared to participants who felt older, those who felt younger than they actually were indeed walked faster in the laboratory, but they did not walk or run faster in real life. These patterns of results held when age, gender, education, BMI, comorbidity, depression, physical activity, and cognition were covaried. We discuss the role of stereotype threat in accounting for these results. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
O’Connor, Sydney G.; Ke, Wangjing; Dzubur, Eldin; Schembre, Susan; Dunton, Genevieve F. (2018): Concordance and predictors of concordance of children’s dietary intake as reported via ecological momentary assessment and 24 h recall.
In: Public health nutrition 21 (6), S. 1019–1027. DOI: 10.1017/S1368980017003780.
OBJECTIVE: To provide preliminary evidence in support of using ecological momentary assessment (EMA), a real-time data capture method involving repeated assessments, to measure dietary intake in children by examining the concordance of children’s dietary reports through EMA and 24 h recall. DESIGN: Children completed eight days of EMA surveys, reporting on recent dietary intake of four pre-specified food categories (‘Fruits or Vegetables’, ‘Chips or Fries’, ‘Pastries or Sweets’, ‘Soda or Energy Drinks’), and completed two 24 h recalls during the same period. Concordance of children’s reports of intake during matched two-hour time windows from EMA and 24 h dietary recall was assessed using cross-tabulation. Multilevel logistic regression examined potential person-level (i.e. sex, age, ethnicity and BMI category) predictors of concordance. SETTING: Children in Los Angeles County, USA, enrolled in the Mothers’ and Their Children’s Health (MATCH) study. SUBJECTS: One hundred and forty-four 144 children (53 % female; mean age 9.6 (sd 0.9) years; 34.0 % overweight/obese). RESULTS: Two-hour concordance varied by food category, ranging from 64.9 % for ‘Fruits/Vegetables’ to 89.9 % for ‘Soda/Energy Drinks’. In multilevel models, overweight/obese (v. lean) was associated with greater odds (OR; 95 % CI) of concordant reporting for ‘Soda/Energy Drinks’ (2.01; 1.06, 4.04) and ‘Pastries/Sweets’ (1.61; 1.03, 2.52). Odds of concordant reporting were higher for Hispanic (v. non-Hispanic) children for ‘Pastries/Sweets’ (1.55; 1.02, 2.36) and for girls (v. boys) for ‘Fruits/Vegetables’ (1.36; 1.01, 1.83). CONCLUSIONS: Concordance differed by food category as well as by person-level characteristics. Future research should continue to explore use of EMA to facilitate dietary assessment in children.
Olson, Rebecca; Knepple Carney, Amy; Hicks Patrick, Julie (2018): Associations between gratitude and spirituality: An experience Sampling approach.
In: Psycholog Relig Spiritual. DOI: 10.1037/rel0000164.
The goal of the current study was to examine the daily associations between gratitude and spirituality using experience Sampling data. Limited research has used experience Sampling methodology (ESM) to examine changes in gratitude across short spans of time. Research has also failed to explore the potential importance of spirituality on these trajectories. The current study had 81 participants answer daily questions about gratitude and spirituality. Results indicated that gratitude significantly increased over the 3-week study period and that both self-reported spirituality and spiritual behaviors (i.e., prayer, meditation) positively contributed to this increase. Findings showcase the effectiveness of bringing awareness to an individual’s feelings of gratitude using intervention methods like ESM. Results also highlight the importance of spirituality in increasing feelings of gratitude. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Ortiz de Guinea Lopez de Arana, Ana (2018): Alternative takes on information systems post-adoption behaviors : The deliberative, the ecological, and the emotional.
In: Dissertation Abstracts International Section C: Worldwide 75 (1-C).
This thesis concerns individuals’ behaviors with Information Systems (IS) once an application has been applied by users in accomplishing their work activity. Despite research on IS acceptance and continuance, little is known about individuals’ cognitive, affective, and behavioral processes and their associated outcomes after the initial adoption of a system. My research aims to address this shortcoming. In doing so, this dissertation combines novel theories — the ecological perspective based on ecological psychology and the emotional perspective based on neuroscience, physiological, and psychological research — with the current IS post-adoption literature — the deliberative perspective — to the study of IS use as an ongoing behavioral process that unfolds over time. Two studies were conducted to investigate these processes and outcomes. The first study used an experience Sampling method. Employees of different organizations who used IS for their work were asked to carry a booklet and a pager for two weeks. Every time they were paged, they were asked to fill out both open-ended and close-ended questions about their feelings, thoughts and performance at the moment in the booklet. The second study followed an experimental design in order to investigate the phenomena of interest in a more controlled environment. The experiment combined multiple sources of data: such as protocol analysis, heart rate data, and analysis of behaviors through video coding. The overall results from both studies suggest that users do not think about the IS nor experience feelings related to the IS unless they are facing a difficulty with it (e.g., an error). Furthermore, the results indicate affective and physiological changes following difficulties with an IS as well as changes in cognitive and behavioral processes. Finally, the results show a relation between these affective processes and self-reported performance, and a relation between some of the cognitive and behavioral processes and both objective and self-reported performance. Overall, this thesis provides a refreshing theoretical and empirical examination of the various events, processes and associated outcomes involved during actual IS use. The two empirical studies provide support for the theory of post-adoption IS use developed in this thesis. Finally, this thesis suggests exciting opportunities for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Pacella, Maria L.; Girard, Jeffrey M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Suffoletto, Brian; Callaway, Clifton W. (2018): The Association between Daily Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Pain over the First 14-days after Injury: An Experience Sampling Study.
In: Academic emergency medicine : official journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine. DOI: 10.1111/acem.13406.
OBJECTIVES: Psychosocial factors and responses to injury modify the transition from acute to chronic pain. Specifically, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSS; reexperiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal symptoms) exacerbate and co-occur with chronic pain. Yet no study has prospectively considered the associations among these psychological processes and pain reports using experience Sampling methods (ESM) during the acute aftermath of injury. This study applied ESM via daily text messaging to monitor and detect relationships among psychosocial factors and post-injury pain across the first 14-days after emergency department (ED) discharge. METHODS: We recruited 75 adults (59% male; M age = 33) who experienced a potentially traumatic injury (i.e., involving life threat or serious injury) in the past 24-hours from the EDs of two Level 1 trauma centers. Participants received 5 questions per day via text messaging from Day-1 to Day-14 post-ED discharge; three questions measured PTSS, one question measured perceived social support, and one question measured physical pain. RESULTS: Sixty-seven participants provided sufficient data for inclusion in the final analyses, and the average response rate per subject was 86%. Pain severity score decreased from a mean of 7.2 to 4.4 over 14 days and 50% of the variance in daily pain scores was within-person. In multilevel structural equation models, pain scores decreased over time, and daily fluctuations of hyperarousal (b = 0.22, 95% CI [0.08, 0.36]) were uniquely associated with daily fluctuations in reported pain level within each person. CONCLUSIONS: Daily hyperarousal symptoms predict same-day pain severity over the acute post-injury recovery period. We also demonstrated feasibility to screen and identify patients at risk for pain chronicity in the acute aftermath of injury. Early interventions aimed at addressing hyperarousal (e.g. anxiolytics) could potentially aid in reducing experience of pain. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Panger, Galen Thomas (2018): Emotion in social media.
In: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 78 (11-B(E)).
The role of emotion in social media has been the subject of considerable research and media attention. But while stereotypes about the emotional profile of status updates—that they are overly-positive, or overly-angry—have solidified, evidence remains circumstantial and indirect. Further, although researchers have made numerous efforts to use the emotions we express in status updates to make inferences about our emotional lives—generating national happiness indices, predicting mental illnesses and evaluating emotional outcomes of experimental interventions—little is known about the validity of these inferences at the individual level, and researchers have largely ignored the impact of self-presentation and privacy concerns on validity. Finally, while debate continues about the emotional impacts of browsing social media in the course of day-to-day life, researchers have focused only on a limited set of emotions, rather than investigating the range of human emotion. To address these issues, I present three analyses regarding (1) the emotions we express in social media, (2) what can be inferred about our emotional lives in general based on how we express ourselves in social media, and (3) the emotional experience of browsing social media. I conduct experience Sampling for one week with participants in a Facebook sample (N = 344) and Twitter sample (N = 352), gathering data about their day-to-day emotional lives. I then compare this data to participants’ ratings of the emotional contents of their most recent status updates so as to reveal the distinct emotional profile of status updates and address questions regarding the validity of inferences. Data from experience Sampling is also used to reveal the emotional experience of browsing social media. In the first analysis, across a broad spectrum of emotions, I find status updates to be largely similar in emotional profile to emotional life in general, though Facebook posts are more positive on average, and tweets are more negative. Both Facebook posts and tweets exhibit higher levels of emotions associated with activation (energy, alertness) and lower levels of emotions associated with deactivation (drowsiness, sleepiness) than emotional life in general. In the second analysis, I find that the emotions we express in status updates have a low-moderate correlation with day-to-day emotional life, suggesting that efforts to infer emotional life from the emotions we express in status updates have some validity. The association is weaker, however, for individuals higher in attention to self-presentation and privacy in the Facebook sample, and disappears in both the Facebook and Twitter samples when a popular sentiment analysis program known as Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) is used to measure the emotional contents of status updates. Finally, in the third analysis, I find that the emotional experience of browsing social media is characterized primarily by deactivation (by winding down), with a slight tilt toward negative emotion. While browsing Facebook, on average, is associated with slightly elevated feelings of envy, browsing Twitter is associated with relief of envy. Further, results suggest little potency for theories of emotional contagion in social media. Overrepresented emotions in Facebook posts and tweets do not tend to be reflected in the emotional experience of browsing Facebook or Twitter. Among many implications, the results of this dissertation suggest that social media is not whipping people into a frenzy on average, but rather, is predominantly calming. While counterintuitive, this result is robust and is found with both Facebook and Twitter. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Parke, Michael R.; Weinhardt, Justin M.; Brodsky, Andrew; Tangirala, Subrahmaniam; DeVoe, Sanford E. (2018): When daily planning improves employee performance: The importance of planning type, engagement, and interruptions.
In: The Journal of applied psychology 103 (3), S. 300–312. DOI: 10.1037/apl0000278.
Does planning for a particular workday help employees perform better than on other days they fail to plan? We investigate this question by identifying 2 distinct types of daily work planning to explain why and when planning improves employees’ daily performance. The first type is time management planning (TMP)—creating task lists, prioritizing tasks, and determining how and when to perform them. We propose that TMP enhances employees’ performance by increasing their work engagement, but that these positive effects are weakened when employees face many interruptions in their day. The second type is contingent planning (CP) in which employees anticipate possible interruptions in their work and plan for them. We propose that CP helps employees stay engaged and perform well despite frequent interruptions. We investigate these hypotheses using a 2-week experience-sampling study. Our findings indicate that TMP’s positive effects are conditioned upon the amount of interruptions, but CP has positive effects that are not influenced by the level of interruptions. Through this study, we help inform workers of the different planning methods they can use to increase their daily motivation and performance in dynamic work environments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Pearson, Carolyn M.; Mason, Tyler B.; Cao, Li; Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Lavender, Jason M.; Crosby, Ross D. et al. (2018): A test of a state-based, self-control theory of binge eating in adults with obesity.
In: Eating disorders 26 (1), S. 26–38. DOI: 10.1080/10640266.2018.1418358.
It has been theorized that state the levels of self-control depletion (as caused by negative affect and restraint) may lead to binge eating (BE) when individuals also endorse momentary expectancies that eating will make them feel better (EE). Given commonalities in precipitants of BE across populations, the current study tested this theory in a sample of adults with obesity using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Fifty obese adults completed the EMA protocol during which they provided pre-eating episode ratings of negative affect, restraint, and EE, and post-eating episode ratings of BE. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) identified a 3-way interaction between within-person pre-eating episode variables: higher self-control depletion (e.g., higher restraint and higher negative affect) was predictive of BE episodes only when individuals also endorsed higher EE. To our knowledge, this is the first empirical test of this theory, highlighting the impact of momentary self-control depletion and EE on BE in obese adults.
Phillips, Kristina T.; Phillips, Michael M.; Lalonde, Trent L.; Prince, Mark A. (2018): Does social context matter? An ecological momentary assessment study of marijuana use among college students.
In: Addictive behaviors. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.01.004.
