Society for Ambulatory Assessment

First quarter 2011 (January to March)

Affuso, O., Stevens, J., Catellier, D., McMurray, R. G., Ward, D. S., Lytle, L., Sothern, M. S., & Young, D. R(2011). Validity of self-reported leisure-time sedentary behavior in adolescents. J Negat.Results Biomed., 10, 2.

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the concordance between leisure-time sedentary behavior in adolescents assessed by an activity-based questionnaire and accelerometry. A convenience sample of 128 girls and 73 boys, 11-15 years of age (12.6 +/- 1.1 years) from six states across the United States examined as part of the feasibility studies for the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls (TAAG). Three days of self-reported time spent watching TV/videos, using computers, playing video/computer games, and talking on the phone was assessed using a modified version of the Self-Administered Physical Activity Checklist (SAPAC). Criterion measure of sedentary behavior was via accelerometry over three days using a cut point of < 50 counts . 30 sec(1) epoch. Comparisons between sedentary behavior by the two instruments were made. RESULTS: Adolescents generally underestimated minutes of sedentary behavior compared to accelerometry-measured minutes. The overall correlation between minutes of sedentary behavior by self-report and accelerometry was weak (Spearman r = 0.14; 95% CI 0.05, 0.23). Adjustment of sedentary minutes of behavior for total minutes assessed using either percentages or the residuals method tended to increase correlations slightly. However, regression analyses showed no significant association between self-reported sedentary behavior and minutes of sedentary behavior captured via accelerometry. DISCUSSION: These findings suggest that the modified 3-day Self-Administered Physical Activity Checklist is not a reliable method for assessing sedentary behavior. It is recommended that until validation studies for self-report instruments of sedentary behavior demonstrate validity, objective measures should be used.

Anderson, R. J., Goddard, L., & Powell, J. H. (2011). Social problem-solving and depressive symptom vulnerability: The importance of real-life problem-solving performance. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 35, 48-56.

Previous research suggests poor social problem-solving may function as a vulnerability factor for depressive symptoms. However, the ecological validity of previous findings is questionable, with recent research using real-life performance based approaches to ascertain how solutions are implemented in the ‘real world’. The current study employed a longitudinal design to examine the role of real-life problem-solving as a predictor of future depressive symptoms. Participants completed a diary of the interpersonal problems they encountered, and their attempts to solve them. They also completed traditional measures of social problem-solving (SPSI-R and MEPS task). Real-life problem-solving performance predicted depressive symptoms 3 months after the initial testing session, beyond the variance accounted for by traditional measures of social problem-solving. This suggests that the ability to hypothetically problem-solve is distinct from the ability to generate and implement problem-solving strategies in real-life, and that it is the latter which is most important in predicting depressive symptoms.

Baerg, S., Cairney, J., Hay, J., Rempel, L., Mahlberg, N., & Faught, B. E. (2011). Evaluating physical activity using accelerometry in children at risk of developmental coordination disorder in the presence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Res.Dev.Disabil.

Physical activity (PA) is compromised in children and adolescents with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Approximately half of all children with DCD suffer from attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD); a cohort often considered more physically active than typically developing youth. Accelerometry is an effective method of assessing physical activity patterns; although estimates of PA in children with DCD using this quantifiable method have not been attempted. We hypothesize that children with co-morbid DCD/ADHD will be more physically active than children with DCD and healthy peers. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to contrast physical activity (step count and activity energy expenditure using accelerometry [AEE]) between children with DCD, co-morbid DCD and ADHD (DCD/ADHD), and healthy controls. A sample of 110 children with DCD (N=32), DCD/ADHD (N=30) and controls (N=48) age 12-13years agreed to participate. Co-morbid DCD/ADHD was present in nearly half of the children with DCD (48.4%). Analysis of covariance demonstrated a positive interaction for females step count (F[1,92]=4.92, p=0.009). A significant group difference for step count (F[1,92]=4.43, p=.04) was identified in females. Post hoc comparison tests identified significantly lower step count between males with DCD and controls (p=.004) and males with DCD/ADHD and controls (p=0.003). Conversely, females with DCD/ADHD had significantly more step counts than their controls (p=.01). Hyperactivity in females with DCD/ADHD appears to contribute to more physical activity, whereas DCD may contribute to decreased activity in males with DCD and DCD/ADHD. Hyperactivity expressed among girls with DCD/ADHD appears to override the hypoactive behavior associated with females with DCD. Conversely, the expression of hyperactivity among boys with DCD/ADHD does not translate as hypothesized. The contrasting expression of physical activity (i.e., step count and AEE) evaluated using accelerometry in boys and girls with DCD, co-morbid DCD/ADHD and healthy peers are intriguing and constitute further investigation in a larger investigation.

Bailey, C. & Buckley, V. (2011). Recruiting and retaining older persons within a home-based pilot study using movement sensors. Health Soc.Care Community, 19, 98-105.

In this paper, we report on key aspects of recruiting and retaining a small group of community dwelling older adults in to a study, piloting motion sensors in their homes for 8 weeks. This was to further understanding of older adults’ falls at home. We consider our recruitment strategy in terms of informed consent and non-exploitation; planning and explaining, and our retention strategy in terms of communicating and recording and pacing and sharing data. Offering reflective analyses of our challenges and strategies may help develop skills that maximise the involvement of older adults in research, particularly technologies related research, whilst at the same time ensuring inclusive and non-exploitative research relationships.

Bedford, J. L., Linden, W., & Barr, S. I. (2011). Negative eating and body attitudes are associated with increased daytime ambulatory blood pressure in healthy young women. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 79, 147-154.

Background and objective: Various psychosocial stressors have been associated with increased ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and cortisol in middle-aged women. Given that many young women report negative eating/body attitudes, we examined whether these attitudes were associated with cortisol and ABP in a cross-sectional study. Methods: 120 non-obese, healthy women aged 1935 completed questionnaires, measurement of 24-h urinary free cortisol (UFC), and 12-h daytime ABP. Main and interactive effects of eating/body attitudes (average Z-score of Eating/body attitude questionnaires split at zero) and current weight loss effort (yes/no) were examined by General Linear Modeling adjusted for covariates. Results: Women with negative eating/body attitudes were more likely to report current weight loss attempts (63% versus 21%, p < 0.001). Eating/body attitudes or weight loss effort did not have main or interactive effects on age, physical activity level, energy intakes, general stress (average Z-score of psychosocial stress questionnaires) or UFC. Body mass index was higher among those currently trying to lose weight but did not differ by eating/body attitudes. Significant main effects of eating/body attitudes were detected on ABP: diastolic ABP (73.2 -¦ 0.7 versus 70.3 -¦ 0.8 mm Hg, p = 0.011) and mean arterial pressure (87.3 -¦ 0.7 versus 84.9 -¦ 0.8 mm Hg, p = 0.032) were higher among women with negative versus neutral/positive eating/body attitudes. There were no weight loss effort main effects for ABP, or weight loss effort-by-Eating/body attitude interactions. Conclusion: This exploratory study suggests that more negative eating/body-related attitudes may be modestly associated with higher ABP independent of weight loss effort.

Beets, M. W., Bornstein, D., Dowda, M., & Pate, R. R. (2011). Compliance with national guidelines for physical activity in u.s. Preschoolers: measurement and interpretation. Pediatrics, 127, 658-664.

OBJECTIVE: The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) guidelines for preschoolers recommend 120 minutes of physical activity daily. Two issues, however, create a situation whereby substantial variation in estimated prevalence rates of (in)active preschoolers are reported. First, NASPE guidelines have been interpreted in multiple ways. Second, objective monitoring via accelerometry is the most widely accepted measure of preschoolers’ physical activity, yet multiple cut points provide vastly different estimates of physical activity. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of preschoolers meeting NASPE guidelines and illustrate the differences among rates, given guideline interpretations, and cut points. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three- to 5-year-old children (n = 397) wore ActiGraph accelerometers for an average of 5.9 days. NASPE guidelines were expressed in 3 ways: 120 minutes daily of light-to-vigorous physical activity; 120 minutes daily of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; and 60 minutes daily of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Estimates of 120 minutes daily of light-to-vigorous physical activity, 120 minutes daily of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and 60 minutes daily of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were calculated on the basis of 4 common accelerometer cut points for preschoolers: Pate, Reilly and Puyau, Sirard, and Freedson. RESULTS: Prevalence rates varied considerably, with estimates ranging from 13.5% to 99.5%, 0.0% to 95.7%, and 0.5% to 99.5% for 120 minutes daily of light-to-vigorous physical activity, 120 minutes daily of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and 60 minutes daily of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The variation in NASPE guidelines, coupled with different accelerometer cut points, results in disparate estimates of (in)active preschoolers. This limits the ability to estimate population prevalence levels of physical activity that can be used to guide public health policy. Development of new guidelines should focus on an explicit delineation of physical activity and attempt to standardize the measurement of preschoolers’ physical activity.

Behrens, T. K. & Dinger, M. K. (2011). Comparisons of accelerometer and pedometer determined steps in free living samples. J Phys.Act.Health, 8, 390-397.

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare steps.d-1 between an accelerometer and pedometer in 2 free-living samples. METHODS: Data from 2 separate studies were used for this secondary analysis (Sample 1: N = 99, Male: n = 28, 20.9 +/- 1.4 yrs, BMI = 27.2 +/- 5.0 kg.m-2, Female: n = 71, 20.9 +/- 1.7 yrs, BMI = 22.7 +/- 3.0 kg.m-2; Sample 2: N = 74, Male: n = 27, 38.0 +/- 9.5 yrs, BMI = 25.7 +/- 4.5 kg.m-2, Female: n = 47, 38.7 +/- 10.1 yrs, BMI = 24.6 +/- 4.0 kg.m-2). Both studies used identical procedures and analytical strategies. RESULTS: The mean difference in steps.d-1 for the week was 1643.4 steps.d-1 in Study 1 and 2199.4 steps.d-1 in Study 2. There were strong correlations between accelerometer- and pedometer-determined steps.d-1 in Study 1 (r = .85, P < .01) and Study 2 (r = 0.87, P < .01). Bland-Altman plots indicated agreement without bias between steps recorded from the devices in Study 1 (r = -0.14, P < .17) and Study 2 (r = -0.09, P < .40). Correlations examining the difference between accelerometer-pedometer steps.d-1 and MVPA resulted in small, inverse correlations (range: r = -0.03 to -0.28). CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate agreement between accelerometer- and pedometer-determined steps.d-1; however, measurement bias may still exist because of known sensitivity thresholds between devices.

Berkman, E. T., Falk, E. B., & Lieberman, M. D. (2011). In the trenches of real-world self-control: neural correlates of breaking the link between craving and smoking. Psychol.Sci., 22, 498-506.

Successful goal pursuit involves repeatedly engaging self-control against temptations or distractions that arise along the way. Laboratory studies have identified the brain systems recruited during isolated instances of self-control, and ecological studies have linked self-control capacity to goal outcomes. However, no study has identified the neural systems of everyday self-control during long-term goal pursuit. The present study integrated neuroimaging and experience-sampling methods to investigate the brain systems of successful self-control among smokers attempting to quit. A sample of 27 cigarette smokers completed a go/no-go task during functional magnetic resonance imaging before they attempted to quit smoking and then reported everyday self-control using experience sampling eight times daily for 3 weeks while they attempted to quit. Increased activation in right inferior frontal gyrus, pre-supplementary motor area, and basal ganglia regions of interest during response inhibition at baseline was associated with an attenuated association between cravings and subsequent smoking. These findings support the ecological validity of neurocognitive tasks as indices of everyday response inhibition.

Berkman, E. T., Dickenson, J., Falk, E. B., & Lieberman, M. D. (2011). Using SMS text messaging to assess moderators of smoking reduction: Validating a new tool for ecological measurement of health behaviors. Health Psychology, 30, 186-194.

Objective: Understanding the psychological processes that contribute to smoking reduction will yield population health benefits. Negative mood may moderate smoking lapse during cessation, but this relationship has been difficult to measure in ongoing daily experience. We used a novel form of ecological momentary assessment to test a self-control model of negative mood and craving leading to smoking lapse. Design: We validated short message service (SMS) text as a user-friendly and low-cost option for ecologically measuring real-time health behaviors. We sent text messages to cigarette smokers attempting to quit eight times daily for the first 21 days of cessation (N-obs = 3,811). Main outcome measures: Approximately every two hours, we assessed cigarette count, mood, and cravings, and examined between- and within-day patterns and time-lagged relationships among these variables. Exhaled carbon monoxide was assessed pre- and posttreatment. Results: Negative mood and craving predicted smoking two hours later, but craving mediated the moodsmoking relationship. Also, this mediation relationship predicted smoking over the next two, but not four, hours. Conclusion: Results clarify conflicting previous findings on the relation between affect and smoking, validate a new low-cost and user-friendly method for collecting fine-grained health behavior assessments, and emphasize the importance of rapid, real-time measurement of smoking moderators.

Bernmark, E., Forsman, M., & Wiktorin, C. (2011). Head movements during two computer work tasks assessed by accelerometry. Applied Ergonomics, 42, 309-313.

We investigated whether potential differences in head inclinations and accelerations for two highly similar computer work tasks could be detected using (1) a triaxial accelerometer and (2) a simulated uniaxial accelerometer. Ten subjectsG ÇÖ head movements were registered with a triaxial accelerometer system for two similar document-management tasks at their work place: a fully electronic document-management task and one also involving paper documents. In situations where head movements were small, a triaxial accelerometer was able to discriminate between the different degrees of static work of the neck in terms of range of head inclinations and accelerations. A difference in head acceleration was also found by using a simulated uniaxial accelerometer. Thus, in terms of head movement and for work similar to this office work, potential dynamic differences in observationally similar work tasks can be investigated by using a triaxial accelerometer. For acceleration alone, a uniaxial accelerometer can also be used.

Blaes, A., Baquet, G., Van, P. E., & Berthoin, S. (2011). Physical activity patterns in French youth-From childhood to adolescence-Monitored with high-frequency accelerometry. Am J Hum.Biol, 23, 353-358.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate changes in time spent in light (LPA), moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA), very high physical activity (VHPA) from childhood to adolescence, according to age and sex, when measured with high frequency accelerometry. METHODS: Three hundred and sixty-one children, 94 preschoolers (Ps), 156 from primary schools (PS) and 111 from junior high schools (JHS)) were involved in this study. The children’s physical activity was assessed with a uniaxial accelerometer over a seven-day period. The epoch duration was set at 5 s and data collected between 7 am and 9 pm. The times spent below and above different PA thresholds, corresponding from LPA (<3 METs) to VHPA (>9 METs), were calculated. RESULTS: During the week, the boys spent significantly more time in MPA to VHPA than the girls (p < 0.001). From Ps to PS, LPA remained stable, while VPA and VHPA decreased significantly (p < 0.05). From PS to JHS, time spent in LPA, VPA, and VHPA increased significantly (p < 0.05). On the contrary, MPA increased significantly (p < 0.05) between Ps and PS and decreased significantly (p < 0.05) from PS to JHS. From PS to JHS, time spent in LPA increased significantly more during free days than during school days (p < 0.05) while VPA and VHPA increased significantly (p < 0.05) more during school days than during free days. CONCLUSIONS: Moderate to very high PA decreased from childhood to adolescence. Changes in PA patterns were associated with an increase of LPA and a concomitant decrease of MPA, while changes were more pronounced during free days than during school days. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 2011. (c) 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc

Bringsen, A., Ejlertsson, G., & Andersson, I. H. (2011). Flow situations during everyday practice in a medical hospital ward. Results from a study based on experience sampling method. BMC Nurs., 10, 3.

BACKGROUND: Nursing is a constant balance between strain and stimulation and work and health research with a positive reference point has been recommended. A health-promoting circumstance for subjective experience is flow, which is a psychological state, when individuals concurrently experience happiness, motivation and cognitive efficiency. Flow situations can be identified through individuals’ estimates of perceived challenge and skills. There is, to the best of our knowledge, no published study of flow among health care staff. The aim of this study was to identify flow-situations and study work-related activities and individual factors associated with flow situations, during everyday practice at a medical emergency ward in Sweden, in order to increase the knowledge on salutogenic health-promoting factors. METHODS: The respondents consisted of 17 assistant nurses and 14 registered nurses, who randomly and repeatedly answered a small questionnaire, through an experience sampling method, during everyday nursing practice. The study resulted in 497 observations. Flow situations were defined as an exact match between a high challenge and skill estimation and logistic regression models were used to study different variables association to flow situations. RESULTS: The health care staff spent most of its working time in individual nursing care and administrative and communicative duties. The assistant nurses were more often occupied in individual nursing care, while the registered nurses were more involved in medical care and administrative and communicative duties. The study resulted in 11.5% observations of flow situations but the relative number of flow situations varied between none to 55% among the participants. Flow situations were positively related to medical care activities and individual cognitive resources. Taking a break was also positively associated with flow situations among the assistant nurses. CONCLUSIONS: The result showed opportunities for work-related interventions, with an adherent increase in flow situations, opportunity for experience of flow and work-related health among the nursing staff in general and among the assistant nurses in particular.

Buckner, J. D., Zvolensky, M. J., Smits, J. A., Norton, P. J., Crosby, R. D., Wonderlich, S. A., & Schmidt, N. B. (2011). Anxiety sensitivity and marijuana use: an analysis from ecological momentary assessment. Depress.Anxiety, 28, 420-426.

Background: The cognitive factor of Anxiety Sensitivity (AS; the fear of anxiety and related bodily sensations) is theorized to play a role in cannabis use and its disorders. Lower-order facets of AS (physical concerns, mental incapacitation concerns, and social concerns) may be differentially related to cannabis use behavior. However, little is known about the impact of AS facets on the immediate antecedents of cannabis use. Methods: This study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to prospectively examine the relations between specific facets of AS, cannabis craving, state anxiety, and cannabis use in the natural environment using real-world data about ad lib cannabis use episodes. Participants were 49 current cannabis users (38.8% female). Results: AS-mental incapacitation fears were related to significantly greater severity of cannabis-related problems at baseline. During the EMA period, AS-mental incapacitation and AS-social concerns significantly interacted with cannabis craving to prospectively predict subsequent cannabis use. Specifically, individuals with higher craving and either higher AS-mental incapacitation or AS-social concerns were the most likely to subsequently use cannabis. In contrast to prediction, no AS facet significantly moderated the relationship between state anxiety and cannabis use. Conclusions: These findings suggest facets of AS (mental incapacitation and social fears) interact with cannabis craving to predict cannabis use. Findings also suggest differential relations between facets of AS and cannabis-related behaviors. Depression and Anxiety, 2011. (c) 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc

Bylsma, L. M. & Rottenberg, J. (2011). Uncovering the dynamics of emotion regulation and dysfunction in daily life with Ecological Momentary Assessment. In I.Nykli-ìek, A. Vingerhoets, M. Zeelenberg, I. Nykli-ìek, A. Vingerhoets, & M. Zeelenberg (Eds.), Emotion regulation and well-being (pp. 225-244). New York, NY US: Springer Science + Business Media.

(from the chapter) Psychological research and clinical practice traditionally relies on self-report questionnaires, which ask people to retrospect and to report on their feelings, behaviors, and experiences. Recalling this information involves a reconstructive process that is prone to systematic biases and errors. The temporal resolution of the obtained data is typically limited, precluding a fine-grained analysis of how variables and relationships between variables change over time. Although obtaining online self-reports in a laboratory setting avoids some of these problems, laboratory contexts are artificial and do not reproduce what an individual experiences in daily life. Fortunately, Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA), also known as the Experience Sampling Method (ESM), permits researchers to overcome some of the limitations of typical self-report methods and enable study of the dynamics of experiences and behaviors as they occur over time and across settings in daily life. Since Myin-Germeys and colleagues recently published an excellent overview of applications to EMA in psychopathology research, we focus this chapter specifically on EMA applications for understanding emotion in psychopathology. We briefly survey EMA methods developed over the past 30 years. Next, we explain the utility of using EMA to study emotional functioning, highlighting selected areas in emotion research where the potential of EMA modalities for clinical description, assessment, and clinical interventions are beginning to be realized. Our discussion of applications draws upon our own work with mood and anxiety disorders. Finally, we discuss the promise of EMA for improving the assessment and treatment of emotional disorders, as well as highlighting several priority areas for future investigation.

Bylsma, L. M., Taylor-Clift, A., & Rottenberg, J. (2011). Emotional reactivity to daily events in major and minor depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology.

Although emotional dysfunction is an important aspect of major depressive disorder (MDD), it has rarely been studied in daily life. Peeters, Nicolson, Berkhof, Delespaul, and deVries (2003) observed a surprising mood-brightening effect when individuals with MDD reported greater reactivity to positive events. To better understand this phenomenon, we conducted a multimethod assessment of emotional reactivity to daily life events, obtaining detailed reports of appraisals and event characteristics using the experience-sampling method and the Day Reconstruction Method (Kahneman, Krueger, Schkade, Schwarz, & Stone, 2004) in 35 individuals currently experiencing a major depressive episode, 26 in a minor depressive (mD) episode, and 38 never-depressed healthy controls. Relative to healthy controls, both mood-disordered groups reported greater daily negative affect and lower positive affect and reported events as less pleasant, more unpleasant, and more stressful. Importantly, MDD and mD individuals reported greater reductions in negative affect following positive events, an effect that converged across assessment methods and was not explained by differences in prevailing affect, event appraisals, or medications. Implications of this curious mood-brightening effect are discussed.

Camilleri, M., Rothman, M., Ho, K. F., & Etropolski, M. (2011). Validation of a bowel function diary for assessing opioid-induced constipation. Am J Gastroenterol., 106, 497-506.

OBJECTIVES: Validated tools to assess opioid-induced constipation (OIC) are needed. The aim of this study was to validate a Bowel Function Diary (BF-Diary) that includes patient-reported outcomes (PROs) associated with OIC. METHODS: In a multicenter, observational study, opioid-naive or recently untreated (>/= 14 days) adults with nonmalignant, chronic pain who were prescribed oral opioid and usual care completed an electronic diary daily for 2 weeks. Test-retest reliability was assessed. Validity was evaluated for two composite end points–number of spontaneous bowel movements (SBM) and complete SBMs (SCBM)–and for other relevant PROs. RESULTS: Of 238 patients (mean age 54 years, 58% women), 63% reported constipation. The intraclass correlation coefficient for numbers of SBM and SCBM, and other BF-Diary PROs was >/= 0.71 for all items except stool consistency. Mean (s.d.) number of SBM per week was significantly less in each week for patients with vs. without constipation (5.6 +/- 4.3 and 7.3 +/- 3.6, respectively over week 1, P=0.0012; similarly, P=0.0096 over week 2). Validity of individual items in the BF-Diary was supported (P<0.05, stool consistency; P<0.0001, all others). CONCLUSIONS: BF-Diary items are generally reliable and valid assessments for OIC research. Specifically, number of SBM is a valid measure for differentiating opioid-treated patients with and without constipation

Carstensen, L. L., Turan, B., Scheibe, S., Ram, N., Ersner-Hershfield, H., Samanez-Larkin, G. R., Brooks, K. P., & Nesselroade, J. R. (2010). Emotional experience improves with age: Evidence based on over 10 years of experience sampling. Psychology and Aging.

Recent evidence suggests that emotional well-being improves from early adulthood to old age. This study used experience-sampling to examine the developmental course of emotional experience in a representative sample of adults spanning early to very late adulthood. Participants (N = 184, Wave 1; N = 191, Wave 2; N = 178, Wave 3) reported their emotional states at five randomly selected times each day for a one week period. Using a measurement burst design, the one-week sampling procedure was repeated five and then ten years later. Cross-sectional and growth curve analyses indicate that aging is associated with more positive overall emotional well-being, with greater emotional stability and with more complexity (as evidenced by greater co-occurrence of positive and negative emotions). These findings remained robust after accounting for other variables that may be related to emotional experience (personality, verbal fluency, physical health, and demographic variables). Finally, emotional experience predicted mortality; controlling for age, sex, and ethnicity, individuals who experienced relatively more positive than negative emotions in everyday life were more likely to have survived over a 13 year period. Findings are discussed in the theoretical context of socioemotional selectivity theory.

Chandra, S., Scharf, D., & Shiffman, S. (2011). Within-day temporal patterns of smoking, withdrawal symptoms, and craving. Drug Alcohol Depend.

We examined the temporal relationships between smoking frequency and craving and withdrawal. 351 heavy smokers (>/=15 cigarettes per day) used ecological momentary assessment and electronic diaries to track smoking, craving, negative affect, arousal, restlessness, and attention disturbance in real time over 16 days. The waking day was divided into 8 2-h “bins” during which cigarette counts and mean levels of craving and withdrawal were computed. Cross-sectional analyses showed no association between restlessness and smoking, and arousal and smoking, but craving (b=0.65, p<0.01) was positively associated, and negative affect (b=-0.20, p<0.01), and attention disturbance (b=-0.24, p<0.01) were inversely associated with smoking. In prospective lagged analyses, higher craving predicted more subsequent smoking and higher smoking predicted lower craving (p’s<0.01). Higher restlessness also predicted more subsequent smoking and higher smoking predicted lower restlessness (p’s<0.01). Higher negative affect did not predict later smoking, but more smoking preceded lower negative affect (p<0.01). Neither attention disturbance nor arousal predicted, or were predicted by variations in smoking. In short, smoking exhibits time-lagged, reciprocal relationships with craving and restlessness, and a one-way predictive relationship with negative affect. Temporal patterns of craving and restlessness may aid in the design of smoking cessation interventions

Colley, R. C., Garriguet, D., Janssen, I., Craig, C. L., Clarke, J., & Tremblay, M. S. (2011). Physical activity of Canadian adults: accelerometer results from the 2007 to 2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey. Health Rep., 22, 7-14.

BACKGROUND: Rising obesity rates and declining fitness levels have increased interest in understanding what underlies these trends. This article presents the first directly measured data on physical activity and sedentary behaviour on a nationally representative sample of Canadians aged 20 to 79 years. DATA AND METHODS: Data are from the 2007 to 2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). Physical activity was measured using accelerometry. Data are presented as time spent in sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous intensity movement as well as steps accumulated per day. RESULTS: An estimated 15% of Canadian adults accumulate 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per week; 5% accumulate 150 minutes per week as at least 30 minutes of MVPA on 5 or more days a week. Men are more active than women and MVPA declines with increasing age and adiposity. Canadian adults are sedentary for approximately 9.5 hours per day (69% of waking hours). Men accumulate an average of 9,500 steps per day and women, 8,400 steps per day. The 10,000-steps-per-day target is achieved by 35% of adults. INTERPRETATION: Before the CHMS, objective measures of physical activity and sedentary behaviour were not available for a representative sample of Canadians. The findings indicate that 85% of adults are not active enough to meet Canada’s new physical activity recommendation

Cook, J. E., Arrow, H., & Malle, B. F. (2011). The effect of feeling stereotyped on social power and inhibition. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37, 165-180.

An experience sampling study examined the degree to which feeling stereotyped predicts feelings of low power and inhibition among stigmatized and nonstigmatized individuals. For 7 days, participants with a concealable (gay and lesbian), a visible (African American), or no identifiable stigma recorded feelings of being stereotyped, of powerlessness, and of inhibition immediately following social interactions. For members of all three groups, feeling stereotyped was associated with more inhibition, and this relation was partially mediated by feeling low in power. Although stigmatized participants reported feeling stereotyped more often than nonstigmatized participants, they reacted less strongly to the experience, consistent with the presence of buffering mechanisms developed by those living with stigma. African Americans appeared to buffer the impact of feeling stereotyped more effectively than gay and lesbian participants, an effect that was partly attributable to African Americans higher identity centrality.

Corder, K., van Sluijs, E. M., Steele, R. M., Stephen, A. M., Dunn, V., Bamber, D., Goodyer, I., Griffin, S. J., & Ekelund, U. (2011). Breakfast consumption and physical activity in British adolescents. Br.J Nutr, 105, 316-321.

Studies show an inverse relationship between breakfast frequency and weight gain. This may reflect poor eating habits generally and associated low physical activity (PA) or direct impacts of breakfast on mechanisms leading to lethargy and reduced PA. The relationship between breakfast frequency and PA is inconclusive. We aimed to determine whether breakfast frequency is associated with PA levels in British adolescents independent of body composition and socio-economic status (SES). Habitual breakfast frequency (self-report questionnaire) was assessed in 877 adolescents (43% male, age 14.5 (SD 0.5) years old). PA was measured over 5 d (accelerometry, average counts/ min; cpm). Associations between daily PA and breakfast frequency were assessed using linear regression adjusted for body fat percentage and SES. Effect modification by sex and associations with PA during the morning (06.00-12.00 hours) were explored. For boys, there were no significant associations between breakfast frequency and PA. For girls, less frequent breakfast consumption was significantly associated with lower PA (cpm) during the morning (occasional v. frequent b – 6.1 (95% CI – 11.1, -1.1), P = 0.017) when adjusted for body fat percentage and SES. There were no associations between PA and breakfast consumption over the whole day; however, for girls, less frequent breakfast consumption may be associated with lower PA levels during the morning, suggesting that breakfast consumption should perhaps be taken into consideration when aiming to promote PA in adolescent girls

Crespo, N. C., Sallis, J. F., Conway, T. L., Saelens, B. E., & Frank, L. D. (2011). Worksite physical activity policies and environments in relation to employee physical activity. Am J Health Promot., 25, 264-271.

PURPOSE: Examine associations between worksite physical activity promotion strategies and employees’ physical activity and sedentary behaviors. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Seattle-King County, Washington and Baltimore, Maryland-Washington, D.C. regions. SUBJECTS: Adults working outside the home (n = 1313). Mean age was 45 +/- 10 years, 75.8% of participants were non-Hispanic white, 56% were male, and 51% had income >/=$70,000/year. MEASURES: Participants reported demographic characteristics and presence/absence of nine physical activity promotion environment and policy strategies in their work environment (e.g., showers, lockers, physical activity programs). A worksite physical activity promotion index was a tally of strategies. Total sedentary and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) min/d were objectively assessed via 7-day accelerometry. Total job-related physical activity minutes and recreational physical activity minutes were self-reported with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. ANALYSIS: Mixed-effects models and generalized estimating equations evaluated the association of the worksite promotion index with physical activity and sedentary behavior, adjusting for demographics. RESULTS: A higher worksite promotion index was significantly associated with higher total sedentary behavior (beta = 3.97), MVPA (beta = 1.04), recreational physical activity (beta = 1.1 and odds ratio = 1.39; away from work and at work, respectively) and negatively with job-related physical activity (beta = .90). CONCLUSIONS: Multiple worksite physical activity promotion strategies based on environmental supports and policies may increase recreational physical activity and should be evaluated in controlled trials. These findings are particularly important given the increasingly sedentary nature of employment

Cunningham, L., Mason, S., Nugent, C., Moore, G., Finlay, D., & Craig, D. (2011). Home-based monitoring and assessment of Parkinson’s disease. IEEE Trans.Inf.Technol.Biomed., 15, 47-53.

As a clinically complex neurodegenerative disease, Parkinson’s disease (PD) requires regular assessment and close monitoring. In our current study, we have developed a home-based tool designed to monitor and assess peripheral motor symptoms. An evaluation of the tool was carried out over a period of ten weeks on ten people with idiopathic PD. Participants were asked to use the tool twice daily over four days, once when their medication was working at its best (“on” state) and once when it had worn off (“off” state). Results showed the ability of the data collected to distinguish the “on” and “off” state and also demonstrated statistically significant differences in timed assessments. It is anticipated that this tool could be used in the home environment as an early alert to a change in clinical condition or to monitor the effects of changes in prescribed medications used to manage PD

Dunton, G. F., Liao, Y., Intille, S., Wolch, J., & Pentz, M. A. (2011). Physical and social contextual influences on children’s leisure-time physical activity: an ecological momentary assessment study. J Phys.Act.Health, 8 Suppl 1, S103-S108.

BACKGROUND: This study used real-time electronic surveys delivered through mobile phones, known as Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA), to determine whether level and experience of leisure-time physical activity differ across children’s physical and social contexts. METHODS: Children (N = 121; ages 9 to 13 years; 52% male, 32% Hispanic/Latino) participated in 4 days (Fri.-Mon.) of EMA during nonschool time. Electronic surveys (20 total) assessed primary activity (eg, active play/sports/exercise), physical location (eg, home, outdoors), social context (eg, friends, alone), current mood (positive and negative affect), and enjoyment. Responses were time-matched to the number of steps and minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; measured by accelerometer) in the 30 minutes before each survey. RESULTS: Mean steps and MVPA were greater outdoors than at home or at someone else’s house (all P < .05). Steps were greater with multiple categories of company (eg, friends and family together) than with family members only or alone (all P < .05). Enjoyment was greater outdoors than at home or someone else’s house (all P < .05). Negative affect was greater when alone and with family only than friends only (all P < .05). CONCLUSION: Results describing the value of outdoor and social settings could inform context-specific interventions in this age group

Evenson, K. R. (2011). Towards an understanding of change in physical activity from pregnancy through postpartum. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12, 36-45.

Objective: The purpose of this paper was to describe the rationale, data collection, and proposed analyses for examination of mediators of change in physical activity from pregnancy to postpartum among a cohort of pregnant women. Method: The Pregnancy Infection and Nutrition 3 (PIN3) Study enrolled 2006 pregnant women into the cohort from 2001 to 2005. All women lived in central North Carolina upon enrollment. Physical activity was assessed using a self-reported one-week recall, measured twice during pregnancy and once each at 3- and 12-months postpartum. On a subset of women, one-week accelerometer measures were also collected during the two postpartum time periods. Potential mediators (intrapersonal, interpersonal, community) were collected during pregnancy and postpartum through interviews and take home questionnaires. Results: To assess mediation of physical activity among our cohort, we will first describe change in physical activity and the mediators, as well as their associations, through pregnancy into the postpartum period. Following this, the product of coefficients approach will be applied to examine whether each measure had indirect effects on change in physical activity. Each individual level mediator will be examined one at a time and across the time points in which it was available. The Sobel standard error approximation formula will be used to test for significance of the mediation effect. Conclusions: This study will provide evidence to develop appropriate interventions targeted at physical activity and will help focus efforts on the appropriate time periods between pregnancy and postpartum.

Feinstein, J. S., Adolphs, R., Damasio, A., & Tranel, D. (2011). The human amygdala and the induction and experience of fear. Curr.Biol, 21, 34-38.

Although clinical observations suggest that humans with amygdala damage have abnormal fear reactions and a reduced experience of fear, these impressions have not been systematically investigated. To address this gap, we conducted a new study in a rare human patient, SM, who has focal bilateral amygdala lesions. To provoke fear in SM, we exposed her to live snakes and spiders, took her on a tour of a haunted house, and showed her emotionally evocative films. On no occasion did SM exhibit fear, and she never endorsed feeling more than minimal levels of fear. Likewise, across a large battery of self-report questionnaires, 3 months of real-life experience sampling, and a life history replete with traumatic events, SM repeatedly demonstrated an absence of overt fear manifestations and an overall impoverished experience of fear. Despite her lack of fear, SM is able to exhibit other basic emotions and experience the respective feelings. The findings support the conclusion that the human amygdala plays a pivotal role in triggering a state of fear and that the absence of such a state precludes the experience of fear itself

Ferguson, S. G. & Shiffman, S. (2011). Using the methods of ecological momentary assessment in substance dependence research–smoking cessation as a case study. Subst.Use Misuse, 46, 87-95.

Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is the name applied to any of a range of research methodologies that aim to assess participants in near real time as they go about their regular day-to-day activities. Such methods have particular utility for studying drug use and drug dependence. Using the area of nicotine dependence as a case study, this review highlights how EMA can be used to build upon the findings from more traditional research methods to enhance our understanding of drug use. Particular attention is given to the role that advances in technology have played in the adoption of EMA in drug dependence research

Finan, P. H., Zautra, A. J., Davis, M. C., Lemery-Chalfant, K., Covault, J., & Tennen, H. (2011). COMT moderates the relation of daily maladaptive coping and pain in fibromyalgia. Pain, 152, 300-307.

Forty-five women with fibromyalgia (FM) engaged in a 30-day electronic diary assessment, recording daily ratings of pain and 2 forms of maladaptive coping: pain catastrophizing and pain attention. Participants were genotyped for the val(158)met single nucleotide polymorphism (rs4680) in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene. COMT genotype moderated the daily relations of both maladaptive coping processes and pain. FM women with the homozygous met/met genotype evidenced more pain on days when pain catastrophizing was elevated relative to heterozygous and homozygous val(158) carriers. FM women with the homozygous met/met genotype evidenced more pain on days when pain attention was elevated relative to those with the homozygous val/val genotype. Evidence is presented to suggest that these are independent effects. The findings provide multimeasure and multimethod support for genetic moderation of a maladaptive coping and pain process, which has been previously characterized in a sample of postoperative shoulder pain patients. Further, the findings advance our understanding of the role of COMT in FM, suggesting that genetic variation in the val(158)met polymorphism may affect FM pain through pathways of pain-related cognition. This study examined 2 forms of maladaptive coping: pain catastrophizing and pain attention. The findings provide multimeasure and multimethod support for genetic moderation of a maladaptive coping and pain process and suggest that genetic variation in the val(158)met polymorphism may affect fibromyalgia pain through pathways of pain-related cognition

Fisher, S. R., Goodwin, J. S., Protas, E. J., Kuo, Y. F., Graham, J. E., Ottenbacher, K. J., & Ostir, G. V. (2011). Ambulatory activity of older adults hospitalized with acute medical illness. J Am Geriatr.Soc., 59, 91-95.

OBJECTIVES: To describe the amount and patterns of ambulatory activity in hospitalized older adults over consecutive hospital days. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: University teaching hospital Acute Care for Elderly (ACE) unit. PARTICIPANTS: Adults aged 65 and older (N = 239) who wore a step activity monitor during their hospital stay. MEASUREMENTS: Total number of steps per 24-hour day. Mean daily steps were calculated based on number of days the step activity monitor was worn. RESULTS: Mean age was 76.6 +/- 7.6; 55.1% of participants were female. Patients took a mean number of 739.7 (interquartile range 89-1,014) steps per day during their hospital stay. Patients with shorter stays tended to ambulate more on the first complete day of hospitalization and had a markedly greater increase in mobility on the second day than patients with longer lengths of stay. There were no significant differences in mean daily steps according to illness severity or reason for admission. CONCLUSION: Objective information on patient mobility can be collected for hospitalized older persons. Findings may increase understanding of the level of ambulation required to maintain functional status and promote recovery from acute illness.

Fox, K. R., Hillsdon, M., Sharp, D., Cooper, A. R., Coulson, J. C., Davis, M., Harris, R., McKenna, J., Narici, M., Stathi, A., & Thompson, J. L. (2011). Neighbourhood deprivation and physical activity in UK older adults. Health Place., 17, 633-640.

The benefits of regular physical activity for older adults are now well-established but this group remain the least active sector of the population. In this paper, the association between levels of neighbourhood deprivation and physical activity was assessed. A sample of 125 males with a mean age of 77.5 (+/-5.6) years, and 115 females with a mean age of age 78.6 (+/-8.6) underwent 7-day accelerometry, a physical performance battery, and completed a daily journeys log. Univariate associations between physical activity parameters and level of deprivation of neighbourhood were extinguished in regression models controlling for age, gender, and level of educational attainment. Age, gender, educational attainment, body mass index, physical function, and frequency of journeys from the home explained between 50% and 54% of variance in activity parameters. These results suggest the importance of strategies to help older adults maintain physical function, healthy weight, and remain active in their communities

Fremeaux, A. E., Mallam, K. M., Metcalf, B. S., Hosking, J., Voss, L. D., & Wilkin, T. J. (2011). The impact of school-time activity on total physical activity: the activitystat hypothesis (EarlyBird 46). Int J Obes.(Lond).

Objectives:To explore the activitystat hypothesis in primary school children by asking whether more physical activity (PA) in school time is compensated for by less PA at other times.Study Design:Observational, repeated measures (four consecutive occasions over a 12-month period).Setting:South-west England.Participants:A total of 206 children (115 boys, aged 8-10 years) from 3 primary schools (S1, S2 and S3), which recorded large differences in PA during school time.Measurements:Total PA (TPA) and its moderate-and-vigorous component were recorded weekly by accelerometry, in school and out of school, and adjusted for local daily rainfall and daylight hours. Habitual PA was assessed by linear mixed-effects modelling on repeated measures.Results:S1 children recorded 64% more in-school PA, but S2 and S3 children compensated with correspondingly more out-of-school PA, so that TPA between the three schools was no different: 35.6 (34.3-36.9), 37.3 (36.0-38.6) and 36.2 (34.9-37.5) Units, respectively (P=0.38).Conclusions:The PA of children seems to compensate in such a way that more activity at one time is met with less activity at another. The failure of PA programmes to reduce childhood obesity could be attributable to this compensation.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 15 March 2011; doi:10.1038/ijo.2011.52

Froese, T., Gould, C., & Seth, A. K. (2011). Validating and calibrating first-and second-person methods in the science of conciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 18, 38-64.

Comments on the articles R.T. Hurlburt & S.A. Akhter (see record 2007-19512-002); Pierre Vermersch (see record 2009-23371-002); and Claire Petitmengin & Michel Bitbol (see record 2009-23371-015). In this paper we will concentrate on two of the most common second-person methods in the science of consciousness, namely the Descriptive Experience Sampling (DES) method and the Explicitation Interview (EI) method. After a survey of recent advances in the use of these methods in the science of consciousness, we identify a key problem that stands in the way of further progress: the DES and EI methods are driven by fundamentally different conceptions of consciousness, and these have important methodological ramifications. We suggest one possibility to obtain an objective measure that may help to resolve this methodological dispute. We may have developed sophisticated methods to study the neural and behavioral correlates of verbal reports, but how those reports are generated in the first place still remains mostly hidden inside the ‘black box’ of the experiencing subject. At the same time it is reasonable to suppose that first-person and/or second-person introspection alone will never be a sufficient guide to the mechanisms underlying lived experience. However, when taken in conjunction with other behavioral and neural properties and signatures, especially those that bear an explanatory, informing or constraining relation to phenomenal properties, introspective and especially second-person interview methods are likely to form an increasingly important part of the methodological toolkit in consciousness science.

Fukuoka, Y., Kamitani, E., Dracup, K., & Jong, S. S. (2011). New insights into compliance with a mobile phone diary and pedometer use in sedentary women. J Phys.Act.Health, 8, 398-403.

OBJECTIVES: The purposes of this study were 1) to determine compliance with a pedometer and mobile phone- based physical activity diary, and 2) to assess concordance between self-reported daily steps recorded and transmitted by a mobile phone and pedometer-measured daily steps in sedentary women. METHODS: In this 3-week pilot clinical study, 41 sedentary women who met all inclusion criteria were recruited from local communities. We asked the participants to wear a pedometer every day and to report their daily steps using a mobile phone diary each night before retiring. In the first week, women were asked to monitor their daily steps (baseline steps). In the second and third weeks, they were asked to increase their steps by 20% from the previous week. Although the pedometer can automatically store the most recent 41 days’ performance, the participants were not informed of this function of the pedometer. RESULTS: Overall compliance was 93.8% with pedometer use and 88.3% with the mobile phone physical activity diary. Bland Altman plots showed that the agreement between self-reported daily steps by mobile phone diary and pedometer-recorded daily steps from week 1 to week 3 was high. CONCLUSION: The combination of a pedometer and a mobile phone diary may enhance the quality of self-reported data in clinical studies

Gardner, P. J. & Campagna, P. D. (2011). Pedometers as measurement tools and motivational devices: new insights for researchers and practitioners. Health Promot.Pract., 12, 55-62.

Pedometers are increasingly used in physical activity research and health promotion initiatives. This pilot study examines the efficacy of pedometers as motivational tools for increasing daily physical activity and exploring the practical issues related to pedometer use in research and intervention studies. A mixed-method design is used to collect data on the level of activity and in-depth information about participants’ experiences wearing the pedometers. Participants are 10 midlife women between the ages of 45 and 64 (mean age = 52.9). Analysis indicates pedometers function as important motivational tools for increasing daily physical activity and improving the awareness of activity patterns for participants. Findings provide new insights into participants’ experiences using the pedometers and understanding how these devices function as research tools. Several important methodological considerations for future research and intervention designs using pedometers are discussed

GassmanGÇÉPines, A. (2011). Associations of lowGÇÉincome working mothers’ daily interactions with supervisors and motherGÇÉchild interactions. Journal of Marriage and Family, 73, 67-76.

This study investigated associations of low-income working mothers daily interactions with supervisors and their interactions with children. Sixty-one mothers of preschool-aged children were asked to report on their interactions with their supervisors at work and their interactions with children for 2 weeks (N = 520 workdays). Results show significant within-day spillover from the quality of mothers perceived work interactions with supervisors to their reports of interactions with children. Supervisor criticism was positively correlated with harsh and withdrawn motherchild interactions on the same day. Supervisor recognition for good work was positively associated with warm motherchild interactions on the same day. Lagged analyses showed some significant associations between perceived supervisor interactions on a given day and motherchild interactions the next day.

Gehricke, J. G., Hong, N., Wigal, T. L., Chan, V., & Doan, A. (2011). ADHD medication reduces cotinine levels and withdrawal in smokers with ADHD. Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav., 98, 485-491.

Individuals with ADHD may self-medicate with nicotine, the main psychoactive ingredient in tobacco smoke, in order to reduce symptoms and negative moods associated with ADHD. ADHD medication (e.g., methylphenidate and atomoxetine) may mimic some of the effects of nicotine and may aid smoking cessation in smokers with ADHD. The present study examined if ADHD medication reduces smoking and withdrawal in non-treatment seeking smokers with ADHD. Fifteen adult smokers with ADHD participated in the study, which consisted of an experimental phase and field monitoring phase to examine the acute and extended effects, respectively, of ADHD medication. During the experimental phase, smokers were asked to complete a Continuous Performance Task (CPT) and the Shiffman-Jarvik smoking withdrawal questionnaire during the following four conditions: (1) ADHD medication+cigarette smoking, (2) ADHD medication+overnight abstinence, (3) placebo+cigarette smoking, and (4) placebo+overnight abstinence. During the field monitoring phase, participants were asked to provide salivary cotinine samples and complete electronic diaries about smoking, smoking urge, ADHD symptoms, and stress in everyday life for two days on ADHD medication and for two days on placebo. Results of the experimental phase showed that ADHD medication improved task performance on the CPT and reduced withdrawal during overnight abstinence. During the field monitoring phase, ADHD medication reduced salivary cotinine levels compared to placebo. In addition, the electronic diary revealed that ADHD medication improved difficulty concentrating during no smoking events and stress. The findings of the present study suggest that, along with other strategies, ADHD medication may be used to aid smoking withdrawal and cessation in smokers with ADHD

Geschwind, N., Nicolson, N. A., Peeters, F., van Os, J., Barge-Schaapveld, D., & Wichers, M. (2011). Early improvement in positive rather than negative emotion predicts remission from depression after pharmacotherapy. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 21, 241-247.

Knowledge on mechanisms involved in early prediction of response to antidepressant medication may help optimize clinical decision making. Recent studies regarding response to pharmacotherapy implicate resilience-like mechanisms and involvement of positive, rather than negative emotions. The aim of the current study is to examine the contribution of early change in positive affect to the prediction of response to pharmacotherapy. Positive and negative emotions were measured at baseline and during the first week of pharmacotherapy, using experience sampling techniques. The association between early change in positive and negative emotions and severity of depressive symptoms at week six was examined in a sample of 49 depressed patients. The added benefits of measuring early change in positive emotions compared to early Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) change alone were evaluated through model comparisons. Early improvement in positive affect during the first week of treatment predicted the continuous HDRS score (+¦ =GêÆ0.64, p <0.001), response (50% reduction; OR = 4.32, p < 0.01), and remission (HDRS Gëñ 7; OR = 9.29, p <0.001) at week six with moderate to large effect sizes. Effects of early change in negative emotions were only half as large and disappeared when evaluated simultaneously with early change in positive emotions. When early change in positive emotions was added to the models including early HDRS change only, all three models improved significantly. In conclusion, early change in positive rather than negative emotions best predicted response to treatment, supporting the notion that antidepressants activate resilience-like mechanisms. Moreover, monitoring of positive emotions in early stages of treatment may improve clinical decision making.

Glomb, T. M., Bhave, D. P., Miner, A. G., & Wall, M. (2011). Doing good, feeling good: Examining the role of organizational citizenship behaviors in changing mood. Personnel Psychology, 64, 191-223.

This study investigates whether the altruism and courtesy dimensions of organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) regulate mood at work. Social psychological theories of mood regulation suggest helping behaviors can improve individuals moods because helping others provides gratification and directs attention away from one’s negative mood. We capture mood states prior to and following the enactment of OCBs using experience sampling methodology in a sample of managerial and professional employees over a 3-week period. Results suggest altruism shows a pattern consistent with mood regulation; negative moods during the prior time period are associated with altruism and positive moods in the subsequent time period. The pattern of results for courtesy behaviors is only partially consistent with a mood regulation explanation. