Alabduljader, Kholoud; Cliffe, Marion; Sartor, Francesco; Papini, Gabriele; Cox, W. Miles; Kubis, Hans-Peter (2018): Ecological momentary assessment of food perceptions and eating behavior using a novel phone application in adults with or without obesity.
In: Eating behaviors 30, S. 35–41. DOI: 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2018.05.007.
We developed a smart phone application to measure participants’ food-reward perceptions and eating behavior in their naturalistic environment. Intensity ratings (0 – not at all to 10 – very strongly) of perceived anticipation of food (wanting) and food enjoyment at endpoint of intake (liking) were recorded as they occurred over a period of 14days. Moreover, food craving trait, implicit and explicit attitude towards healthy food, and body composition were assessed. 53 participants provided complete data. Participants were classified by percentage of body fat; 33 participants with lower body fat (L-group) and 20 with higher body fat (H-group; >/=25% body fat for males and >/=32% for females). L-group participants reported 6.34 (2.00) food wanting events per day, whereas H-group participants recorded significantly fewer food wanting events (5.07 (1.42)); both groups resisted about the same percentage of wanting events (L-group: 29.2 (15.5)%; H-group 27.3 (12.8)%). Perceived intensity ratings were significantly different within the L-group in the order liking (7.65 (0.81))>un-resisted wanting (leading to eating) (7.00 (1.01))>resisted wanting (not leading to eating) (6.02 (1.72)) but not in the H-group. Liking scores (L-group: 7.65 (0.81); H-group: 7.14 (1.04)) were significantly higher in L-group than in H-group after controlling for age. Our results show that individuals with higher percentage of body fat show less food enjoyment after intake and reveal no differentiation in intensity ratings of perceived anticipatory and consummatory food reward. These results are consistent with a hypothesized reward deficiency among individuals with higher percentage of body fat.
Ashurst, Jessica; van Woerden, Irene; Dunton, Genevieve; Todd, Michael; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Swan, Pamela; Bruening, Meg (2018): The Association among Emotions and Food Choices in First-Year College Students Using mobile-Ecological Momentary Assessments.
In: BMC public health 18 (1), S. 573. DOI: 10.1186/s12889-018-5447-0.
BACKGROUND: Studies have examined the associations between emotions and overeating but have only rarely considered associations between emotions and specific food choices. The purpose of this secondary data analysis was to use mobile ecological momentary assessments (mEMAs) to examine associations between emotions and food choices among first-year college students living in residence halls. METHODS: Using an intensive repeated-measures design, mEMAs were used to assess concurrent emotions and food choices in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of first-year college students (n = 663). Emotions were categorized as negative (sad, stressed, tired), positive (happy, energized, relaxed), and apathetic (bored, meh). Assessments were completed multiple times per day on four quasi-randomly selected days (three random weekdays and one random weekend day) during a 7-day period using random prompt times. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to examine between- and within-person associations of emotional status with a variety of healthy and unhealthy food choices (sweets, salty snacks/fried foods, fruits/vegetables, pizza/fast food, sandwiches/wraps, meats/proteins, pasta/rice, cereals), adjusting for gender, day of week, and time of day, accounting for within-person dependencies among repeated measurements of eating behavior. RESULTS: At the between-person level, participants who reported positive emotions more frequently compared to others consumed meats/proteins more often (OR = 1.8; 99% CI = 1.2, 2.8). At the within-person level, on occasions when any negative emotion was reported (versus no negative emotion reported) participants were more likely to consume meats/proteins (OR = 1.5, 99% CI = 1.0, 2.1); on occasions when any positive emotion was reported as compared to occasions with no positive emotions, participants were more likely to consume sweets (OR = 1.7, 99% CI = 1.1, 2.6), but less likely to consume pizza/fast food (OR = 0.6, 99% CI = 0.4, 1.0). CONCLUSIONS: Negative and positive emotions were significantly associated with food choices. mEMA methodology provides a unique opportunity to examine these associations within and between people, providing insights for individual and population-level interventions. These findings can be used to guide future longitudinal studies and to develop and test interventions that encourage healthy food choices among first-year college students and ultimately reduce the risk of weight gain.
Atchley, Rachel; Klee, Daniel; Oken, Barry (2017): Set shifting reaction-time improves following meditation or simple breathcounting in meditators and meditation-naive participants: Data from naturalistic, ecological momentary-assessment devices.
In: Mindfulness & compassion 2 (2), S. 82–85. DOI: 10.1016/j.mincom.2017.06.001.
A comparison is made between the performance of meditators and controls in a letter-number task-switching test. Data were recorded over a five-day period using a previously developed ecological momentary assessment paradigm. Participants consisted of naive, novice, and experienced meditators, who completed a task-switching reaction time (RT) task before and after 20-min breath-counting sessions. There was a decrease in reaction time over testing days, p < .007, as well as a separate decrease in reaction time pre- to post-meditation, p < .001. RTs decreased each day, as expected, and post-meditation/breath-counting RTs were consistently faster than pre-meditation/breath-counting RTs. These results suggest a meditation effect separate from a learning effect.
Baer, Michael D.; Matta, Fadel K.; Kim, Ji Koung; Welsh, David T.; Garud, Niharika (2018): It’s not you, it’s them: Social influences on trust propensity and trust dynamics.
In: Pers Psychol. DOI: 10.1111/peps.12265.
Scholars agree that trust primarily has two bases: trustworthiness—the extent to which a trustee is competent, honest, and has goodwill toward the trustor—and trust propensity—a stable trait reflecting the trustor’s generalized belief that others can be trusted. Due to this trait characterization, the literature has largely reached a consensus that trust propensity is only an important base of trust in the earliest stage of a relationship—before information on trustworthiness has been gathered. Additionally, the trait conceptualization of trust propensity inhibits it from being modeled as an explanatory mechanism. Drawing on accessibility theory, a theory of trait activation, we argue that trust propensity has state‐like characteristics that are ‘activated’ by the daily treatment an employee receives from coworkers. Our model highlights that the social context—predominantly ignored in prior trust research because of its lack of relevance to dyadic perceptions of trustworthiness—can have a substantial impact on dyadic trust. Across two multisource experience sampling methodology studies, we provide evidence that state trust propensity transmits the effects of citizenship and deviance received to trust in a focal coworker, whether that focal coworker is a source of that treatment or not. We also address how general levels of workplace unfairness—a between‐person construct—influence these dynamics. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these within‐person dynamics for fostering trust within organizations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Baumeister, Roy F.; Wright, Bradley R. E.; Carreon, David (2018):Self-control ‘in the wild’: Experience sampling study of trait and state self-regulation.
In: Self Identity. DOI: 10.1080/15298868.2018.1478324.
An experience sampling study with a large community sample (N = 3327) furnished data on trait and state self-control in everyday life. State measures were self-reports of ego-depleting events (restraining self, effortful decisions, and pushing self to do unwanted tasks) and feelings of depletion (emotional overreactions, difficulty making up mind, less mental energy). People with high trait self-control reported fewer such feelings and events than others. Poor sleep quality and interpersonal conflict were strong predictors of depleted feelings, and indeed the combination of very poor sleep and high interpersonal conflict led to a dramatic spike in reports of extremely depleted feelings. Depleted feelings were positively correlated with being young, female, politically non-extreme, and less well educated, and with finding life less meaningful, as well as with multitasking and hurrying. They increased across the day despite drops after meal times, thus attesting to the value of food and sleep. Pain and illness also raised them. Among other implications, the data suggest a composite picture of the daily life of someone with low trait self-control: frequently rushing and hurrying, not thinking about what they are doing, and just responding automatically to the current situation, as well as suffering aftereffects of interpersonal conflict and poor quality sleep. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Bejarano, Carolina M.; Cushing, Christopher C.; Crick, Christopher J. (2018):Does context predict psychological states and activity? An ecological momentary assessment pilot study of adolescents.
In: Psychol Sport Exerc. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.05.008.
OBJECTIVES: This study examined contextual variables of location, vegetation, weather, safety, and traffic as predictors of affect, feeling states, and activity in order to gain preliminary understanding of relationships relevant to adolescent health. DESIGN: This is an ecological momentary assessment pilot study of adolescents. METHOD: Twenty-six adolescents ages 13–18 completed four daily surveys on a smartphone and wore an accelerometer over 20 days. Surveys collected data about context, affect, and feeling states while the accelerometer provided objective activity measurements. RESULTS: Significant relationships emerged between weather and MVPA, sedentary behavior, positive affect, negative affect, energy, and fatigue. Findings were also significant for the contextual predictor of location with sedentary behavior, positive affect, negative affection, energy, and fatigue. Within-person (WP) vegetation was associated with positive affect and energy and WP traffic was associated with positive affect, negative affect, and energy. WP safety and between-person safety were both significantly related to negative affect. CONCLUSIONS: Ecological momentary assessment of contextual variables may be important in understanding these variables’ associations with psychological and activity variables, and should continue to be measured in this way to inform comprehensive health behavior models. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Bell, Imogen H.; Fielding-Smith, Sarah F.; Hayward, Mark; Rossell, Susan L.; Lim, Michelle H.; Farhall, John; Thomas, Neil (2018):Smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment and intervention in a coping-focused intervention for hearing voices (SAVVy): study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial.
In: Trials 19 (1), S. 262. DOI: 10.1186/s13063-018-2607-6.
BACKGROUND: Smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment and intervention (EMA/I) show promise for enhancing psychological treatments for psychosis. EMA has the potential to improve assessment and formulation of experiences which fluctuate day-to-day, and EMI may be used to prompt use of therapeutic strategies in daily life. The current study is an examination of these capabilities in the context of a brief, coping-focused intervention for distressing voice hearing experiences. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a rater-blinded, pilot randomised controlled trial comparing a four-session intervention in conjunction with use of smartphone EMA/I between sessions, versus treatment-as-usual. The recruitment target is 34 participants with persisting and distressing voice hearing experiences, recruited through a Voices Clinic based in Melbourne, Australia, and via wider advertising. Allocation will be made using minimisation procedure, balancing of the frequency of voices between groups. Assessments are completed at baseline and 8 weeks post-baseline. The primary outcomes of this trial will focus on feasibility and acceptability of the intervention and trial methodology, with secondary outcomes examining preliminary clinical effects related to overall voice severity, the emotional and functional impact of the voices, and emotional distress. DISCUSSION: This study offers a highly novel examination of specific smartphone capabilities and their integration with traditional psychological treatment for distressing voices. Such technology has potential to enhance psychological interventions and promote adaptation to distressing experiences. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry, ACTRN12617000348358 . Registered on 7 March 2017.
Berge, Jerica M.; Tate, Allan; Trofholz, Amanda; Loth, Katie; Miner, Michael; Crow, Scott; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne (2018):Examining variability in parent feeding practices within a low-income, racially/ethnically diverse, and immigrant population using ecological momentary assessment.
In: Appetite 127, S. 110–118. DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.04.006.
BACKGROUND: Current measures of parent feeding practices are typically survey-based and assessed as static/unchanging characteristics, failing to account for fluctuations in these behaviors across time and context. The current study uses ecological momentary assessment to examine variability of, and predictors of, parent feeding practices within a low-income, racially/ethnically diverse, and immigrant sample. METHODS: Children ages 5-7 years old and their parents (n=150 dyads) from six racial/ethnic groups (n=25 from each; Black/African American, Hispanic, Hmong, Native American, Somali, White) were recruited for this mixed-methods study through primary care clinics. RESULTS: Among parents who used restriction (49%) and pressure-to-eat (69%) feeding practices, these feeding practices were utilized about every other day. Contextual factors at the meal associated with parent feeding practices included: number of people at the meal, who prepared the meal, types of food served at meals (e.g., pre-prepared, homemade, fast food), meal setting (e.g., kitchen table, front room), and meal emotional atmosphere (p<0.05). Parents tended to restrict desserts, dairy, and vegetables and pressure children to eat fruits, vegetables, meat proteins, and refined grains (p<0.05). There were some differences by race/ethnicity across findings (p<0.01), with Hmong parents engaging in the highest levels of pressure-to-eat feeding practices. CONCLUSIONS: Parent feeding practices varied across the week, indicating feeding practices are more likely to be context-specific, or state-like than trait-like. There were some meal characteristics more strongly associated with engaging in restriction and pressure-to-eat feeding practices. Given that parent feeding practices appear to be state-like, future interventions and health care providers who work with parents and children may want to address contextual factors associated with parent feeding practices to decrease restriction and pressure-to-eat parent feeding practices.
Berrouiguet, Sofian; Barrigon, Maria Luisa (2018):Comment on predictors of daily life suicidal ideation in adults recently discharged after a serious suicide attempt: A pilot study.
In: Psychiatry research 262, S. 640–641. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.11.078.
Comments on an article by M. Husky et al. (see record [rid]2014-35551-001[/rid]). In the research article by Husky et al., 42 adults patients discharged after a suicide attempt used Ecological Momentary Assessment for seven consecutive days, providing repeated measures of SI, environmental, contextual, and behavioral factors. Participants were trained in how to use the mobile device for the EMA assessments. After completion of the training, each participant was given an EMA device to carry with them for the seven next days. The greatest interest of EMA in suicide prevention data is its capacity to examine the proximal predictors of critical events within the flow of daily life. The study identified proximal environmental and behavioral factors associated with the occurrence of suicidal ideation in a high-risk sample. In Husky et al. study each device was programmed to administer five electronic interviews per day with the timing of the interviews occurring within a sampling window ranging from 8:00 a.m. and 10:00 p.m. Event based sampling asks participants to complete a set of questions when they engage in a predefined behavior or experience. With Husky et al., the authors believe that EMA may contribute to the introduction of predictive approaches and intervention in suicide prevention, and beyond, opens to a paradigm shift towards personalized practice in participative mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Beute, Femke; de Kort, Yvonne A W (2018):Stopping the Train of Thought: A Pilot Study Using an Ecological Momentary Intervention with Twice-Daily Exposure to Natural versus Urban Scenes to Lower Stress and Rumination.
In: Applied psychology. Health and well-being. DOI: 10.1111/aphw.12128.
BACKGROUND: Stress, and specifically perseverative cognition, is considered to have considerable detrimental effects on mental and physical health. Interventions that can offer temporary stress relief could, therefore, bring considerable health benefits. Previous research has pointed to stress-reducing effects of exposure to nature after acute stressors, but has not yet investigated effects in the realm of everyday life. The present pilot study explores whether an ecological momentary intervention using exposure to natural images could be effective in lowering stress and improve mood. METHODS: Fifteen participants (12 females) scoring above threshold on stress, depression, or anxiety completed two study periods of 6 days. They watched an urban (control) or natural slideshow twice daily. Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, effects on mood, and stress-related complaints were measured in everyday life. RESULTS: Compliance to the study protocol was high, especially in the first week, with slightly more videos watched in the morning than in the evening. We found indications of improvements in mood, self-reported worrying (but not stress levels), and heart rate. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that twice-daily exposure to restorative visual content could be a viable Ecological Momentary Intervention, with the potential to reduce self-reported worry, lower autonomic activity, and increase positive affect.
Bevelander, Kirsten E.; Smit, Crystal R.; van Woudenberg, Thabo J.; Buijs, Laura; Burk, William J.; Buijzen, Moniek (2018):Youth’s social network structures and peer influences: study protocol MyMovez project – Phase I.
In: BMC public health 18 (1), S. 504. DOI: 10.1186/s12889-018-5353-5.
BACKGROUND: Youth are an important target group for social network interventions, because they are particularly susceptible to the adaptation of healthy and unhealthy habits and behaviors of others. They are surrounded by ‘social influence agents’ (i.e., role models such as family, friends and peers) that co-determine their dietary intake and physical activity. However, there is a lack of systematic and comprehensive research on the implementation of a social network approach in health campaigns. The MyMovez research project aims to fill this gap by developing a method for effective social network campaign implementation. This protocol paper describes the design and methods of Phase I of the MyMovez project, aiming to unravel youth’s social network structures in combination with individual, psychosocial, and environmental factors related to energy intake and expenditure. In addition, the Wearable Lab is developed to enable an attractive and state-of-the-art way of collecting data and online campaign implementation via social networks. METHODS: Phase I of the MyMovez project consists of a large-scale cross-sequential cohort study (N = 953; 8-12 and 12-15 y/o). In five waves during a 3-year period (2016-2018), data are collected about youth’s social network exposure, media consumption, socialization experiences, psychological determinants of behavior, physical environment, dietary intake (snacking and drinking behavior) and physical activity using the Wearable Lab. The Wearable Lab exists of a smartphone-based research application (app) connected to an activity tracking bracelet, that is developed throughout the duration of the project. It generates peer- and self-reported (e.g., sociometric data and surveys) and experience sampling data, social network beacon data, real-time physical activity data (i.e., steps and cycling), location information, photos and chat conversation data from the app’s social media platform Social Buzz. DISCUSSION: The MyMovez project – Phase I is an innovative cross-sequential research project that investigates how social influences co-determine youth’s energy intake and expenditure. This project utilizes advanced research technologies (Wearable Lab) that provide unique opportunities to better understand the underlying processes that impact youths’ health-related behaviors. The project is theoretically and methodologically pioneering and produces a unique and useful method for successfully implementing and improving health campaigns.
Black, Anne C.; Cooney, Ned L.; Sartor, Carolyn E.; Arias, Albert J.; Rosen, Marc I. (2018):Impulsivity interacts with momentary PTSD symptom worsening to predict alcohol use in male veterans.
In: The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse, S. 1–8. DOI: 10.1080/00952990.2018.1454935.
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is prevalent among veterans who served post-9/11, and co-occurs with problem alcohol and substance use. Studies using ecological momentary assessment have examined the temporal association between time-varying PTSD symptoms and alcohol use. Results suggest individual differences in these associations. OBJECTIVES: We tested hypotheses that alcohol use measured by momentary assessment would be explained by acute increases in PTSD symptoms, and the PTSD-alcohol association would be moderated by trait impulsivity. METHODS: A sample of 28 male post-9/11-era veterans who reported past-month PTSD symptoms and risky alcohol use were enrolled. On a quasi-random schedule, participants completed three electronic assessments daily for 28 days measuring past 2-h PTSD symptoms, alcohol, and substance use. At baseline, trait impulsivity was measured by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. Past-month PTSD symptoms and alcohol use were measured. Using three-level hierarchical models, number of drinks recorded by momentary assessment was modeled as a function of change in PTSD symptoms since last assessment, controlling for lag-1 alcohol and substance use and other covariates. A cross-level interaction tested moderation of the within-time PTSD-alcohol association by impulsivity. RESULTS: A total of 1,522 assessments were completed. A positive within-time association between PTSD symptom change and number of drinks was demonstrated. The association was significantly moderated by impulsivity. CONCLUSION: Results provide preliminary support for a unique temporal relationship between acute PTSD symptom change and alcohol use among veterans with trait impulsiveness. If replicated in a clinical sample, results may have implications for a targeted momentary intervention.
Bosman, Renske C.; Albers, Casper J.; Jong, Jettie de; Batalas, Nikolaos; Aan Het Rot, Marije (2018):No Menstrual Cyclicity in Mood and Interpersonal Behaviour in Nine Women with Self-Reported Premenstrual Syndrome.
In: Psychopathology, S. 1–5. DOI: 10.1159/000489268.
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Before diagnosing premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), 2 months of prospective assessment are required to confirm menstrual cyclicity in symptoms. For a diagnosis of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), this is not required. Women with PMDD and PMS often report that their symptoms interfere with mood and social functioning, and are said to show cyclical changes in interpersonal behaviour, but this has not been examined using a prospective approach. We sampled cyclicity in mood and interpersonal behaviour for 2 months in women with self- reported PMS. METHODS: Participants met the criteria for PMS on the Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool (PSST), a retrospective questionnaire. For 2 menstrual cycles, after each social interaction, they used the online software TEMPEST to record on their smartphones how they felt and behaved. We examined within-person variability in negative affect, positive affect, quarrelsomeness, and agreeableness. RESULTS: Participants evaluated TEMPEST as positive. However, we found no evidence for menstrual cyclicity in mood and interpersonal behaviour in any of the individual women (n = 9). CONCLUSION: Retrospective questionnaires such as the PSST may lead to oversampling of PMS. The diagnosis of PMS, like that of PMDD, might require 2 months of prospective assessment.
Burns, John W.; Gerhart, James; Post, Kristina M.; Smith, David A.; Porter, Laura S.; Buvanendran, Asokumar et al. (2018):Spouse Criticism/Hostility Toward Partners with Chronic Pain: The Role of Spouse Attributions for Patient Control over Pain Behaviors.
In: The journal of pain : official journal of the American Pain Society. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpain.2018.05.007.
Spouse attributions regarding displays of pain behaviors by their partners with chronic pain may account for subsequent increases in spouse critical/hostile responses toward their partners. People with chronic low back pain (n=105) and their pain-free spouses (n=105) completed electronic diary measures five times per day for 14 consecutive days. Key items assessed spouse observations of patient pain behavior, attributions regarding these behaviors, and spouse critical/hostile responses toward patients. Results were: a) spouse observations of patient pain behavior at Time 1 predicted high levels of spouse critical/hostile responses toward the patient at Time 2; b) “internal” attributions (e.g., the patient was attempting to influence spouse’s feelings) at Time 1 predicted high levels of spouse critical/hostile responses toward the patient at Time 2; c) internal attributions mediated links between spouse observed pain behaviors at Time 1 and levels of spouse critical/hostile responses at Time 2. Spouse observations of patient pain behavior was also related to an “external” attribution (i.e., patient pain behavior was due to pain condition), but this attribution was not a significant mediator. A vital factor linking spouse scrutiny to spouse critical/hostile responses may be the spouse’s ascribed reasons for the patient’s grimacing, bracing, complaining, and so forth. PERSPECTIVE: Results indicate that spouse internal and negative attributions for pain behaviors of their partners with chronic pain may influence subsequent spouse critical/hostile reactions to them. Findings suggest that replacing spouse internal and negative attributions with external, compassionate and accepting explanations may be useful therapeutic targets for couples coping with chronic pain.
Cameron, Linda D.; Overall, Nickola C. (2018):Suppression and expression as distinct emotion-regulation processes in daily interactions: Longitudinal and meta-analyses.
In: Emotion (Washington, D.C.) 18 (4), S. 465–480. DOI: 10.1037/emo0000334.
Emotional suppression and expression both occur frequently in daily social interactions, yet research examining these emotion regulation processes simultaneously in naturalistic contexts remains limited. Although theory and research tend to reflect an implicit assumption that suppression and expression represent opposite sides of the same construct, they are likely to occur independently and exert different influences on intrapersonal and interpersonal experiences. In 4 experience-sampling and longitudinal studies, we assessed the personal and interpersonal consequences of daily emotional suppression and expression within romantic and close relationships. Mixed-model analyses revealed that suppression and expression consistently predicted independent and distinct outcomes across the studies. When individuals suppressed their emotions, they experienced more intrapersonal costs such as greater depressed mood, greater fatigue, lower self-esteem, and lower life satisfaction. Interpersonally, they also felt less acceptance from others, more distancing by others, and less relationship satisfaction. Greater suppression in daily life also predicted increases in depressive symptoms and reductions in relationship satisfaction 3 months later. In contrast, when individuals were more emotionally expressive during daily interactions, they experienced interpersonal benefits such as greater acceptance from others, greater relatedness and relationship satisfaction, and less distancing by others. Greater emotional expression in daily life also predicted increases in self-esteem and relationship satisfaction across time. Meta-analyses of the 4 studies confirmed the reliability and significance of these relationships; |r’s| = .12–.33. These studies demonstrate that suppression and expression are distinct processes used to manage emotions within social relationships and operate differently in shaping personal well-being and relationship functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Chan, Christian S.; van Tilburg, Wijnand A. P.; Igou, Eric R.; Poon, Cyanea Y. S.; Tam, Katy Y. Y.; Wong, Venus U. T.; Cheung, S. K. (2018):Situational meaninglessness and state boredom: Cross-sectional and experience-sampling findings.
In: Motiv Emot. DOI: 10.1007/s11031-018-9693-3.
Theories of boredom assert that boredom is a product of situational meaninglessness. We conducted two studies to test if the perceived meaningfulness of a situation is associated with state boredom, above and beyond sadness, personality traits, and boredom proneness. In Study 1, 105 participants (72.4% female: mean age = 33.9 years, SD = 17.5) described situations in which they experienced boredom, no boredom, engagement, or sadness. They then rated the level of state boredom, sadness, and meaninglessness that they experienced in that situation. As hypothesized, state boredom was associated with situational meaninglessness, before and after controlling for sadness. In Study 2, 148 participants (73.0% female; mean age = 19.2 years, SD = 1.8) first provided baseline data on personality traits and boredom proneness. Through a smartphone app-based experience-sampling method, they then responded to a brief questionnaire multiple times a day, across 7 days. The questionnaire asked about the nature of their current activity, whether the activity was done alone or with other people, and their affective state. Results from multilevel modelling of 3022 entries suggest that perceived meaningfulness of the activity was negatively associated with state boredom, above and beyond sadness, personality, and boredom proneness. We also found that being with others during the activity acted as a moderator; activities lower in perceived meaningfulness were associated with higher ratings of state boredom when done with others than when done alone. These results demonstrate that perceptions of meaninglessness characterize state boredom. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Chia, Jia Li Pauline; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Buck, Kimberly; Chamari, Karim; Richardson, Ben; Krug, Isabel (2018):An ecological momentary assessment of the effect of fasting during Ramadan on disordered eating behaviors.
In: Appetite 127, S. 44–51. DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.04.017.
Dietary restriction contributes to disordered eating (DE) behaviors and associated cognitions. However, it is unclear how these outcomes are impacted by dietary restriction for religious purposes, such as fasting observed by Muslims during Ramadan. Using ecological momentary assessment, this study assessed the impact of Ramadan fasting on DE behaviors and correlates. Muslim participants fasting during Ramadan (n=28) and a control group of non-fasting participants (n=74) completed baseline measures assessing demographic characteristics and eating pathology. A mobile phone application then prompted participants six times per day for seven days to self-report on dietary restriction efforts, body satisfaction, temptation to eat unhealthily, feelings of guilt or shame following food, and DE behaviors including bingeing, vomiting, and other purging behaviors (use of laxatives, diuretics, or diet pills). After controlling for eating pathology, multilevel modeling indicated that, as expected, the Ramadan fasting group spent significantly more time restricting food intake than the non-fasting group. The Ramadan fasting group also experienced significantly greater temptation to eat unhealthily than their non-fasting counterparts. However, this difference disappeared once models were adjusted for differences in time spent restricting food intake. There were no other significant differences between the groups on any DE variables. These findings suggest that while dietary restriction for health or appearance-related reasons is a known contributor to DE, dietary restriction for religious purposes, such as that observed during the practice of Ramadan, may not confer increased risk of DE symptoms.
Chung, Kyungmi; Jeon, Min-Jeong; Park, Jaesub; Lee, San; Kim, Chang Oh; Park, Jin Young (2018):Development and evaluation of a mobile-optimized daily self-rating depression screening app: A preliminary study.
In: PloS one 13 (6), e0199118. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0199118.
The aims of this study were to design a mobile app that would record daily self-reported Korean version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale-Revised (K-CESD-R) ratings in a “Yes” or “No” format, develop two different algorithms for converting mobile K-CESD-R scores in a binary format into scores in a 5-point response format, and determine which algorithm would be more appropriately applied to the newly developed app. Algorithm (A) was designed to improve the scoring system of the 2-week delayed retrospective recall-based original K-CESD-R scale, and algorithm (B) was designed to further refine the scoring of the 24-hour delayed prospective recall-based mobile K-CESD-R scale applied with algorithm (A). To calculate total mobile K-CESD-R scores, each algorithm applied certain cut-off criteria for a 5-point scale with different inter-point intervals, defined by the ratio of the total number of times that users responded “Yes” to each item to the number of days that users reported daily depressive symptom ratings during the 2-week study period. Twenty participants were asked to complete a K-CESD-R Mobile assessment daily for 2 weeks and an original K-CESD-R assessment delivered to their e-mail accounts at the end of the 2-week study period. There was a significant difference between original and mobile algorithm (B) scores but not between original and mobile algorithm (A) scores. Of the 20 participants, 4 scored at or above the cut-off criterion (>/=13) on either the original K-CESD-R (n = 4) or the mobile K-CESD-R converted with algorithm (A) (n = 3) or algorithm (B) (n = 1). However, all participants were assessed as being below threshold for a diagnosis of a mental disorder during a clinician-administered diagnostic interview. Therefore, the K-CESD-R Mobile app using algorithm (B) could be a more potential candidate for a depression screening tool than the K-CESD-R Mobile app using algorithm (A).
Cornelius, Talea; Birk, Jeffrey L.; Edmondson, Donald; Schwartz, Joseph E. (2018):The joint influence of emotional reactivity and social interaction quality on cardiovascular responses to daily social interactions in working adults.
In: Journal of psychosomatic research 108, S. 70–77. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2018.02.010.
OBJECTIVE: Social interaction quality is related to cardiovascular functioning. Trait emotional reactivity may amplify cardiovascular responses to social interactions, but is often examined as a tendency to react to negative events. We took a broader approach by examining the joint effects of positive and negative emotional reactivity and social interaction quality on ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and heart rate (HR) responses to daily social interactions. METHODS: Participants were part of a larger study on BP and cardiovascular health (N=805; MAge=45.3; 40.1% male). Participants completed a measure of emotional reactivity (BIS/BAS) and 24-hour ABP monitoring accompanied by ecological momentary assessments (EMA) about just-experienced social interactions and their pleasantness. Multilevel models tested the associations of emotional reactivity, average pleasantness, and momentary pleasantness with BP and HR. RESULTS: Participants who reported more pleasant interactions on average had lower BP (systolic BP: B=-0.51mmHg; diastolic BP: B=-0.46mmHg). These effects did not depend on emotional reactivity. The effect of momentary pleasantness depended on BIS/BAS; in less reactive participants, greater pleasantness was associated with lower HR, B=-0.13 bpm; in more reactive participants, greater pleasantness was associated with increased HR, B=0.16). CONCLUSIONS: Participants who had more pleasant social interactions throughout the day had lower mean ABP. The acute effect of a given social interaction on HR depended on emotional reactivity: HR increased for participants high in emotional reactivity during pleasant interactions. Thus, emotional reactivity may influence cardiovascular responses to social stimuli.
Crowe, Eimear; Daly, Michael; Delaney, Liam; Carroll, Susan; Malone, Kevin M. (2018):The intra-day dynamics of affect, self-esteem, tiredness, and suicidality in Major Depression.
In: Psychiatry research. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2018.02.032.
Despite growing interest in the temporal dynamics of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), we know little about the intra-day fluctuations of key symptom constructs. In a study of momentary experience, the Experience sampling Method captured the within-day dynamics of negative affect, positive affect, self-esteem, passive suicidality, and tiredness across clinical MDD (N=31) and healthy control groups (N=33). Ten symptom measures were taken per day over 6 days (N=2231 observations). Daily dynamics were modeled via intra-day time-trends, variability, and instability in symptoms. MDD participants showed significantly increased variability and instability in negative affect, positive affect, self-esteem, and suicidality. Significantly different time-trends were found in positive affect (increased diurnal variation and an inverted U-shaped pattern in MDD, compared to a positive linear trend in controls) and tiredness (decreased diurnal variation in MDD). In the MDD group only, passive suicidality displayed a negative linear trend and self-esteem displayed a quadratic inverted U trend. MDD and control participants thus showed distinct dynamic profiles in all symptoms measured. As well as the overall severity of symptoms, intra-day dynamics appear to define the experience of MDD symptoms.
Crowe, Michael L.; Edershile, Elizabeth A.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Campbell, W. Keith; Lynam, Donald R.; Miller, Joshua D. (2018):Development and validation of the Narcissistic Vulnerability Scale: An adjective rating scale.
In: Psychological assessment. DOI: 10.1037/pas0000578.
There is an ongoing debate regarding the nature of narcissism such that some argue that narcissistic individuals oscillate between grandiose and vulnerable states, whereas others argue these dimensions are stable traits (e.g., grandiose individuals remain in grandiose states). Scales sensitive to fluctuations in narcissistic states are necessary to address this question. The current study (N = 1,613 across three samples) validates the newly developed Narcissistic Vulnerability Scale (NVS), a brief (11-item) adjective-based measure of vulnerable narcissism. Expert ratings were used for item selection. The NVS’s factor structure was evaluated along with its correlations with measures of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, five-factor model traits, and self-esteem. A subset of NVS items were also evaluated using an ecological momentary assessment design. Results indicate the NVS is a unidimensional measure of vulnerable narcissism that could be used in either trait-oriented or state-oriented analyses, the latter of which may be particularly well suited to answering the most pressing questions in the study of narcissism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Public Significance Statement—A short adjective-based measure of vulnerable narcissism was developed. Its results are consistent with those of popular measures of trait vulnerable narcissism, but it is suitable for measuring more temporary vulnerable narcissism states. It is the first validated measure of vulnerable narcissism well suited for measuring short-term fluctuations in vulnerable narcissism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Daugherty, Douglas A.; Runyan, Jason D.; Steenbergh, Timothy A.; Fratzke, Betty Jane; Fry, Brian N.; Westra, Emma (2018):Smartphone delivery of a hope intervention: Another way to flourish.
In: PloS one 13 (6), e0197930. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0197930.
Positive interventions have shown promise for fostering hedonic (happiness) and eudaimonic (flourishing) well-being. However, few studies have focused on positive interventions that target hope as a means of increasing well-being, and none have examined the use of smartphone app-based systems for delivering interventions in the moments and contexts of daily life-an approach called ecological momentary intervention (EMI). We conducted a quasi-experimental pilot study using a pretest and posttest design to examine the feasibility and potential impact of a mobile app-based hope EMI. Participants appeared to engage with the intervention and found the experience to be user-friendly, helpful, and enjoyable. Relative to the control group, those receiving the intervention demonstrated significantly greater increases in hope; however, there were no between-group differences in hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. The authors recommend future research to examine the potential of EMI mobile apps to cultivate hope and promote flourishing.
Dedert, Eric A.; Dennis, Paul A.; Calhoun, Patrick S.; Dennis, Michelle F.; Beckham, Jean C. (2018):A Randomized Clinical Trial of Nicotine Preloading for Smoking Cessation in People with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.
In: Journal of dual diagnosis, S. 0. DOI: 10.1080/15504263.2018.1468947.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether augmenting standard smoking cessation treatment by wearing an active nicotine patch before the smoking quit date improves rates of smoking cessation in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and to explore mechanisms of treatment response such as decreased cigarette craving and symptom relief from smoking. METHODS: Double-blind parallel randomized controlled trial in 81 people with PTSD who smoked cigarettes. Participants were recruited from Veterans Affairs outpatient clinics and flyers in the community. Participants provided ecological momentary assessments (EMA) of PTSD symptoms, smoking withdrawal symptoms, and cravings before and after smoking a cigarette during one week of ad lib smoking, then three weeks of either a nicotine patch (n = 37) or placebo patch (n = 44) preceding the quit date. All participants received standard pharmacotherapy and behavioral treatment for smoking cessation after the quit date. To test the efficacy of nicotine patch preloading for engaging proposed treatment targets during the pre-quit phases, we used multilevel models to compare post-smoking changes in symptoms and cravings during the preloading phases to post-smoking changes reported during the ad lib smoking phase. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in quit rates across the two conditions on the primary outcome of 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence bioverified with breath carbon monoxide (CO) at six weeks post-quit date. In a multivariable multilevel model pre- to post-cigarette changes in PTSD symptom clusters, smoking withdrawal symptoms, and cravings, there was a significant interaction between treatment phase and condition. Relative to participants in the placebo condition, participants in the nicotine patch condition experienced diminished relief from PTSD re-experiencing symptoms, smoking withdrawal symptoms, and cigarette craving after smoking a cigarette. CONCLUSIONS: Relative to placebo patch preloading, nicotine patch preloading diminished the reinforcing effects of smoking cigarettes. However, the low quit rates in both conditions suggest that nicotine patch preloading is not a sufficiently intensive treatment for achieving smoking cessation in people with PTSD.
Diaz, Keith M.; Thanataveerat, Anusorn; Parsons, Faith E.; Yoon, Sunmoo; Cheung, Ying Kuen; Alcantara, Carmela et al. (2018):The Influence of Daily Stress on Sedentary Behavior: Group and Person (N of 1) Level Results of a 1-Year Observational Study.
In: Psychosomatic medicine. DOI: 10.1097/PSY.0000000000000610.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study, which used mobile technologies to continuously collect data over 1 year, was to examine the association of psychological stress with objectively measured sedentary behavior in adults at both the group (e.g. nomothetic approach) and individual (e.g. idiographic approach) level. METHODS: Data were collected in an observational study of healthy adults (n=79) residing in the New York City metro area who were studied for 365 days from 2014-2015. Sedentary behavior was objectively measured via accelerometry. A smartphone-based electronic diary was used to assess level of stress (“Overall, how stressful was your day?”; 0-10 scale) and sources of stress. RESULTS: The end-of-day stress rating was not associated with total sedentary time (B= -1.34, p=0.767) at the group-level. When specific sources of stress were evaluated at the group-level, argument-related stress was associated with increased sedentariness; while running late- and work-related stress were associated with decreased sedentariness. There was a substantial degree of inter-individual variability in the relationship of stress with sedentary behavior. Both the level and sources of stress were associated with increased sedentariness for some, decreased sedentariness for others, and had no effect for many (within-person variance p-value <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the influence of stress on sedentary behavior varies by source of stress and from person-to-person. A precision medicine approach may be warranted to target reductions in sedentary time; although further studies are needed to confirm the observed findings in light of study limitations including a small sample size and enrollment of participants from a single, urban metropolitan area.
Dockendorf, Marissa F.; Murthy, Gowri; Bateman, Kevin P.; Kothare, Prajakti A.; Anderson, Melanie; Xie, Iris et al. (2018):Leveraging Digital Health Technologies and Outpatient Sampling in Clinical Drug Development: A Phase 1 Exploratory Study.
In: Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. DOI: 10.1002/cpt.1142.
Merck & Co., Inc. (Kenilworth, New Jersey) is investing in approaches to enrich clinical trial data and augment decision-making through utilization of digital health technologies, outpatient sampling, and real-time data access. As part of this strategy, a Phase 1 study was conducted to explore a few technologies of interest. In this fixed-sequence, two-period trial, 16 healthy subjects were administered 50-mg once-daily sitagliptin packaged in a bottle that electronically captured the date and time study medication was dispensed (Period 1) and in a traditional pharmacy bottle (Period 2). Dried blood spot (DBS) samples were collected for sitagliptin concentration analysis on select study days, both in-clinic and at-home, with collection time recorded using an electronic diary in Period 1 and by clinic staff in Period 2. Study results demonstrated the feasibility and subject acceptance of collecting digital adherence data and outpatient DBS samples in clinical trials and highlighted areas for future improvements. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Doogan, Nathan J.; Cooper, Sarah; Quisenberry, Amanda J.; Brasky, Theodore M.; Browning, Christopher R.; Klein, Elizabeth G. et al. (2018):The role of travel distance and price promotions in tobacco product purchase quantity.
In: Health & place 51, S. 151–157. DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2018.03.009.
INTRODUCTION: Rural Americans are particularly vulnerable to tobacco price reducing promotions are known to be directed to and used by vulnerable populations. Tobacco purchasing decisions, such as unit quantity purchased, may vary by rurality, by price promotion use, and possibly by the interaction between the two. Purchase decisions are likely to affect tobacco use behavior. Therefore, explanation of variation in tobacco purchase quantity by factors associated with rural vulnerability and factors that fall under the regulatory scope of the Tobacco Control Act (TCA) of 2009 could be of value to regulatory proposals intended to equitably benefit public health. METHODS: Our sample included 54 combustible tobacco users (298 purchase events) and 27 smokeless tobacco users (112 purchase events), who were asked to report all tobacco purchases on a smartphone application. We used an ecological momentary assessment methodology to collect data about tobacco users’ purchasing patterns, including products, quantity purchased, and use of price promotions. A parent cohort study provided relevant data for home-outlet distance calculation and covariates. Our analysis examined associations between our outcome-purchase quantity per purchase event-and distance from participant’s home to the nearest outlet, whether a price reducing promotion was used, and the interaction of these two factors. RESULTS: Combustible users showed an increased cigarette pack purchase quantity if they lived further from an outlet and used a price promotion (i.e., an interaction effect; RR = 1.70, 95% CI [1.11, 2.62]). Smokeless users purchased more units of snuff when they used price promotions (RR = 1.81, 95% CI [1.02, 3.20]). CONCLUSIONS: Regulatory action that imposes restrictions on the availability or use of price promotions could alter the purchasing behavior of rural Americans in such a way that makes it easier to reduce tobacco use or quit. Such action would also restrict flexibility in the price of tobacco products, which is known as a powerful tobacco control lever.
Drutschinin, Katherine; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Paoli, Tara de; Lewis, Vivienne; Krug, Isabel (2018):The daily frequency, type, and effects of appearance comparisons on disordered eating.
In: Psychol Women Q 42 (2), S. 151–161. DOI: 10.1177/0361684317732001.
Using experience sampling methodology, we examined the effects of frequency and occurrence of appearance-based comparisons on disordered eating behaviors (binge eating, restrictive behaviors, and weight-related exercise). A total of 161 Australian women (aged 18–48) completed a baseline measure of eating pathology. An iPhone application prompted participants 6 times daily for 7 days to self-report on appearance comparisons and disordered eating behaviors since the last assessment. We hypothesized that contemporaneously reported occurrences of both upward and downward appearance comparisons, when compared to noncomparison situations, and frequency of upward comparisons would predict disordered eating behaviors. In prospective (lagged) analyses, only upward comparisons (relative to noncomparison situations) significantly predicted the likelihood of disordered eating outcomes. Trait eating pathology had a direct effect on each disordered eating variable and also moderated the influence of upward appearance comparisons (relative to noncomparison assessments) on binge-eating episodes. The lack of a differentiated effect between contemporaneously reported occurrences of upward and downward comparisons suggests that both forms of comparison increase the likelihood of disordered eating. Women may benefit from preventive programs that focus on the detrimental consequences of appearance comparisons on disordered eating; such programs may equip women with strategies to help reduce the frequency of these comparisons. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Dunbar, Michael S.; Shiffman, Saul; Chandra, Siddharth (2018):Exposure to workplace smoking bans and continuity of daily smoking patterns on workdays and weekends.
In: Addictive behaviors 80, S. 53–58. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.01.006.
Introduction: Individuals may compensate for workplace smoking bans by smoking more before or after work, or escaping bans to smoke, but no studies have conducted a detailed, quantitative analysis of such compensatory behaviors using real-time data. Methods: 124 daily smokers documented smoking occasions over 3 weeks using ecological momentary assessment (EMA), and provided information on real-world exposure to smoking restrictions and type of workplace smoking policy (full, partial, or no bans). Mixed modeling and generalized estimating equations assessed effects of time of day, weekday (vs weekend), and workplace policy on mean cigarettes per hour (CPH) and reports of changing location to smoke. Results: Individuals were most likely to change locations to smoke during business hours, regardless of work policy, and frequency of EMA reports of restrictions at work was associated with increased likelihood of changing locations to smoke (OR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.05–1.16; p < 0.0001). Workplace smoking policy, time block, and weekday/weekend interacted to predict CPH (p < 0.01), such that individuals with partial work bans –but not those with full bans—smoked more at night (9 pm—bed) on weekdays compared to weekends. Conclusions: There was little evidence that full bans interfered with subjects’ smoking during business hours across weekdays and weekends. Smokers largely compensate for exposure to workplace smoking bans by escaping restrictions during business hours. Better understanding the effects of smoking bans on smoking behavior may help to improve their effectiveness and yield insights into determinants of smoking in more restrictive environments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Duresso, Samson W.; Bruno, Raimondo; Matthews, Allison J.; Ferguson, Stuart G. (2018):Khat withdrawal symptoms among chronic khat users following a quit attempt: An ecological momentary assessment study.
In: Psychology of addictive behaviors : journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors 32 (3), S. 320–326. DOI: 10.1037/adb0000368.
Research reports show increased prevalence of habitual khat chewing among various parts of the community in Ethiopia. Some users experience problems controlling their use; withdrawal symptoms may be adding to difficulties with reducing or ceasing use. We aimed to describe the nature and the time course of any withdrawal syndrome in relation to the cessation of khat use over the first 2 weeks of a quit attempt. Fifty-nine participants between the ages of 18 and 35 and who have already chewed ≥1 bundle of khat in their life with a chewing frequency of ≥3 days per week were recruited from Adama Science and Technology University campus. Participants were predominantly male (n = 45, 75%) and had the mean age of 24.8 years (range = 20–32; SD = 2.8). Participants used smart phones to monitor withdrawal symptoms and cravings. The total assessments were divided in to 3 prequit and 14 postquit days. The development of withdrawal symptoms was evident, and all withdrawal symptoms followed similar overall patterns, with salient elevations after the quit day and curvatures around the first week of postquit period. Depression, craving, nervousness, tiredness, restlessness, poor motivation, irritability, and negative affect substantially increased and reached peak on the first week around Day 7 and remained higher compared with the level at baseline indicating the persistence and severity of these symptoms over time. In addition, craving, irritability, and restlessness had significantly reverted to their baseline level during the second week of the postquit duration. We have demonstrated low rates of success during unaided quite attempts from khat and that the withdrawal syndrome is not trivial. Interventions are necessary to support individuals during the period of increased symptoms of dysphoria and to reduce the risk of relapse. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Eldar, Eran; Roth, Charlotte; Dayan, Peter; Dolan, Raymond J. (2018):Decodability of Reward Learning Signals Predicts Mood Fluctuations.
In: Current biology : CB 28 (9), 1433-1439.e7. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2018.03.038.
Our mood often fluctuates without warning. Recent accounts propose that these fluctuations might be preceded by changes in how we process reward. According to this view, the degree to which reward improves our mood reflects not only characteristics of the reward itself (e.g., its magnitude) but also how receptive to reward we happen to be. Differences in receptivity to reward have been suggested to play an important role in the emergence of mood episodes in psychiatric disorders [1-16]. However, despite substantial theory, the relationship between reward processing and daily fluctuations of mood has yet to be tested directly. In particular, it is unclear whether the extent to which people respond to reward changes from day to day and whether such changes are followed by corresponding shifts in mood. Here, we use a novel mobile-phone platform with dense data sampling and wearable heart-rate and electroencephalographic sensors to examine mood and reward processing over an extended period of one week. Subjects regularly performed a trial-and-error choice task in which different choices were probabilistically rewarded. Subjects’ choices revealed two complementary learning processes, one fast and one slow. Reward prediction errors [17, 18] indicative of these two processes were decodable from subjects’ physiological responses. Strikingly, more accurate decodability of prediction-error signals reflective of the fast process predicted improvement in subjects’ mood several hours later, whereas more accurate decodability of the slow process’ signals predicted better mood a whole day later. We conclude that real-life mood fluctuations follow changes in responsivity to reward at multiple timescales.
Engert, Veronika; Kok, Bethany E.; Puhlmann, Lara M. C.; Stalder, Tobias; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Apostolakou, Filia et al. (2018):Exploring the multidimensional complex systems structure of the stress response and its relation to health and sleep outcomes.
In: Brain, behavior, and immunity. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbi.2018.05.023.
To gain a comprehensive understanding of the multidimensional complex systems structure of the stress response and related health outcomes, we utilized network analysis in a sample of 328 healthy participants in two steps. In a first step, we focused on associations between measures of basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning and subjective stress perceptions. In a second step, we linked these diverse stress-related measures to biomarkers and self-reports of health and sleep. Overall, measures clustered depending on their method of assessment, with high correlations between different saliva-based indices of diurnal cortisol regulation, between cortisol and cortisone levels in hair, between different biological health indicators (systemic inflammatory activity and body mass index), between state (experience sampling) and trait (questionnaire-based) self-reports of stress and wellbeing, and between different self-reports of sleep. Bridges between clusters suggested that if individuals perceive stress throughout their daily lives this is reflected in their total salivary cortisol output possibly contributing to long-term cortisol accumulation in hair. Likewise, earlier awakening time may contribute to cortisol accumulation in hair via an influence on awakening cortisol processes. Our results show that while meaningful connections between measures exist, stress is a highly complex construct composed of numerous aspects. We argue that network analysis is an integrative statistical approach to address the multidimensionality of the stress response and its effects on the brain and body. This may help uncover pathways to stress-related disease and serve to identify starting points for prevention and therapeutic intervention.
Fairbairn, Catharine E.; Bresin, Konrad; Kang, Dahyeon; Rosen, I. Gary; Ariss, Talia; Luczak, Susan E. et al. (2018):A multimodal investigation of contextual effects on alcohol’s emotional rewards.
In: Journal of abnormal psychology 127 (4), S. 359–373. DOI: 10.1037/abn0000346.
Regular alcohol consumption in unfamiliar social settings has been linked to problematic drinking. A large body of indirect evidence has accumulated to suggest that alcohol’s rewarding emotional effects—both negative-mood relieving and positive-mood enhancing—will be magnified when alcohol is consumed within unfamiliar versus familiar social contexts. But empirical research has never directly examined links between contextual familiarity and alcohol reward. In the current study, we mobilized novel ambulatory technology to examine the effect of social familiarity on alcohol reward in everyday drinking contexts while also examining how alcohol reward observed in these field contexts corresponds to reward observed in the laboratory. Heavy social drinking participants (N = 48, 50% male) engaged in an intensive week of ambulatory assessment. Participants wore transdermal alcohol sensors while they reported on their mood and took photographs of their social contexts in response to random prompts. Participants also attended 2 laboratory beverage-administration sessions, during which their emotional responses were assessed and transdermal sensors were calibrated to estimate breathalyzer readings (eBrACs). Results indicated a significant interaction between social familiarity and alcohol episode in everyday drinking settings, with alcohol enhancing mood to a greater extent in relatively unfamiliar versus familiar social contexts. Findings also indicated that drinking in relatively unfamiliar social settings was associated with higher eBrACs. Finally, results indicated a correspondence between some mood effects of alcohol experienced inside and outside the laboratory. This study presents a novel methodology for examining alcohol reward and indicates social familiarity as a promising direction for research seeking to explain problematic drinking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
General Scientific Summary—Research has indicated a link between alcohol consumption in unfamiliar social settings and problematic patterns of drinking. This study provided a potential explanation for this link, indicating that people may get more out of drinking in unfamiliar social settings. More specifically, results suggested that alcohol was associated with greater mood enhancement when it was consumed in relatively unfamiliar (e.g., with strangers) versus familiar (e.g., with close friends) drinking contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Fatseas, Melina; Serre, Fuschia; Swendsen, Joel; Auriacombe, Marc (2018):Effects of anxiety and mood disorders on craving and substance use among patients with substance use disorder: An ecological momentary assessment study.
In: Drug and alcohol dependence 187, S. 242–248. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.03.008.
BACKGROUND: Despite recognition of the negative impact of psychiatric comorbidity on addictive disorders, the mechanisms underlying this association remain poorly understood. The present investigation applied mobile technologies to examine the effect of comorbid mood or anxiety disorders on craving intensity and substance use within the natural conditions of daily life. METHODS: A total of 159 participants were recruited from a French outpatient addiction clinic and completed two weeks of computerized ambulatory monitoring of daily life experiences using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA). Patients described in real-time their emotional states, craving intensity, and substance use. Current mood and/or anxiety disorders were diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. The main substances of dependence were alcohol (n=48), tobacco (n=43), cannabis (n=35), or opiates (n=33). RESULTS: Craving intensity strongly predicted substance use reported over subsequent hours of the day both in groups with (OR=1.13, p=.009, n=95) and without (OR=1.20, p=.002, n=64) current comorbid psychiatric disorders. Current comorbid mood and/or anxiety disorders were associated with higher craving intensity (gamma coef=0.632, SE=0.254, p=.014) and consequently more frequent substance use (gamma coef=0.162, SE=0.052, p=.003). A portion of increased substance use associated with current mood and/or anxiety disorders was independent of increases in craving intensity. CONCLUSIONS: Attention to craving management is particularly important for patients with substance use disorders and comorbid mood and/or anxiety disorders, but additional interventions are also needed that address other mechanisms through which these disorders lead to an increase in substance use frequency, independently from craving.
Flores, Luis E.; Eckstrand, Kristen L.; Silk, Jennifer S.; Allen, Nicholas B.; Ambrosia, Marigrace; Healey, Kati L.; Forbes, Erika E. (2018):Adolescents’ neural response to social reward and real-world emotional closeness and positive affect.
In: Cognitive, affective & behavioral neuroscience. DOI: 10.3758/s13415-018-0598-0.
Feeling emotionally close to others during social interactions is a ubiquitous and meaningful experience that can elicit positive affect. The present study integrates functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to investigate whether neural response to social reward (1) is related to the experience of emotional closeness and (2) moderates the association between emotional closeness and positive affect during and following social interactions. In this study, 34 typically developing adolescents (ages 14–18 years) completed a social-reward fMRI task, a monetary-reward fMRI task, and a 2-week EMA protocol regarding their social and affective experiences. Adolescents with greater right posterior superior temporal sulcus/temporoparietal junction (pSTS/TPJ) response to social reward reported greater mean momentary emotional closeness. Neural response to social reward in the right pSTS/TPJ moderated how strongly momentary emotional closeness was associated with both concurrent positive affect and future peak happiness, but in different ways. Although emotional closeness had a significant positive association with concurrent positive affect among adolescents at both high and low right pSTS/TPJ response based on a follow-up simple slopes test, this association was stronger for adolescents with low right pSTS/TPJ response. In contrast, emotional closeness had a significant positive association with future peak happiness among adolescents with high right pSTS/TPJ response, but not among those with low right pSTS/TPJ response. These findings demonstrate the importance of neural response to social reward in key social processing regions for everyday experiences of emotional closeness and positive affect in the context of social interactions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Garrison, Kathleen A.; Pal, Prasanta; O’Malley, Stephanie S.; Pittman, Brian P.; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Rojiani, Rahil et al. (2018):Craving to Quit: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Smartphone app-based Mindfulness Training for Smoking Cessation.
In: Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. DOI: 10.1093/ntr/nty126.
Introduction: Mindfulness training may reduce smoking rates and lessen the association between craving and smoking. This trial tested the efficacy of mindfulness training via smartphone app to reduce smoking. Experience sampling was used to measure real time craving, smoking and mindfulness. Methods: A researcher-blind, parallel randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of mobile mindfulness training with experience sampling (MMT-ES; Craving to Quit) vs. experience sampling-only (ES) to (1) increase one-week point-prevalence abstinence rates at 6 months, and (2) lessen the association between craving and smoking. A modified intent-to-treat approach was used for treatment starters (MMT-ES n=143; ES n=182; 72% female, 81% white, age 41+/-12yr.). Results: No group difference was found in smoking abstinence at 6 months (overall, 11.1%; MMT-ES, 9.8%; ES, 12.1%; chi2(1)=.43, p=.51). From baseline to 6 months, both groups showed a reduction in cigarettes per day (p<.0001), craving strength (p<.0001) and frequency (p<.0001), and an increase in mindfulness (p<.05). Using experience sampling data, a craving by group interaction (F(1,3785)=3.71, p=.05) was observed, driven by a stronger positive association between craving and cigarettes per day for ES (t=4.96, p<.0001) versus MMT-ES (t=2.03, p=.04). Within MMT-ES, the relationship between craving and cigarettes per day decreased as treatment completion increased (F(1,104)=4.44, p=.04). Conclusions: Although mindfulness training via smartphone app did not lead to reduced smoking rates compared with control, our findings provide preliminary evidence that mindfulness training via smartphone app may help lessen the association between craving and smoking, an effect that may be meaningful to support quitting in the longer-term. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02134509. Registered 7 May 2014. Implications: This is the first reported full-scale randomized controlled trial of any smartphone app for smoking cessation. Findings provide preliminary evidence that smartphone app-based mindfulness training with experience sampling may lessen the association between craving and smoking, an effect that did not lead to reduced smoking abstinence rates compared with control but may be meaningful to support quitting and prevent relapse in the longer-term.
Goertz, Yvonne M. J.; Looijmans, Milou; Prins, Judith B.; Janssen, Daisy J. A.; Thong, Melissa S. Y.; Peters, Jeannette B. et al. (2018):Fatigue in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: protocol of the Dutch multicentre, longitudinal, observational FAntasTIGUE study.
In: BMJ open 8 (4), e021745. DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-021745.
INTRODUCTION: Fatigue is the second most common symptom in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Despite its high prevalence, fatigue is often ignored in daily practice. For this reason, little is known about the underlying determinants of fatigue in patients with COPD. The primary objectives of this study are to chart the course of fatigue in patients with COPD, to identify the physical, systemic, psychological and behavioural factors that precipitate and perpetuate fatigue in patients with COPD, to evaluate the impact of exacerbation-related hospitalisations on fatigue and to better understand the association between fatigue and 2-year all-cause hospitalisation and mortality in patients with COPD. The secondary aim is to identify diurnal differences in fatigue by using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). This manuscript describes the protocol of the FAntasTIGUE study and gives an overview of the possible strengths, weaknesses and clinical implications. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A 2-year longitudinal, observational study, enrolling 400 patients with clinically stable COPD has been designed. Fatigue, the primary outcome, will be measured by the subjective fatigue subscale of the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS-Fatigue). The secondary outcome is the day-to-day/diurnal fatigue, registered in a subsample (n=60) by EMA. CIS-Fatigue and EMA will be evaluated at baseline, and at 4, 8 and 12 months. The precipitating and perpetuating factors of fatigue (physical, psychological, behavioural and systemic) will be assessed at baseline and at 12 months. Additional assessments will be conducted following hospitalisation due to an exacerbation of COPD that occurs between baseline and 12 months. Finally, at 18 and 24 months the participants will be followed up on their fatigue, number of exacerbations, exacerbation-related hospitalisation and survival. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This protocol was approved by the Medical research Ethics Committees United, Nieuwegein, the Netherlands (NL60484.100.17). TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NTR6933; Pre-results.
Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Smith, Kathryn E.; Crosby, Ross D.; Boyd, Hope K.; Dougherty, Elizabeth; Engel, Scott G.; Haedt-Matt, Alissa (2018):Ecological momentary assessment of maladaptive eating in children and adolescents with overweight or obesity.
In: The International journal of eating disorders 51 (6), S. 549–557. DOI: 10.1002/eat.22864.
OBJECTIVES: Contextual factors related to maladaptive eating behavior in youth with overweight/obesity are poorly understood. This pilot study sought to elucidate immediate internal and external cues related to perceptions of overeating and loss of control (LOC) over eating in a heterogeneous sample of children and adolescents with overweight/obesity assessed in their natural environments. METHOD: Community-based youth [N = 40; 55% female (n = 22)], aged 8-14 y (M age = 11.2 +/- 1.9 y), with overweight/obesity (M z-BMI = 2.07 +/- 0.49) reported on all eating episodes and their physiological, environmental, affective, and interpersonal antecedents and correlates via ecological momentary assessment over a 2-week period. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess the relationship between contextual variables and degree of overeating and LOC. RESULTS: Eating occasions involving greater food hedonics (i.e., perceived palatability of food being consumed) were associated with greater LOC severity (within-subjects effect: B = 0.01, p = .015), although youth with lower overall levels of food hedonics reported higher LOC severity ratings on average (between-subjects effect: B = -0.04, p = .005). Youth reporting higher overall cravings reported higher average ratings of LOC severity (between-subjects effect: B = 0.20, p = .001). Finally, youth reporting greater overall influence of others on eating behavior evidenced greater average levels of overeating severity (between-subjects effect: B = 0.17, p < .001). DISCUSSION: Eating-related factors appear to be most strongly associated with LOC severity, while environmental factors were most associated with overeating severity. Interventions targeting maladaptive eating in youth with overweight/obesity may benefit from helping youth incorporate palatable foods and satisfy cravings in a planned and controlled manner, and enhancing awareness of social-contextual effects on eating.
Goldstein, Stephanie P.; Zhang, Fengqing; Thomas, John G.; Butryn, Meghan L.; Herbert, James D.; Forman, Evan M. (2018):Application of Machine Learning to Predict Dietary Lapses During Weight Loss.
In: Journal of diabetes science and technology, 1932296818775757. DOI: 10.1177/1932296818775757.
BACKGROUND: Individuals who adhere to dietary guidelines provided during weight loss interventions tend to be more successful with weight control. Any deviation from dietary guidelines can be referred to as a “lapse.” There is a growing body of research showing that lapses are predictable using a variety of physiological, environmental, and psychological indicators. With recent technological advancements, it may be possible to assess these triggers and predict dietary lapses in real time. The current study sought to use machine learning techniques to predict lapses and evaluate the utility of combining both group- and individual-level data to enhance lapse prediction. METHODS: The current study trained and tested a machine learning algorithm capable of predicting dietary lapses from a behavioral weight loss program among adults with overweight/obesity (n = 12). Participants were asked to follow a weight control diet for 6 weeks and complete ecological momentary assessment (EMA; repeated brief surveys delivered via smartphone) regarding dietary lapses and relevant triggers. RESULTS: WEKA decision trees were used to predict lapses with an accuracy of 0.72 for the group of participants. However, generalization of the group algorithm to each individual was poor, and as such, group- and individual-level data were combined to improve prediction. The findings suggest that 4 weeks of individual data collection is recommended to attain optimal model performance. CONCLUSIONS: The predictive algorithm could be utilized to provide in-the-moment interventions to prevent dietary lapses and therefore enhance weight losses. Furthermore, methods in the current study could be translated to other types of health behavior lapses.
Goodman, Fallon R.; Stiksma, Melissa C.; Kashdan, Todd B. (2018):Social Anxiety and the Quality of Everyday Social Interactions: The Moderating Influence of Alcohol Consumption.
In: Behavior therapy 49 (3), S. 373–387. DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.10.002.
Most research on the link between social anxiety and alcohol consumption has examined problematic outcomes without consideration of potential adaptive functions. Alcohol is an anxiolytic that has the short-term benefit of reducing anxiety; consumption may act as a social lubricant that facilitates higher quality social interactions. Using experience-sampling methodology, we examined how consuming alcohol attenuates the adverse effects of social anxiety in naturally occurring social interactions. Participants (N = 160) completed demographic and trait measures, then completed daily assessments for 14 consecutive days. Results from multilevel model analyses revealed that during face-to-face social interactions, state social anxiety was inversely related to 10 indicators of healthy social interactions (e.g., enjoyment, laughter, feelings of acceptance). Alcohol consumption moderated seven of these associations, such that when participants consumed alcohol in social situations, state social anxiety was no longer associated with social interaction quality. The quantity of alcoholic drinks consumed moderated two of these associations. Furthermore, we found evidence for directionality, such that social anxiety in a given social interaction predicted alcohol consumption in a subsequent social interaction, but not the reverse (i.e., alcohol consumption did not prospectively predict state social anxiety). In social situations that involved alcohol, experiences of social anxiety no longer thwarted one’s ability to derive social benefits. These results should be interpreted in the context of a participant sample with relatively low levels of trait social anxiety and frequency of alcohol use. Nonetheless, obtaining social rewards may be a reinforcement mechanism that maintains the link between social anxiety and alcohol consumption.
Greene, Talya (2018):Do acute dissociation reactions predict subsequent posttraumatic stress and growth? A prospective experience sampling method study.
In: Journal of anxiety disorders 57, S. 1–6. DOI: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2018.05.008.
While peritraumatic dissociation has been identified as a predictor of posttraumatic stress disorder, it may also have some protective aspect. The study uses experience sampling methods to assess acute dissociation reactions during conflict, and to investigate these reactions as predictors of subsequent posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and posttraumatic growth (PTG). During the 2014 Israel-Gaza conflict, Israeli civilians (n=96) exposed to rocket fire gave twice-daily experience sampling method (ESM) reports of dissociation symptoms for 30 days via mobile phone. PTSS and PTG were assessed two months later. A mixed effects random intercepts and slopes model estimated acute dissociation reactions. Individual slope coefficients for acute dissociative reactivity were entered as predictors of subsequent PTSS and PTG in regression analyses investigating linear and curvilinear associations. Exposure to sirens elicited acute dissociation reactions. Dissociative reactivity gradually reduced over the conflict. Higher acute dissociative reactivity during conflict predicted PTSS in a curvilinear manner (inverted U) and PTG in a positive linear manner two months later. The current study provides an important and novel contribution to the field by using ESM methods to assess peritraumatic dissociation, and in demonstrating that peritraumatic dissociation may be both adaptive and maladaptive, which has implications for risk assessment and clinical practice.
Halker Singh, Rashmi B.; Aycardi, Ernesto; Bigal, Marcelo E.; Loupe, Pippa S.; McDonald, Mirna; Dodick, David W. (2018):Sustained reductions in migraine days, moderate-to-severe headache days and days with acute medication use for HFEM and CM patients taking fremanezumab: Post-hoc analyses from phase 2 trials.
In: Cephalalgia : an international journal of headache, 333102418772585. DOI: 10.1177/0333102418772585.
Background In phase 2 and 3 studies, fremanezumab, a monoclonal CGRP antibody, was an effective preventive treatment for high-frequency episodic migraine (HFEM) and chronic migraine (CM). Objective Post-hoc analyses evaluated population-wise 50%, 75% and 100% responder rates, and the extent to which individual responders sustained a 50%, 75% and 100% reduction in migraine days, moderate-to-severe (M/S) headache days and days of acute medication use during all three treatment months of the fremanezumab phase 2 studies. Design/methods HFEM patients received either placebo or three once-monthly injections of 225 mg or 675 mg. CM patients received either placebo or three once-monthly injections of 900 mg, or an initial loading dose of 675 mg and subsequent injections of 225 mg. Patients reported headache-related data daily using an electronic diary. Results In the HFEM study, the percent of patients on fremanezumab doses 225 mg and 675 mg were greater compared to the percent of placebo patients with sustained 50% reduction in migraine days (39% and 35% vs. 10% for placebo, both p < 0.0001), M/S headache days (36% and 38% vs. 16% placebo, p = 0.0017 and p = 0.0007 respectively), and acute medication use days (36% and 27% vs. 8% placebo, p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0003). Likewise, although there were fewer patients with sustained 75% reduction, there were increases in the percent of patients on fremanezumab 225 mg and 675 mg in the HFEM study relative to placebo patients in migraine days (19% and 11% vs. 3% placebo, p = 0.0002 and p = 0.0176), M/S headache days (19% and 15% vs. 2% placebo, p = 0.0001 and p = 0.0011) and days of acute medication use (16% and 8% vs. 2% placebo, p = 0.0005 and p = 0.0377). In the CM study, there were increases in the percent of patients on fremanezumab 675/225 mg and 900 mg with 50% sustained reduction in M/S headache days (32% and 40% vs. 15% placebo, p = 0.0058 and p = 0.0002) and days of acute medication use (26% and 22% vs. 11% placebo, p = 0.0098 and p = 0.0492). There were also increases in the percent of patients on fremanezumab 675/225 mg and 900 mg compared to patients on placebo with 75% sustained reduction in M/S headache days (10% and 13% vs. 3%, p = 0.0665 and p = 0.0203). Few patients had 100% sustained reductions in these parameters in either study. Conclusions Post-hoc results must be interpreted with caution; nonetheless, a statistically significant percentage of patients who initially responded to fremanezumab within 1 month sustained this response over the subsequent 2 months. Sustained reduction in individual patients may provide a novel patient-centric, clinically meaningful endpoint for future trials assessing the effectiveness of preventive migraine treatments. Trials are registered as http://clinical trials.gov as NCT02025556 and NCT02021773.
Hallberg, Inger; Ranerup, Agneta; Bengtsson, Ulrika; Kjellgren, Karin (2018):Experiences, expectations and challenges of an interactive mobile phone-based system to support self-management of hypertension: patients’ and professionals’ perspectives.
In: Patient preference and adherence 12, S. 467–476. DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S157658.
Background: A well-controlled blood pressure (BP) reduces cardiovascular complications. Patient participation in care using technology may improve the current situation of only 13.8% of adults diagnosed with hypertension worldwide having their BP under control. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore patients’ and professionals’ experiences of and expectations for an interactive mobile phone-based system to support self-management of hypertension. Methods: The self-management system consists of: 1) a mobile phone platform for self-reports, motivational messages and reminders; 2) a device for measuring BP and 3) graphical feedback of self-reports. Patients diagnosed with high BP (n=20) and their treating professionals (n=7) participated in semi-structured interviews, after 8 weeks use of the system in clinical practice. Data were analyzed thematically. Results: The self-reporting of BP, symptoms, medication use, medication side effects, lifestyle and well-being was perceived to offer insight into how daily life activities influenced BP and helped motivate a healthy lifestyle. Taking increased responsibility as a patient, by understanding factors affecting one’s well-being, was reported as an enabling factor for a more effective care. Based on the experiences, some challenges were mentioned: for adoption of the system into clinical practice, professionals’ educational role should be extended and there should be a reorganization of care to fully benefit from technology. The patients and professionals gave examples of further improvements to the system, for example, related to the visualization of graphs from self-reports and an integration of the system into the general technical infrastructure. These challenges are important on the path to accomplishing adoption. Conclusion: The potential of a more autonomous, knowledgeable and active patient, through use of the interactive mobile system would improve outcomes of hypertension treatment, which has been desired for decades. Documentation and visualization of patients’ self-reports and the possibilities to communicate these with professionals may be a significant resource for person-centered care.
Haynos, Ann F.; Utzinger, Linsey M.; Lavender, Jason M.; Crosby, Ross D.; Cao, Li; Peterson, Carol B. et al. (2018):Subtypes of adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism in anorexia nervosa: Associations with eating disorder and affective symptoms.
In: J Psychopathol Behav Assess. DOI: 10.1007/s10862-018-9672-8.
Perfectionism is hypothesized to contribute to the etiology of anorexia nervosa (AN). However, there is little research regarding whether individuals with AN can be classified according to maladaptive (e.g., evaluative concerns) and adaptive (e.g., high personal standards) facets of perfectionism that predict distinct outcomes and might warrant different intervention approaches. In this study, a latent profile analysis was conducted using data from adults with AN (n = 118). Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (Frost et al. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 14(5), 449–46, 1990) subscales were used to identify subgroups differing according to endorsed perfectionism features (e.g., adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism). Generalized linear models were used to compare subgroups on eating disorder and affective symptoms measured through questionnaire and ecological momentary assessment. Four subgroups were identified: (a) Low Perfectionism; (b) High Adaptive and Maladaptive Perfectionism; (c) Moderate Maladaptive Perfectionism; and (d) High Maladaptive Perfectionism. Subgroups differed on overall eating disorder symptoms (p < .001), purging (p = .005), restrictive eating (p < .001), and body checking (p < .001) frequency, depressive (p < .001) and anxiety (p < .001) symptoms, and negative (p = .001) and positive (p < .001) affect. The Low Perfectionism group displayed the most adaptive scores and the Moderate and High Maladaptive Perfectionism groups demonstrated the most elevated clinical symptoms. The High Adaptive and Maladaptive Perfectionism group demonstrated low affective disturbances, but elevated eating disorder symptoms. Results support the clinical significance of subtyping according to perfectionism dimensions in AN. Research is needed to determine if perfectionism subtyping can enhance individualized treatment targeting in AN. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Heller, Aaron S.; Fox, Andrew S.; Davidson, Richard J. (2018):Parsing affective dynamics to identify risk for mood and anxiety disorders.
In: Emotion (Washington, D.C.). DOI: 10.1037/emo0000440.
Emotional dysregulation is thought to underlie risk for both anxiety and depressive disorders. However, despite high rates of comorbidity, anxiety and depression are phenotypically different. Apart from nosological differences (e.g., worry for anxiety, low mood for depression), it remains unclear how the emotional dysregulation inherent in individual differences in trait anxiety and depression severity present on a day-to-day basis. One approach that may facilitate addressing these questions is to utilize Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) using mobile phones to parse the temporal dynamics of affective experiences into specific parameters. An emerging literature in affective science suggests that risk for anxiety and depressive disorders may be associated with variation in the mean and instability/variability of emotion. Here we examine the extent to which distinct temporal dynamic parameters uniquely predict risk for anxiety versus depression. Over 10 days, 105 individuals rated their current positive and negative affective state several times each day. Using two distinct approaches to statistically assess mean and instability of positive and negative affect, we found that individual differences in trait anxiety was generally associated with increased instability of positive and negative affect whereas mean levels of positive and negative affect were generally associated with individual differences in depression. These data provide evidence that the emotional dysregulation underlying risk for mood versus anxiety disorders unfolds in distinct ways and highlights the utility in examining affective dynamics to understand psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Heron, Kristin E.; Braitman, Abby L.; Lewis, Robin J.; Shappie, Alexander T.; Hitson, Phoebe T. (2018):Measuring sexual minority stressors in lesbian women’s daily lives: Initial scale development.
In: Psychol Sex Orientat Gend Divers. DOI: 10.1037/sgd0000287.
Lesbian women face unique sexual minority stressors (SMS) because of their stigmatized and marginalized status in society. Existing studies of SMS are primarily cross-sectional and use global measures of SMS. The goal of the present study was to develop a brief daily measure of SMS for use in daily diary or ecological momentary assessment studies. Existing retrospective measures of SMS were reviewed, resulting in an initial pool of 29 items. Thirty-eight lesbian women (Mage = 24.3 years, range: 19–30 years) completed a daily web-based survey including the SMS items for 12 days. Two response scales were tested; participants were randomized to receive a 3-point (for brevity) or 7-point (for precision) scale for the first 6 days and the other response scale for the remaining 6 days to counterbalance order. Findings suggest the 7-point scale was optimal because it provided greater variability. To reduce scale length, item correlations were examined to identify clusters and 1 item was retained from each cluster, reducing the scale to 18 items. Then, using hierarchical linear modeling, null models with each item as the outcome were conducted to examine level 1 and level 2 variances; 8-, 10-, 12-, and 18-item scales were compared to identify the ideal number of items. The 8-item scale had the highest Cronbach’s alpha (.85) and the smallest intraclass correlation (.13), suggesting these 8 items are optimal for capturing within-person variability in young lesbian women’s daily SMS experiences. As researchers are increasingly interested in using ecological momentary assessment methods, this 8-item measure can assess SMS in lesbian women’s everyday lives. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Public Significance Statement—Lesbian women face unique stressful experiences due to their sexual minority status in society. This study developed a daily measure of sexual minority stressors that can be used to collect information about these experiences in everyday life. This measure can be used to better understand how lesbian women’s daily experiences are related to their health and well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Herres, Joanna; Caporino, Nicole E.; Cummings, Colleen M.; Kendall, Philip C. (2018):Emotional reactivity to daily events in youth with anxiety disorders.
In: Anxiety, stress, and coping 31 (4), S. 387–401. DOI: 10.1080/10615806.2018.1472492.
BACKGROUND: Although research supports associations between anxiety and emotional reactivity in adults (Cisler, J. M., Olatunji, B. O., Feldner, M. T., & Forsyth, J. P. (2010). Emotion regulation and the anxiety disorders: an integrative review. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 32(1), 68-82.), few studies have examined emotional reactivity in anxious youth (e.g., Carthy et al., 2010; Tan, P. Z., Forbes, E. E., Dahl, R. E., Ryan, N. D., Siegle, G. J., Ladouceur, C. D., & Silk, J. S. (2012). Emotional reactivity and regulation in anxious and nonanxious youth: a cell-phone ecological momentary assessment study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53(2), 197-206.). METHODS: Using daily diary methodology, this study examined both negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA) reactivity to daily events in youth diagnosed with anxiety (N = 68; 60% female; 78% non-Hispanic White; M age = 11.18 years, SD = 3.17). We also examined whether parent-reported emotion regulation would predict emotional reactivity. RESULTS: Participants reported more NA on days they experienced more negative parent and teacher events and less PA on days that they experienced more negative peer events. Additionally, better emotion regulation was associated with less NA reactivity to negative teacher events and to both negative and positive academic events. CONCLUSIONS: Interpersonal events have a salient effect on daily affect for anxious youth. Youth anxiety therapists should target emotion regulation associated with negative events involving adults and address barriers to developing and maintaining positive peer relationships.
Hofmann, Wilhelm; Brandt, Mark J.; Wisneski, Daniel C.; Rockenbach, Bettina; Skitka, Linda J. (2018):Moral Punishment in Everyday Life.
In: Personality & social psychology bulletin, 146167218775075. DOI: 10.1177/0146167218775075.
The present research investigated event-related, contextual, demographic, and dispositional predictors of the desire to punish perpetrators of immoral deeds in daily life, as well as connections among the desire to punish, moral emotions, and momentary well-being. The desire to punish was reliably predicted by linear gradients of social closeness to both the perpetrator (negative relationship) and the victim (positive relationship). Older rather than younger adults, conservatives rather than people with other political orientations, and individuals high rather than low in moral identity desired to punish perpetrators more harshly. The desire to punish was related to state anger, disgust, and embarrassment, and these were linked to lower momentary well-being. However, the negative effect of these emotions on well-being was partially compensated by a positive indirect pathway via heightened feelings of moral self-worth. Implications of the present field data for moral punishment research and the connection between morality and well-being are discussed.
Holt, Nicola J. (2018):The expression of schizotypy in the daily lives of artists.
In: Psychol Aesthet Creat Arts. DOI: 10.1037/aca0000176.
A considerable amount of research suggests that positive schizotypy (cognitive and perceptual aberrations, such as pseudohallucinations) is associated with creativity in the arts. In order to better understand how positive schizotypy might be expressed in the creative process, the experience sampling method was used to explore the experiential correlates of schizotypy in a sample of artists. Artists (N = 41) were sampled over a week-long period, answering questions at random intervals that related to mood, cognition, state of consciousness and behavior, resulting in reports on 2495 experiences. The sample scored significantly higher than normative samples on positive, but not negative, schizotypy, supporting previous research on the role of ‘healthy schizotypy’ in creativity. Multilevel modeling demonstrated that positive schizotypy predicted a particular experiential profile in daily life, characterized by more frequent reports of the flow state, altered experience, internal dialogue, vivid imagery, distractibility, introspection, and high self-esteem. Positive schizotypy (but not other dimensions of schizotypy) was also a significant predictor of art-making and inspiration in daily life. Random intercept and slope models suggested that positive schizotypy was associated with greater increases in positive affect and self-esteem during or following art-making, supporting an ‘affective hypothesis’ for the relationship between schizotypy and artistic involvement. This study supports previous research linking positive schizotypy with artistic creativity, and suggests that, in this context, positive schizotypy can be associated with adaptive experiences, including inspiration, flow, and self-esteem. Further, art-making may serve a therapeutic function for artists high in positive schizotypy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Hulsheger, Ute R.; Walkowiak, Alicia; Thommes, Marie S. (2018):How can mindfulness be promoted? Workload and recovery experiences as antecedents of daily fluctuations in mindfulness.
In: Journal of occupational and organizational psychology 91 (2), S. 261–284. DOI: 10.1111/joop.12206.
While previous work on mindfulness has focused predominantly on the benefits of mindfulness and of mindfulness interventions, the present article addresses the question of how natural experiences of mindfulness can be promoted in the context of work. Accordingly, this article sheds light on day-to-day fluctuations in workload and recovery experiences (psychological detachment and sleep quality) as antecedents of state mindfulness. Furthermore, this study extends extant research that has documented beneficial effects of mindfulness on subsequent recovery experiences by arguing that the relationship between mindfulness and recovery experiences is reciprocal rather than unidirectional. Using an experience-sampling design across five workdays and involving three daily measurement occasions, we found that sleep quality and workload were related to subsequent levels of mindfulness. While not displaying a significant direct relationship with mindfulness, psychological detachment was indirectly related to mindfulness via sleep quality. Fatigue was identified as an important mechanism explaining these relationships. Furthermore, findings confirmed that the relationship between mindfulness and recovery experiences is reciprocal rather than unidirectional. Taken together, this study contributes to an enriched understanding of the role of mindfulness in organizations by shedding light on factors that precede the experience of mindfulness and by pointing to the existence of gain spirals associated with recovery experiences and mindfulness. Practitioner points: Organizations seeking to promote mindfulness among their workforce should try to keep workload to a manageable degree.Organizations may also pay attention to care for employees’ day-to-day recovery as it has been shown to facilitate mindfulness.
Hyun, Jinshil; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Smyth, Joshua M. (2018):Waking Up on the Wrong Side of the Bed: The Effects of Stress Anticipation on Working Memory in Daily Life.
In: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences. DOI: 10.1093/geronb/gby042.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the association between stress anticipated for the upcoming day and cognitive function later on that day, and how this relationship differed across age. Method: A diverse adult community sample (N = 240, age 25-65 years) completed ecological momentary assessment (EMA) reports for 2 weeks on a smartphone; each day they completed a morning survey upon waking, beeped surveys at five times during a day, and an end-of-day survey. Morning and end-of-day surveys included questions to measure stress anticipation, and each beeped survey included measures of stressful events, followed by a spatial working memory (WM) task. Results: Results from multilevel models indicated that stress anticipation reported upon waking, but not on the previous night, was associated with deficit in WM performance later that day; importantly, this effect was over and above the effect of EMA-reported stress. The detrimental effect of stress anticipation upon waking was invariant across age. Discussion: These findings suggest that anticipatory processes can produce harmful effects on cognitive functioning that are independent of everyday stress experiences. This may identify an important avenue to mitigate everyday cognitive lapses among older adults.
Jones, Dusti R.; Johnson, Jillian A.; Graham‐Engeland, Jennifer E.; Park, Crystal L.; Smyth, Joshua M. (2018):Is perceived growth associated with momentary indicators of health and well‐being in people with asthma or rheumatoid arthritis?
In: Applied psychology. Health and well-being. DOI: 10.1111/aphw.12129.
Background Perceived growth (PG) refers to perceptions of positive changes that unfold over time after experiencing trauma. Higher PG is often associated with positive long‐term health, but the processes through which PG may influence health are unclear. The present study examines two potential pathways among individuals living with asthma or RA: (1) by promoting momentary indicators of health and well‐being in everyday life, and (2) by buffering against stress. Method In a micro‐longitudinal design, 128 participants with asthma (n = 97) or rheumatoid arthritis (n = 31) reported perceived growth using the Post‐Traumatic Growth (PTG) Inventory and subsequently completed ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) for one week. Participants were signaled five times a day to report on health‐related indicators, including affect, disease interference, social interactions, and stress. Results Multilevel modeling revealed that higher PTG was associated with significantly less negative affect and greater positive affect in everyday life. There were no significant associations between PTG and momentary disease interference, pleasantness of social interactions, or stress, nor evidence that PTG buffered against effects of stress on health‐related outcomes. Conclusions This research highlights the utility of examining PG in everyday life. Results suggest that closer examination of momentary affect as a process by which PG may facilitate positive health outcomes is warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Jones, Andrew; Tiplady, Brian; Houben, Katrijn; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Field, Matt (2018):Do daily fluctuations in inhibitory control predict alcohol consumption? An ecological momentary assessment study.
In: Psychopharmacology 235 (5), S. 1487–1496. DOI: 10.1007/s00213-018-4860-5.
Rationale: Deficient inhibitory control is predictive of increased alcohol consumption in the laboratory; however, little is known about this relationship in naturalistic, real-world settings. Objectives: In the present study, we implemented ecological momentary assessment methods to investigate the relationship between inhibitory control and alcohol consumption in the real world. Methods: Heavy drinkers who were motivated to reduce their alcohol consumption (N = 100) were loaned a smartphone which administered a stop signal task twice per day at random intervals between 10 a.m. and 6 p.m. for 2 weeks. Each day, participants also recorded their planned and actual alcohol consumption and their subjective craving and mood. We hypothesised that day-to-day fluctuations in inhibitory control (stop signal reaction time) would predict alcohol consumption, over and above planned consumption and craving. Results: Multilevel modelling demonstrated that daily alcohol consumption was predicted by planned consumption (β = .816; 95% CI .762–.870) and craving (β = .022; 95% CI .013–.031), but inhibitory control did not predict any additional variance in alcohol consumption. However, secondary analyses demonstrated that the magnitude of deterioration in inhibitory control across the day was a significant predictor of increased alcohol consumption on that day (β = .007; 95% CI .004–.011), after controlling for planned consumption and craving. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that short-term fluctuations in inhibitory control predict alcohol consumption, which suggests that transient fluctuations in inhibition may be a risk factor for heavy drinking episodes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Kostikas, Konstantinos; Aalamian-Mattheis, Maryam; Pagano, Veronica Anna; Nunez, Xavier; Fogel, Robert; Patalano, Francesco; Clemens, Andreas (2018):Early Changes in eDiary COPD Symptoms Predict Clinically Relevant Treatment Response at 12 Weeks: Analysis from the CRYSTAL Study.
In: COPD, S. 1–7. DOI: 10.1080/15412555.2018.1445213.
Early detection of treatment response is important in the long-term treatment and management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This analysis evaluated whether early improvement in symptoms, recorded in the first 7 or 14 days via an electronic diary (eDiary) compared with baseline, can predict clinically meaningful treatment responders at 12 weeks. CRYSTAL was a 12-week, randomized, open-label study that demonstrated the increased effectiveness of indacaterol/glycopyrronium (IND/GLY) or glycopyrronium (GLY), after a direct switch from on-going baseline therapies, in patients with symptomatic COPD and moderate airflow obstruction. The co-primary endpoints were trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and transition dyspnea index (TDI) at Week 12. Patients’ symptom status was recorded daily in an eDiary. Of 4,389 patients randomized, 3,936 and 3,855 reported symptoms on Days 7 and 14, respectively. Patients who reported an early decrease in symptoms on Day 7 or 14 were more likely to achieve the minimal clinically important difference of >/=100 mL in trough FEV1 or >/= 1 point in TDI at Week 12. Using stepwise multivariate regression models we identified as best predictors of FEV1 responders the decrease in wheeze on Day 7, and nighttime symptoms and wheeze on Day 14; best predictors of TDI responders were decrease in nighttime symptoms and wheeze on Day 7, and nighttime symptoms, sputum and wheeze on Day 14. Early symptom improvement at Day 7 or 14, especially wheeze and nighttime symptoms, may identify patients with clinically important improvement in lung function and dyspnea at Week 12.
Kovalchik, Stephanie A.; Martino, Steven C.; Collins, Rebecca L.; Shadel, William G.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.; Becker, Kirsten (2018):Scaled inverse probability weighting: A method to assess potential bias due to event nonreporting in ecological momentary assessment studies.
In: J Educ Behav Stat 43 (3), S. 354–381. DOI: 10.3102/1076998617738241.
Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is a popular assessment method in psychology that aims to capture events, emotions, and cognitions in real time, usually repeatedly throughout the day. Because EMA typically involves more intensive monitoring than traditional assessment methods, missing data are commonly an issue and this missingness may bias results. EMA can involve two types of missing data: known missingness, arising from nonresponse to scheduled prompts, and hidden missingness, arising from nonreporting of focal events (e.g., an urge to smoke or a meal). Prior research on missing data in EMA has focused almost exclusively on nonresponse to scheduled prompts. In this study, we introduce a scaled inverse probability weighting approach to assess the risk of bias due to nonreporting of events due to fatigue on estimates of exposure or correlates of exposure. In our proposed approach, the inverse probability is the estimated probability of compliance with random prompts from a model that uses participant and contextual factors to predict this compliance and a fatigue factor that adjusts for attrition in event reporting over time. We demonstrate the use and utility of our bias assessment method with the Tracking and Recording Alcohol Communications Study, an EMA study of adolescent exposure to alcohol advertising. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Kowalczyk, William J.; Moran, Landhing M.; Bertz, Jeremiah W.; Phillips, Karran A.; Ghitza, Udi E.; Vahabzadeh, Massoud et al. (2018):Using ecological momentary assessment to examine the relationship between craving and affect with opioid use in a clinical trial of clonidine as an adjunct medication to buprenorphine treatment.
In: The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse, S. 1–10. DOI: 10.1080/00952990.2018.1454933.
BACKGROUND: In a recent clinical trial (NCT00295308), we demonstrated that clonidine decreased the association between opioid craving and moderate levels of stress and affect in patients receiving buprenorphine-based opioid agonist therapy. OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between illicit opioid use and craving and affect during the evaluation of clonidine as an adjunct medication in buprenorphine treatment for opioid use disorder. Secondarily, to examine whether those relationships are driven by within- or between-participant factors. METHODS: This was a secondary data analysis from our original trial. Participants (N = 108, female: n = 23, male n = 85) receiving buprenorphine were randomized to receive adjunct clonidine or placebo. Participants used portable electronic devices to rate stress, mood, and craving via ecological momentary assessment (EMA) four times randomly each day. To associate the EMA data with illicit opioid use, each EMA report was linked to participants’ next urine drug screen (thrice weekly). We used generalized linear mixed models to examine the interaction between treatment group and illicit opioid use, as well as to decompose the analysis into within- and between-participant effects. RESULTS: Craving for opioids and cocaine was increased when participants were using illicit opioids; this effect was greater in the clonidine group. For affect, mood was poorer during periods preceding opioid-positive urines than opioid-negative urines for clonidine-treated participants, whereas there was no difference for placebo participants. CONCLUSION: This secondary analysis provides evidence that for participants maintained on opioid agonist therapy, clonidine minimized the behavioral impact of moderate levels of negative affect and craving.
Kratz, Anna L.; Fritz, Nora E.; Braley, Tiffany J.; Scott, Eric L.; Foxen-Craft, Emily; Murphy, Susan L. (2018):Daily Temporal Associations Between Physical Activity and Symptoms in Multiple Sclerosis.
In: Annals of behavioral medicine : a publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine. DOI: 10.1093/abm/kay018.
Background: Symptom severity is negatively associated with physical activity in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, it is unclear how physical activity and symptoms correlate on a day-to-day basis in persons with MS. Purpose: To determine the temporal within-person associations of pain, fatigue, depressed mood, and perceived cognitive function with physical activity in MS. Methods: Ambulatory adults with MS (N = 107) completed 7 days of home monitoring. Continuous physical activity data (assessed via wrist-worn accelerometer) and concurrent ecological momentary assessment (5X/day) of pain, fatigue, depressed mood, and perceived cognitive function were collected. Data were analyzed using multilevel mixed modeling. Results: Fatigue and depressed mood demonstrated bidirectional associations with physical activity, whereas pain and cognitive function did not. Higher than usual fatigue (B = -5.83, p = .001) and depressed mood (B = -4.12, p = .03) were followed by decreased physical activity. In contrast, higher than usual physical activity was associated with subsequent decline in fatigue (B = -0.001, p = .02) and depressed mood (B = -0.0007, p = .02); however, the association between physical activity and fatigue varied across the day. Conclusions: Physical activity is dynamically related to fatigue and mood on a moment-to-moment basis in MS. Efforts to increase physical activity in MS must incorporate a focus on how symptoms affect and are affected by activity.
Krkovic, Katarina; Schlier, Bjorn; Lincoln, Tania (2018):An experience sampling study on the nature of the interaction between traumatic experiences, negative affect in everyday life, and threat beliefs.
In: Schizophrenia research. DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2018.05.030.
Research suggests that trauma is associated with the development of psychotic experiences, such as paranoia, via affective processes. However, the empirical evidence on the exact mechanism is limited and it is unclear which aspects of trauma are relevant. Here we tested whether self-reported frequency of trauma, recurring trauma, age, and type of trauma are predictive of later threat beliefs in daily life and which role affective processes (self-reported negative affect and autonomic arousal) play in this association. We tested two often postulated mechanisms: mediation, with affective processes in everyday life explaining the association between trauma and threat beliefs; and moderation, with trauma strengthening the association between affective processes and threat beliefs in everyday life. Trauma was assessed at baseline with the Trauma-History-Questionnaire in 67 individuals with attenuated symptoms of psychosis. We then applied the experience-sampling-method during 24h to assess negative affect, heart rate and threat beliefs. Multilevel analysis showed that negative affect (p<0.001) and heart rate (p<0.05) were predictive of subsequent threat beliefs. There was no significant mediation effect from any trauma characteristic to threat beliefs via negative affect and heart rate. Trauma frequency (p<0.001), age at first trauma (p<0.001), as well as the presence of physical trauma (p<0.001) moderated the path from negative affect to subsequent threat beliefs. Our findings indicate that more frequent trauma, trauma at young age and physical trauma strengthen the association from negative affect to threat beliefs and could be relevant to determining the extent of vulnerability to psychosis.
Krönke, Klaus-Martin; Wolff, Max; Mohr, Holger; Kräplin, Anja; Smolka, Michael N.; Bühringer, Gerhard; Goschke, Thomas (2018):Monitor yourself! Deficient error-related brain activity predicts real-life self-control failures.
In: Cognitive, affective & behavioral neuroscience. DOI: 10.3758/s13415-018-0593-5.
Despite their immense relevance, the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying real-life self-control failures (SCFs) are insufficiently understood. Whereas previous studies have shown that SCFs were associated with decreased activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG; a region involved in cognitive control), here we consider the possibility that the reduced implementation of cognitive control in individuals with low self-control may be due to impaired performance monitoring. Following a brain-as-predictor approach, we combined experience sampling of daily SCFs with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a Stroop task. In our sample of 118 participants, proneness to SCF was reliably predicted by low error-related activation of a performance-monitoring network (comprising anterior mid-cingulate cortex, presupplementary motor area, and anterior insula), low posterror rIFG activation, and reduced posterror slowing. Remarkably, these neural and behavioral measures predicted variability in SCFs beyond what was predicted by self-reported trait self-control. These results suggest that real-life SCFs may result from deficient performance monitoring, leading to reduced recruitment of cognitive control after responses that conflict with superordinate goals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Kross, Ethan; Verduyn, Philippe; Boyer, Margaret; Drake, Brittany; Gainsburg, Izzy; Vickers, Brian et al. (2018):Does counting emotion words on online social networks provide a window into people’s subjective experience of emotion? A case study on Facebook.
In: Emotion (Washington, D.C.). DOI: 10.1037/emo0000416.
Psychologists have long debated whether it is possible to assess how people subjectively feel without asking them. The recent proliferation of online social networks has recently added a fresh chapter to this discussion, with research now suggesting that it is possible to index people’s subjective experience of emotion by simply counting the number of emotion words contained in their online social network posts. Whether the conclusions that emerge from this work are valid, however, rests on a critical assumption: that people’s usage of emotion words in their posts accurately reflects how they feel. Although this assumption is widespread in psychological research, here we suggest that there are reasons to challenge it. We corroborate these assertions in 2 ways. First, using data from 4 experience-sampling studies of emotion in young adults, we show that people’s reports of how they feel throughout the day neither predict, nor are predicted by, their use of emotion words on Facebook. Second, using simulations we show that although significant relationships emerge between the use of emotion words on Facebook and self-reported affect with increasingly large numbers of observations, the relationship between these variables was in the opposite of the theoretically expected direction 50% of the time (i.e., 3 of 6 models that we performed simulations on). In contrast to counting emotion words, we show that judges’ ratings of the emotionality of participants’ Facebook posts consistently predicts how people feel across all analyses. These findings shed light on how to draw inferences about emotion using online social network data. (PsycINFO Database Record
Kuerbis, Alexis; Houser, Jessica; Amrhein, Paul; Treloar Padovano, Hayley; Morgenstern, Jon (2018):The relationship between in-session commitment language and daily self-reported commitment to reduce or abstain from drinking.
In: Journal of substance abuse treatment 91, S. 69–75. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsat.2018.06.003.
BACKGROUND: Motivational interviewing is hypothesized to operate by enhancing a client’s internal motivation to change. Past research operationalizes this process by measuring in-session statements for change (i.e., change talk), yet relationships between change talk and other measures of motivation have yet to be substantiated. This study tested whether in-session change talk predicted subsequent reports of commitment to abstain or moderate drinking assessed via ecological momentary assessment (EMA), and explored each of their contributions to drinking outcomes. METHOD: Secondary data analysis was performed on data from 48 study participants who received therapy within a randomized controlled trial testing mechanisms of actions of MI. Multilevel models were used to test whether in-session commitment statements (strength, frequency, and slope of strength) made in two therapy sessions predicted subsequent daily reports of commitment to abstain or not drink heavily and drinking (21days of data) in the weeks following each respective session. RESULTS: A weak, negative relationship between in-session commitment and average daily commitment to abstain emerged. No relationship between in-session statements and average daily commitment to not drink heavily emerged. Only EMA commitment predicted drinking outcome. Post hoc analyses demonstrate a moderating impact of EMA commitment to abstain on in-session commitment strength: low pre-treatment commitment to abstain and increasing commitment strength across a session yielded the greatest drink reduction. CONCLUSION: In-session change talk and EMA commitment may represent distinct aspects of motivation, yet their interaction appears important to treatment prognoses. Commitment to abstain may be important for treatment selection and successful drink reduction.
Lanaj, Klodiana; Kim, Peter H.; Koopman, Joel; Matta, Fadel K. (2018):Daily mistrust: A resource perspective and its implications for work and home.
In: Pers Psychol. DOI: 10.1111/peps.12268.
Mistrust is a daily occurrence at work. Yet little is known about how perceptions of being mistrusted by coworkers may affect employees’ subsequent daily attitudes and behaviors. Indeed, the existing literature on mistrust has overwhelmingly focused on how mistrust affects the trustor (person whose trust is violated) but not the trustee (the mistrusted person). This is problematic because conservation of resources theory (COR) suggests that perceived mistrust is a negative experience likely to affect the mistrusted employees’ subsequent attitudes and behaviors both at work and at home. To investigate this possibility, we conducted an experience sampling study of employees and their significant others over 3 consecutive workweeks. Consistent with COR, day by day perceptions of mistrust increased employees’ emotional exhaustion, consequently leading to withdrawal from colleagues at work and conflict toward their significant other at home. Moreover, supporting self‐enhancement (rather than self‐verification) theory, these effects were stronger when employees perceived mistrust to be high (vs. low) in justification. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of this research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Lange, Jens; Weidman, Aaron C.; Crusius, Jan (2018):The painful duality of envy: Evidence for an integrative theory and a meta-analysis on the relation of envy and schadenfreude.
In: J Pers Soc Psychol 114 (4), S. 572–598. DOI: 10.1037/pspi0000118.
Despite envy’s importance as a driver of social behavior, scholars disagree on its conceptualization. We review the literature and distinguish three incongruent theories: (a) Malicious Envy Theory (i.e., envy as uniform and malicious), (b) Dual Envy Theory (i.e., envy as taking on 2 forms, benign and malicious), and (c) Pain Theory of Envy (i.e., envy as uniform and driven by pain). Moreover, within and across theories, operationalizations of envy have included various different components. We integrate these conceptualizations using a data-driven approach, deriving a comprehensive theory of envy in 5 studies (total N = 1,237)—the Pain-driven Dual Envy (PaDE) Theory. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of an exhaustive set of envy components (Studies 1–4) suggest that envy consists of 3 factors: Pain (i.e., preoccupation with the envy-eliciting situation, inferiority), predicts both benign envy (i.e., desire for the envy object, improvement motivation, emulation of the other), and malicious envy (i.e., communication about the other, directed aggression, nondirected aggression). An experience-sampling study (Study 5) suggests that pain constitutes a quickly fading reaction, whereas benign and malicious envy are enduring attitudinal constructs. We apply this theory in a meta-analysis on the controversial relation of envy and schadenfreude (N = 4,366), finding that envy and schadenfreude are more strongly and positively correlated to the extent that the respective research operationalizes envy as malicious, compared with as pain or benign envy. We discuss how the PaDE Theory can illuminate research on envy in diverse settings, and envy’s relation to other distinct emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Lee, J. Hannah (2018):Can predictors of trait social anxiety also predict state social anxiety? Integrating personality and cultural variables of social anxiety in Asian Americans.
In: Asian Am J Psychol. DOI: 10.1037/aap0000120.
Considering the potential recall bias in global (trait) measures of social anxiety, this study of Asian Americans examined whether previous findings on trait social anxiety, as assessed by a global measure, could be replicated and extended to state social anxiety, as assessed by real-time experience sampling. Specifically, we examined whether the pattern of predictions by personality and cultural variables in an integrated model could be replicated and extended to social anxiety, and whether the usefulness of the five-factor theory of personality system as an integrated model could be also replicated and extended to state social anxiety. For the replication study, 204 participants completed global measures on social anxiety, the Big-Five personality traits, acculturation, enculturation, and bicultural identity integration (BII). For the extension study, 66 participants completed a mobile survey (5 random signals a day for 21 days via smartphone), and 3,895 valid momentary reports were used for data analysis. Path analysis showed that the integrated approach was still useful, and that predictions by personality and cultural variables for trait social anxiety were also consistent with the previous findings: BII-Conflict (a subscale of BII), Neuroticism, and Extraversion provided strong predictions. Overall, the pattern of predictions by personality and cultural variables was similar for trait and state social anxiety, except for Extraversion. Though Extraversion was the strongest predictor of trait social anxiety, its prediction did not extend to state social anxiety. Potential trait-state differences in measuring social anxiety in Asian Americans were further discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
What is the public significance of this article?—This study of Asian Americans explored the potential discrepancy in reports of social anxiety based on the reporting method: summarizing one’s experiences in social interactions over his or her entire lifetime versus recording how he or she feels at the moment of a social situation. Findings provided insights on how personality and cultural background influence the two types of social anxiety, which helps in understanding and assessing social anxiety in Asian American populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Lee, Will; Williams, David R.; Evans, Andrew (2018):Feasibility of Smartphone-Based Testing of Interference in Parkinson’s Disease.
In: Neuro-degenerative diseases 18 (2-3), S. 133–142. DOI: 10.1159/000488593.
BACKGROUND: Interference refers to learned associations and established behaviors “interfering” with response to new material. It forms a core pillar of executive functions, which are commonly affected in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Cognitive interference test (CIT) forms part of a smartphone application designed for ambulatory assessment in PD. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to establish that CIT could effectively demonstrate interference and would perform comparably to the Stroop Color-Word Test Victoria version (VST) despite PD-related motor impairment. METHODS: Ninety-nine patients with PD were recruited. Initial evaluation included CIT, VST, Montreal cognitive assessment (MOCA), and Movement Disorders Society-sponsored revision of the -Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS-III). A group of patients underwent repeat assessment within 2 weeks. Thirty-four healthy controls were recruited for comparison. RESULTS: Patients’ mean age was 66.2 years, disease duration was 8.7 years, on-state MDS-UPDRS-III was 22, and MOCA total score was 27. CIT effectively generated interference, whereby the total time taken to complete the incongruent task was 20% longer compared to that of the baseline task. CIT key test items demonstrated convergent validity to VST (r = 0.478-0.644, p < 0.0001) and satisfactory repeatability (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.46-0.808, p </= 0.0002). Performance on key CIT test parameters deteriorated with increasing age (r = 0.225-0.478, p < 0.01) and MDS-UPDRS-III total score (r = 0.354-0.481, p < 0.0001). When compared to controls and patients with less motor impairment, patients MDS-UPDRS-III > 30 took longer to complete CIT and VST and had lower MOCA-attention sub-score, implying that the degree of motor impairment could not be the sole explanation for reduced CIT performance. CONCLUSIONS: We established that despite motor impairment, the novel approach of using smartphone technology to test interference in PD patients is feasible.
Leersnyder, Jozefien de; Koval, Peter; Kuppens, Peter; Mesquita, Batja (2018):Emotions and concerns: Situational evidence for their systematic co-occurrence.
In: Emotion (Washington, D.C.) 18 (4), S. 597–614. DOI: 10.1037/emo0000314.
People experience emotions when events are relevant to their current concerns, that is, when events affect their goals, values, or motives that are pertinent at that time. In the current research, we focused on one kind of concern—values—and examined whether different types of concerns are associated with different categories of emotion. More specifically, we investigated whether, at the situation level, the relevance of different types of values is linked to the intensity of different types of emotional experience. We conducted two retrospective survey studies (Studies 1 and 2)—one of which was cross-cultural—and one experience-sampling study (Study three). Together, the three studies provide convergent evidence for associations between the situational relevance of self-focused values (e.g., ambition, success) and socially disengaging emotions (e.g., pride, anger) on the one hand, and between the relevance of other-focused values (e.g., loyalty, helping) and socially engaging emotions (e.g., closeness, shame) on the other. These findings challenge the (often implicit) assumption of emotion theories that different types of concerns are interchangeable—that is, that it does not matter for emotion which concern is relevant as long as one is. In contrast, the current research proposes that different concerns are constitutive elements of different emotional experiences and thus encourages new ways of thinking about emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Levinson, Cheri A.; Sala, Margarita; Fewell, Laura; Brosof, Leigh C.; Fournier, Lauren; Lenze, Eric J. (2018):Meal and snack-time eating disorder cognitions predict eating disorder behaviors and vice versa in a treatment seeking sample: A mobile technology based ecological momentary assessment study.
In: Behaviour research and therapy 105, S. 36–42. DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.03.008.
Individuals with eating disorders experience high anxiety when eating, which may contribute to the high relapse rates seen in the eating disorders. However, it is unknown if specific cognitions associated with such anxiety (e.g., fears of gaining weight) may lead to engagement in eating disorder behaviors (e.g., weighing oneself). Participants (N=66) recently treated at a residential eating disorder facility and diagnosed with an eating disorder (primarily anorexia nervosa; n=40; 60.6%) utilized a mobile application to answer questions about mealtime cognitions, anxiety, and eating disorder behaviors four times a day for one week. Hierarchical linear models using cross-lag analyses identified that there were quasi-causal (and sometimes reciprocal) within-person relationships between specific eating disorder cognitions and subsequent eating disorder behaviors. These cognitions predicted higher anxiety during the next meal and eating disorder pathology at one-month follow-up. Interventions personalized to target these specific cognitions in real time might reduce eating disorder relapse.
Li, James J.; Lansford, Jennifer E. (2018):A smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment of parental behavioral consistency: Associations with parental stress and child ADHD symptoms.
In: Developmental psychology 54 (6), S. 1086–1098. DOI: 10.1037/dev0000516.
Inconsistent parental discipline is a robust correlate of child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, but few studies have considered the role of inconsistent positive parenting on ADHD, as well as the effects of stress on negative and positive parental consistency. This study advanced a novel ecological momentary assessment (EMA) using participant smartphones to measure parental consistency, and examined its associations with family, social, and parenting-related dimensions of stress and child ADHD symptoms. Participants were 184 kindergartners with and without ADHD and their parents. Harsh and warm dimensions of parental behavior were assessed using questionnaires, observations, and an EMA administered through parents’ smartphones, which measured parent-child behaviors every day for a period of 1 week. Family, social, and parenting-related stress were assessed from questionnaires, and child ADHD symptoms were assessed from a fully structured diagnostic interview with the parent. Child ADHD symptoms were associated with variability in warm parenting behaviors, and higher levels of parenting-related stress were related to greater variability in harsh parenting behaviors. No significant interactions were detected between parental stress and child ADHD on parental variability. These findings suggest that different factors influence the consistency in parenting behavior, depending on whether positive parenting or negative parenting is assessed. Parent-based treatment programs for children with ADHD should include a stronger focus on reducing stress from parenting (e.g., teaching coping skills for parents), as this may lead to greater consistency in parental behavior more generally, and presumably better child outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record
Liao, Zhenyu; Yam, Kai Chi; Johnson, Russell E.; Liu, Wu; Song, Zhaoli (2018):Cleansing my abuse: A reparative response model of perpetrating abusive supervisor behavior.
In: The Journal of applied psychology. DOI: 10.1037/apl0000319.
Research on abusive supervision has predominantly focused on the consequences for victims while overlooking how leaders respond to their own abusive behavior. Drawing from the literature on moral cleansing, we posit that supervisors who engage in abusive behavior may paradoxically engage in more constructive leadership behaviors subsequently as a result of feeling guilty and perceiving loss of moral credits. Results from two experience sampling studies show that, within leaders on a daily basis, perpetrating abusive supervisor behavior led to an increase in experienced guilt and perceived loss of moral credits, which in turn motivated leaders to engage in more constructive person-oriented (consideration) and task-oriented (initiating structure) leadership behaviors. In addition, leader moral attentiveness and moral courage strengthen these indirect effects by amplifying leaders’ awareness of their immoral behavior and their willingness and determination to make reparations for such behavior. Our research contributes to the theoretical understanding of leaders’ responses toward their own abusive supervisor behavior and provides insights into how and when destructive leadership behaviors may, paradoxically, trigger more constructive behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Littlewood, Donna L.; Kyle, Simon D.; Carter, Lesley-Anne; Peters, Sarah; Pratt, Daniel; Gooding, Patricia (2018):Short sleep duration and poor sleep quality predict next-day suicidal ideation: an ecological momentary assessment study.
In: Psychological medicine, S. 1–9. DOI: 10.1017/S0033291718001009.
BACKGROUND: Sleep problems are a modifiable risk factor for suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Yet, sparse research has examined temporal relationships between sleep disturbance, suicidal ideation, and psychological factors implicated in suicide, such as entrapment. This is the first in-the-moment investigation of relationships between suicidal ideation, objective and subjective sleep parameters, and perceptions of entrapment. METHODS: Fifty-one participants with current suicidal ideation completed week-long ecological momentary assessments. An actigraph watch was worn for the duration of the study, which monitored total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and sleep latency. Daily sleep diaries captured subjective ratings of the same sleep parameters, with the addition of sleep quality. Suicidal ideation and entrapment were measured at six quasi-random time points each day. Multi-level random intercept models and moderation analyses were conducted to examine the links between sleep, entrapment, and suicidal ideation, adjusting for anxiety and depression severity. RESULTS: Analyses revealed a unidirectional relationship whereby short sleep duration (both objective and subjective measures), and poor sleep quality, predicted the higher severity of next-day suicidal ideation. However, there was no significant association between daytime suicidal ideation and sleep the following night. Sleep quality moderated the relationship between pre-sleep entrapment and awakening levels of suicidal ideation. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to report night-to-day relationships between sleep disturbance, suicidal ideation, and entrapment. Findings suggest that sleep quality may alter the strength of the relationship between pre-sleep entrapment and awakening suicidal ideation. Clinically, results underscore the importance of assessing and treating sleep disturbance when working with those experiencing suicidal ideation.
MacDonell, Karen; Naar, Sylvie; Gibson-Scipio, Wanda; Bruzzese, Jean-Marie; Wang, Bo; Brody, Aaron (2018):The Detroit Young Adult Asthma Project: Proposal for a Multicomponent Technology Intervention for African American Emerging Adults With Asthma.
In: JMIR research protocols 7 (5), e98. DOI: 10.2196/resprot.8872.
BACKGROUND: Racial and ethnic minority youth have poorer asthma status than white youth, even after controlling for socioeconomic variables. Proper use of asthma controller medications is critical in reducing asthma mortality and morbidity. The clinical consequences of poor asthma management include increased illness complications, excessive functional morbidity, and fatal asthma attacks. There are significant limitations in research on interventions to improve asthma management in racial minority populations, particularly minority adolescents and young adults, although illness management tends to deteriorate after adolescence during emerging adulthood, the unique developmental period beyond adolescence but before adulthood. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the pilot study was to test the feasibility, acceptability, and signals of efficacy of an intervention targeting adherence to controller medication in African American youth (ages 18-29) with asthma. All elements of the protocol were piloted in a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)-funded pilot study (1R34HL107664 MacDonell). Results suggested feasibility and acceptability of the protocol as well as proof of concept. We are now ready to test the intervention in a larger randomized clinical trial. METHODS: The proposed study will include 192 African American emerging adults with moderate to severe persistent asthma and low controller medication adherence recruited from clinic, emergency department, and community settings. Half of the sample will be randomized to receive a multicomponent technology-based intervention targeting adherence to daily controller medication. The multicomponent technology-based intervention consists of 2 components: (1) 2 sessions of computer-delivered motivational interviewing targeting medication adherence and (2) individualized text messaging focused on medication adherence between the sessions. Text messages will be individualized based on ecological momentary assessment. The remaining participants will complete a series of computer-delivered asthma education modules matched for length, location, and method of delivery of the intervention session. Control participants will also receive text messages between intervention sessions. Message content will be the same for all control participants and contain general facts about asthma (not tailored). RESULTS: It is hypothesized that youth randomized to multicomponent technology-based intervention will show improvements in medication adherence (primary outcome) and asthma control (secondary outcome) compared with comparison condition at all postintervention follow-ups (3, 6, 9, and 12 months). The proposed study was funded by NHLBI from September 1, 2016 through August 31, 2021. CONCLUSIONS: This project will test a brief, technology-based intervention specifically targeting adherence to asthma controller medications in an under-researched population, African American emerging adults. If successful, our multicomponent technology-based intervention aimed at improving adherence to asthma medications has the potential to improve quality of life of minority emerging adults with asthma at relatively low cost. It could eventually be integrated into clinical settings and practice to reach a large number of emerging adults with asthma. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03121157; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03121157 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6wq4yWHPv).
MacIntyre, Jessica M.; Ruscio, Aimee C.; Brede, Emily; Waters, Andrew J. (2018):Emotion dysregulation and negative affect: Laboratory and EMA investigations in smokers.
In: Addictive behaviors reports 7, S. 65–70. DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2018.01.001.
Introduction: Difficulties in emotion regulation are associated with addictive behaviors, including smoking. Difficulties in emotion regulation may underlie large, rapid changes in negative affect that can increase likelihood of relapse. We investigated the association between emotion regulation ability and negative affect in smokers assessed both in the laboratory and in the field using Ecological Momentary Assessment. Methods: Adult community smokers (N=44) carried a personal digital assistant (PDA) for two weeks and were instructed to complete assessments of negative affect multiple times per day. Participants were instructed that they could smoke as much or as little as they liked. The Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) were completed at three lab visits. Results: Participants with higher average DERS scores reported greater negative affect at lab visits. When a participant reported a DERS score at a lab visit higher than their individual average, they also reported higher negative affect at that lab visit. Participants with higher baseline DERS scores reported more labile negative affect during EMA than those with lower baseline DERS scores, and they also reported a higher maximum level of negative affect during EMA. Discussion and conclusions: Overall, the findings suggest that changes in emotion regulation are associated with negative affect and that emotion regulation ability is related to both the intensity and lability of negative affect. A better understanding of momentary changes in emotion regulation and negative affect may lead to improved interventions for preventing substance use relapse.
Mackesy-Amiti, Mary E.; Boodram, Basmattee (2018):Feasibility of ecological momentary assessment to study mood and risk behavior among young people who inject drugs.
In: Drug and alcohol dependence 187, S. 227–235. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.03.016.
AIMS: To test the acceptability and feasibility of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of mood and injection risk behavior among young people who inject drugs (PWID), using mobile phones. METHODS: Participants were 185 PWID age 18-35 recruited from two sites of a large syringe service program in Chicago. After completing a baseline interview, participants used a mobile phone app to respond to momentary surveys on mood, substance use, and injection risk behavior for 15days. Participants were assigned to receive surveys 4, 5, or 6 times per day. RESULTS: Participants were 68% male, 61% non-Hispanic white, 24% Hispanic, and 5% non-Hispanic Black. Out of 185 participants, 8% (n=15) failed to complete any EMA assessments. Among 170 EMA responders, the mean number of days reporting was 10 (SD 4.7), the mean proportion of assessments completed was 0.43 (SD 0.27), and 76% (n=130) completed the follow-up interview. In analyses adjusted for age and race/ethnicity, women were more responsive than men to the EMA surveys in days reporting (IRR=1.33, 95% CI 1.13-1.56), and total number of surveys completed (IRR=1.51, 95% CI 1.18-1.93). Homeless participants responded on fewer days (IRR=0.76, 95% CI 0.64-0.90) and completed fewer surveys (IRR=0.70, 95% CI 0.54-0.91), and were less likely to return for follow-up (p=0.016). EMA responsiveness was not significantly affected by the number of assigned daily assessments. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated high acceptability and feasibility of EMA among young PWID, with up to 6 survey prompts per day. However, homelessness significantly hampered successful participation.
MacLean, Robert Ross; Waters, Andrew J.; Brede, Emily; Sofuoglu, Mehmet (2018):Effects of galantamine on smoking behavior and cognitive performance in treatment‐seeking smokers prior to a quit attempt.
In: Human psychopharmacology. DOI: 10.1002/hup.2665.
Objective Drugs that enhance cholinergic transmission have demonstrated promise treating addictive disorders. Galantamine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, may reduce cigarette smoking in otherwise healthy treatment‐seeking smokers. Methods The current study is a double‐blind, placebo‐controlled, study that randomized daily smokers (n = 60) to receive one of two doses of galantamine extended release (8 or 16 mg/day), or a placebo treatment. Participants completed a smoking choice task as well as study measures and cognitive tasks in the laboratory and daily life using ecological momentary assessment. Analysis focused on smoking behavior and satisfaction, cognitive performance, and decision to smoke prior to a quit attempt. Results Linear mixed models demonstrated that, compared with placebo, both doses of galantamine reduced smoking in a laboratory choice task (p = 0.006) and decreased urine cotinine levels, but not self‐reported cigarettes, during the pre‐quit period (p = 0.007). Treatment had minimal effect on smoking satisfaction or cognitive performance. Conclusions The results suggest that galantamine reduces nicotine intake but it is unlikely that galantamine improves cognitive performance in otherwise healthy, treatment‐seeking smokers. Larger randomized clinical trials can determine if galantamine adjunctive to addiction treatment can improve smoking treatment outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Maekawa, Toru; Anderson, Stephen J.; Brecht, Matthew de; Yamagishi, Noriko (2018):The effect of mood state on visual search times for detecting a target in noise: An application of smartphone technology.
In: PloS one 13 (4), e0195865. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0195865.
The study of visual perception has largely been completed without regard to the influence that an individual’s emotional status may have on their performance in visual tasks. However, there is a growing body of evidence to suggest that mood may affect not only creative abilities and interpersonal skills but also the capacity to perform low-level cognitive tasks. Here, we sought to determine whether rudimentary visual search processes are similarly affected by emotion. Specifically, we examined whether an individual’s perceived happiness level affects their ability to detect a target in noise. To do so, we employed pop-out and serial visual search paradigms, implemented using a novel smartphone application that allowed search times and self-rated levels of happiness to be recorded throughout each twenty-four-hour period for two weeks. This experience sampling protocol circumvented the need to alter mood artificially with laboratory-based induction methods. Using our smartphone application, we were able to replicate the classic visual search findings, whereby pop-out search times remained largely unaffected by the number of distractors whereas serial search times increased with increasing number of distractors. While pop-out search times were unaffected by happiness level, serial search times with the maximum numbers of distractors (n = 30) were significantly faster for high happiness levels than low happiness levels (p = 0.02). Our results demonstrate the utility of smartphone applications in assessing ecologically valid measures of human visual performance. We discuss the significance of our findings for the assessment of basic visual functions using search time measures, and for our ability to search effectively for targets in real world settings.
Magallon-Neri, E.; Kirchner, T.; Forns, M.; Calderon, C.; Planellas, I. (2018):Ecological momentary assessment of contextual variables, satisfaction, and emotional and behavioral states of adolescents by level of victimization.
In: Child abuse & neglect 80, S. 268–276. DOI: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2018.03.030.
The harmful effects of victimization on mental health have been demonstrated in several age groups, cultures, and populations, but there is wide variability in the resulting psychopathology. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) allows the expression of an emotional state to be recorded at any given time and linked to a situation or context. This study aimed to analyze the contextual variables (where, with whom, and what), momentary satisfaction, and perception of momentary emotional and behavioral symptoms in a cohort of adolescents by the level of victimization, using EMA. We explored the everyday symptom profiles and the contexts in which events took place among 100 adolescents over a one-week period. Sociodemographic data were collected and assessment was done using the EMA (as a smartphone application) and the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (to assess childhood and adolescent victimization). In this study, regarding contextual variables, the group with the highest level of victimization (top 10%) showed a significant relationship with being away from home and being with friends other than classmates, and not being with parents or relatives. There was also an unexpectedly higher frequency of sporting engagement in this group. A relationship existed between emotional and behavioral problems and higher levels of victimization. In conclusion, the different groups of victimized subjects present a relatively high level of satisfaction in relation to the daily contexts and show low levels of emotional and behavioral symptomatology.
Magee, Carly; Biesanz, Jeremy C. (2018):Toward understanding the relationship between personality and well‐being states and traits.
In: Journal of personality. DOI: 10.1111/jopy.12389.
Objective Although there is a robust connection between dispositional personality traits and well‐being, relatively little research has comprehensively examined the ways in which all Big Five personality states are associated with short‐term experiences of well‐being within individuals. We address three central questions about the nature of the relationship between personality and well‐being states: First, to what extent do personality and well‐being states covary within individuals? Second, to what extent do personality and well‐being states influence one another within individuals? Finally, are these within‐person relationships moderated by dispositional personality traits and well‐being? Method Two experience sampling studies (N = 161 and N = 146) were conducted over 2 weeks. Results Across both studies, all Big Five personality states were correlated with short‐term experiences of well‐being within individuals. Individuals were more extraverted, emotionally stable, conscientious, agreeable, and open in moments when they experienced higher well‐being (greater self‐esteem, life satisfaction and positive affect, and less negative affect). Moreover, personality and well‐being states dynamically influenced one another over time within individuals, and these associations were not generally moderated by dispositional traits or well‐being. Conclusions Behavior and well‐being are interconnected within the context of the Big Five model of personality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Maillet, David; Beaty, Roger E.; Jordano, Megan L.; Touron, Dayna R.; Adnan, Areeba; Silvia, Paul J. et al. (2018):Age-related differences in mind-wandering in daily life.
In: Psychology and aging 33 (4), S. 643–653. DOI: 10.1037/pag0000260.
In recent years, several laboratory studies have indicated that healthy older adults exhibit a reduction in mind-wandering frequency compared with young adults. However, it is unclear if these findings extend to daily life settings. In the current study, using experience sampling over the course of a week in the daily life of 31 young and 20 older adults, we assessed age-related differences in: (a) mind-wandering frequency, (b) the relationship between affect and mind-wandering frequency, and (c) content of mind wandering. Older adults mind wandered less than young adults in daily life. Across age groups, negative affect was positively associated with mind-wandering occurrence. Finally, older adults reported that their thoughts were more pleasant, interesting, and clear compared with young adults, who had thoughts that were more dreamlike, novel, strange, and racing. Our results provide the first demonstration using thought sampling that older adults exhibit a reduction in mind-wandering frequency in daily life. Implications for current theories of age-related reductions in mind-wandering frequency are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record
Manasse, Stephanie M.; Crochiere, Rebecca J.; Dallal, Diane H.; Lieber, Edward W.; Schumacher, Leah M.; Crosby, Ross D. et al. (2018):A multimodal investigation of impulsivity as a moderator of the relation between momentary elevations in negative internal states and subsequent dietary lapses.
In: Appetite 127, S. 52–58. DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.04.025.
Suboptimal outcomes from behavioral weight loss (BWL) treatments are partially attributable to accumulated instances of non-adherence to dietary prescriptions (i.e., dietary lapses). Results identifying negative internal triggers for dietary lapses are inconsistent, potentially due to individual differences that impact how individuals respond to cues. Impulsivity is one factor that likely influences reactivity to internal states. We examined three dimensions of impulsivity (delay discounting, inhibitory control, and negative urgency) as moderators of the relation between affective and physical states and subsequent dietary lapses at the beginning of BWL. Overweight/obese adults (n=189) completed behavioral and self-reported measures of impulsivity at baseline of BWL and an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) protocol across the first two weeks of treatment to report on affective/physical states and instances of dietary lapses. Results indicated that baseline negative urgency, but not delay discounting or inhibitory control, was positively associated with overall lapse risk. Moderation analyses indicated that poorer inhibitory control strengthened the relation between momentary increases in stress and subsequent dietary lapse, and higher negative urgency strengthened the relation between increases in loneliness and dietary lapse. Negative urgency also moderated the impact of momentary hunger on subsequent dietary lapse risk in an unexpected direction, such that higher negative urgency weakened the relation between hunger and subsequent lapse. Results lend partial and tentative support for the moderating role of impulsivity on the relation between internal states and lapse likelihood. With replication, the development and testing of personalized treatment components based on baseline impulsivity level may be warranted.
Marcusson-Clavertz, David; Kjell, Oscar N. E. (2018):Psychometric properties of the Spontaneous and Deliberate Mind Wandering Scales.
In: Eur J Psychol Assess. DOI: 10.1027/1015-5759/a000470.
Thinking about task-unrelated matters (mind wandering) is related to cognition and well-being. However, the relations between mind wandering and other psychological variables may depend on whether the former commence spontaneously or deliberately. The current two studies investigated the psychometric properties of the Spontaneous and Deliberate Mind Wandering Scales (SDMWS; Carriere, Seli, & Smilek, 2013). Study 1 evaluated the stability of the scales over 2 weeks (N = 284 at Time 1), whereas Study 2 (N = 323) evaluated their relations to Generalized anxiety disorder symptoms, Openness, Social desirability, and experience-sampling reports of intentional and unintentional mind wandering during an online cognitive task. The results indicated that the SDMWS were better fitted with a two-factor than a one-factor solution, although the fit was improved with the exclusion of one item. The scales exhibited strong measurement invariance across gender and time, and moderately high test-retest reliability. Spontaneous mind wandering predicted Generalized anxiety disorder and experience-sampling reports of unintentional mind wandering, whereas Deliberate mind wandering predicted Openness and experience-sampling reports of intentional mind wandering. Furthermore, Spontaneous mind wandering showed a negative association with social desirability of weak-to-medium strength. In sum, the scales generally showed favorable psychometric properties. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Marquet, Oriol; Alberico, Claudia; Hipp, Aaron J. (2018):Pokémon GO and physical activity among college students. A study using Ecological Momentary Assessment.
In: Comput Human Behav 81, S. 215–222. DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2017.12.028.
The popularity of the augmented reality smartphone game, Pokémon GO, prompted multiple possibilities regarding its utilization as a mechanism to increase physical activity (PA) levels among young adults. A better comprehension of the gameplay characteristics may aid researchers and game developers in the implementation/design of interventions and games which provide the greatest chances at promoting health. A sample of 74 US college students were asked to complete a pre and post online survey and to install an Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) tool and a step counter on their smartphones. The EMA tool prompted a set of questions on playing behavior and PA three times per day (12pm, 7pm, 10pm) for seven days. Linear mixed effects regression models were used to address the relationship between gameplay characteristics (time of play, play context, playing environment, social play) and PA at each time of the day. Playing Pokémon GO was associated with higher PA when playing occurred during weekdays and during daytime and also among those who played while being active (i.e., walking). During weekends, this association was only found in the morning or late in the evening (after 7pm). Accumulating three or more active playing episodes per day was associated with an increase of 1526 daily steps. Pokémon GO has uneven effects on player’s PA. However, under the right circumstances such as the time of day during which playing occurs, or where the playing takes place, Pokémon GO can become a useful tool for health promotion among young adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Mason, Tyler B.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Engel, Scott G.; Mitchell, James E.; Crow, Scott J. et al. (2018):Associations among eating disorder behaviors and eating disorder quality of life in adult women with anorexia nervosa.
In: Psychiatry research 267, S. 108–111. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2018.05.077.
The study examined associations between eating disorder behaviors measured via ecological momentary assessment (EMA) and eating disorder quality of life (EDQOL) in anorexia nervosa (AN). Women with AN (N=82) completed an EDQOL measure and two-weeks of EMA. Greater frequency of EMA-assessed restriction and bulimic behavior were independently related to lower EDQOL scores. Lower psychological EDQOL was associated with increased EMA dietary restriction; lower work-related EDQOL was associated with increased EMA binge eating; aspects of EDQOL were unrelated to EMA purging. Findings suggest that severity of restriction and bulimic behaviors may serve as severity indicators of EDQOL in AN.
Mayhugh, Rhiannon E.; Rejeski, W. Jack; Petrie, Meredith R.; Laurienti, Paul J.; Gauvin, Lise (2018):Differing patterns of stress and craving across the day in moderate-heavy alcohol consumers during their typical drinking routine and an imposed period of alcohol abstinence.
In: PloS one 13 (4), e0195063. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0195063.
BACKGROUND: Stress is a known factor related to alcohol use. However, how the relationship between alcohol craving and stress varies across the day is not fully understood. As craving is a consistent predictor of alcohol use disorder (AUD), understanding stress and craving patterns across the day in routine, non-dependent, moderate-heavy alcohol consumers may help in understanding those who may be vulnerable to transitioning into AUD. METHOD: Moderate-heavy drinkers were recruited from the local community (n = 32) and assessed for fluctuations in craving and stress intensity across the day via Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) during 3 consecutive days of imposed alcohol abstinence (abstained trial) and their normal drinking routine (normal trial). A multilevel modeling statistical approach assessed differences in diurnal craving and stress patterns with the Alcohol Craving Experience Questionnaire (ACE) examined as a moderator. RESULTS: Immediately following alcohol consumption on normal trials, EMA craving levels were significantly reduced compared to pre-drinking levels. Moreover, the post-drinking craving levels were lower than on abstained trials. Higher ACE scores were associated with significantly higher EMA craving across the day and higher peaks at midday. Higher ACE scores were also associated with greater EMA stress across the day. Drinking relieved stress relative to abstained trials, but not in individuals with higher ACE scores. Higher stress was associated with greater EMA craving, which was stronger among those with higher ACE scores. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that ACE scores are important to understanding patterns of stress and craving experienced across the day in routine, non-dependent, moderate-heavy drinkers and may provide new insights for vulnerability to transitioning into AUD.
McClure, Erin A.; Tomko, Rachel L.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Treiber, Frank A.; Gray, Kevin M. (2018):Acceptability and compliance with a remote monitoring system to track smoking and abstinence among young smokers.
In: The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse, S. 1–10. DOI: 10.1080/00952990.2018.1467431.
BACKGROUND: Similar to adult smokers, quit attempts among younger smokers almost inevitably result in relapse. Unlike adults, less is known about the process of relapse in this younger age group. A technology-based remote monitoring system may allow for detailed and accurate characterization of smoking and abstinence and would help to improve cessation strategies. OBJECTIVES: This study describes a mobile system that captures smoking using breath carbon monoxide (CO) and real-time self-reports of smoking behavior. Compliance, feasibility, acceptability, and accuracy of the system were measured during a quit attempt and subsequent monitoring period. METHODS: The mobile application (My Mobile Monitor, M(3)) combined breath CO with ecological momentary assessment, delivered via smartphone. Participants (N = 16; 75% female) were daily smokers between the ages of 19 and 25, who used the app for 11 days during which they agreed to make a quit attempt. Acceptability, compliance, and abstinence were measured. RESULTS: Participants averaged 22.3 +/- 2.0 years old and smoked an average of 13.0 +/- 6.1 cigarettes per day. Overall session compliance was 69% and during the quit attempt, 56% of participants abstained from smoking for at least 24 hours. Agreement between self-reported smoking compared to breath CO was generally high, when available for comparison, though underreporting of cigarettes was likely. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates feasibility of a remote monitoring app with younger smokers, though improvements to promote compliance are needed. Remote monitoring to detect smoking and abstinence represents a step forward in the improvement of cessation strategies, but user experience and personalization are vital.
Meehan, Kevin B.; Cain, Nicole M.; Roche, Michael J.; Clarkin, John F.; Panfilis, Chiara de (2018):Rejection sensitivity and interpersonal behavior in daily life.
In: Pers Individ Dif 126, S. 109–115. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2018.01.029.
Rejection sensitivity (RS) was evaluated as a moderator of the relationship between perceptions of others and interpersonal behavior over the course of a week. Participants (n = 240) were non-clinical young adults who completed a 7-day event-contingent experience sampling study of interpersonal perception and affect. Multilevel linear models indicated that those with high RS were less agentically responsive to their interaction partner’s agency and positive affect. Further, those with high RS exhibited cold, unfriendly behavior in response to their interaction partner’s negative and subdued affect. Findings suggest an avoidant stance in those with high RS, which may aim to avoid but likely invites the very rejection they fear. Implications and limitations of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Mereish, Ethan H.; Padovano, Hayley Treloar; Wemm, Stephanie; Miranda, Robert, JR (2018):Appetitive startle modulation in the human laboratory predicts Cannabis craving in the natural environment.
In: Psychopharmacology 235 (7), S. 1933–1943. DOI: 10.1007/s00213-018-4890-z.
RATIONALE: Drug-related cues evoke craving and stimulate motivational systems in the brain. The acoustic startle reflex captures activation of these motivational processes and affords a unique measure of reactivity to drug cues. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the effects of cannabis-related cues on subjective and eye blink startle reactivity in the human laboratory and tested whether these effects predicted youth’s cue-elicited cannabis craving in the natural environment. METHODS: Participants were 55 frequent cannabis users, ages 16 to 24 years (M = 19.9, SD = 1.9; 55% male; 56% met criteria for cannabis dependence), who were recruited from a clinical trial to reduce cannabis use. Eye blink electromyographic activity was recorded in response to acoustic probes that elicited startle reactivity while participants viewed pleasant, unpleasant, neutral, and cannabis picture cues. Following the startle assessment, participants completed an ecological momentary assessment protocol that involved repeated assessments of cue-elicited craving in real time in their real-world environments. RESULTS: Multilevel models included the presence or absence of visible cannabis cues in the natural environment, startle magnitude, and the cross-level interaction of cues by startle to test whether cue-modulated startle reactivity in the laboratory was associated with cue-elicited craving in the natural environment. Analyses showed that cannabis-related stimuli evoked an appetitive startle response pattern in the laboratory, and this effect was associated with increased cue-elicited craving in the natural environment, b = – 0.15, p = .022, 95% CI [- 0.28, - 0.02]. Pleasant stimuli also evoked an appetitive response pattern, but in this case, blunted response was associated with increased cue-elicited craving in the natural environment, b = 0.27, p < .001, 95% CI [0.12, 0.43]. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support cue-modulated startle reactivity as an index of the phenotypic expression of cue-elicited cannabis craving.
Mills, Jacqueline; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew (2018):Nature and consequences of positively-intended fat talk in daily life.
In: Body image 26, S. 38–49. DOI: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2018.05.004.
The current study used ecological momentary assessment to explore the frequency, trait predictors, and momentary consequences of positively-intended fat talk, a specific sub-type of fat talk that involves making negative comments about one’s own appearance with the view to making someone else feel better. A total of 135 women aged 18-40 completed trait measures of appearance-based comparisons, thin-ideal internalisation, body shame, and body surveillance, before completing a state-based component, involving six short surveys delivered via a smartphone app at random points during the day for seven days. Findings indicate that both self- and other-fat talk are common in daily social interactions, and that individuals with higher levels of trait negative body image were more likely to engage in fat talk. Self-fat talk negatively impacted state body satisfaction levels. Possible theoretical and practical implications are outlined.
Mishra, Varun; Caine, Kelly; Lowens, Byron; Kotz, David; Lord, Sarah (2017):Investigating Contextual Cues as Indicators for EMA Delivery.
In: Proceedings of the … ACM International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing. UbiComp (Conference) 2017, S. 935–940. DOI: 10.1145/3123024.3124571.
In this work, we attempt to determine whether the contextual information of a participant can be used to predict whether the participant will respond to a particular Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) trigger. We use a publicly available dataset for our work, and find that by using basic contextual features about the participant’s activity, conversation status, audio, and location, we can predict if an EMA triggered at a particular time will be answered with a precision of 0.647, which is significantly higher than a baseline precision of 0.41. Using this knowledge, the researchers conducting field studies can efficiently schedule EMAs and achieve higher response rates.
Molenaar, Peter C. M. (2018):Granger causality testing with intensive longitudinal data.
In: Prevention science : the official journal of the Society for Prevention Research. DOI: 10.1007/s11121-018-0919-0.
The availability of intensive longitudinal data obtained by means of ambulatory assessment opens up new prospects for prevention research in that it allows the derivation of subject-specific dynamic networks of interacting variables by means of vector autoregressive (VAR) modeling. The dynamic networks thus obtained can be subjected to Granger causality testing in order to identify causal relations among the observed time-dependent variables. VARs have two equivalent representations: standard and structural. Results obtained with Granger causality testing depend upon which representation is chosen, yet no criteria exist on which this important choice can be based. A new equivalent representation is introduced called hybrid VARs with which the best representation can be chosen in a data-driven way. Partial directed coherence, a frequency-domain statistic for Granger causality testing, is shown to perform optimally when based on hybrid VARs. An application to real data is provided. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Moore, Alan Tonnies; Schwitzgebel, Eric (2018):The experience of reading.
In: Consciousness and cognition 62, S. 57–68. DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2018.03.011.
What do people consciously experience when they read? There has been almost no rigorous research on this question, and opinions diverge radically among both philosophers and psychologists. We describe three studies of the phenomenology of reading and its relationship to memory of textual detail and general cognitive abilities. We find three main results. First, there is substantial variability in reports about reading experience, both within and between participants. Second, reported reading experience varies with passage type: passages with dialogue prompted increased reports of inner speech, while passages with vivid visual detail prompted increased reports of visual imagery. Third, reports of visual imagery experiences, inner speech experiences, and experiences of conscious visual perception of the words on the page were at best weakly related to general cognitive abilities and memory of visual and auditory details.
Moran, Erin K.; Culbreth, Adam J.; Barch, Deanna M. (2018):Emotion Regulation Predicts Everyday Emotion Experience and Social Function in Schizophrenia.
In: Clinical psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science 6 (2), S. 271–279. DOI: 10.1177/2167702617738827.
While recent evidence has pointed to disturbances in emotion regulation strategy use in schizophrenia, few studies have examined how these regulation strategies relate to emotionality and social behavior in daily life. Using ecological momentary assessment (EMA), we investigated the relationship between emotion regulation, emotional experience and social interaction in the daily lives of individuals with schizophrenia. Participants (N=30) used mobile phones to complete online questionnaires reporting their daily emotional experience and social interaction. Participants also completed self-report measures of habitual emotion regulation. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that self-reported use of cognitive reappraisal and savoring of emotional experiences were related to greater positive emotion in daily life. In contrast, self-reported suppression was related to greater negative emotion, reduced positive emotion and reduced social interaction in daily life. These findings suggest that individual differences in habitual emotion regulation strategy usage have important relationships to every day emotional and social experiences in schizophrenia.
Moran, Landhing M.; Kowalczyk, William J.; Phillips, Karran A.; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Lin, Jia-Ling; Mezghanni, Mustapha et al. (2018):Sex differences in daily life stress and craving in opioid-dependent patients.
In: The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse, S. 1–12. DOI: 10.1080/00952990.2018.1454934.
BACKGROUND: Responses to stress and drug craving differ between men and women. Differences in the momentary experience of stress in relation to craving are less well-understood. OBJECTIVES: Using ecological momentary assessment (EMA), we examined sex differences in real-time in two areas: (1) causes and contexts associated with stress, and (2) the extent to which stress and drug cues are associated with craving. METHODS: Outpatients on opioid-agonist treatment (135 males, 47 females) reported stress, craving, and behavior on smartphones for 16 weeks. They initiated an entry each time they felt more stressed than usual (stress event) and made randomly prompted entries 3 times/day. In stress-event entries, they identified the causes and context (location, activity, companions), and rated stress and craving severity. RESULTS: The causes reported for stress events did not differ significantly by sex. Women reported arguing and being in a store more often during stress events, and men reported working more often during stress events, compared to base rates (assessed via random prompts). Women showed a greater increase in opioid craving as a function of stress (p < 0.0001) and had higher stress ratings in the presence of both stress and drug cues relative to men (p < 0.01). Similar effects were found for cocaine craving in men (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: EMA methods provide evidence based on real-time activities and moods that opioid-dependent men and women experience similar contexts and causes for stress but differ in stress- and cue-induced craving. These findings support sex-based tailoring of treatment, but because not all participants conformed to the overall pattern of sex differences, any such tailoring should also consider person-level differences.
Most, Jasper; Vallo, Porsha M.; Altazan, Abby D.; Gilmore, Linda Anne; Sutton, Elizabeth F.; Cain, Loren E. et al. (2018):Food Photography Is Not an Accurate Measure of Energy Intake in Obese, Pregnant Women.
In: The Journal of nutrition 148 (4), S. 658–663. DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxy009.
Background: To improve weight management in pregnant women, there is a need to deliver specific, data-based recommendations on energy intake. Objective: This cross-sectional study evaluated the accuracy of an electronic reporting method to measure daily energy intake in pregnant women compared with total daily energy expenditure (TDEE). Methods: Twenty-three obese [mean +/- SEM body mass index (kg/m2): 36.9 +/- 1.3] pregnant women (aged 28.3 +/-1.1 y) used a smartphone application to capture images of their food selection and plate waste in free-living conditions for >/=6 d in early (13-16 wk) and late (35-37 wk) pregnancy. Energy intake was evaluated by the smartphone application SmartIntake and compared with simultaneous assessment of TDEE obtained by doubly labeled water. Accuracy was defined as reported energy intake compared with TDEE (percentage of TDEE). Ecological momentary assessment prompts were used to enhance data reporting. Two-one-sided t tests for the 2 methods were used to assess equivalency, which was considered significant when accuracy was >80%. Results: Energy intake reported by the SmartIntake application was 63.4% +/- 2.3% of TDEE measured by doubly labeled water (P = 1.00). Energy intake reported as snacks accounted for 17% +/- 2% of reported energy intake. Participants who used their own phones compared with participants who used borrowed phones captured more images (P = 0.04) and had higher accuracy (73% +/- 3% compared with 60% +/- 3% of TDEE; P = 0.01). Reported energy intake as snacks was significantly associated with the accuracy of SmartIntake (P = 0.03). To improve data quality, excluding erroneous days of likely underreporting (<60% TDEE) improved the accuracy of SmartIntake, yet this was not equivalent to TDEE (-22% +/- 1% of TDEE; P = 1.00). Conclusions: Energy intake in obese, pregnant women obtained with the use of an electronic reporting method (SmartIntake) does not accurately estimate energy intake compared with doubly labeled water. However, accuracy improves by applying criteria to eliminate erroneous data. Further evaluation of electronic reporting in this population is needed to improve compliance, specifically for reporting frequent intake of small meals. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01954342.
Moukhtarian, Talar R.; Mintah, Ruth S.; Moran, Paul; Asherson, Philip (2018):Emotion dysregulation in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and borderline personality disorder.
In: Borderline personality disorder and emotion dysregulation 5, S. 9. DOI: 10.1186/s40479-018-0086-8.
There is ongoing debate on the overlap between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), particularly regarding emotion dysregulation (ED). In this paper, we present a narrative review of the available evidence on the association of these two disorders from several standpoints. First, we discuss the unique and shared diagnostic criteria for ADHD and BPD, focusing particularly on ED. We consider the methodology of ecological momentary assessment and discuss why this approach could be an alternative and more accurate way to qualitatively distinguish between ADHD and BPD. We summarise key findings on the genetic and environmental risk factors for ADHD and BPD and the extent to which there are shared or unique aetiological and neurobiological risk factors. Finally, we discuss the clinical relevance of considering both disorders in the assessment of patients presenting with trait-like behavioural syndromes, distinguishing the two conditions and implications for treatment.
Mulvaney, Shelagh A.; Vaala, Sarah; Hood, Korey K.; Lybarger, Cindy; Carroll, Rachel; Williams, Laura et al. (2018):Mobile Momentary Assessment and Biobehavioral Feedback for Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: Feasibility and Engagement Patterns.
In: Diabetes technology & therapeutics 20 (7), S. 465–474. DOI: 10.1089/dia.2018.0064.
BACKGROUND: Integration of momentary contextual and psychosocial factors within self-management feedback may provide more specific, engaging, and personalized targets for problem solving. METHODS: Forty-four youth ages 13-19 with type 1 diabetes (T1D) were provided a Bluetooth meter and completed the 30-day protocol. Participants were randomized to “app + meter” or “meter-only” groups. App + meter participants completed mealtime and bedtime assessment each day. Assessments focused on psychosocial and contextual information relevant for self-management. Graphical feedback integrated self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG), insulin, and Bluetooth-transmitted blood glucose data with the psychosocial and contextual data. App + meter participants completed an interview to identify data patterns. RESULTS: The median number of momentary assessments per participant was 80.0 (range 32-120) with 2.60 per day. By 2 weeks participants had an average of 40.77 (SD 12.23) assessments. Dose-response analyses indicated that the number of app assessments submitted were significantly related to higher mean daily SMBG (r = -0.44, P < 0.05) and to lower% missed mealtime SMBG (r = -0.47, P < 0.01). Number of feedback viewing sessions was also significantly related to a lower% missed mealtime SMBG (r = -0.44, P < 0.05). Controlling for baseline variables, mixed-effects analyses did not indicate group x time differences in mean daily SMBG. Engagement analyses resulted in three trajectory groups distinguished by assessment frequencies and rates of decline. Engagement group membership was significantly related to gender, mean daily SMBG, and HbA1c values. CONCLUSIONS: Momentary assessment combined with device data provided a feasible means to provide novel personalized biobehavioral feedback for adolescents with T1D. A 2-week protocol provided sufficient data for self-management problem identification. In addition to feedback, more intensive intervention may need to be integrated for those patients with the lowest self-management at baseline.
Myin-Germeys, Inez; Kasanova, Zuzana; Vaessen, Thomas; Vachon, Hugo; Kirtley, Olivia; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Reininghaus, Ulrich (2018):Experience sampling methodology in mental health research: new insights and technical developments.
In: World psychiatry : official journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA) 17 (2), S. 123–132. DOI: 10.1002/wps.20513.
In the mental health field, there is a growing awareness that the study of psychiatric symptoms in the context of everyday life, using experience sampling methodology (ESM), may provide a powerful and necessary addition to more conventional research approaches. ESM, a structured self-report diary technique, allows the investigation of experiences within, and in interaction with, the real-world context. This paper provides an overview of how zooming in on the micro-level of experience and behaviour using ESM adds new insights and additional perspectives to standard approaches. More specifically, it discusses how ESM: a) contributes to a deeper understanding of psychopathological phenomena, b) allows to capture variability over time, c) aids in identifying internal and situational determinants of variability in symptomatology, and d) enables a thorough investigation of the interaction between the person and his/her environment and of real-life social interactions. Next to improving assessment of psychopathology and its underlying mechanisms, ESM contributes to advancing and changing clinical practice by allowing a more fine-grained evaluation of treatment effects as well as by providing the opportunity for extending treatment beyond the clinical setting into real life with the development of ecological momentary interventions. Furthermore, this paper provides an overview of the technical details of setting up an ESM study in terms of design, questionnaire development and statistical approaches. Overall, although a number of considerations and challenges remain, ESM offers one of the best opportunities for personalized medicine in psychiatry, from both a research and a clinical perspective.
Neubauer, Andreas B.; Smyth, Joshua M.; Sliwinski, Martin J. (2018):When you see it coming: Stressor anticipation modulates stress effects on negative affect.
In: Emotion (Washington, D.C.) 18 (3), S. 342–354. DOI: 10.1037/emo0000381.
Research on the effect of exposure to minor stressors in people’s daily lives consistently reports negative effects on indicators of well-being, often coined stress reactivity. Recent advances in the intensity of data collection have brought about an increasing interest in within-day associations of stress exposure and indicators of well-being, including dynamic aspects of the stress response such as stress recovery. In the present work, we investigated the other end of the stress response: the anticipation of a stressor. We hypothesized that anticipation of an upcoming stressor would be accompanied by higher negative affect. Based on the anticipatory coping account, lower negative affect after occurrence of anticipated (vs. not anticipated) stressors was predicted. We approached this question with a measurement burst study that allowed us to disentangle variation in stress processes across different time scales. One-hundred and seventy-five participants (mean age = 50, range 20–79) completed up to 3 measurement bursts. Each burst consisted of an ecological momentary assessment with 5 assessments per day over 7 days. In line with our expectations, negative affect was significantly higher after stressor anticipation, especially on days with high levels of intrusive thoughts. However, negative affect was not lower after anticipated (vs. not anticipated) stressors. Findings point to the role of perseverative cognition in the effect of stressor anticipation. Directions for future research including the role of controllability and effects on stress recovery are outlined. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Paolillo, Emily W.; Tang, Bin; Depp, Colin A.; Rooney, Alexandra S.; Vaida, Florin; Kaufmann, Christopher N. et al. (2018):Temporal Associations Between Social Activity and Mood, Fatigue, and Pain in Older Adults With HIV: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study.
In: JMIR mental health 5 (2), e38. DOI: 10.2196/mental.9802.
BACKGROUND: Social isolation is associated with an increased risk for mental and physical health problems, especially among older persons living with HIV (PLWH). Thus, there is a need to better understand real-time temporal associations between social activity and mood- and health-related factors in this population to inform possible future interventions. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine real-time relationships between social activity and mood, fatigue, and pain in a sample of older PLWH. METHODS: A total of 20 older PLWH, recruited from the University of California, San Diego HIV Neurobehavioral Research Program in 2016, completed smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment (EMA) surveys 5 times per day for 1 week. Participants reported their current social activity (alone vs not alone and number of social interactions) and levels of mood (sadness, happiness, and stress), fatigue, and pain. Mixed-effects regression models were used to analyze concurrent and lagged associations among social activity, mood, fatigue, and pain. RESULTS: Participants (mean age 58.8, SD 4.3 years) reported being alone 63% of the time, on average, (SD 31.5%) during waking hours. Being alone was related to lower concurrent happiness (beta=-.300; 95% CI -.525 to -.079; P=.008). In lagged analyses, social activity predicted higher levels of fatigue later in the day (beta=-1.089; 95% CI -1.780 to -0.396; P=.002), and higher pain levels predicted being alone in the morning with a reduced likelihood of being alone as the day progressed (odds ratio 0.945, 95% CI 0.901-0.992; P=.02). CONCLUSIONS: The use of EMA elucidated a high rate of time spent alone among older PLWH. Promoting social activity despite the presence of pain or fatigue may improve happiness and psychological well-being in this population.
Paulus, Daniel J.; Garey, Lorra; Gallagher, Matthew W.; Derrick, Jaye L.; Jardin, Charles; Langdon, Kirsten et al. (2018):Pain severity as a predictor of negative affect following a self-guided quit attempt: An ecological momentary assessment study.
In: The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse, S. 1–8. DOI: 10.1080/00952990.2018.1467432.
BACKGROUND: Past work has documented bidirectional associations between pain and cigarette smoking behaviors such that those who smoke evidence greater pain, and those in pain tend to smoke more. However, such work has not focused on the role of pain in relation to negative affect, which plays an important role during cessation attempts. OBJECTIVE: The current study evaluated pain as a predictor of negative affect as well as level of interference associated with negative affect among individuals undergoing a self-guided quit attempt. METHODS: Study variables were assessed via ecological momentary assessment (EMA) during the 2 weeks following a self-guided quit attempt. Participants included 54 daily smokers (33.3% female; Mage = 34.7, SD = 13.9). RESULTS: There were statistically significant within-person associations of pain ratings with negative affect and interference due to negative affect, such that greater pain was associated with higher levels of each dependent variable. Additionally, there was a within-person effect of smoking status (i.e., smoking vs. abstinence, measured via EMA) on negative affect, but not ratings of interference; smoking was associated with greater negative affect. CONCLUSION: These findings highlight the importance of bodily pain in relation to negative mood following a quit attempt. Clinically, the results suggest a greater focus on the experience of pain during quit attempts may be warranted.
Pennell, Page B.; French, Jacqueline A.; Harden, Cynthia L.; Davis, Anne; Bagiella, Emilia; Andreopoulos, Evie et al. (2018):Fertility and Birth Outcomes in Women With Epilepsy Seeking Pregnancy.
In: JAMA neurology. DOI: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2018.0646.
Importance: Prior studies report lower birth rates for women with epilepsy (WWE) but have been unable to differentiate between biological and social contributions. To our knowledge, we do not have data to inform WWE seeking pregnancy if their likelihood of achieving pregnancy is biologically reduced compared with their peers. Objective: To determine if WWE without a prior diagnosis of infertility or related disorders are as likely to achieve pregnancy within 12 months as their peers without epilepsy. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Women With Epilepsy: Pregnancy Outcomes and Deliveries study is an observational cohort study comparing fertility in WWE with fertility in control women (CW) without epilepsy. Participants were enrolled at 4 academic medical centers and observed up to 21 months from November 2010 to May 2015. Women seeking pregnancy aged 18 to 40 years were enrolled within 6 months of discontinuing contraception. Exclusion criteria included tobacco use and a prior diagnosis of infertility or disorders that lower fertility. Eighteen WWE and 47 CW declined the study, and 40 WWE and 170 CW did not meet study criteria. The Women With Epilepsy: Pregnancy Outcomes and Deliveries electronic diary app was used to capture data on medications, seizures, sexual activity, and menses. Data were analyzed from November 2015 to June 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was proportion of women who achieved pregnancy within 12 months after enrollment. Secondary outcomes were time to pregnancy using a proportional hazard model, pregnancy outcomes, sexual activity, ovulatory rates, and analysis of epilepsy factors in WWE. All outcomes were planned prior to data collection except for time to pregnancy. Results: Of the 197 women included in the study, 142 (72.1%) were white, and the mean (SD) age was 31.9 (3.5) years among the 89 WWE and 31.1 (4.2) among the 108 CW. Among 89 WWE, 54 (60.7%) achieved pregnancy vs 65 (60.2%) among 108 CW. Median time to pregnancy was no different between the groups after controlling for key covariates (WWE: median, 6.0 months; 95% CI, 3.8-10.1; CW: median, 9.0 months; 95% CI, 6.5-11.2; P = .30). Sexual activity and ovulatory rates were similar in WWE and CW. Forty-four of 54 pregnancies (81.5%) in WWE and 53 of 65 pregnancies (81.5%) in CW resulted in live births. No epilepsy factors were significant. Conclusions and Relevance: Women with epilepsy seeking pregnancy without prior known infertility or related disorders have similar likelihood of achieving pregnancy, time to pregnancy, and live birth rates compared with their peers without epilepsy.
Phillips, James G.; Landhuis, C. Erik; Ogeil, Rowan P. (2018):Risky alcohol consumption and online activity levels.
In: Substance use & misuse. DOI: 10.1080/10826084.2018.1474227.
University students engage in risky patterns of alcohol consumption, which may affect their health and performance at university. This study provides a novel analysis which tracked students’ interaction with online course materials over time, and examined associations between online activity and alcohol related harm (as indicated by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). Study 1 tracked 63 undergraduate psychology students in the second half of a semester and found risky drinking behaviors were marginally related to reductions in online study activity. Study 2 tracked 88 undergraduate psychology students in the first half of a semester. Risky drinking behaviors were associated with less online activity after midday. Students reporting more alcohol related harm were less likely to login between 7 pm and midnight, and between 1 am and 6 am. This study demonstrates a potential sensitivity of online activity levels to alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Pizzulli, Antonio; Perna, Serena; Bennewiz, Anja; Roeblitz, Holger; Tripodi, Salvatore; Florack, Jakob et al. (2018):The impact of nasal aspiration with an automatic device on upper and lower respiratory symptoms in wheezing children: a pilot case-control study.
In: Italian journal of pediatrics 44 (1), S. 68. DOI: 10.1186/s13052-018-0489-6.
BACKGROUND: The impact of proper aspiration of nasal secretions during upper respiratory infection on the frequency and severity of symptoms of lower airways has never been investigated. The study was aimed at testing if cleaning the nasal cavities of children with recurrent wheezing using an automatic nasal aspirator improves the upper and lower respiratory symptoms during the cold season. METHODS: Parents of wheezing children (age 3-72 mo.) answered questionnaires and learned using a nebulizer equipped (cases) or not equipped (controls) with an automatic nasal aspirator (DuoBaby, OMRON, Japan). During a 90-days monitoring period parents filled an electronic diary (BreathMonitor, TPS, Rome, Italy) on their child’s symptoms of the upper and lower airways. RESULTS: Eighty-nine/91 patients (43 cases, 46 controls) completed the study. Less days with upper (25.0% vs 46.4%, p = 0.004) or lower (21.8% vs 32.8%, p = 0.022) airways symptoms and less days with salbutamol inhalation (12.2% vs 16.9%, p < 0.001) were reported by cases than by controls. The episodes of upper respiratory symptoms were shorter [4.3 days (95%CI:3.8-4.9) vs 5.7 days (95%CI:5.0-6.4), p = 0.007] but not less frequent [2.3 (95%CI: 1.8-2.8) vs 2.6 (95%CI:2.2-3.0), p = 0.122] among cases than among controls. Similarly, the episodes of lower respiratory symptoms tended to be shorter [3.8 days, (95%CI: 3.4-4.2) vs 4.4 days, (95%CI: 4.4-6.0), p = 0.067] but not less frequent [1.9 (95%CI:1.5-2.3) vs 2.1 (95%CI:1.7-2.4), p = 0.240] among the group using the nasal aspirator. CONCLUSIONS: In our pilot study, the use of an automatic nasal aspirator in children with a history of recurrent wheezing was associated with an improved respiratory health during the cold season.
Prinsen, Sosja; Evers, Catharine; Wijngaards, Leoniek; van Vliet, Renée; Ridder, Denise de (2018):Does self-licensing benefit self-regulation over time? An ecological momentary assessment study of food temptations.
In: Personality & social psychology bulletin 44 (6), S. 914–927. DOI: 10.1177/0146167218754509.
Self-licensing, employing reasons to justify indulgence, may help resolve the conflict between immediate temptations and long-term goals in favor of the former. It was hypothesized that this conflict-resolving potential of self-licensing may benefit self-regulation over time. With a momentary assessment design, we examined how self-licensing affects self-regulatory ability and the capacity to deal with subsequent self-regulatory conflicts. One hundred thirty-six female participants filled out surveys eight times per day for one week. Food temptation strength, conflict, resistance, and enactment were assessed, as well as license opportunity and perceived self-regulatory ability. When self-licensing opportunity was high (vs. low), a weaker association between temptation strength and conflict was observed. High license opportunity was associated with higher perceived self-regulatory ability for instances of low degrees of temptation enactment and predicted better handling of subsequent conflict after high degrees of prior temptation enactment. These results suggest that self-licensing can support self-regulation after initial failure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Riordan, Benjamin C.; Conner, Tamlin S.; Am Flett, Jayde; Scarf, Damian (2017):A text message intervention to reduce first year university students’ alcohol use: A pilot experimental study.
In: Digital health 3, 2055207617707627. DOI: 10.1177/2055207617707627.
Objective: The aim of Orientation Week is to help new students acclimatize to university life. However, Orientation Week is characterized by heavy alcohol use and during this time students may develop drinking patterns that persist into the academic year. The aim of the current study was to refine a brief Ecological Momentary Intervention (EMI) and test its effectiveness in reducing students’ alcohol use during both Orientation Week and throughout the academic year. Method: We conducted two focus groups with students who had received a pilot intervention. We then updated and trialled the intervention with students from two residential colleges (College 1 n = 117 and College 2 n = 269) who were assigned to either an Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) condition or an EMA-EMI condition. Students in both conditions reported their pre-university drinking and their drinking during Orientation Week and the academic year via text message. In addition to the EMA messages, during Orientation Week, participants in the EMA-EMI condition received messages highlighting the potential social consequences of heavy alcohol use. Results: In College 1 those in the EMA-EMI condition consumed fewer drinks, relative to those in the EMA condition, across both Orientation Week (9.7 vs. 15.5; t(98) = 2.138, p = .018) and the academic year. (4.3 vs. 6.8; t(98) = 1.788, p = .039). There were, however, no significant differences between conditions in College 2. Conclusion: The current findings suggest that EMIs may be successful under certain circumstances and may provide a simple, cost-effective means of intervening.
Roche, Michael J. (2018):Examining the alternative model for personality disorder in daily life: Evidence for incremental validity.
In: Personality disorders. DOI: 10.1037/per0000295.
The alternative model for personality disorders includes a single dimension of personality dysfunction severity (Criterion A) and five dimensions of personality dysfunction styles (Criterion B). Some consider Criteria A and B distinctions redundant, and this appears mostly true in cross-sectional designs. The present research demonstrated that incremental validity can be found when examining personality dysfunction longitudinally. Participants (n = 175) completed a 14-day electronic diary, capturing daily levels of Criteria A and B, along with daily outcomes of personality dysfunction across several domains. Criteria A and B incremented each other across these domains. Moreover, Criterion B trait scores were associated with expected domains of functioning, evidencing convergent and discriminant validity. We discuss the implications for the alternative model for personality disorders, and the usefulness of longitudinal methods to uncover temporal dynamics in personality dysfunction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Roche, Michael J.; Jacobson, Nicholas C. (2018):Elections Have Consequences for Student Mental Health: An Accidental Daily Diary Study.
In: Psychological reports, 33294118767365. DOI: 10.1177/0033294118767365.
Polling suggested that the 2016 United States presidential election affected citizens’ mood and stress levels. Yet, polling often fails to employ repeated measurement designs that can capture pre- and post-levels of change within the same person. In this study, undergraduate students ( N = 85) completed a 14-day daily diary where mood, stress, and mental health outcomes were assessed before and after the election. Multilevel modeling revealed an immediate upsurge in anxiety, stress, and poor sleep quality the day after the election, followed by a recovery period indicating these effects were short-lived. Other reactions (anger, fear, marginalization, and experiencing discrimination) evidenced a significant upsurge without a significant recovery. We consider how daily diary research designs like this one could be integrated into college settings to inform counseling center resource allocation, and we also comment on the promise of the daily diary methodology for political research.
Rodríguez-Blanco, Lucía; Carballo, Juan J.; Baca-García, Enrique (2018):Use of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI): A systematic review.
In: Psychiatry research 263, S. 212–219. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2018.02.051.
Conceptualization and assessment of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) has evolved substantially in recent years. In both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, NSSI and its related variables have traditionally been assessed retrospectively, leading to less precise studies of the mechanisms involved in the maintenance, cessation, or aggravation of this behavior. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) enables real-time collection of patient states, which can be very useful in the study of the mechanisms implied in this behavior. This systematic review aims to elucidate the current status of EMA use in NSSI investigation. An exhaustive search in PubMed and PsycINFO was conducted up to September 2017. All papers included were focused on the study of NSSI using EMA. Studies with methodological diversity were included, which were afterwards organized according to main topic of studies. There were no ineligibility criteria based on age or diagnosis. Twenty-three papers were studied, the majority of which are short-term studies focused on the study of affect dynamics and the emotion-regulation function of NSSI. Implications of these results and recommendations for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Santa Maria, Diane; Padhye, Nikhil; Yang, Yijiong; Gallardo, Kathryn; Businelle, Michael (2018):Predicting Sexual Behaviors Among Homeless Young Adults: Ecological Momentary Assessment Study.
In: JMIR public health and surveillance 4 (2), e39. DOI: 10.2196/publichealth.9020.
BACKGROUND: Homeless youth continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV compared with their housed peers, with prevalence rates as high as 13%. Yet, HIV prevention in this high-risk population has been only marginally effective. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to use ecological momentary assessments to examine real-time factors to determine the predictors of sexual activity among homeless youth. METHODS: Youth experiencing homelessness aged between 18 and 24 years were recruited from a drop-in center in Houston, Texas, between August 2015 and May 2016. All the participants received a study-issued mobile phone that prompted brief ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) 5 times a day for 21 days. EMA items assessed near real-time sexual behaviors, cognitions, stress, affect, environmental factors, and environmental circumstances. RESULTS: Participants (N=66) were predominantly male (41/66, 64%) and black (43/66, 66%) with a median age of 20 years. The mean number of EMAs completed by each participant was 45 out of 105 possible observations. During the study, 70% (46/66) of participants were sexually active and reported condomless sex in 102 of the 137 cases of sexual intercourse (74.5%). In total, 82% (38/46) of the youth who reported having sex during the 3 weeks of data collection also reported engaging in high-risk sexual activities, including having condomless sex (24/46, 53%), having multiple sexual partners on the same day (12/46, 26%), trading sex (7/46, 16%), and sharing needles while injecting drugs (1/46, 3%). Of those, 71% (27/38) were engaged in multiple sexual risk behaviors. The predictive model was based on observations from 66 subjects who reported 137 cases of sexual intercourse over 811 days; sexual orientation, race, mental health, drug use, and sexual urge were included as predictors in the parsimonious generalized linear mixed model selected on the basis of the Akaike information criterion. The estimated odds ratios (ORs) were notable for same-day drug use (OR 2.17, 95% CI 4.48-17.31; P<.001) and sexual urge (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.60-11.28; P=.004). The performance of the risk estimator was satisfactory, as indicated by the value of 0.834 for the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. CONCLUSIONS: Real-time EMA data can be used to predict sexual intercourse among a sample of high-risk, predominately unsheltered homeless youth. Sexual urge and drug use accounts for increased odds of engaging in sexual activity on any given day. Interventions targeting sexual urge and drug use may help predict sexual activity among a population at high risk of HIV.
Sargent, Charli; Lastella, Michele; Romyn, Georgia; Versey, Nathan; Miller, Dean J.; Roach, Gregory D. (2018):How well does a commercially available wearable device measure sleep in young athletes?
In: Chronobiol Int. DOI: 10.1080/07420528.2018.1466800.
The validity of a commercially available wearable device for measuring total sleep time was examined in a sample of well-trained young athletes during night-time sleep periods and daytime naps. Participants wore a FitBit HR Charge on their non-dominant wrist and had electrodes attached to their face and scalp to enable polysomnographic recordings of sleep in the laboratory. The FitBit automatically detected 24/30 night-time sleep periods but only 6/20 daytime naps. Compared with polysomnography, the FitBit overestimated total sleep time by an average of 52 ± 152 min for night-time sleep periods, and by 4 ± 8 min for daytime naps. It is important for athletes and practitioners to be aware of the limitations of wearable devices that automatically detect sleep duration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Schulte, Mieke H. J.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Boendermaker, Wouter J.; Goudriaan, Anna E.; van den Brink, Wim; van Deursen, Denise S. et al. (2018):The effect of N-acetylcysteine and working memory training on cocaine use, craving and inhibition in regular cocaine users: Correspondence of lab assessments and Ecological Momentary Assessment.
In: Addictive behaviors 79, S. 24–31. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.11.044.
Introduction: Effective treatment for cocaine use disorder should dampen hypersensitive cue-induced motivational processes and/or strengthen executive control. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention, the primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) and working memory (WM)-training to reduce cocaine use and craving and to improve inhibition assessed in the laboratory and during Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA). The second aim was to examine correspondence between laboratory and EMA data. Methods: Twenty-four of 38 cocaine-using men completed a 25-day intervention with 2400mg/day NAC or placebo and WM-training as well as two lab-visits assessing cocaine use, craving and inhibition (Stop Signal task). Additionally, cocaine use, craving and cognition (Stroop task) were assessed using EMA during treatment, with 26 participants completing 819 assessments. Results: Cocaine problems according to the Drug Use Disorder Identification Test (DUDIT) decreased more after NAC than after placebo, and the proportion of cocaine-positive urines at lab-visit 2 was lower in the NAC group. No NAC effects were found on craving. For cocaine use and craving, results from the lab data were generally similar to EMA results. NAC also showed some effects on cognitive control: improved inhibition assessed with the Stop Signal task in the lab, and decreased classic Stroop performance during EMA. There were no significant effects of number of completed WM-training sessions. Conclusions: Overall this study revealed mixed findings regarding the treatment of cocaine use disorders with NAC and WM-training. The effect of NAC on inhibition should be further investigated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Scott, Christy K.; Dennis, Michael L.; Gustafson, David H. (2018):Reprint of Using ecological momentary assessments to predict relapse after adult substance use treatment.
In: Addictive behaviors 83, S. 116–122. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.04.003.
BACKGROUND: A key component of relapse prevention is to self-monitor the internal (feelings or cravings) and external (people, places, activities) factors associated with relapse. Smartphones can deliver ecological momentary assessments (EMA) to help individuals self-monitor. The purpose of this exploratory study was to develop a model for predicting an individual’s risk of future substance use after each EMA and validate it using a multi-level model controlling for repeated measures on persons. METHODS: Data are from 21,897 observations from 43 adults following their initial episode of substance use treatment in Chicago from 2015 to 2016. Participants were provided smartphones for six months and asked to complete two to three minute EMAs at five random times per day (81% completion). In any given EMA, 2.7% reported substance use and 8% reported any use in the next five completed EMA. Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID) was used to classify EMAs into six levels of risk and then validated with a hierarchical linear model (HLM). RESULTS: The major predictors of substance use in the next five completed EMAs were substance use pattern over the current and prior five EMAs (no recent/current use, either recent or current use [but not both], continued use [both recent and current]), negative affect (feelings), and craving (rating). Negative affect was important for EMAs with no current or recent use reported; craving was important for EMAs with either recent or current use; and neither mattered for EMAs with continued use. The CHAID gradated EMA risk from 0.7% to 36.6% of the next five completed EMAs with substance use reported. It also gradated risk of “any” use in the next five completed EMAs from 3% to 82%. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the potential of using smartphone-based EMAs to monitor and provide feedback for relapse prevention in future studies.
Shimizu, Etsuko; Nakamura, Toru; Kim, Jinhyuk; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu (2018):Application of Empirical Mode Decomposition to Mother and Infant Physical Activity.
In: Methods of information in medicine 57 (3), S. 152–157. DOI: 10.3414/ME18-02-0001.
BACKGROUND: The mutual dependencies between mother and infant circadian rhythms are important for examining disturbances of maternal circadian rhythms, which are considered substantial risk factors for the development of maternal depression during childrearing periods. OBJECTIVES: We characterized the mutual dependencies of maternal-infant circadian rhythms by an index of synchronization properties and then tested the hypothesis that such an index, specifically the instantaneous phase differences between their rhythms, is associated with maternal mental health. METHODS: We performed longitudinal recordings of maternal symptoms of fatigue, stress, and mood states by ecological momentary assessment, together with simultaneous measurements of mother and infant physical activity data in daily life, on 20 mother-infant pairs for a period of >1 week. The circadian components in their physical activity data were extracted by ensembled bivariate empirical mode decomposition, and the corresponding instantaneous phases were then obtained based on the Hilbert transformation. The associations between diurnal maternal symptoms and absolute phase differences between mother and infant circadian rhythms were tested by multilevel models. RESULTS: Diurnal fatigue and depressive mood scores showed positive and significant correlations (p < 0.05) with the increase in instantaneous mother-infant phase differences, indicating the significant role of synchronization of mother-infant circadian rhythms for maintaining maternal mental health. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that modifications of maternal and/or infant circadian rhythms may lead to the improvement of maternal mental health during child-rearing periods.
Short, Nicole A.; Boffa, Joseph W.; Clancy, Kevin; Schmidt, Norman B. (2018):Effects of emotion regulation strategy use in response to stressors on PTSD symptoms: An ecological momentary assessment study.
In: J Affect Disord 230, S. 77–83. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.12.063.
Background: Although a burgeoning line of research identifies emotion regulation difficulties as a potential maintenance factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), little is known in regard to what emotion regulation strategies individuals with PTSD use in their daily lives, their predictors, and their consequences on later PTSD symptoms. Method: The current study utilized ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design to explore prospective relationships between maladaptive and adaptive emotion regulation strategy use and PTSD symptoms in participants with PTSD (N = 30). Participants completed 4 EMAs per day over 8 days, assessing stressors, emotional response, and emotion regulation strategy use. Results: Individuals with PTSD most commonly used avoidance as an emotion regulation strategy. Multilevel modeling indicated that baseline PTSD symptoms predicted maladaptive emotion regulation strategy use. After covarying for morning PTSD symptoms, maladaptive emotion regulation prospectively predicted increased PTSD symptoms later in the day. Adaptive emotion regulation strategies did not uniquely predict later PTSD symptoms. Conclusion: In line with conceptualizations of difficulties in emotion regulation as a transdiagnostic maintenance factor in PTSD, findings indicate that maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in response to stressors exacerbate PTSD symptoms. The use of adaptive emotion regulation strategies had no positive or negative impact on subsequent PTSD symptoms. Limitations: Future studies should utilize longer-term prospective designs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Slofstra, Christien; Klein, Nicola S.; Nauta, Maaike H.; Wichers, Marieke; Batalas, Nikolaos; Bockting, Claudi L. H. (2017):Imagine your mood: Study design and protocol of a randomized controlled micro-trial using app-based experience sampling methodology to explore processes of change during relapse prevention interventions for recurrent depression.
In: Contemporary clinical trials communications 7, S. 172–178. DOI: 10.1016/j.conctc.2017.07.003.
Background: Relapse prevention strategies include continuation of antidepressant medication and preventive psychological interventions. This study aims to gain understanding that may inform tailoring of relapse prevention to individual differences, to improve their effects. Such treatment personalization may be based on repeated assessments within one individual, using experience sampling methodology. As a first step towards informing decisions based on this methodology, insight is needed in individual differences in risk of relapse and response to treatment, and how relapse prevention strategies may differentially target vulnerability for relapse. Methods: The smartphone application ‘Imagine your mood’ has been developed specifically for this study to assess emotions, imagery, cognitions, and behaviors in daily life. Parallel to the randomized controlled trial ‘Disrupting the rhythm of depression’, 45 remitted recurrently depressed individuals taking continuation antidepressant medication will be randomly assigned to either continuing antidepressant medication (n = 15), continuing antidepressant medication combined with an eight-session preventive cognitive therapy (n = 15), or tapering of antidepressant medication in combination with preventive cognitive therapy (n = 15). Relapse and return of depressive symptomatology over a 24-month follow-up will be assessed. Additionally, matched never depressed individuals (n = 15) will be recruited as controls. Discussion: This innovative study combines the strengths of a randomized controlled trial and experience sampling methodology in a micro-trial to explore individual differences in risk of relapse and what works for whom to prevent relapse. Results may ultimately pave the way for therapists to tailor relapse prevention strategies to individual (affective) vulnerability. Trial registration: ISRCTN15472145, retrospectively registered.
Sperry, Sarah H.; Kwapil, Thomas R.; Eddington, Kari M.; Silvia, Paul J. (2018):Psychopathology, everyday behaviors, and autonomic activity in daily life: An ambulatory impedance cardiography study of depression, anxiety, and hypomanic traits.
In: International journal of psychophysiology : official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 129, S. 67–75. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2018.04.008.
Discrepancies regarding the link between autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and psychopathology may be due in part to inconsistent measurement of non-psychological factors, including eating, drinking, activity, posture, and interacting with others. Rather than sources of noise, behaviors like being active and being with others may be the behavioral pathways that connect psychopathology symptoms to autonomic activity. The present study examined whether behaviors mediate the association of depression, anxiety, and hypomanic traits with ANS by using experience sampling methodology and ambulatory impedance cardiography. Participants (n=49) completed measures of affect and one day of experience sampling and ambulatory impedance cardiography. The association of hypomanic traits with heart rate variability and heart rate was mediated by physical activity, and social activity mediated the association of depressive symptoms and respiration. These results highlight the importance of considering the pathways between psychopathology and ANS and the mediating role that everyday behaviors play.
Stone, Lindsey B.; Mennies, Rebekah J.; Waller, Jennifer M.; Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Forbes, Erika E.; Ryan, Neal D. et al. (2018):Help me feel better! Ecological momentary assessment of anxious youths’ emotion regulation with parents and peers.
In: Journal of abnormal child psychology. DOI: 10.1007/s10802-018-0454-2.
Anxious youth often have trouble regulating negative affect (NA) and tend to over-rely on parents when faced with challenges. It is unclear how social interactions with parents or peers actually helps or hinders anxious youths’ success in regulating NA. The aim of this study was to examine whether the success of anxious youths’ emotion regulation strategies differed according to social context. We compared the effectiveness of co-ruminating, co-problem solving and co-distracting with parents/peers for regulating anxious youth’s NA in response to stress in their daily lives. We also examined the benefit of attempting each strategy socially vs. non-socially (e.g., co-ruminating vs. ruminating). One-hundred-seventeen youth (9–14) with a current diagnosis of Separation Anxiety Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and/or Social Phobia completed an ecological momentary assessment (14 calls over 5 days), reporting on recent stressors, their affective state, presence of others, and emotion regulation strategies within the prior hour. Mixed linear models revealed that co-distracting was the most effective social strategy for reducing NA, but only for boys. Co-rumination was the least effective social strategy for regulating NA. Regarding social context, only co-distracting was more effective for regulating NA over distracting alone, but only among anxious boys. Results suggest that co-rumination is an ineffective use of social support for regulating NA. Anxious boys may benefit from social support by co-distracting with parents/peers, but improper use may reflect avoidance and contribute to long-term anxiety maintenance. Results extend research on gender differences in interpersonal relationships and emotion regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Sumaya, Isabel C.; Darling, Emily (2018):Procrastination, flow, and academic performance in real time using the experience sampling method.
In: J Genet Psychol 179 (3), S. 123–131. DOI: 10.1080/00221325.2018.1449097.
The authors’ aim was to first provide an alternative methodology in the assessment of procrastination and flow that would not reply on retrospective or prospective self-reports. Using real-time assessment of both procrastination and flow, the authors investigated how these factors impact academic performance by using the Experience sampling Method. They assessed flow by measuring student self-reported skill versus challenge, and procrastination by measuring the days to completion of an assignment. Procrastination and flow were measured for six days before a writing assignment due date while students (n = 14) were enrolled in a research methods course. Regardless of status of flow, both the nonflow and flow groups showed high levels of procrastination. Students who experienced flow as they worked on their paper, in real time, earned significantly higher grades (M = 3.05 ± 0.30: an average grade of B) as compared with the nonflow group (M = 1.16 ± 0.33: an average grade of D; p = .007). Additionally, students experiencing flow were more accurate in predicting their grade (difference scores, flow M = 0.12 ± 0.33 vs. nonflow M = 1.39 ± 0.29; p = .015). Students in the nonflow group were nearly a grade and a half off in their prediction of their grade on the paper. To the authors’ knowledge, the study is the first to provide experimental evidence showing differences in academic performance between students experiencing flow and nonflow students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Suso-Ribera, Carlos; Castilla, Diana; Zaragoza, Irene; Ribera-Canudas, Maria Victoria; Botella, Cristina; Garcia-Palacios, Azucena (2018):Validity, Reliability, Feasibility, and Usefulness of Pain Monitor, a Multidimensional Smartphone App for Daily Monitoring of Adults with Heterogeneous Chronic Pain.
In: The Clinical journal of pain. DOI: 10.1097/AJP.0000000000000618.
OBJECTIVES: Ecological momentary assessment is recommended in the management of chronic pain. Smartphone apps might be a useful tool for that purpose. This study goal was to develop and test a multidimensional smartphone app for adults with chronic pain. A multidisciplinary team developed app content after a series of meetings, considering clinical guidelines for pain measurement. Content included pain intensity and interference, fatigue, mood, perceived health status, activity level, side effects of the medication, use of rescue medication, and pain-related psychological constructs (catastrophizing, acceptance, fear, and coping). METHODS: Thirty-eight participants (21-5950% shaded blocky) used the app, called Pain Monitor, twice a day during 30 consecutive days. Patients completed a set of well-established measures at the beginning and end of study via paper-and-pencil. Weekly phone assessments were also made for pain intensity, pain interference, fatigue, and mood. RESULTS: Construct validity was revealed by moderate-to-strong correlations between app content and traditional measures. Feasibility was supported by high compliance (between 70% and 82%) and high acceptability and ease of use. Both side effects of the medication and use of rescue medication were found to be useful tools to guide treatment. DISCUSSION: The new assessment protocol in the app allows for an easy and rapid multidimensional assessment of chronic pain patients.
Testa, Maria; Derrick, Jaye L.; Wang, Weijun; Leonard, Kenneth E.; Kubiak, Audrey; Brown, Whitney C.; Collins, R. Lorraine (2018):Does Marijuana Contribute to Intimate Partner Aggression? Temporal Effects in a Community Sample of Marijuana-Using Couples.
In: Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs 79 (3), S. 432–440.
OBJECTIVE: Although patterns of marijuana use are positively associated with intimate partner aggression, there is little evidence that episodes of marijuana use contribute to the occurrence of episodes of relationship conflict and aggression. The present ecological momentary assessment study considered the temporal relationship between marijuana use episodes and the occurrence of conflict, verbal aggression, and physical aggression between intimate partners in the next 2 hours. METHOD: A sample of 183 cohabiting marijuana-using couples (ages 18-30) were recruited from the community. For 30 consecutive days, each partner independently reported episodes of marijuana use and partner conflict, including verbal and physical aggression perpetration and victimization within conflicts. Temporal associations between each partner’s marijuana use and subsequent conflict and aggression were examined using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. Analyses accounted for between-person effects of marijuana use frequency and total conflicts. RESULTS: We observed temporal effects of actor (but not partner) marijuana use on men’s and women’s reports of conflict and verbal aggression perpetration and victimization within 2 hours of use. Marijuana use episodes did not alter the likelihood of physical aggression in the next 2 hours. Partner concordance in marijuana use had no effect on verbal or physical aggression or victimization. The positive temporal effects of marijuana on conflict and verbal aggression remained significant after accounting for the effect of drinking episodes. CONCLUSIONS: Within generally concordant, marijuana-using young couples, marijuana use episodes contribute to the occurrence of relationship conflict and verbal aggression.
Timmer, Barbra H. B.; Hickson, Louise; Launer, Stefan (2018):Do Hearing Aids Address Real-World Hearing Difficulties for Adults With Mild Hearing Impairment? Results From a Pilot Study Using Ecological Momentary Assessment.
In: Trends in hearing 22, 2331216518783608. DOI: 10.1177/2331216518783608.
Current approaches to the measurement of hearing aid benefit typically use clinical or laboratory-based speech perception tests or retrospective self-report surveys. However, when assessing hearing aid outcomes in adults with mild hearing impairment, the traditional outcome measures may not be sufficiently sensitive. An alternative to these techniques are approaches that capture data about real-world experiences as they are experienced, such as ecological momentary assessment. This single-subject experimental design pilot study investigated the feasibility of using ecological momentary assessment in assessing whether hearing aids make a difference to the real-world listening experiences of adults with mild hearing impairment. Ten participants with an average age of 70 years and no previous amplification experience answered survey questions on their listening experiences over a 4-week period (1 week without hearing aids, 2 weeks with hearing aids, and 1 week without hearing aids). A total of 860 surveys were collected. Participants reported significantly better speech understanding and less listening effort during the 2-week trial with hearing aids compared to baseline conditions. In addition, they reported that they were significantly less hampered by their hearing difficulties and had greater enjoyment of listening events with wearing hearing aids. Individual variation in hearing aid benefit was evident. This pilot study showed that ecological momentary assessment has potential to quantify self-reported aided benefit for individuals with mild hearing impairment fitted with hearing aids. This research also highlighted that a real-world approach is needed to explore individualized outcomes and provide different insights to standardized questionnaires.
Timmer, Barbra H. B.; Hickson, Louise; Launer, Stefan (2018):The use of ecological momentary assessment in hearing research and future clinical applications.
In: Hearing research. DOI: 10.1016/j.heares.2018.06.012.
To obtain real-world insights into the hearing difficulties of individuals, the field of hearing research has recently started to adopt ecological momentary assessment. Using this approach, study participants describe their experiences in real time, in their own natural environment. This paper describes the use of ecological momentary assessment in hearing research to date. Several studies have shown the approach is feasible and has good construct validity for use with adults with hearing impairment and/or tinnitus. Two recent studies conducted by the authors are described. The first study investigated the listening experiences of older adults with mild hearing impairment and concluded that ecological momentary assessment provided group and individual data which highlighted the between-subject variability in this clinical population. The second study investigated the difference that the provision of hearing aids could make for older adults with mild hearing impairment. The pilot study indicated that ecological momentary assessment could be successfully used in intervention studies to measure, for example, individual hearing aid benefit, which may extend beyond improved speech understanding. The study also revealed the potential for ecological momentary assessment as a tool for clinical practice and decision-making. Ecological momentary assessment can result in a rich array of research data if specific study design guidelines, presented in this paper, are followed. The development of a clinical ecological momentary assessment tool would provide clinicians an individualized outcome measure and facilitate the adoption of a greater degree of client- and family-centeredness, thereby improving rehabilitation outcomes.
Tinajero, Ruben; Williams, Paula G.; Cribbet, Matthew R.; Rau, Holly K.; Bride, Daniel L.; Suchy, Yana (2018):Nonrestorative sleep in healthy, young adults without insomnia: associations with executive functioning, fatigue, and pre-sleep arousal.
In: Sleep health 4 (3), S. 284–291. DOI: 10.1016/j.sleh.2018.02.006.
OBJECTIVES: Previous research suggests that nonrestorative sleep (NRS), even in the absence of insomnia symptoms or other sleep disorders, may be associated with daytime dysfunction. This study examined the association between NRS and daytime dysfunction in healthy adults screened for insomnia and sleep apnea. DESIGN: Multi-day assessment approach. SETTING: Community-based adults and college students. PARTICIPANTS: Healthy young adults without insomnia and sleep apnea (n = 79; 68% female, mean age = 27.5, SD = 6.5). MEASUREMENTS: Laboratory protocol included a behavioral assessment of executive functioning (EF), self-report of prior month sleep-related daytime dysfunction, and depressive symptoms in the prior two weeks. Subsequently, participants completed an experience sampling assessment that included morning ratings of NRS, repeat affect ratings throughout the day via palm-pilot, nighttime ratings of pre-sleep arousal and EF disturbances, ambulatory cardiac impedence monitoring, and wrist actigraphy. RESULTS: NRS was significantly associated with poorer performance on behaviorally-assessed EF, perceived EF difficulties, daily ratings of fatigue, and past-month reported daytime dysfunction. These associations remained significant after controlling for age and sleep duration (measured by actigraphy). NRS was also associated with increased sympathetic nervous system activation prior to bedtime. Further, reported pre-sleep arousal was associated with NRS, and this association was mediated by perceived EF difficulties. CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate that, even among healthy, young adults without insomnia or sleep apnea, NRS is associated with poorer cognitive functioning and may be a precursor to insomnia.
Tomko, Rachel L.; McClure, Erin A. (2018):Introduction to the special issue: Utilizing ambulatory assessment to better understand the etiology, maintenance, treatment, and remission of addictive disorders.
In: Addictive behaviors 83, S. 1–4. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.04.004.
Treloar Padovano, Hayley; Miranda, Robert (2018):Subjective cannabis effects as part of a developing disorder in adolescents and emerging adults.
In: Journal of abnormal psychology 127 (3), S. 282–293. DOI: 10.1037/abn0000342.
In light of expanding legalization of cannabis and swelling debate about the potential risks, particularly for younger users, understanding acute cannabis effects among adolescents and emerging adults is more important than ever. Contemporary models of addiction development identify subjective drug responses as central to the developmental unfolding of drug use disorders. Despite this, surprisingly little is known about cannabis’s acute subjective effects in human youths. This research utilized ecological momentary assessment (EMA) in the natural environment to identify the typical situational context of cannabis use among 85 frequent cannabis users, ages 15-24 years (M = 19.8, SD = 2.0; 48.2% female). Study aims were to (a) characterize momentary changes in several subjective states (i.e., stimulation, sedation, tension, craving, and high) when not using, just before cannabis use, and after use, and (b) evaluate whether cannabis responses varied with cannabis use disorder (CUD) severity or across the transition from adolescence to emerging adulthood in a correlational manner. Use of cannabis produced measurable reductions in craving and tension, as well as increases in stimulation, sedation, and “high.” Participants with more CUD symptoms reported greater relief of craving and increased stimulatory response and high following use. In contrast, emerging adults reported diminished stimulatory response and high following use, relative to adolescents. Results highlight the utility of EMA for characterizing cannabis response as this behavior unfolds in daily life, during a key developmental timeframe in the pathogenesis of cannabis-use pathology. (PsycINFO Database Record
Vaessen, Thomas; Kasanova, Zuzana; Hernaus, Dennis; Lataster, Johan; Collip, Dina; van Nierop, Martine; Myin-Germeys, Inez (2018):Overall cortisol, diurnal slope, and stress reactivity in psychosis: An experience sampling approach.
In: Psychoneuroendocrinology 96, S. 61–68. DOI: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2018.06.007.
OBJECTIVE: Results from experimental studies suggest that psychosis and psychosis liability are associated with increased cortisol levels and blunted cortisol reactivity, and that use of antipsychotics may reduce these aberrations. Here, we report on overall cortisol, diurnal slope, and cortisol stress reactivity in everyday life in psychosis and psychosis liability using the experience sampling method (ESM). METHODS: Our sample consisted of individuals diagnosed with psychotic disorder currently on (MPD; n=53) or off antipsychotic medication (NMPD; n=20), first-degree relatives of psychotic patients (REL; n=47), and healthy volunteers (HV; n=67). Saliva samples were collected throughout the day on six consecutive days and analyzed for cortisol levels. Simultaneously, stressfulness of the current activity was assessed with ESM questionnaires. RESULTS: We found no group differences in overall cortisol level between groups, but REL had a steeper diurnal slope than HV; in MPD a trend was found in the same direction. Regarding reactivity to stressful activities, results indicated attenuation of the cortisol response in both patient groups compared to HV. CONCLUSION: These results do not confirm reports of increased cortisol levels in psychosis, but provide evidence of stress-related cortisol alterations in everyday life.
van Knippenberg, Rosalia J M; Vugt, Marjolein E. de; Ponds, Rudolf W.; Verhey, Frans R. J.; Myin-Germeys, Inez (2018):Emotional reactivity to daily life stress in spousal caregivers of people with dementia: An experience sampling study.
In: PloS one 13 (4), e0194118. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0194118.
INTRODUCTION: Caregivers differ in their emotional response when facing difficult situations during the caregiving process. Individual differences in vulnerabilities and resources could play an exacerbating or buffering role in caregivers’ reactivity to daily life stress. This study examines which caregiver characteristics modify emotional stress reactivity in dementia caregivers. METHODS: Thirty caregivers collected momentary data, as based on the experience sampling methodology, to assess (1) appraised subjective stress related to events and minor disturbances in daily life, and (2) emotional reactivity to these daily life stressors, conceptualized as changes in negative affect. Caregiver characteristics (i.e. vulnerabilities and resources) were administered retrospectively. RESULTS: Caregivers who more frequently used the coping strategies ‘seeking distraction’, ‘seeking social support’, and ‘fostering reassuring thoughts’ experienced less emotional reactivity towards stressful daily events. A higher educational level and a higher sense of competence and mastery lowered emotional reactivity towards minor disturbances in daily life. No effects were found for age, gender, and hours of care and contact with the person with dementia. DISCUSSION: Caregiver resources can impact emotional reactivity to daily life stress. Interventions aimed at empowerment of caregiver resources, such as sense of competence, mastery, and coping, could help to reduce stress reactivity in dementia caregivers.
van Lankveld, Jacques; Jacobs, Nele; Thewissen, Viviane; Dewitte, Marieke; Verboon, Peter (2018):The associations of intimacy and sexuality in daily life: Temporal dynamics and gender effects within romantic relationships.
In: Journal of social and personal relationships 35 (4), S. 557–576. DOI: 10.1177/0265407517743076.
The experience of emotional intimacy is assumed to play a particularly large role in maintaining sexual desire and partnered sexual activity in romantic relationships of longer duration. It is unclear whether the effect of intimacy on sexual contact between partners is direct or indirect, via its impact on sexual desire. Baumeister and Bratslavsky suggested that a certain increment in emotional intimacy causes a greater increment in sexual desire in men than in women. In the present study, we aimed to test the mediating role of sexual desire between perceived intimacy and sexual partner interaction and the gender effect as hypothesized by Baumeister and Bratslavsky. Experience sampling methodology in the participant’s natural environment was used. At 10 quasi-random moments per day, during 7 consecutive days, 134 participants reported their feelings of emotional intimacy, sexual desire, and sexual activity. The direct effect of intimacy on sexual partner interaction was not significant, but an indirect effect via sexual desire was observed. The strength of the association between intimacy and sexual desire diminished over time, from the strongest effect when intimacy, sexual desire, and sexual activity were measured simultaneously to a very small, but significant effect at an average time lag of 3 hr. At still larger time gaps, no effects were found. Men reported a higher average level of sexual desire than women, but the strength of the link between (increases in) intimacy and sexual desire was not different between the genders. The present findings suggest that in both male and female partners in romantic, long-term relationships, higher levels of intimacy are associated with higher sexual desire, which is, in turn, associated with higher odds for partnered sexual activity to occur. The temporal association of increasing intimacy and subsequent sexual desire appears not to be different in women and men.
van Liefferinge, Dagmar; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Danckaerts, Marina; Fayn, Kirill; van Broeck, Nady; van der Oord, Saskia (2018):Measuring child and adolescent emotional lability: How do questionnaire-based ratings relate to experienced and observed emotion in everyday life and experimental settings?
In: International journal of methods in psychiatric research, e1720. DOI: 10.1002/mpr.1720.
OBJECTIVES: Emotional lability (EL) is an important trans-diagnostic concept that is associated with significant functional impairment in childhood and adolescence. EL is typically measured with questionnaires, although little is known about the ecological validity of these ratings. In this paper, we undertook 2 studies addressing this issue by examining the relationship between rating-based measures of EL and directly measured emotional expressions and experiences. Furthermore, the associations between directly measured emotional expressions and experiences and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology were also examined, given the clear association of EL with ADHD in former research. METHODS: In Study 1, we examined the relationship between parental report of children’s EL and ADHD, and children’s emotional expressions in an experimental context (N = 67). In Study 2, we examined the relationship between parental ratings and real-time measures of emotional experiences in daily life in adolescents (N = 65). RESULTS: EL ratings were associated with different elements of real-time emotional experiences and expressions. Elements of emotional expressions but not emotional experiences were also associated with ADHD symptom reports. CONCLUSIONS: These studies provide evidence for the ecological validity of EL ratings. Furthermore, they add evidence for the associations between EL and ADHD.
van Roekel, Eeske; Heininga, Vera E.; Vrijen, Charlotte; Snippe, Evelien; Oldehinkel, Albertine J. (2018):Reciprocal associations between positive emotions and motivation in daily life: Network analyses in anhedonic individuals and healthy controls.
In: Emotion (Washington, D.C.). DOI: 10.1037/emo0000424.
Anhedonia reflects a dysfunction in the reward system, which can be manifested in an inability to enjoy pleasurable situations (i.e., lack of positive emotions), but also by a lack of motivation to engage in pleasurable activities (i.e., lack of motivation). Little is known about the interrelations between positive emotions and motivation in daily life, and whether these associations are altered in anhedonic individuals. In the present study, we used a network approach to explore the reciprocal, lagged associations between positive emotions and motivation in anhedonic individuals (N = 66) and controls (N = 68). Participants (aged between 18 and 24 years) filled out momentary assessments of affect 3 times per day for 30 consecutive days. Our results showed that (a) anhedonic individuals and controls had similar moment-to-moment transfer of positive emotions; (b) in the anhedonic network feeling cheerful was the node with the highest outstrength, both within this group and compared with the control group; (c) feeling relaxed had the highest outstrength in the control network, and (d) anhedonic individuals had stronger pathways from positive emotions to motivation than controls. Taken together, our findings suggest that low levels of positive emotions lead to decreased motivation in the anhedonic group, which could instigate a negative spiral of low pleasure and low motivation. On a more positive note, we showed that cheerfulness had the highest outstrength in the network of anhedonic participants. Hence, interventions may focus on increasing cheerfulness in anhedonic individuals, as this will likely have the greatest impact on other positive emotions and motivations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Vartanian, Lenny R.; Pinkus, Rebecca T.; Smyth, Joshua M. (2018):Experiences of weight stigma in everyday life: Implications for health motivation.
In: Stigma and Health 3 (2), S. 85–92. DOI: 10.1037/sah0000077.
Weight stigma is a pervasive social problem that can negatively impact the health and well-being of stigmatized individuals. The present study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to assess the motivational consequences of weight stigma in people’s everyday lives. Forty-six community adults (22 men, 24 women) completed baseline measures of prior stigma experiences and internalized weight bias before taking part in the EMA component of the study. Over a 2-week period, participants recorded their experiences with weight stigma immediately after they occurred, and also reported their current mood and motivation to diet, exercise, and lose weight. At the end of each day, participants again reported their mood and motivation to diet, exercise, and lose weight. Participants experienced weight stigma almost once per day, on average, indicating that stigma experiences are common in people’s everyday lives. At the episode level, lower positive affect (PA) following a stigma experience was associated with lower motivation to diet, exercise, and lose weight, but only for women, individuals high in prior experiences with stigma, and individuals high in internalized weight bias. We also found that the more frequently people experienced stigma on a given day, the less motivated they were to diet, exercise, and lose weight at the end of the day. Furthermore, these associations were mediated by low PA. These findings highlight the deleterious nature of stigma experiences, and can also inform public health and intervention efforts to reduce the negative impact of stigma and improve the well-being of affected individuals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Vehling, S.; Gerstorf, D.; Schulz-Kindermann, F.; Oechsle, K.; Philipp, R.; Scheffold, K. et al. (2018):The daily dynamics of loss orientation and life engagement in advanced cancer: A pilot study to characterise patterns of adaptation at the end of life.
In: European journal of cancer care, e12842. DOI: 10.1111/ecc.12842.
Individual adaptation at the end of life may be characterised by how patients fluctuate in their orientation towards losses and death or engagement in meaningful activities in daily life. To describe these intraindividual patterns of change, we conducted a daily diary study over 7 days with 17 advanced cancer patients from in- and outpatient oncology and psycho-oncology clinics. Patients reported on the daily frequency of behaviours associated with loss orientation and life engagement using a standardised questionnaire. We characterised each patient’s pattern of change with three parameters: the mean level (5-point-scale from 0 = never to 4 = always), mean fluctuation between successive days (MSSD) and the association between changes in loss and life orientation over time. We further explored the relationship between these patterns and free-text diaries. The daily assessment protocol was acceptable and feasible (46% participation rate, 97% diary completion rate). Individuals differed in mean levels of loss orientation (range: M = 0.1 to 2.7) and life engagement (M = 0.9 to 3.9), the degree of fluctuation (MSSD = 0.1 to 1.5 and MSSD = 0.3 to 0.9), and the correlations between these changes over time (r = -.83 to +.46), revealing distinctive intraindividual patterns. Further study of individual profiles in loss and life orientation can promote personalised balancing between facing “reality” and sustaining “hope” in end-of-life conversations.
Veilleux, Jennifer C.; Hill, Morgan A.; Skinner, Kayla D.; Pollert, Garrett A.; Baker, Danielle E.; Spero, Kaitlyn D. (2018):The dynamics of persisting through distress: Development of a Momentary Distress Intolerance Scale using ecological momentary assessment.
In: Psychological assessment. DOI: 10.1037/pas0000593.
Distress tolerance, or the ability to withstand uncomfortable states, is thought to be a transdiagnostic risk factor for psychopathology. Distress tolerance is typically measured using self-report questionnaires or behavioral tasks, both of which construe distress tolerance as a trait and downplay the potential variability in distress tolerance across time and situation. The aim of the current study was to provide a method for assessing momentary distress tolerance using ecological momentary assessment to capture both within- and between-individual information. Participants (n = 86) responded to random prompts on their cell phones seven times per day for one week, which included 10 momentary distress tolerance items as well as momentary emotion. After examining item distributions and interclass correlations, we conducted a multilevel exploratory factor analysis using both within-individual and between-individual data to arrive at a brief, 3-item measure we call the Momentary Distress Intolerance Scale. Model fit and reliability indices were good for both within- and between-individual approaches. We found that distress tolerance varied significantly over time, and that average momentary distress intolerance and instability in momentary distress intolerance were associated with trait distress tolerance, emotion dysregulation and tendencies to use experiential avoidance. Neither average momentary distress intolerance nor instability in momentary distress intolerance correlated with behavioral distress tolerance tasks. We discuss the importance of construing distress tolerance from a dynamic perspective and provide recommendations toward future research. (PsycINFO Database Record
Wenze, Susan J.; Gaugler, Trent L.; Sheets, Erin S.; DeCicco, Jennifer M. (2018):Momentary experiential avoidance: Within-person correlates, antecedents, and consequences and between-person moderators.
In: Behaviour research and therapy 107, S. 42–52. DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.05.011.
We used ecological momentary assessment to investigate momentary correlates, antecedents, and consequences of experiential avoidance (EA), and to explore whether depression and anxiety moderate these within-person relationships. Participants recorded their mood, thoughts, stress, and EA four times daily for one week. Baseline depression and anxiety were associated with EA. EA was lower when participants reported more positive mood and thoughts, and higher when participants reported more negative mood, negative thoughts, and stress. The EA-stress relationship was stronger for participants with higher depression. Lag analyses showed that negative mood, negative thoughts, and stress predicted subsequent EA. In turn, EA predicted subsequent negative mood, negative thoughts, and stress. The relationship between EA and subsequent negative thoughts was stronger for participants with higher anxiety. Participants with higher depression and anxiety had a less negative association between positive thoughts and subsequent EA. This study adds to a growing body of literature on the process of EA as it unfolds in vivo, in real-time. Findings highlight links between momentary negative internal experiences and EA (which may be especially strong for people with depression or anxiety) and suggest that certain positive subjective experiences may buffer against EA. Clinical implications and future research directions are discussed.
Wouters, Saskia; Thewissen, Viviane; Duif, Mira; van Bree, Rob Jh; Lechner, Lilian; Jacobs, Nele (2018):Habit strength and between-meal snacking in daily life: the moderating role of level of education.
In: Public health nutrition, S. 1–11. DOI: 10.1017/S1368980018001283.
OBJECTIVE: Recent research emphasizes the importance of habit in explaining patterns of energy intake and choices of consumption. However, the nature of the association between habit strength and snacking has not been explored for all types of between-meal snacks. DESIGN: Multilevel linear techniques were used to: (i) examine the association between habit strength and moment-to-moment energy intake (kilocalories) from snacks in daily life; and (ii) determine whether gender, age, level of education and BMI moderate the association between habit strength and moment-to-moment energy intake from snacks. A smartphone application based on the experience sampling method was used to map momentary between-meal snack intake in the context of daily life. Demographics and habit strength were assessed with an online composite questionnaire. SETTING: This research was performed in the Netherlands in the natural environment of participants’ daily life. SUBJECTS: Adults (n 269) aged 20-50 years. RESULTS: Habit strength was significantly associated with moment-to-moment energy intake from between-meal snacks in daily life: the higher the strength of habit to snack between meals, the higher the amount of momentary energy intake from snacks. The association between habit strength and moment-to-moment energy intake from snacks was moderated by education level. Additional analyses showed that habit strength was significantly associated with moment-to-moment energy intake from between-meal snacks in the low to middle level of education group. CONCLUSIONS: It is recommended to address habitual between-meal snacking in future interventions targeting low- to middle-educated individuals.
Zhaoyang, Ruixue; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Martire, Lynn M.; Smyth, Joshua M. (2018):Age differences in adults’ daily social interactions: An ecological momentary assessment study.
In: Psychology and aging 33 (4), S. 607–618. DOI: 10.1037/pag0000242.
Prevailing research has suggested that social relationships get better with age, but this evidence has been largely based on studies with lengthy reporting intervals. Using an ecological momentary assessment approach, the present study examined age differences in several characteristics of social interactions as reported in near-real time: the frequency, quality, and partner type. Participants (N = 173) ages 20-79 years reported their social interactions at 5 random times throughout the day for 1 week. Results revealed that age was associated with higher frequency of interacting with family and lower frequency of interacting with peripheral partners. These age effects, however, became nonsignificant after accounting for contextual factors such as race, gender, education, employment status, family structure, and living arrangement. In contrast, a curvilinear relationship best characterized age differences in both positive and negative ratings of daily social interaction quality, with middle-aged adults reporting the lowest positive ratings and older adults reporting the lowest negative ratings among all ages. Contextual factors did not account for these patterns of age differences in interaction quality. Furthermore, the intraindividual variability of interaction frequency with peripheral partners, partner diversity, and interaction quality (positivity and negativity) was lower among older adults than among younger adults. Findings from the present study portray a nuanced picture of social interactions in daily life and advance the understanding of social interactions across the life span. (PsycINFO Database Record
Zink, Jennifer; Belcher, Britni R.; Dzubur, Eldin; Ke, Wangjing; O’Connor, Sydney; Huh, Jimi et al. (2018):Association Between Self-Reported and Objective Activity Levels by Demographic Factors: Ecological Momentary Assessment Study in Children.
In: JMIR mHealth and uHealth 6 (6), e150. DOI: 10.2196/mhealth.9592.
BACKGROUND: To address the limitations of the retrospective self-reports of activity, such as its susceptibility to recall bias, researchers have shifted toward collecting real-time activity data on mobile devices via ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Although EMA is becoming increasingly common, it is not known how EMA self-reports of physical activity and sedentary behaviors relate to the objective measures of activity or whether there are factors that may influence the strength of association between these two measures. Understanding the relationship between EMA and accelerometry can optimize future instrument selection in studies assessing activity and health outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the associations between EMA-reported sports or exercise using the accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and EMA-reported TV, videos, or video games with the accelerometer-measured sedentary time (ST) in children during matched 2-h windows and test potential moderators. METHODS: Children (N=192; mean age 9.6 years; 94/192, 49.0% male; 104/192, 54.2% Hispanic; and 73/192, 38.0% overweight or obese) wore an accelerometer and completed up to 7 EMA prompts per day for 8 days during nonschool time, reporting on past 2-h sports or exercise and TV, videos, or video games. Multilevel models were used to assess the relationship between the accelerometer-measured ST and EMA-reported TV, videos, or video games. Given the zero-inflated distribution of MVPA, 2-part models were used assess the relationship between the accelerometer-measured MVPA and EMA-reported sports or exercise. RESULTS: EMA-reported TV, videos, or video games were associated with a greater accelerometer-measured ST (beta=7.3, 95% CI 5.5 to 9.0, P<.001). This relationship was stronger in boys (beta=9.9, 95% CI 7.2 to 12.6, P<.001) than that in girls (beta=4.9, 95% CI 2.6 to 7.2, P</=.001). EMA-reported sports or exercise was associated with a greater accelerometer-measured MVPA (zero portion P<.001; positive portion P<.001). This relationship was stronger on weekends, in older children, and in non-Hispanic children (zero portion all P values<.001; positive portion all P values<.001). CONCLUSIONS: EMA reports highly relate to accelerometer measures. However, the differences in the strength of association depending on various demographic characteristics suggest that future research should use both EMA and accelerometers to measure activity to collect complementary activity data.