INTRODUCTION: Past research has shown that marijuana use occurs commonly in social situations for young adults, though few studies have examined the association between immediate social context and marijuana use patterns and associated problems. The current study examined the impact of demographics, marijuana use and problem use, alcohol use, craving, and social context on the likelihood of using marijuana with others via ecological momentary assessment (EMA). METHODS: College-student marijuana users (N=56) were recruited and completed a baseline assessment and training on the two-week signal-contingent EMA protocol. Participants were sent text messages three times per day randomly for two weeks. RESULTS: Of the 1131 EMA instances during which participants reported using marijuana, 862 (76.22%) were labeled as being with others. Forty-five participants (80.36%) reported marijuana use with others present during at least half of the times they used marijuana. Findings from a multilevel logistic regression model showed a significant positive association between the probability of using with others and minutes spent using marijuana (b=0.047, p<0.001), social facilitation (b=0.138, p<0.001), and DSM-IV diagnosis (dependence versus no diagnosis, b=1.350, p=0.047). CONCLUSIONS: Cannabis dependence, more time using marijuana in the moment, and using for social facilitation purposes were positively associated with using marijuana in the context of being with others. Daily users had more variability in terms of the social context of their use. This study illustrates the complex relationship between social context and marijuana use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Pion‐Massicotte, Joëlle; Godbout, Roger; Savard, Pierre; Roy, Jean‐François (2018): Development and validation of an algorithm for the study of sleep using a biometric shirt in young healthy adults.
In: J Sleep Res. DOI: 10.1111/jsr.12667.
Summary Portable polysomnography is often too complex and encumbering for recording sleep at home. We recorded sleep using a biometric shirt (electrocardiogram sensors, respiratory inductance plethysmography bands and an accelerometer) in 21 healthy young adults recorded in a sleep laboratory for two consecutive nights, together with standard polysomnography. Polysomnographic recordings were scored using standard methods. An algorithm was developed to classify the biometric shirt recordings into rapid eye movement sleep, non‐rapid eye movement sleep and wake. The algorithm was based on breathing rate and heart rate variability, body movement, and included a correction for sleep onset and offset. The overall mean percentage of agreement between the two sets of recordings was 77.4%; when non‐rapid eye movement and rapid eye movement sleep epochs were grouped together, it increased to 90.8%. The overall kappa coefficient was 0.53. Five of the seven sleep variables were significantly correlated. The findings of this pilot study indicate that this simple portable system could be used to estimate the general sleep pattern of young healthy adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Pittman, Erin Maloney (2018): Using gaming in middle school education: A quantitative study on gender engagement differences when using MinecraftEDU.
In: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences 78 (8-A(E)).
This quantitative study examined differences in engagement among male and female middle school students when using MinecraftEDU as an instructional tool. Fifty-seven seventh grade students completed an Experience Sampling Form after completing classroom assignments using MinecraftEDU on two occasions. This study examined whether males and females differed with overall engagement, perceived competence, task relevance, and positive affect when using MinecraftEDU as an instructional tool. Results from independent sample t-tests indicated no significant differences between males and females in regards to overall engagement, perceived competence, task relevance, and positive affect after using MinecraftEDU within the classroom. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Pos, Karin; Meijer, Carin J.; Verkerk, Oukje; Ackema, Onno; Krabbendam, Lydia; Haan, Lieuwe (2018): Metacognitive training in patients recovering from a first psychosis: An experience Sampling study testing treatment effects.
In: Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 268 (1), S. 57–64. DOI: 10.1007/s00406-017-0833-7.
Cognitive biases, negative affect and negative self-esteem are associated with paranoia in people with psychotic disorders. Metacognitive group training (MCT) aims to target these biases although research has shown mixed results. Our objective was to establish the effect of MCT on paranoid ideation in patients with recent onset psychosis in a powerful experience Sampling design. 50 patients between the age of 18 and 35 were included in a single-blind, parallel group RCT comparing MCT with occupational therapy (OT) as an active control condition. We assessed via questionnaires and experience Sampling treatment effects on paranoid ideation, delusional conviction, the cognitive bias jumping to conclusion (JTC), and cognitive insight, as well as treatment effects on associations between negative affect, negative self-esteem and paranoid ideation. Patients in the MCT group did not show a decrease in paranoid ideation, delusional conviction, JTC-bias or an increase in cognitive insight compared with OT. However, negative affect showed a weaker association with paranoid ideation post-treatment in the MCT condition. In the OT condition, this association was stronger post-treatment. We tentatively suggest that patients with an early psychosis seemed to benefit from MCT in emotional learning compared with the OT condition. Despite the fact that the group training is well-received by patients, subsequent individual MCT (MCT+) may be indicated for stronger favorable effects on paranoid ideation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Prinsen, Sosja; Evers, Catharine; Wijngaards, Leoniek; van Vliet, Renee; Ridder, Denise de (2018): Does Self-Licensing Benefit Self-Regulation Over Time? An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study of Food Temptations.
In: Personality & social psychology bulletin, 146167218754509. DOI: 10.1177/0146167218754509.
Self-licensing, employing reasons to justify indulgence, may help resolve the conflict between immediate temptations and long-term goals in favor of the former. It was hypothesized that this conflict-resolving potential of self-licensing may benefit self-regulation over time. With a momentary assessment design, we examined how self-licensing affects self-regulatory ability and the capacity to deal with subsequent self-regulatory conflicts. One hundred thirty-six female participants filled out surveys eight times per day for one week. Food temptation strength, conflict, resistance, and enactment were assessed, as well as license opportunity and perceived self-regulatory ability. When self-licensing opportunity was high (vs. low), a weaker association between temptation strength and conflict was observed. High license opportunity was associated with higher perceived self-regulatory ability for instances of low degrees of temptation enactment and predicted better handling of subsequent conflict after high degrees of prior temptation enactment. These results suggest that self-licensing can support self-regulation after initial failure.
Pustozerov, Evgenii; Popova, Polina; Tkachuk, Aleksandra; Bolotko, Yana; Yuldashev, Zafar; Grineva, Elena (2018): Development and Evaluation of a Mobile Personalized Blood Glucose Prediction System for Patients With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.
In: JMIR mHealth and uHealth 6 (1), e6. DOI: 10.2196/mhealth.9236.
BACKGROUND: Personalized blood glucose (BG) prediction for diabetes patients is an important goal that is pursued by many researchers worldwide. Despite many proposals, only a few projects are dedicated to the development of complete recommender system infrastructures that incorporate BG prediction algorithms for diabetes patients. The development and implementation of such a system aided by mobile technology is of particular interest to patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), especially considering the significant importance of quickly achieving adequate BG control for these patients in a short period (ie, during pregnancy) and a typically higher acceptance rate for mobile health (mHealth) solutions for short- to midterm usage. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted with the objective of developing infrastructure comprising data processing algorithms, BG prediction models, and an appropriate mobile app for patients’ electronic record management to guide BG prediction-based personalized recommendations for patients with GDM. METHODS: A mobile app for electronic diary management was developed along with data exchange and continuous BG signal processing software. Both components were coupled to obtain the necessary data for use in the personalized BG prediction system. Necessary data on meals, BG measurements, and other events were collected via the implemented mobile app and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system processing software. These data were used to tune and evaluate the BG prediction model, which included an algorithm for dynamic coefficients tuning. In the clinical study, 62 participants (GDM: n=49; control: n=13) took part in a 1-week monitoring trial during which they used the mobile app to track their meals and self-measurements of BG and CGM system for continuous BG monitoring. The data on 909 food intakes and corresponding postprandial BG curves as well as the set of patients’ characteristics (eg, glycated hemoglobin, body mass index [BMI], age, and lifestyle parameters) were selected as inputs for the BG prediction models. RESULTS: The prediction results by the models for BG levels 1 hour after food intake were root mean square error=0.87 mmol/L, mean absolute error=0.69 mmol/L, and mean absolute percentage error=12.8%, which correspond to an adequate prediction accuracy for BG control decisions. CONCLUSIONS: The mobile app for the collection and processing of relevant data, appropriate software for CGM system signals processing, and BG prediction models were developed for a recommender system. The developed system may help improve BG control in patients with GDM; this will be the subject of evaluation in a subsequent study.
Reichenberger, Julia; Kuppens, Peter; Liedlgruber, Michael; Wilhelm, Frank H.; Tiefengrabner, Martin; Ginzinger, Simon; Blechert, Jens (2018): No haste, more taste: An EMA study of the effects of stress, negative and positive emotions on eating behavior.
In: Biol Psychol 131, S. 54–62. DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2016.09.002.
Objectives: Stress and emotions alter eating behavior in several ways: While experiencing negative or positive emotions typically leads to increased food intake, stress may result in either over- or undereating. Several participant characteristics, like gender, BMI and restrained, emotional, or external eating styles seem to influence these relationships. Thus far, most research relied on experimental laboratory studies, thereby reducing the complexity of real-life eating episodes. The aim of the present study was to delineate the effects of stress, negative and positive emotions on two key facets of eating behavior, namely taste- and hunger-based eating, in daily life using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Furthermore, the already mentioned individual differences as well as time pressure during eating, an important but unstudied construct in EMA studies, were examined. Methods: Fifty-nine participants completed 10 days of signal-contingent sampling and data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Results: Results revealed that higher stress led to decreased taste-eating which is in line with physiological stress-models. Time pressure during eating resulted in less taste- and more hunger-eating. In line with previous research, stronger positive emotions went along with increased taste-eating. Emotional eating style moderated the relationship between negative emotions and taste-eating as well as hunger-eating. BMI moderated the relationship between negative as well as positive emotions and hunger-eating. Conclusions: These findings emphasize the importance of individual differences for understanding eating behavior in daily life. Experienced time pressure may be an important aspect for future EMA eating studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Rendina, H. Jonathon; Millar, Brett M.; Parsons, Jeffrey T. (2018): Situational hiv stigma and stimulant use: A day-level autoregressive cross-lagged path model among hiv-positive gay and bisexual men.
In: Addictive behaviors. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.01.003.
BACKGROUND: Data on the association between HIV stigma and drug use are scarce, but some research suggests that internalized HIV stigma may be associated with increased drug use and that this association may be at least partially mediated by emotion dysregulation. We sought to test this hypothesis with event-level data to more accurately tease out the co-occurrence of these phenomena. METHODS: We conducted a 21-day, twice-daily ecological momentary assessment study with a sample of 52 HIV-positive gay and bisexual men. We utilized multivariate multilevel path analysis to test an autoregressive cross-lagged model of the direct and indirect effects of situational-level internalized HIV stigma and emotion dysregulation on non-prescription stimulant drug use. RESULTS: As hypothesized, we observed significant concurrent effects of internalized HIV stigma on emotion dysregulation as well as autoregressive associations of internalized HIV stigma and emotion dysregulation with themselves across the day. Furthermore, findings revealed direct effects of internalized HIV stigma on later emotion dysregulation and increased likelihood of stimulant use, but no direct effect of emotion dysregulation on stimulant use. CONCLUSIONS: Situational increases in internalized HIV stigma appear to exert a direct risk-enhancing effect on the likelihood of daily stimulant drug use and do not appear to do so through emotion dysregulation. Future research is needed to more carefully examine distinct affective experiences and regulation strategies to better understand what mechanism links internalized HIV stigma with drug use behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Rodgers, Rachel F.; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Holmes, Millicent; Skouteris, Helen; Broadbent, Jaclyn (2018): When does behavior follow intent? Relationships between trait level dietary restraint and daily eating behaviors.
In: Appetite 120, S. 449–455. DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.09.030.
Background: The relationship between self-report trait level restriction and daily engagement in restriction behaviors is not well understood, and as a result the usefulness of such trait level measures is unclear. The present study aimed both to examine the validity of self-reported trait dietary restraint behaviors, and to examine the respective relationships among self-reported trait dietary restraint intentions and behaviors and both restrained and disinhibited eating at the daily level. Methods: A sample of 109 women (Mage = 24.72, SD = 4.15) completed a self-report trait level measure of dietary restraint before providing EMA data on their daily engagement in dietary restraint and disinhibited eating behaviors, as well as mood, over a period of 7 days. Multilevel hurdle models were used to test the relationship between trait levels of dietary restraint, and daily level reports of restraint and disinhibited eating behaviors. Results: Trait restraint behavior was a consistent predictor of daily presence and frequency of restraint behaviors. In contrast, trait restraint intentions was not a predictor of daily restraint behaviors, however it did predict daily frequency of overeating. In addition, daily negative affect emerged as a predictor of comfort eating, but was not predictive of restraint behaviors. Conclusions: Findings confirm the usefulness of assessments of self-reported trait dietary restraint behaviors as a method of capturing dieting behaviors. In contrast, trait level dietary restraint intentions was a poor predictor of eating outcomes and more research on the way that restraint intentions affect eating behaviors is warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Rodriguez-Blanco, Lucia; Carballo, Juan J.; Baca-Garcia, Enrique (2018): Use of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) in Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI): A systematic review.
In: Psychiatry research 263, S. 212–219. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2018.02.051.
Conceptualization and assessment of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) has evolved substantially in recent years. In both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, NSSI and its related variables have traditionally been assessed retrospectively, leading to less precise studies of the mechanisms involved in the maintenance, cessation, or aggravation of this behavior. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) enables real-time collection of patient states, which can be very useful in the study of the mechanisms implied in this behavior. This systematic review aims to elucidate the current status of EMA use in NSSI investigation. An exhaustive search in PubMed and PsycINFO was conducted up to September 2017. All papers included were focused on the study of NSSI using EMA. Studies with methodological diversity were included, which were afterwards organized according to main topic of studies. There were no ineligibility criteria based on age or diagnosis. Twenty-three papers were studied, the majority of which are short-term studies focused on the study of affect dynamics and the emotion-regulation function of NSSI. Implications of these results and recommendations for future research are discussed.
Rogers, Adam A. (2018): Adolescents’ emotional well-being during developmental turning points: Help and hindrance from interpersonal relationships.
In: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 78 (9-B(E)).
In two complementary studies, I used an innovative ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design to examine associations between adolescents’ daily interactions with parents and peers and their mood states during two developmentally normative, yet demanding contexts: romantic relationships and the transition to college. The first study examined how adolescents’ daily romantic relationship experiences (e.g., romantic emotionality, conflict, affiliation) were related to negative affective states. Eighty-eight adolescent romantic couples (Mage = 16.74, SD = 0.96; 44% Latina/o, 42% White) completed short electronic surveys twice-weekly for 12 weeks, which assessed their affective states and their relationship processes (24 total possible surveys). Results indicated that greater conflict and negative romantic emotionality predicted greater within-person fluctuations in same-day negative affect. Greater daily affiliation with a romantic partner predicted slightly lower levels of same-day negative affect; positive romantic emotionality did not significantly predict negative affect. Study 2 examined first-year college students’ growth trajectories in positive and negative affect across the transition to college (i.e., spanning the entire first semester), predicted said trajectories and daily affective states. Participants were 146 first-year college students from a large southwestern university entering their first semester of college ( Mage = 17.8, SD = 0.5). Electronic diary surveys were administered to students twice weekly between July and December of 2014, so as to span the transition to college and the entire first semester, and assessed daily affective states and interpersonal interactions. Results indicated that students decreased in their positive affect gradually across the first semester, but remained stable in their negative affect. Significant variability emerged around these average trends, and was predicted by indices of conflict and involvement with parents and friends. Generally, greater involvement with friends and parents was associated with greater positive and less negative affect, whereas greater conflict with these important social groups predicted greater negative affect. Together, these studies underscore the importance of positive attachments during developmentally-challenging contexts experienced in adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Rogers, Adam A.; Ha, Thao; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Iida, Masumi (2018): Adolescents’ daily romantic experiences and negative mood: A dyadic, intensive longitudinal study.
In: Journal of youth and adolescence. DOI: 10.1007/s10964-017-0797-y.
Romantic relationships, although increasingly normative during adolescence, also present unique developmental challenges that can portend psychological difficulties. Underlying these difficulties may be the degree to which daily romantic transactions potentiate fluctuations in negative mood. The present study examined associations between adolescents’ daily romantic relationship experiences and their same-day negative affective states (i.e., fluctuations in high-arousal, aversive mood). Using a dyadic ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design, this study followed an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of 98 adolescent romantic couples twice weekly for 12 weeks (n = 196 individuals; M age = 16.74 years, SD = 0.90; 45% Latina/o, 45% White; 55% receiving free or reduced meals). The results indicated that various daily romantic experiences (e.g., conflict, feelings about the relationship) predicted greater same-day negative affect. Beyond the effects of these romantic experiences, adolescent couples were also synchronized in their fluctuating negative affective states, evidencing the presence of emotional contagion. Overall, the findings indicate the salience of romantic relationships in the everyday lives of adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Ross, Craig S.; Brooks, Daniel R.; Aschengrau, Ann; Siegel, Michael B.; Weinberg, Janice; Shrier, Lydia A. (2018): Positive and negative affect following marijuana use in naturalistic settings: An ecological momentary assessment study.
In: Addictive behaviors 76, S. 61–67. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.07.020.
Presents a study which aims to determine how positive and negative affect change following marijuana use among adolescents and young adults who are frequent users of marijuana. The authors examined changes in mean affect in time periods subsequent to marijuana use, compared to time periods immediately antecedent to marijuana use, as well as background time periods distant from marijuana use. Finally, the authors explored whether these associations were modified by coping motives or marijuana dependence. The authors found that marijuana use is associated with subsequent increased negative affect, relative to background times. In addition, the authors found support for affect regulation based on certain participant and marijuana use event characteristics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Rostalski, Tim; Muehlan, Holger; Schmidt, Silke (2018): Momentary affect and the optimism-health relationship: An ambulatory assessment study.
In: European Journal of Health Psychology 25 (1), S. 9–17. DOI: 10.1027/2512-8442/a000003.
The aim of this intensive longitudinal study was to examine the moderating effect of affect on the optimism-health relationship and to separately consider valence and arousal, the basic dimensions of affect. For 14 days 45 students answered three times a day a questionnaire regarding affect and health status. Valence interacts with optimism in the prediction of health and tense arousal moderates the pessimism-health relationship. Findings provide support for the relevance of a two-factor model of dispositional optimism and the importance of separate consideration of the basic affect dimensions in the understanding of the processes between optimism and health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Scala, J. Wesley; Levy, Kenneth N.; Johnson, Benjamin N.; Kivity, Yogev; Ellison, William D.; Pincus, Aaron L. et al. (2018): The Role of Negative Affect and Self-Concept Clarity in Predicting Self-Injurious Urges in Borderline Personality Disorder Using Ecological Momentary Assessment.
In: Journal of personality disorders 32 (Supplement), S. 36–57. DOI: 10.1521/pedi.2018.32.supp.36.
Deficits in identity as well as negative affect have been shown to predict self-injurious and suicidal behaviors in individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, less is known about the interactive effects of these two predictors. We examined the moderating effect of a particular component of identity, self-concept, on the relationship between negative affect and self-injurious urges utilizing ecological momentary assessments. Outpatients diagnosed with either BPD (n = 36) or any anxiety disorder but no BPD (n = 18) completed surveys throughout the day over a 21-day period. Higher levels of momentary negative affect predicted greater subsequent urges to self-injure, but only when self-concept clarity was low (z = -3.60, p < .01). This effect did not differ between diagnostic groups. The results suggest that self-concept clarity has a protective effect against self-injurious urges in light of high negative affect, and that this effect may be transdiagnostic.
Schlier, Björn; Winkler, Katharina; Jaya, Edo Sebastian; Lincoln, Tania Marie (2018): Fluctuations in hallucination spectrum experiences co-vary with social defeat but not with social deafferentation. A 3-week daily assessment study.
In: Cognit Ther Res 42 (1), S. 92–102. DOI: 10.1007/s10608-017-9871-8.
The social deafferentation hypothesis proposes social isolation to be a risk factor for hallucinations, whereas the social defeat hypothesis postulates that only negatively appraised experiences of social exclusion constitute a risk factor. In a community sample, we tested whether social isolation and social defeat coincide with or precede hallucination spectrum experiences (HSE; i.e. auditory hallucinations and their subclinical precursors vivid imagination, perceptual sensitivity, and intrusive thoughts). Once daily for three weeks, 75 participants answered questionnaires on social contact, social exclusion, and HSE during the last 24 h. Multilevel-regressions were calculated. Social exclusion was associated with the subclinical precursors of auditory hallucinations on the same and following day but not with auditory hallucinations as such. Thus, social exclusion coincides with and potentially triggers HSE. Further research needs to expand on these findings in ESM studies with clinical samples to test whether these findings extend to brief time-intervals and clinical hallucinations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Schumacher, Leah M.; Martin, Gerald J.; Goldstein, Stephanie P.; Manasse, Stephanie M.; Crosby, Ross D.; Butryn, Meghan L. et al. (2018): Ecological momentary assessment of self-attitudes in response to dietary lapses.
In: Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association 37 (2), S. 148–152. DOI: 10.1037/hea0000565.
Objective: To examine whether self-attitudes and self-efficacy after dietary lapses relate to lapse frequency or predict risk for lapsing again on the same day. Method: Adults with overweight/obesity (n = 91) completed ecological momentary assessment for 14 days at the start of a lifestyle modification program. At each survey, participants reported whether they had experienced a dietary lapse, and, if so, reported their self-attitudes (i.e., self-criticism, self-forgiveness, self-regard) and self-efficacy. The relationships between participants’ typical (i.e., average level for each participant across lapses) self-attitudes/self-efficacy after lapsing and lapse frequency were examined using correlations. Generalized estimating equations examined whether participants’ typical (average across lapses; between-person effect) self-attitudes/self-efficacy or momentary (i.e., level of each variable at a particular lapse relative to one’s typical level; within-person effect) self-attitudes/self-efficacy predicted same-day lapse occurrence. Results: Lower typical self-efficacy and more negative typical self-regard related to greater lapse frequency. Additionally, lower momentary self-criticism predicted greater likelihood of same-day lapse occurrence. There also was a quadratic relationship between typical self-regard and risk of same-day lapse occurrence, such that individuals with either more negative or more positive typical self-regard were more likely to lapse on the same day. Conclusion: Findings provide preliminary support for the relevance of self-attitudes and self-efficacy to lapses during early lifestyle modification. While greater typical self-efficacy and more positive typical self-regard are associated with fewer lapses, lower momentary self-criticism and very positive or negative typical self-regard may confer risk for same-day lapses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Schüz, Benjamin; Papadakis, Thalia; Ferguson, Stuart G. (2018): Situation-specific social norms as mediators of social influence on snacking.
In: Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association 37 (2), S. 153–159. DOI: 10.1037/hea0000568.
Objective: Social factors are among the most powerful and pervasive influences on eating behavior, snacking in particular. Previous research has shown that being in the presence of people who are eating significantly increases the likelihood of eating and affects the types as well as the amount of food consumed. Much less is known about the processes underlying social influence, but previous research has suggested social norms as mediators. In this study, we extended this perspective to everyday settings and examined whether the presence of other people eating leads to a change in perceived momentary norms, and whether this change predicts snack consumption in real life. Method: We applied ecological momentary assessment to study 61 individuals in the normal–obese weight range (M BMI = 24.97 kg/m²; SD = 4.07) over a 14-day monitoring period. We used a combination of event-based snacking reports and randomly timed assessments. The presence of others eating and momentary perceptions of injunctive norms (facets of perceived appropriateness and encouragement) were measured for both assessment types. Results: Mediated, multilevel logistic regression showed that social cues predict snacking (OR = 3.06), and that momentary perceptions of appropriateness (ab = 0.14) and encouragement (ab = 0.18) partially mediated these effects. Conclusion: Perceptions of momentary norms mediated the effects of social influence on everyday snacking, which highlights the importance of the social environment for understanding eating behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Scott, Christy K.; Dennis, Michael L.; Gustafson, David H. (2018): Using ecological momentary assessments to predict relapse after adult substance use treatment.
In: Addictive behaviors 82, S. 72–78. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.02.025.
BACKGROUND: A key component of relapse prevention is to self-monitor the internal (feelings or cravings) and external (people, places, activities) factors associated with relapse. Smartphones can deliver ecological momentary assessments (EMA) to help individuals self-monitor. The purpose of this exploratory study was to develop a model for predicting an individual’s risk of future substance use after each EMA and validate it using a multi-level model controlling for repeated measures on persons. METHODS: Data are from 21,897 observations from 43 adults following their initial episode of substance use treatment in Chicago from 2015 to 2016. Participants were provided smartphones for six months and asked to complete two to three minute EMAs at five random times per day (81% completion). In any given EMA, 2.7% reported substance use and 8% reported any use in the next five completed EMA. Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID) was used to classify EMAs into six levels of risk and then validated with a hierarchical linear model (HLM). RESULTS: The major predictors of substance use in the next five completed EMAs were substance use pattern over the current and prior five EMAs (no recent/current use, either recent or current use [but not both], continued use [both recent and current]), negative affect (feelings), and craving (rating). Negative affect was important for EMAs with no current or recent use reported; craving was important for EMAs with either recent or current use; and neither mattered for EMAs with continued use. The CHAID gradated EMA risk from 0.7% to 36.6% of the next five completed EMAs with substance use reported. It also gradated risk of “any” use in the next five completed EMAs from 3% to 82%. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the potential of using smartphone-based EMAs to monitor and provide feedback for relapse prevention in future studies.
Seidel, Maria; King, Joseph A.; Ritschel, Franziska; Boehm, Ilka; Geisler, Daniel; Bernardoni, Fabio et al. (2018): The real-life costs of emotion regulation in anorexia nervosa: a combined ecological momentary assessment and fMRI study.
In: Translational psychiatry 8 (1), S. 28. DOI: 10.1038/s41398-017-0004-7.
Regulation of emotions is necessary for successful attainment of short-term and long-term goals. However, over-regulation may also have its costs. In anorexia nervosa (AN), forgoing food intake despite emaciation and endocrine signals that promote eating is an example of “too much” self-control. Here we investigated whether voluntary emotion regulation in AN patients comes with associated disorder-relevant costs. Thirty-five patients with acute AN and thirty-five age-matched healthy controls (HCs) performed an established emotion regulation paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging after an overnight fast. The task required reducing emotions induced by positively valenced pictures via distancing. We calculated a neural regulation score from responses recorded in a reward-related brain region of interest (ventral striatum; VS) by subtracting activation measured on “positive distance” trials from that elicited under the “positive watch” (baseline) condition. Complementing the imaging data, we used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to probe disorder-related rumination and affect six times/day for 2 weeks following the scanning session. The neural regulation score indicating reduced VS activation during emotion regulation was used as a predictor in hierarchical linear models with EMA measures as outcomes. No group differences in neural activity were found for the main contrasts of the task. However, regulation of VS activity was associated with increased body-related rumination and increased negative affect in AN, but not in HC. In line with this finding, correlational analysis with longitudinal BMI measurements revealed a link between greater VS regulation and poorer treatment outcome after 60 and 90 days. Together, these results identify a neural correlate of altered emotion regulation in AN, which seems to be detrimental to psychological well-being and may interfere with recovery.
Sened, Haran; Lazarus, Gal; Gleason, Marci E.J.; Rafaeli, Eshkol; Fleeson, William (2018): The use of intensive longitudinal methods in explanatory personality research.
In: Eur J Pers. DOI: 10.1002/per.2143.
Intensive longitudinal methods (ILMs), in which data are gathered from participants multiple times with short intervals (typically 24 hours or less apart), have gained considerable ground in personality research and may be useful in exploring causality in both classic personality trait models and more novel contextualized personality state models. We briefly review the various terms and uses of ILMs in various fields of psychology and present five main strategies that can help researchers infer causality in ILM studies. We discuss the use of temporal precedence to establish causality, through both lagged analyses and natural experiments; the use of external measures and peer reports to go beyond self‐report data; delving deeper into repeated measures to derive new indices; the use of contextual factors occurring during the measurement period; and combining experimental methods and ILMs. These strategies are illustrated by examples from existing research and by new empirical findings from two dyadic daily diary studies (N = 80 and N = 108 couples) and an experience Sampling method study of personality states (N = 52). We conclude by offering a short checklist for designing ILM studies with causality in mind and look at the applicability of these strategies in the intersection of personality psychology and other psychological research domains. Copyright © 2018 European Association of Personality Psychology (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Serre, Fuschia; Fatseas, Melina; Denis, Cecile; Swendsen, Joel; Auriacombe, Marc (2018): Predictors of craving and substance use among patients with alcohol, tobacco, cannabis or opiate addictions: Commonalities and specificities across substances.
In: Addictive behaviors. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.01.041.
INTRODUCTION: Craving has been proposed as a major contributor to addiction relapse and the influence of mood on craving and substance use has been extensively documented. However, information is lacking concerning the extent to which the magnitude of these effects may vary according to different types of substances. The aim of the present study was to compare the prospective links between emotions, craving and substance use in four groups of patients beginning treatment for alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, or opiate addiction. METHODS: Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) was used over a two-week period. Data were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM). RESULTS: 159 participants were recruited (67.3% male; M=36.7years). The average response rate to the EMA assessments was 83.1%. The findings confirmed the strong predictive role of craving intensity on substance use reported at the next assessment of the day among the alcohol (gamma=0.224; p=.018), tobacco (gamma=0.133; p=.013) and cannabis groups (gamma=0.266; p=.019), but not for opiates (gamma=0.098; p=.142). Craving intensity was itself predicted by greater anxious mood (gamma=0.108; p=0,029) and event negativity (gamma=0.107; p=.003) among tobacco patients, lower sad mood among cannabis patients (gamma=-0.248; p=0,002), and lower event negativity among opiate patients (gamma=-0.201; p=.002). CONCLUSION: While these results support the benefit of targeting craving in addiction treatment regardless of substance type, the substance-specific emotional risk factors for craving identified in this study may provide important insights for the development of personalized treatment strategies.
Short, Nicole A.; Allan, Nicholas P.; Stentz, Lauren; Portero, Amberly K.; Schmidt, Norman B. (2018): Predictors of insomnia symptoms and nightmares among individuals with post‐traumatic stress disorder: An ecological momentary assessment study.
In: J Sleep Res 27 (1), S. 64–72. DOI: 10.1111/jsr.12589.
Despite the high levels of comorbidity between post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and sleep disturbance, little research has examined the predictors of insomnia and nightmares in this population. The current study tested both PTSD‐specific (i.e. PTSD symptoms, comorbid anxiety and depression, nightmares and fear of sleep) and insomnia‐specific (i.e. dysfunctional beliefs about sleep, insomnia‐related safety behaviours and daily stressors) predictors of sleep quality, efficiency and nightmares in a sample of 30 individuals with PTSD. Participants participated in ecological momentary assessment to determine how daily changes in PTSD‐ and insomnia‐related factors lead to changes in sleep. Multi‐level modelling analyses indicated that, after accounting for baseline PTSD symptom severity, PTSD‐specific factors were associated with insomnia symptoms, but insomnia‐specific factors were not. Only daytime PTSD symptoms and fear of sleep predicted nightmares. Both sleep‐ and PTSD‐related factors play a role in maintaining insomnia among those with PTSD, while nightmares seem to be linked more closely with only PTSD‐related factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Short, Nicole A.; Boffa, Joseph W.; Clancy, Kevin; Schmidt, Norman B. (2018): Effects of emotion regulation strategy use in response to stressors on PTSD symptoms: An ecological momentary assessment study.
In: Journal of affective disorders 230, S. 77–83. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.12.063.
BACKGROUND: Although a burgeoning line of research identifies emotion regulation difficulties as a potential maintenance factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), little is known in regard to what emotion regulation strategies individuals with PTSD use in their daily lives, their predictors, and their consequences on later PTSD symptoms. METHOD: The current study utilized ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design to explore prospective relationships between maladaptive and adaptive emotion regulation strategy use and PTSD symptoms in participants with PTSD (N = 30). Participants completed 4 EMAs per day over 8 days, assessing stressors, emotional response, and emotion regulation strategy use. RESULTS: Individuals with PTSD most commonly used avoidance as an emotion regulation strategy. Multilevel modeling indicated that baseline PTSD symptoms predicted maladaptive emotion regulation strategy use. After covarying for morning PTSD symptoms, maladaptive emotion regulation prospectively predicted increased PTSD symptoms later in the day. Adaptive emotion regulation strategies did not uniquely predict later PTSD symptoms. CONCLUSION: In line with conceptualizations of difficulties in emotion regulation as a transdiagnostic maintenance factor in PTSD, findings indicate that maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in response to stressors exacerbate PTSD symptoms. The use of adaptive emotion regulation strategies had no positive or negative impact on subsequent PTSD symptoms. LIMITATIONS: Future studies should utilize longer-term prospective designs.
Shrier, Lydia A.; Sarda, Vishnudas; Jonestrask, Cassandra; Harris, Sion Kim (2017): Momentary factors during marijuana use as predictors of lapse during attempted abstinence in young adults.
In: Addictive behaviors. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.12.032.
INTRODUCTION: Young adults using marijuana heavily often try multiple times to quit on their own. We sought to identify momentary experiences during marijuana use that could aid in predicting lapse when young adults subsequently attempt abstinence. METHODS: Young adults (N=34) age 18-25 using marijuana >/=5days/week and planning to quit completed a survey of sociodemographic characteristics, substance use, marijuana expectancies, use motives, perceived social support, and confidence to abstain. They completed ecological momentary assessment (EMA) smartphone reports several times/day for two weeks prior to, then during two weeks of attempted abstinence. Use period EMA reports assessed affect, craving, accessibility, situational permissibility, use, and motivation to abstain. Baseline survey and EMA data were examined in relation to subsequent lapse during attempted abstinence. RESULTS: Nearly 3 in 4 participants (73.5%) reported lapsing during attempted abstinence from marijuana. On bivariate analyses, lower baseline dependence severity score, negative effect expectancies, perceived family support, and confidence to abstain were each associated with lapse. Of the use period EMA variables, greater percent of days with marijuana use, reports of easy accessibility, and reports of situational permissibility were each associated with lapse. Modeled together, negative effect expectancies, perceived family support, confidence to abstain, and situational permissibility during use were highly accurate in predicting lapse during attempted abstinence. CONCLUSIONS: Momentary factors may add to conventionally-surveyed characteristics to enhance prediction of lapse during attempted abstinence among young adults with heavy marijuana use. Momentary assessment prior to a quit attempt may thus enable more effective personalized approaches to preventing lapse.
Silva, Eliana; Freire, Teresa; Faria, Susana (2018): The emotion regulation strategies of adolescents and their parents: An experience Sampling study.
In: J Child Fam Stud. DOI: 10.1007/s10826-018-1015-6.
Parents are the main socialization agents in the development of emotion regulation (ER). In this study, we evaluated adolescents’ and their respective parents’ perspectives about their use of two ER strategies (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) in daily life. In addition, we evaluated the within-family associations between adolescents’ and their parents’ use of strategies. We controlled for adolescents’ gender and age and the perceived quality of their relationships with their parents (mothers and fathers). The sample consisted of 33 12- to 18-year-old adolescent–father–mother triads, totaling 99 participants. Parents and adolescents reported their use of ER strategies in response to eight random prompts throughout the day, by means of the experience Sampling method for 1 week. Participants provided 4082 reports on their momentary experiences. The data were analyzed using multilevel modeling to account for the hierarchical structure of the repeated daily assessments. The significant association between parents’ and adolescents’ use of ER strategies was specific to mother–adolescent dyads. The significant association between adolescents’ and their mothers’ ER strategies varied as a function of the adolescents’ age and the quality of their relationship with their mothers according to adolescents’ reports, but not as a function of adolescent gender. These findings suggest that mothers have a role in their adolescents’ emotion regulation in a developmental period characterized by autonomy from parental guidance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Simons, Jeffrey S.; Simons, Raluca M.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Hahn, Austin M.; Walters, Kyle J. (2018): Daily associations between alcohol and sexual behavior in young adults.
In: Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 26 (1), S. 36–48. DOI: 10.1037/pha0000163.
We tested within-person effects of alcohol on sexual behavior among young adults in a longitudinal burst design (N = 213, 6,487 days) using data collected from a previously published parent study. We differentiated effects of alcohol on likelihood of sexual activity versus use of protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) or pregnancy on intercourse occasions by testing a multilevel multinomial model with 4 outcomes (no sex, oral sex without intercourse, protected intercourse, and unprotected intercourse). At the within-person level, effects of alcohol were hypothesized to be conditional upon level of intoxication (i.e., curvilinear effect). We also tested effects of four between-person moderators: gender, typical length of relationship with sexual partners, and two facets of self-control (effortful control and reactivity). Consistent with our hypothesis, low-level intoxication was associated with increased likelihood of engaging in oral sex or protected intercourse (relative to no sex) but was not related to likelihood of unprotected intercourse. The effect of intoxication on unprotected versus protected intercourse was an accelerating curve, significantly increasing likelihood of unprotected intercourse at high levels of intoxication. Between-person factors moderated associations between intoxication and sexual behavior. Effects of intoxication on both protected and unprotected intercourse were diminished for individuals with more familiar sexual partners. Effortful control exhibited a protective effect, reducing the effects of intoxication on likelihood of unprotected intercourse. Hypothesized effects of reactivity were not supported. Intoxication was a stronger predictor of oral sex and protected intercourse (but not unprotected intercourse) for women relative to men. Results highlight the inherent complexities of the alcohol-sexual behavior nexus. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Public Health Significance—Nonlinear associations between alcohol and sexual outcomes may account for discrepant findings in the literature. Effortful control acts as a buffer, reducing associations between intoxication and unprotected intercourse. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Sliwinski, Martin J.; Mogle, Jacqueline A.; Hyun, Jinshil; Munoz, Elizabeth; Smyth, Joshua M.; Lipton, Richard B. (2018): Reliability and validity of ambulatory cognitive assessments.
In: Assessment 25 (1), S. 14–30. DOI: 10.1177/1073191116643164.
Mobile technologies are increasingly used to measure cognitive function outside of traditional clinic and laboratory settings. Although ambulatory assessments of cognitive function conducted in people’s natural environments offer potential advantages over traditional assessment approaches, the psychometrics of cognitive assessment procedures have been understudied. We evaluated the reliability and construct validity of ambulatory assessments of working memory and perceptual speed administered via smartphones as part of an ecological momentary assessment protocol in a diverse adult sample (N = 219). Results indicated excellent between-person reliability (≥ 0.97) for average scores, and evidence of reliable within-person variability across measurement occasions (0.41-0.53). The ambulatory tasks also exhibited construct validity, as evidence by their loadings on working memory and perceptual speed factors defined by the in-lab assessments. Our findings demonstrate that averaging across brief cognitive assessments made in uncontrolled naturalistic settings provide measurements that are comparable in reliability to assessments made in controlled laboratory environments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Smith, Kathryn E.; Mason, Tyler B.; Crosby, Ross D.; Engel, Scott G.; Crow, Scott J.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Peterson, Carol B. (2018): State and trait positive and negative affectivity in relation to restraint intention and binge eating among adults with obesity.
In: Appetite 120, S. 327–334. DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.09.020.
Restraint and binge eating are cognitive and behavioral processes that are particularly important in the context of obesity. While extensive research has focused on negative affect (NA) in relation to binge eating, it is unclear whether affective valence (i.e., positive versus negative) and stability (i.e., state versus trait) differentially predict binge eating and restraint among individuals with obesity. Distinguishing between valence and stability helps elucidate under which affective contexts, and among which individuals, restraint and binge eating are likely to occur. Therefore, the present study examined relationships between trait and state levels of NA and positive affect (PA), binge eating, and restraint intention among 50 adults with obesity (BMI ≥ 30). Participants completed baseline assessments followed by a two-week ecological momentary assessment (EMA) protocol. Structural equation modeling assessed a trait model of person-level measures of affect in relation to overall levels of binge eating and restraint intention, while general estimating equations (GEEs) assessed state models examining relationships between momentary affect and subsequent binge eating and restraint. The trait model indicated higher overall NA was related to more binge eating episodes, but was unrelated to overall restraint intention. Higher overall PA was related to higher overall restraint intention, but was unrelated to binge eating. State models indicated momentary NA was associated with a greater likelihood of subsequent binge eating and lower restraint intention. Momentary PA was unrelated to subsequent binge eating or restraint intention. Together, findings demonstrate important distinctions between the valence and stability of affect in relationship to binge eating and restraint intention among individuals with obesity. While NA is a more salient predictor of binge eating than PA, both overall PA and momentary NA are predictors of restraint intention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Smyth, Joshua M.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Zawadzki, Matthew J.; Scott, Stacey B.; Conroy, David E.; Lanza, Stephanie T. et al. (2018): Everyday stress response targets in the science of behavior change.
In: Behav Res Ther 101, S. 20–29. DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.09.009.
Stress is an established risk factor for negative health outcomes, and responses to everyday stress can interfere with health behaviors such as exercise and sleep. In accordance with the Science of Behavior Change (SOBC) program, we apply an experimental medicine approach to identifying stress response targets, developing stress response assays, intervening upon these targets, and testing intervention effectiveness. We evaluate an ecologically valid, within-person approach to measuring the deleterious effects of everyday stress on physical activity and sleep patterns, examining multiple stress response components (i.e., stress reactivity, stress recovery, and stress pile-up) as indexed by two key response indicators (negative affect and perseverative cognition). Our everyday stress response assay thus measures multiple malleable stress response targets that putatively shape daily health behaviors (physical activity and sleep). We hypothesize that larger reactivity, incomplete recovery, and more frequent stress responses (pile-up) will negatively impact health behavior enactment in daily life. We will identify stress-related reactivity, recovery, and response in the indicators using coordinated analyses across multiple naturalistic studies. These results are the basis for developing a new stress assay and replicating the initial findings in a new sample. This approach will advance our understanding of how specific aspects of everyday stress responses influence health behaviors, and can be used to develop and test an innovative ambulatory intervention for stress reduction in daily life to enhance health behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Sokolov, Christopher Kirill (2018): Teacher engagement In grades 4-8.
In: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences 78 (9-A(E)).
In a review of previous literature, this study attempted to delineate and define work engagement, generally, and teacher engagement specifically. It aimed to illuminate the importance of identifying and understanding when a teacher is engaged. This study suggested ways school leaders and policy makers could use teacher engagement to improve the teaching and learning that takes place in their schools. This study measured teacher engagement at a small independent K 8 school in two ways: (a) as a personal trait (using the Engaged Teachers Scale or ETS administered once); (b) as a state that may change over time (using an Experience Sampling Method form or ESF multiple times over the course of a work week). The ESF also measured variables on instructional format and levels of interaction with an administrator. The findings of this study described the teacher engagement of the population sampled. It weighed the relationship between trait teacher engagement and state teacher engagement. It found a significant relationship between a teacher’s engagement when measured as a static trait and that teacher’s engagement when measured as a dynamic state. The study found a significant relationship between trait teacher engagement and a teacher’s social interactions with students. It did not find a similarly significant relationship when considering state teacher engagement. This study also considered the relationship between teacher engagement and a teacher’s last interaction with an administrator. It also considered a teacher’s social engagement with colleagues. The study explored the relationships between teacher engagement and the mean number of different instructional formats used in each class period. Finally, the study considered the relationships that might be present between teacher engagement and the percentage of time that a teacher uses varying instructional formats. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Stennett, Andrea; Krebs, Nicolle M.; Liao, Jason; Richie, John P., JR.; Muscat, Joshua E. (2018): Ecological momentary assessment of smoking behaviors in native and converted intermittent smokers.
In: The American journal on addictions 27 (2), S. 131–138. DOI: 10.1111/ajad.12690.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: About 22% of adult smokers in the U.S. are intermittent cigarette smokers (ITS). ITS can be further classified as native ITS who never smoked daily and converted ITS who formerly smoked daily but reduced to intermittent smoking. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) was conducted to determine the behaviors and experiences that are associated with the decision to smoke. METHODS: The study included 24 native ITS and 36 converted ITS (N = 60) from the Pennsylvania Adult Smoking Study. A baseline questionnaire, daily log, and an EMA smoking log that assessed emotions, activities, and smoking urges was filled out with each cigarette for 1 week to capture 574 smoking sessions. RESULTS: Both groups had very low levels of cigarette dependence. Both groups were more tempted to smoke in positive or negative situations than situations associated with habituation. EMA showed that the most common emotional state during smoking sessions was positive (47%), followed by negative (32%), neutral (16%), and mixed (5%) emotions. Smokers were more likely to smoke during activities of leisure (48%) than during performative duties (29%), social (16%) or interactive occasions (7%). Converted ITS were more likely to smoke alone compared to native ITS (p < .001). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: ITS report minimal levels of dependence when captured on traditional scales of nicotine dependence, yet experience loss of autonomy and difficulty quitting. The majority of the ITS reported positive emotions and leisure activities while smoking, and smoked during the evening. SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: The current paper identifies environmental and behavioral factors that are associated with smoking among ITS in real time. (Am J Addict 2018;27:131-138).
Stevenson, Brittany L.; Dvorak, Robert D.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Gordon, Kathryn H. (2018): Emotions before and after loss of control eating.
In: Eating disorders, S. 1–18. DOI: 10.1080/10640266.2018.1453634.
Our study examined momentary mood and emotional instability pre- and post-loss of control (LOC) eating on non-LOC and LOC eating days, using randomly timed assessments. Community and university participants (n = 45) who endorsed LOC eating at least once per week completed 2 weeks of ecological momentary assessment. All negative moods and emotional instability were elevated on LOC eating days, but trajectories between days did not differ. Guilt exhibited an increasing trajectory prior to a LOC eating episode, but remained elevated after LOC eating episodes. Additional analyses revealed that size of the LOC eating episode did not change these results dramatically.
Strahler, Jana; Nater, Urs M. (2018): Differential effects of eating and drinking on wellbeing—An ecological ambulatory assessment study.
In: Biol Psychol 131, S. 72–88. DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2017.01.008.
Introduction: Various behaviors, such as physical activity and sleep, have been shown to have stress-reducing and beneficial effects on wellbeing. In contrast, the rewarding effects of eating and drinking have rarely been investigated, particularly using ecologically valid approaches, and little is known about mediating mechanisms on the biological level. Methods: Seventy-seven healthy young adults completed items on eating and drinking as well as momentary wellbeing (measured by mood, energy, tension, stress and fatigue levels) on an iPod touch 5×/day for 4 consecutive days. With each entry, a saliva sample was collected for the later assessment of cortisol, alpha-amylase and salivary flow rate as markers of neuroendocrine and autonomic activity, respectively. Results: Hierarchical linear models showed better momentary wellbeing on various scales after the consumption of juice, coffee and alcohol. Having a snack predicted lower fatigue levels. In contrast, consuming high-fat food resulted in impaired wellbeing. With regard to affect-induced eating as well as biomarkers, only a few associations emerged as significant. However, autonomic activity partially mediated the alcohol-stress association. Conclusion: These findings corroborate previous reports that dietary behaviors could have rewarding effects, but also challenge the assumption of a general mood-enhancing and stress-relieving effect of certain foods. Findings on biomarkers provide first insights into underlying biological mechanisms. Research on further assumed mechanisms (reward-associated brain networks) and moderators (hedonic overeating) is highly warranted. Moreover, implications for addiction research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Stumm, Sophie von (2018): Feeling low, thinking slow? Associations between situational cues, mood and cognitive function.
In: Cognition & emotion, S. 1–14. DOI: 10.1080/02699931.2017.1420632.
Within-person changes in mood, which are triggered by situational cues, for example someone’s location or company, are thought to affect contemporaneous cognitive function. To test this hypothesis, data were collected over 6 months with the smartphone application (app) moo-Q that prompted users at random times to rate their mood and complete 3 short cognitive tests. Out of 24,313 people across 154 countries, who downloaded the app, 770 participants submitted 10 or more valid moo-Q responses (mean = 23; SD = 18; range 10-207). Confirming previous research, consistent patterns of association emerged for 6 different situation cues with mood and cognitive function: For example, being alone rather than with others when completing the app resulted in worse mood but better cognitive task performance. Notwithstanding, changes in mood and cognitive function were not coupled. The advantages and challenges of using smartphone technology for studying mood and cognitive function are discussed.
Suelmann, Han; Brouwers, André; Snippe, Evelien (2018): Explaining variations in mindfulness levels in daily life.
In: Mindfulness (N Y). DOI: 10.1007/s12671-018-0932-1.
Despite the apparent benefits of being mindful, people are often not very mindful. There seem to be forces that drive people toward as well as away from mindfulness. These forces are conceptualised in terms of competition for scarce attentional resources. To explore these forces and to test this framework, an experience Sampling study was performed among people with an explicit intention to be mindful and an ongoing practice to examine concurrent associations between state mindfulness and daily life experiences that may affect it. Participants (N = 29, 1012 observations) filled out questions on momentary experiences at semi-random intervals, five times a day, over a period of 7 to 10 days. Predictors of within-person variations in awareness of Present Moment Experience (PME) and non-reactivity to PME were examined using multilevel analyses. Participants were more aware of PME when they had an activated intention to be mindful and when they felt good, and not very busy or hurried, and were not involved in social interaction. They were more reactive to PME when they experienced unpleasant affect, and when they were hurried or tired. An activated intention to be mindful was also associated with an increased tendency to analyse PME. Experiencing threat was associated with increased reactivity, but not with decreased awareness. Our study generally supports the idea that competition for attention can be a fruitful framework to describe mechanisms behind being or not being mindful. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Sumaya, Isabel C.; Darling, Emily (2018): Procrastination, Flow, and Academic Performance in Real Time Using the Experience Sampling Method.
In: The Journal of genetic psychology, S. 1–9. DOI: 10.1080/00221325.2018.1449097.
The authors’ aim was to first provide an alternative methodology in the assessment of procrastination and flow that would not reply on retrospective or prospective self-reports. Using real-time assessment of both procrastination and flow, the authors investigated how these factors impact academic performance by using the Experience Sampling Method. They assessed flow by measuring student self-reported skill versus challenge, and procrastination by measuring the days to completion of an assignment. Procrastination and flow were measured for six days before a writing assignment due date while students (n = 14) were enrolled in a research methods course. Regardless of status of flow, both the nonflow and flow groups showed high levels of procrastination. Students who experienced flow as they worked on their paper, in real time, earned significantly higher grades (M = 3.05 +/- 0.30: an average grade of B) as compared with the nonflow group (M = 1.16 +/- 0.33: an average grade of D; p = .007). Additionally, students experiencing flow were more accurate in predicting their grade (difference scores, flow M = 0.12 +/- 0.33 vs. nonflow M = 1.39 +/- 0.29; p = .015). Students in the nonflow group were nearly a grade and a half off in their prediction of their grade on the paper. To the authors’ knowledge, the study is the first to provide experimental evidence showing differences in academic performance between students experiencing flow and nonflow students.
Suso-Ribera, Carlos; Mesas, Angela; Medel, Javier; Server, Anna; Marquez, Esther; Castilla, Diana et al. (2018): Improving pain treatment with a smartphone app: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
In: Trials 19 (1), S. 145. DOI: 10.1186/s13063-018-2539-1.
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain has become a major health problem across the world, especially in older adults. Unfortunately, the effectiveness of medical interventions is modest. Some have argued that assessment strategies should be improved if the impact of medical interventions is to be improved. Ecological momentary assessment using smartphones is now considered the gold standard in monitoring in health settings, including chronic pain. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no randomized controlled trial to show that telemonitoring using a smartphone app can indeed improve the effectiveness of medical treatments in adults with chronic pain. The goal of this study will be to explore the effects of using a smartphone app for telemonitoring adults with chronic pain. METHODS: The study will be a randomized controlled trial with three groups: treatment as usual (TAU), TAU+app, and TAU+app+alarms. All groups will receive the adequate treatment for their pain, which will be prescribed the first day of study according to clinical guidelines. Assessment in the TAU group will be the usual at the Pain Clinic, that is, a paper-and-pencil evaluation at the onset of treatment (beginning of study) and at follow up (end of study, 30 days later). The other two groups (TAU+app and TAU+app+alarms) will be assessed daily using Pain Monitor, a smartphone app developed by our multidisciplinary team. Telemonitoring will only be made in the TAU+app+alarms group. For this group, physicians at the Pain Clinic may decide to adjust pain treatment in response to alarms. Telemonitoring is not the usual practice at the Pain Clinic and will not occur in the other two groups (TAU and TAU+app), so no changes in treatment are expected in these groups after the first appointment. The total sample size will be 150, with 50 patients in each group. The assessment protocol will be the same in all groups and will include pain intensity and side effects of the medication (primary outcomes), together with several pain-related variables like pain interference, activity level, use of rescue medication, pain catastrophizing, and pain acceptance, among others. DISCUSSION: We believe that the present trial has important clinical implications. We think that telemonitoring using ecological momentary assessment is crucial to improve current interventions for pain. The armamentarium of available treatments for pain is large, so physicians can turn to different treatments or dosages in the presence of an undesired event. The use of the app for telemonitoring can allow for this rapid detection of unwanted events, thus improving patient safety (i.e., withdrawal of treatment causing side effects) and augmenting treatment effectiveness (i.e., changing an ineffective treatment or dosage). In a time when smartphones are a mainstream technology, we should take advantage of them in the promotion of health care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03247725 . Registered on 25 July 2017.
Tariq, Hussain; Ding, Donghong (2018): Why am I still doing this job? The examination of family motivation on employees’ work behaviors under abusive supervision.
In: Personnel Review 47 (2), S. 378–402. DOI: 10.1108/PR-07-2016-0162.
Purpose: Synthesizing theories of prosocial motivation and action identification, the purpose of this paper is to test several hypotheses associating abusive supervisory behavior with employees’ work behaviors via intervening variables, i.e., intrinsic motivation and family motivation. Design/methodology/approach: The two-study examination of outcomes of abusive supervision stands in contrast to prior research, which has primarily focused on family motivation that influences supervisor-subordinate relationship. A lagged survey study at a Fortune 500 company and an experience Sampling study at multi-organizations located in Anhui province of People’s Republic of China (PRC) support the moderated-mediation motivational model. Findings: In the first study, designed as a lagged survey study, the authors found that abusive supervision is negatively associated with employees’ job performance and positively associated with employees’ turnover intentions. As anticipated, the results also found that family motivation moderates the direct relationship between abusive supervision and employees’ work behaviors. Furthermore, these results were then replicated and expanded in an experience Sampling study. Consistent with the predictions, the authors found that intrinsic motivation acts as a mediator between abusive supervision and employees’ work behaviors and family motivation has the capacity to compensate for the absence of intrinsic motivation. Research limitations/implications: Although the paper contributes to leadership and motivation literature, there are several noteworthy limitations to be discussed in the future. The subjective measurement, the validity of abusive supervision in the Chinese context and generalizing of the study in western countries are the key limitations of the study. Moreover, the authors measure abusive supervision only on high/low frequency based rather than high/low intensity. Hence, there is a possibility that intensity and frequency have dissimilar effects. Originality/value: The study with meaningful implications on motivation and leadership research concludes that family as a powerful source of motivation encourages subordinates’ job performance and discourages employees’ turnover intentions at the workplace, even under abusive supervision. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Te Lindert, Bart H W; Itzhacki, Jacob; van der Meijden, Wisse P; Kringelbach, Morten L.; Mendoza, Jorge; Van Someren, Eus J W (2018): Bright environmental light ameliorates deficient subjective ‘liking’ in insomnia: an experience Sampling study.
In: Sleep 41 (4). DOI: 10.1093/sleep/zsy022.
Study Objectives: Altered comfort sensing and reduced gray matter volume in the orbitofrontal cortex of the brain in people suffering from insomnia disorder (ID) suggest compromised processes of motivation and hedonia. The experience Sampling (ES) method was used to evaluate whether, in naturalistic conditions, people with ID differ from those without sleep complaints with respect to subjective Wanting and Liking, two major dimensions of the reward system. Since light affects brain circuits involved in affect and reward, ES was combined with ambulatory monitoring of light intensity fluctuations to evaluate their effect on subjective Wanting and Liking. Methods: Participants with ID (n = 17, 12 females, 56.8 +/- 6.5 mean +/- standard deviation years of age) and matched controls without sleep complaints (n = 18, 12 females, 57.0 +/- 8.6 years of age) were probed by a smartphone alarm to log their subjective Wanting, Liking, and mood nine times a day for 7 days. Using an ambulatory light recorder, light intensity exposure was sampled simultaneously and averaged over the intervals between subsequent ES alarms. Mixed-effect models were used to evaluate how ID and varying light intensity affected subjective assessments. Results: The results indicated significantly lower subjective Liking and Wanting in people suffering from ID, particularly at low environmental light intensity. Conclusions: Wanting and Liking, rather than more commonly used mood adjectives, showed an increased sensitivity to detect deficient hedonic and reward processing in insomnia during everyday life. Deficient Liking may in part be rescued by exposure to bright environmental light.
Terroba-Chambi, Cinthia; Bruno, Veronica; Medina-Escobar, Alex; Nanni, Federico; Cerquetti, Daniel; Rossi, Malco; Merello, Marcelo (2018): Open-access electronic diary for motor fluctuation and dyskinesia evaluation in Parkinson disease: Comparison with paper diary.
In: Clinical neuropharmacology 41 (1), S. 20–22. DOI: 10.1037/t27279-000;
Objective: To determine the utility of an electronic diary for registering motor fluctuations and dyskinesia in Parkinson disease (PD). Methods: Free, open-access touch screen software suitable for Android 4.4 or higher, with medication alarms, adjustable intervals, and medication dose settings was developed to evaluate ON-OFF periods and dyskinesia. Prospective evaluation included a first phase conducted to make adjustments concerning motor limitations when using the tablet, as well as for proper motor complication identification, and a second phase of 3 days of use at home with a prior diary training session comparing a modified paper version of Core Assessment Program for Surgical Interventional Therapies in PD and the electronic diary. Results: All patients correctly identified ON-OFF periods and dyskinesia. Rater/patient matching ON-OFF fluctuations ranged between 94% and 100% for evaluations of different motor states. Dyskinesia matching percentage was 100% for patients with dyskinesia interfering with activities of daily living and 88%for those who reported no-interference. No significant differences between paper and electronic diaries were identified when reporting ON-OFF motor states or in the number of errors when filling the diaries. Conclusions: This electronic motor diary proved to be reliable for ON-OFF state and dyskinesia identification and classification. However, no advantage to paper diary has been observed in terms of number of erroneous entries. Based on these results, to improve home motor fluctuations, detection efforts should be directed toward the development of automatic wearable devices rather than digital versions of current available ON-OFF diaries. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C.; Ntoumanis, N.; Carey, R.; Dodos, L.; Quested, E. J.; Chatzisarantis, N. (2018): A diary study of appearance social comparisons and need frustration in young women.
In: Pers Individ Dif 122, S. 120–126. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2017.10.020.
The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of state upward appearance comparisons and psychological need frustration on appearance self-conscious emotions, and compensatory dieting and exercise thoughts and behaviours. An Ecological Momentary Assessment design was employed with young women (n = 126; Mage = 21.26; SD = 2.76) who responded to surveys 3 times daily every other day for 1 week. Outcome measures included body and appearance self-conscious emotions (shame, guilt, and authentic and hubristic pride) and (thoughts of) dietary restriction and exercise. Mixed linear modelling showed that upward appearance comparisons and psychological need frustration independently predicted several maladaptive appearance-based emotions and behaviours. For thoughts of dietary restriction, an interaction emerged, whereby thoughts of dietary restriction were intensified in situations when participants engaged in upward appearance comparisons and reported high levels of need frustration. The findings suggest that not only upward appearance comparisons but also high levels of state need frustration can make women more vulnerable to self-conscious emotions and compensatory dieting and exercise thoughts and behaviours. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Timmons, Adela C. (2018): Ambulatory assessment methods for capturing naturalistic couple interactions in daily life.
In: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 79 (1-B(E)).
With the increasing use of smartphone technologies and wearable biosensors, we are currently undergoing what many have termed a ‘data revolution,’ where intensive, multichannel data are passively collected over long timeframes. Such procedures are transforming the way psychologists conceptualize research and have the potential to spur important advances in the study of close relationships. This proof-of concept study from the Couple Mobile Sensing Project, a partnership between psychologists and engineers, combines big data and ambulatory assessment methodologies to study multi-modal, micro-processes in couples’ everyday lives. These data collection procedures are designed to test how characteristics of everyday behavioral, physiological, and vocal interactions are integrated within and across individuals. We present examples to show how these data can be synchronized across modalities and partners and can be linked to generalized relationship dimensions. Discussion highlights the potential and challenges of capturing multi-modal, multi-person, real-time, naturally-occurring social phenomena. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Tomko, Rachel L.; Gray, Kevin M.; Oppenheimer, Stephanie R.; Wahlquist, Amy E.; McClure, Erin A. (2018): Using REDCap for ambulatory assessment: Implementation in a clinical trial for smoking cessation to augment in-person data collection.
In: The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse, S. 1–16. DOI: 10.1080/00952990.2018.1437445.
BACKGROUND: The use of ambulatory assessment to study behavior and physiology in daily life is becoming more common, yet barriers to implementation remain. Limitations in budget, time, and expertise may inhibit development or purchase of dedicated ambulatory assessment software. Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) is widely used worldwide, offering a cost-effective and accessible option for implementing research studies. OBJECTIVES: To present a step-by-step guideline on how to implement ambulatory assessment using REDCap and provide preliminary evidence of feasibility. METHODS: Feasibility and acceptability data are presented for randomized participants (N ranged from 19 to 36, depending on analysis) from an ongoing 8-week smoking cessation pharmacological clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02737358). Participants (N = 36; 50% female) completed up to three ambulatory assessment surveys per day, depending on the phase of the study. These included self-report and video confirmation of smoking biomarkers and medication adherence. RESULTS: Participants completed 74.8% of morning reports (86.6% for study completers), 73.8% of videos confirming smoking biomarkers, and 70.4% of videos confirming medication adherence. Study completers reported that the REDCap assessments were easy to use, and 78.9% of participants preferred the REDCap assessments to traditional, paper measures. CONCLUSIONS: These data from a pharmacological trial suggest feasibility of remote data collection using REDCap. As REDCap functionality is continually evolving, it is likely that options for collecting ambulatory assessment data via this platform will progressively improve allowing for greater individualization of assessment scheduling for enhancing data collection in clinical trials.
Treloar Padovano, Hayley; Miranda, Robert, JR. (2018): Using Ecological Momentary Assessment to Identify Mechanisms of Change: An Application From a Pharmacotherapy Trial With Adolescent Cannabis Users.
In: Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs 79 (2), S. 190–198.
OBJECTIVE: The present study used youth’s in vivo reports of subjective responses to cannabis while smoking in their natural environments to identify real-world mechanisms of topiramate treatment for cannabis misuse. METHOD: Participants were 40 cannabis users (>/= twice weekly in past 30 days), ages 15-24 years (47.5% female), with at least one cannabis use episode during the final 3 weeks of a 6-week, randomized clinical trial. Youth reported subjective “high” while smoking, stimulation, sedation, stress, craving, and grams of marijuana used in the natural environment via wireless electronic devices. Bayesian multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) evaluated mediation via indirect effect tests. RESULTS: Significant within (daily) and between (person) variability and distinctive within and between effects supported the MSEM approach. Subjective high while smoking was significantly reduced for youth in the topiramate condition, relative to placebo, and the indirect effect of reduced subjective high on total grams of cannabis smoked that day was significant. Indirect effects through other subjective responses were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this initial study suggest that altering subjective responses to smoking, specifically subjective high, may be a key target for developing adjunctive pharmacotherapies for cannabis misuse. More generally, this work provides an example for applying ecological momentary assessment and analytic techniques to evaluate mechanisms of behavior change in longitudinal data.
Trull, Timothy J. (2018): Ambulatory Assessment of Borderline Personality Disorder.
In: Psychopathology. DOI: 10.1159/000486604.
Ambulatory assessment (AA) is an important tool that promises to minimize retrospective biases while gathering ecologically valid data, including self-reports, physiological or biological data, and observed behavior, for example, from daily life experiences. AA is well suited for studying borderline personality disorder (BPD) because it can measure moods and emotion (as well as dynamic mood processes, mood changes, and mood instability), problematic behaviors (including interpersonal conflicts, addictive behaviors, binge and purge episodes, and motoric activity), and problematic cognitions/expectancies/urges (e.g., rejection sensitivity, cravings, and self-harm urges) as they occur in daily life. In this article, I review existing AA research on BPD, and I discuss future applications of AA as well as limitations and considerations for future use.
Uink, Bep; Modecki, Kathryn Lynn; Barber, Bonnie L.; Correia, Helen M. (2018): Socioeconomically disadvantaged adolescents with elevated externalizing symptoms show heightened emotion reactivity to daily stress: An experience Sampling study.
In: Child psychiatry and human development. DOI: 10.1007/s10578-018-0784-x.
Numerous theories assert that youth with externalizing symptomatology experience intensified emotion reactivity to stressful events; yet scant empirical research has assessed this notion. Using in-vivo data collected via experience Sampling methodology, we assessed whether externalizing symptoms conditioned adolescents’ emotion reactivity to daily stressors (i.e. change in emotion pre-post stressor) among 206 socioeconomically disadvantaged adolescents. We also assessed whether higher externalizing symptomology was associated with experiencing more stressors overall, and whether adolescents’ emotional upheavals resulted in experiencing a subsequent stressor. Hierarchical linear models showed that adolescents higher in externalizing symptoms experienced stronger emotion reactivity in sadness, anger, jealously, loneliness, and (dips in) excitement. Externalizing symptomatology was not associated with more stressful events, but a stress-preventative effect was found for recent upheavals in jealousy among youth low in externalizing. Findings pinpoint intense emotion reactivity to daily stress as a risk factor for youth with externalizing symptoms living in socioeconomic disadvantage. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Ulate-Campos, Adriana; Tsuboyama, Melissa; Loddenkemper, Tobias (2017): Devices for Ambulatory Monitoring of Sleep-Associated Disorders in Children with Neurological Diseases.
In: Children (Basel, Switzerland) 5 (1). DOI: 10.3390/children5010003.
Good sleep quality is essential for a child’s wellbeing. Early sleep problems have been linked to the later development of emotional and behavioral disorders and can negatively impact the quality of life of the child and his or her family. Sleep-associated conditions are frequent in the pediatric population, and even more so in children with neurological problems. Monitoring devices can help to better characterize sleep efficiency and sleep quality. They can also be helpful to better characterize paroxysmal nocturnal events and differentiate between nocturnal seizures, parasomnias, and obstructive sleep apnea, each of which has a different management. Overnight ambulatory detection devices allow for a tolerable, low cost, objective assessment of sleep quality in the patient’s natural environment. They can also be used as a notification system to allow for rapid recognition and prompt intervention of events like seizures. Optimal monitoring devices will be patient- and diagnosis-specific, but may include a combination of modalities such as ambulatory electroencephalograms, actigraphy, and pulse oximetry. We will summarize the current literature on ambulatory sleep devices for detecting sleep disorders in children with neurological diseases.
Vachon, Hugo; Rintala, Aki; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Myin-Germeys, Inez (2018): Data quality and feasibility of the Experience Sampling Method across the spectrum of severe psychiatric disorders: a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.
In: Systematic reviews 7 (1), S. 7. DOI: 10.1186/s13643-018-0673-1.
BACKGROUND: Due to a number of methodological advantages and theoretical considerations, more and more studies in clinical psychology research employ the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) as a data collection technique. Despite this growing interest, the absence of methodological guidelines related to the use of ESM has resulted in a large heterogeneity of designs while the potential effects of the design itself on the response behavior of the participants remain unknown. The objectives of this systematic review are to investigate the associations between the design characteristics and the data quality and feasibility of studies relying on ESM in severe psychiatric disorders. METHODS: We will search for all published studies using ambulatory assessment with patients suffering from major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and psychotic disorder or individuals at high risk for these disorders. Electronic database searches will be performed in PubMed and Web of Science with no restriction on the publication date. Two reviewers will independently screen original studies in a title/abstract phase and a full-text phase based on the inclusion criteria. The information related to the design and sample characteristics, data quality, and feasibility will be extracted. We will provide results in terms of a descriptive synthesis, and when applicable, a meta-analysis of the findings will be conducted. DISCUSSION: Our results will attempt to highlight how the feasibility and data quality of ambulatory assessment might be related to the methodological characteristics of the study designs in severe psychiatric disorders. We will discuss these associations in different subsamples if sufficient data are available and will examine limitations in the reporting of the methods of ambulatory studies in the current literature. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: The protocol for this systematic review was registered on PROSPERO (PROSPERO 2017: CRD42017060322 ) and is available in full on the University of York website ( http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42017060322 ).
van der Gucht, Katleen; Dejonckheere, Egon; Erbas, Yasemin; Takano, Keisuke; Vandemoortele, Mathilde; Maex, Edel et al. (2018): An experience Sampling study examining the potential impact of a mindfulness-based intervention on emotion differentiation.
In: Emotion (Washington, D.C.). DOI: 10.1037/emo0000406.
Research has shown that how well people can differentiate between different emotional states is an essential requirement for adaptive emotion regulation. People with low levels of emotion differentiation tend to be more vulnerable to develop emotional disorders. Although we know quite a lot about the correlates of emotion differentiation, research on factors or interventions which could improve emotion differentiation skills is scarce. Here, we hypothesize, and study empirically, whether a mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) may impact the differentiation of negative and positive emotions. A within-subjects pre-, post-, and follow-up design involving experience Sampling was used. At each phase participants reported their current emotions and mindfulness skills up to 40 times across 4 consecutive days using smartphones. Multilevel modeling showed a significant improvement in negative emotion differentiation postintervention and at 4 months of follow-up, and a significant improvement in positive emotion differentiation at 4 months follow-up. The improvement in negative emotion differentiation, however, was no longer significant when controlling for levels of negative affect. A time-lagged mediation model showed that posttreatment changes in mindfulness skills mediated subsequent changes in negative emotion differentiation, also when controlling for levels of negative affect. These results suggest that MBI is a promising approach to improve people’s emotion differentiation skills. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
van Roekel, Eeske; Verhagen, Maaike; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Kuppens, Peter (2018): Variation in the serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and inertia of negative and positive emotions in daily life.
In: Emotion (Washington, D.C.) 18 (2), S. 229–236. DOI: 10.1037/emo0000336.
An important element of understanding the genotype–phenotype link in psychiatric disorders lies in identifying the psychological mechanisms through which genetic variation impacts mental health. Here we examined whether emotional inertia, the tendency for a person’s emotions to carry over from 1 moment to the next and a prospective predictor of the development of depression, is associated with a known genetic risk factor for emotional dysregulation, a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR). Two hundred thirty-six adolescents recorded their positive and negative emotions in daily life 9 times a day for 6 consecutive days using smartphones, completed a depression questionnaire, and were genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. Carriers of the short 5-HTTLPR were characterized by higher inertia for negative emotions, even after controlling for depressive symptoms. These findings suggest a possible psychological pathway how the serotonin transporter gene contributes to risk for depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
van Voorhees, Elizabeth E.; Dennis, Paul A.; Elbogen, Eric B.; Fuemmeler, Bernard; Neal, Lydia C.; Calhoun, Patrick S.; Beckham, Jean C. (2018): Characterizing anger-related affect in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder using ecological momentary assessment.
In: Psychiatry research 261, S. 274–280. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.12.080.
This study employed secondary analyses of existing ecological momentary assessment (EMA) data to characterize hostile and irritable affect in the day-to-day experience of 52 smokers with, and 65 smokers without, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). EMA monitoring occurred over a mean of 8.2 days, and participants responded to an average of 2.8 random prompts/day. Analyses included Wilcoxon rank sum tests of group differences, and path analyses of cross-lagged multilevel models. Participants with PTSD endorsed a significantly higher proportion of total EMA entries indicating hostile affect and irritable affect than did individuals without PTSD. Cross-lagged analyses indicated that over a period of hours, PTSD symptoms significantly predicted subsequent hostile and irritable affect, but hostile and irritable affect did not predict subsequent PTSD symptoms. Findings suggest that day-to-day exposure to PTSD-related trauma cues may contribute to chronically elevated levels of anger-related affect. Such heightened affective arousal may, in turn, underlie an increased risk for verbal or physical aggression, as well as other health and quality-of-life related impairments associated with PTSD. Clinical implications include conceptualizing anger treatment in the broader context of trauma history and symptoms, and specifically targeting physiological arousal and maladaptive hostile cognitions triggered by trauma reminders in patients with PTSD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Vinci, Christine; Haslam, Aaron; Lam, Cho Y.; Kumar, Santosh; Wetter, David W. (2018): The use of ambulatory assessment in smoking cessation.
In: Addictive behaviors. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.01.018.
Ambulatory assessment of smoking behavior has greatly advanced our knowledge of the smoking cessation process. The current article first provides a brief overview of ecological momentary assessment for smoking cessation and highlights some of the primary advantages and scientific advancements made from this data collection method. Next, a discussion of how certain data collection tools (i.e., smoking topography and carbon monoxide detection) that have been traditionally used in lab-based settings are now being used to collect data in the real world. The second half of the paper focuses on the use of wearable wireless sensors to collect data during the smoking cessation process. Details regarding how these sensor-based technologies work, their application to newer tobacco products, and their potential to be used as intervention tools are discussed. Specific focus is placed on the opportunity to utilize novel intervention approaches, such as Just-In-Time Adaptive Interventions, to intervene upon smoking behavior. Finally, a discussion of some of the current challenges and limitations related to using sensor-based tools for smoking cessation are presented, along with suggestions for future research in this area. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Visser, Katherine Frost; Esfahlani, Farnaz Zamani; Sayama, Hiroki; Strauss, Gregory P. (2018): An ecological momentary assessment evaluation of emotion regulation abnormalities in schizophrenia.
In: Psychological medicine, S. 1–9. DOI: 10.1017/S0033291717003865.
BACKGROUND: Prior studies using self-report questionnaires and laboratory-based methods suggest that schizophrenia is characterized by abnormalities in emotion regulation (i.e. using strategies to increase or decrease the frequency, duration, or intensity of negative emotion). However, it is unclear whether these abnormalities reflect poor emotion regulation effort or adequate effort, but limited effectiveness. It is also unclear whether dysfunction results primarily from one of the three stages of the emotion regulation process: identification, selection, or implementation. METHOD: The current study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to address these questions in the context of everyday activities. Participants included 28 outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia (SZ) and 28 demographically matched healthy controls (CN) who completed 6 days of EMA reports of in-the-moment emotional experience, emotion regulation strategy use, and context. RESULTS: Results indicated that SZ demonstrated adequate emotion regulation effort, but poor effectiveness. Abnormalities were observed at each of the three stages of the emotion regulation process. At the identification stage, SZ initiated emotion regulation efforts at a lower threshold of negative emotion intensity. At the selection stage, SZ selected more strategies than CN and strategies attempted were less contextually appropriate. At the implementation stage, moderate to high levels of effort were ineffective at decreasing negative emotion. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that although SZ attempt to control their emotions using various strategies, often applying more effort than CN, these efforts are unsuccessful; emotion regulation abnormalities may result from difficulties at the identification, selection, and implementation stages.
Volmer, Judith; Richter, Stefanie; Syrek, Christine J. (2018): Creative at each age: Age‐related differences in drivers of workplace creativity from an experience Sampling study.
In: J Creat Behav. DOI: 10.1002/jocb.233.
Creativity and innovation are essential agents for change processes and accelerating technical development. Having to face challenges, such as demographic change, organizations require individuals who are creative and innovative at each age. Previous research identified affect as a crucial determinant of creativity, even though empirical findings showed inconsistencies. Drawing on literature on age‐related changes in affective experiences, we investigated the moderating effect of employees’ age on the association between daily positive and negative affect and creativity using a daily diary study. A total of 116 employees responded to daily questionnaires twice a day over five consecutive working days. As expected, hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed differential effects regarding the affect‐creativity association, dependent on employees’ age. Although older employees were most creative on days when they experienced a high level of positive affect (compared to their mean level of positive affect), younger employees were particularly creative when experiencing negative affect (compared to their mean level of negative affect). We discuss practical implications on how organizations could provide creativity‐enhancing work environments for employees at each age. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Wang, Yiran (2018): An investigation of college students’ Facebook use in their personal learning environments.
In: Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences 79 (3-A(E)).
Young people today grow up alongside the rapidly developing information and communication technologies, which have transformed their informational habits and have allowed for a culture of autonomous exploration and learning. Widely adopted by college students, Facebook serves multi-faceted purposes in college life. While some research claims that Facebook is detrimental to learning by distracting students (from formal learning), others see great potential in online social networking platforms to support (informal) learning opportunities. This dissertation responds to these contrasting views on the uses and effects of Facebook, particularly with respect to learning. Learning, here, is conceptualized as learners constructing knowledge using various methods and pathways in a social and cultural context. This dissertation investigated: 1) when and under what conditions college students actually use Facebook, and how; 2) whether and in what ways college students’ informal learning activities on Facebook are consistent with elements of connected learning—personal interest, peer support, and academic orientation; and 3) how college students perceive the benefits and shortcomings associated with news engagement on Facebook. To answer these questions, I studied in situ Facebook use of undergraduate college students using mixed methods, including automatic logging, experience Sampling surveys, diaries, and semi-structured interviews. Students exhibited two contrasting Facebook use patterns after schoolwork and after leisure activities. Results suggest that a student’s attentional state might carry over from their previous activity into a Facebook use session. Focusing on students’ self-directed learning activities, findings show that connected learning can take place in spaces that are not designed for educational purposes, like Facebook. Specifically, the networking environment provides a foundation to support personal interests, which allow for interest-driven academic activities on Facebook, bridging the formal and informal learning divide. We need to caution, however, that learning can also be hindered by 1) students’ lack of critical information skills, 2) information filtering, personalization, and the overall quality of information on Facebook, and 3) the challenges surrounding self-presentation due to context collapse on Facebook. Considering both the opportunities and pitfalls, I provide directions for students and educators on how to effectively incorporate Facebook into meaningful college learning experience. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Wang, Hao-Ting; Poerio, Giulia; Murphy, Charlotte; Bzdok, Danilo; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Smallwood, Jonathan (2018): Dimensions of experience: Exploring the heterogeneity of the wandering mind.
In: Psychol Sci 29 (1), S. 56–71. DOI: 10.1177/0956797617728727.
The tendency for the mind to wander to concerns other than the task at hand is a fundamental feature of human cognition, yet the consequences of variations in its experiential content for psychological functioning are not well understood. Here, we adopted multivariate pattern analysis to simultaneously decompose experience-sampling data and neural functional-connectivity data, which revealed dimensions that simultaneously describe individual variation in self-reported experience and default-mode-network connectivity. We identified dimensions corresponding to traits of positive-habitual thoughts and spontaneous task-unrelated thoughts. These dimensions were uniquely related to aspects of cognition, such as executive control and the ability to generate information in a creative fashion, and independently distinguished well-being measures. These data provide the most convincing evidence to date for an ontological view of the mind-wandering state as encompassing a broad range of different experiences and show that this heterogeneity underlies mind wandering’s complex relationship to psychological functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Warner, Lisa M.; Stadler, Gertraud; Luscher, Janina; Knoll, Nina; Ochsner, Sibylle; Hornung, Rainer; Scholz, Urte (2018): Day-to-day mastery and self-efficacy changes during a smoking quit attempt: Two studies.
In: British journal of health psychology 23 (2), S. 371–386. DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12293.
OBJECTIVE: In social-cognitive theory, it is hypothesized that mastery experiences (successfully implementing behaviour change) are a source of self-efficacy, and self-efficacy increases the opportunity for experiencing mastery. Vicarious experiences (seeing others succeed) are suggested as another source of self-efficacy. However, the hypothesis of this reciprocal relationship has not been tested using a day-to-day design. DESIGN: This article reports findings from two intensive longitudinal studies, testing the reciprocal relationship of self-efficacy and its two main sources within the naturally occurring process of quitting smoking (without intervention). Smokers (Study 1: N = 100 smokers in smoker-non-smoker couples (1,787 observations); Study 2; N = 81 female (1,401 observations) and N = 79 male smokers (1,328 observations) in dual-smoker couples) reported their mastery experiences (not smoking the entire day; in Study 2, mastery experience of partner served as vicarious experience) and smoking-specific self-efficacy for 21 days after a self-set quit date. METHODS: Time-lagged multilevel analyses were conducted using change-predicting-change models. RESULTS: Increases in mastery experiences predicted changes in self-efficacy, and increases in self-efficacy predicted changes in mastery experiences in Study 1. Study 2 replicated these results and showed contagion effects (partners’ mastery on individuals’ mastery and partners’ self-efficacy on individuals’ self-efficacy), but found no evidence for a link between vicarious experiences (partners’ mastery experiences) and individuals’ self-efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: This article demonstrates that mastery experiences and self-efficacy show a reciprocal relationship within smokers during a quit attempt in a day-to-day design, as well as contagion effects in couples when both partners try to quit simultaneously. Statement of Contribution What is already known on this subject? Self-efficacy is one of the strongest correlates of quitting smoking. Despite the assumptions on how self-efficacy is built formulated by Bandura two decades ago, there is only little empirical evidence on the origins of self-efficacy. The open research questions for these two studies were whether mastery experiences (experiencing success with the new behavior) and vicarious experiences (seeing others succeed) facilitate the smoking cessation process, whether mastery experiences and self-efficacy affect one another reciprocally and whether intimate partners serve as role models for each other. What does this study add? Mastery experiences and self-efficacy are mutually depended on a day-to-day basis within the smoking cessation process. Effects of mastery experiences fade rapidly, indicating that constant successes are needed to keep up self-efficacy. Dual-smoker couples show similar changes in a contagious way – if mastery experiences increase in one person, mastery experiences increase in the partner; if self-efficacy increases in one person, self-efficacy increases in the partner, too. No support for vicarious experiences (mastery experiences in one person affecting self-efficacy in the partner and vice versa) as sources of self-efficacy in the quitting process was found.
Weger, Ulrich; Wagemann, Johannes; Meyer, Andreas (2018): Researching mind wandering from a first‐person perspective.
In: Appl Cogn Psychol. DOI: 10.1002/acp.3406.
Summary Mind wandering is an inherently inner (or first‐person) phenomenon that leaves few direct traces for third‐person enquiry. Nonetheless, psychologists often study mind wandering using third‐person (e.g., behavioral or neuronal) research methods. And although research–participants may well be asked to introspect on their mind wandering experiences (e.g., via experience‐sampling or think‐aloud techniques), such introspective self‐observations typically lack methodological rigor and are hence of only preliminary value. Here, we argue that it is a missed opportunity to not train researchers to introspect on their own mind‐wandering experiences to better understand the associated mental processes. We propose a novel approach to cultivating an educated form of introspection in the study of attentional focusing and mind wandering. Our research adds to the current theoretical understanding by explicating conditions that facilitate mind wandering (e.g., the shifting and broadening of concepts) and help find the way back to the primary task (e.g., commitment; deliberate shifts between focusing and defocusing). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Welz, Annett; Reinhard, Iris; Alpers, Georg W.; Kuehner, Christine (2018): Happy thoughts: Mind wandering affects mood in daily life.
In: Mindfulness (N Y) 9 (1), S. 332–343. DOI: 10.1007/s12671-017-0778-y.
Mind wandering is often thought to have adverse consequences such as to deteriorate mood. However, more recent findings suggest that the effect of mind wandering on mood may depend on the specific thought contents that occur during mind-wandering episodes and may be influenced by trait-like interindividual differences. The current study examined prospective effects of mind wandering (MW) on mood in daily life as well as possible moderating effects of dispositional mindfulness and rumination. Forty-three university students aged 19 to 32 (61% women) filled out questionnaires on trait mindfulness and rumination. Subsequently, they underwent 5 days of electronic ambulatory assessment of MW and positive and negative affect in daily life ten times a day. Prospective models revealed positive effects of MW on mood, and negative affect was lowest when thoughts during MW were most pleasant. Although dispositional rumination and mindfulness significantly affected mood in daily life, no moderating effects of these traits were identified on the association between MW and mood. These results suggest that mind wandering is not a negative phenomenon per se but instead has adaptive consequences that can lead to mood improvements. Our findings highlight the importance of accounting for the thought content of mind-wandering episodes when investigating the functional outcomes of a wandering mind. Given that mind wandering frequently takes place in everyday life, interventions that encourage individuals to shift the content of their mind-wandering experiences towards pleasant topics may have an important impact particularly for clinical populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Wonderlich, Joseph A.; Breithaupt, Lauren; Thompson, James C.; Crosby, Ross D.; Engel, Scott G.; Fischer, Sarah (2018): The impact of neural responses to food cues following stress on trajectories of negative and positive affect and binge eating in daily life.
In: Journal of psychiatric research 102, S. 14–22. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2018.03.005.
Stress and affect have been implicated in the maintenance of binge eating for women with symptoms of bulimia nervosa (BN). Neuroimaging and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) have separately examined how these variables may contribute to eating disorder behavior. Though both methodologies have their own strengths, it’s unclear how either methodology might inform the other. This study examined the impact of individual differences in neural reactivity to food cues following acute stress on the trajectories of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) surrounding binge eating. Women (n=16) with BN symptoms viewed palatable food cues before and after a stress induction in the scanner. For two weeks, participants responded to prompts assessing affect and binge episodes several times a day. EMA data revealed NA increased and PA decreased before binge episodes in the natural environment. Additionally, NA decreased while PA increased following binge episodes. Changes in activation in the ACC, amygdala, and the vmPFC significantly moderated the relationship of affect to binge eating. However, lateral differences of each brain region uniquely moderator the trajectory of PA, NA, or both to binge eating. Specifically, those with less change in BOLD response reported significantly increasing NA and decreasing PA prior to binges, while women with greater decreases reported no change in affect. Following binge eating, individuals with decreased change in BOLD response reported decreasing NA and increasing PA. This may suggest individual differences in neural response to food cues under stress appear to underlie affect driven theory on the antecedents to binge eating.
Wong, Jennifer Lauren (2018): Purpose and satisfaction of activities in rural communities using ecological momentary assessment.
In: Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 78 (7-B(E)).
Individuals’ wellbeing have been investigated through one of two primary perspectives, hedonic or eudaimonic. The hedonic perspective has focused on studying happiness and considers individuals’ maximization of their pleasurable moments as the pathway to happiness (Henderson & Knight, 2012). The eudaimonic perspective suggests that people should live a life of virtue and that actualizing their potential is the pathway to wellbeing (Henderson & Knight, 2012). Both perspectives have used retrospective recall to investigate individuals’ wellbeing. This method has given researchers a better understanding of individuals’ overall wellbeing, but is unable to describe their wellbeing as it varies throughout the day. The exploration of wellbeing throughout the day is especially useful for describing individuals with disabilities whose wellbeing is contingent on their participation in daily activities and those who live in rural communities with less variety of activities. The current study sampled 25 individuals with disabilities from two rural communities. Participants attended a 90-minute training, agreed to carry a touchscreen device for 14 consecutive days that prompted them with 8 to 10 mini surveys, and completed paper and pencil surveys on global measures of wellbeing two weeks apart. The study aimed to investigate how individuals’ purpose of daily activities, happiness, satisfaction of daily activities, and person-environment fit were associated contemporaneously within the same prompt and across prompts within the same study day. A series of regressions supported the hypotheses that contemporaneous measures of wellbeing were associated with one another, and that satisfaction of daily activities was positively associated with person-environment fit contemporaneously. Noteworthy time series analyses indicated that individuals’ happiness earlier in the day was positively associated with both purpose of daily activities and satisfaction of daily activities later in the day. Also, individuals’ satisfaction regarding daily activities earlier in the day was positively associated with their person-environment fit three periods later. Implications include evidence for the use of new temporal measurements of wellbeing and support for future individualized intervention opportunities aimed at increasing happiness earlier in the day for lasting relationships on purpose and satisfaction daily activities later in the day. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Wood, Robert E.; Beckmann, Nadin; Birney, Damian P.; Beckmann, Jens F.; Minbashian, Amirali; Chau, Rebecca (2018): Situation contingent units of personality at work.
In: Pers Individ Dif. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2018.01.026.
Conscientiousness and neuroticism were studied as situation contingencies in a sample of 124 managers. Experience Sampling measures of situational characteristics, state conscientiousness and state neuroticism were collected before, during and after the performance of a range of tasks completed in an executive training program of five 3-day sessions, conducted over two years. Six months following training, supervisor ratings of participants’ job performance were also collected. For all variables the majority of variability was observed at the within-person level, justifying further analysis of within-person effects. Situation contingencies were operationalized as regression slopes calculated for each individual within an MLM analysis framework. The six situation contingencies considered in the current study varied between individuals. Three of the six situation contingencies were predictive of supervisor ratings of job performance providing first evidence of the predictive validity for situation contingencies. Combined with previous findings, the current study suggests that further research on situation contingencies and their effects is justified. Suggestions for the choice of situational properties and personality states, and practical applications of situation contingencies are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Zachry, Corinne E.; Le Phan, Vy; Blackie, Laura E. R.; Jayawickreme, Eranda (2018): Situation-Based Contingencies Underlying Wisdom-Content Manifestations: Examining Intellectual Humility in Daily Life.
In: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences. DOI: 10.1093/geronb/gby016.
Objectives: Existing assessments of intellectual humility (IH)-a key component of wisdom-do not examine its manifestation in daily life while sufficiently focusing on the core idea of the construct: owning up to one’s intellectual shortcomings. The present research sought to examine situational contingencies underlying daily manifestations of IH-relevant characteristics. Methods: We developed a trait version of the State-Trait IH Scale in two studies and subsequently examined daily manifestations of IH-relevant characteristics utilizing a contextualized state version of the State-Trait IH Scale in a 21-day experience Sampling study. Here we tested how specific situational contingencies (associated with the context and the personality of the individual with whom participants engaged) influenced the manifestation of IH-relevant qualities. Results: We found strong evidence for the validity of both versions of the scale. Specifically, the state measure exhibited high within-person variability, and aggregated state assessments were strongly correlated with the trait measure. Additionally, morality positively predicted manifestation of IH, while disagreeableness negatively predicted manifestation of IH. Discussion: These results offer new directions for research on the expression of wisdom-related characteristics in daily life.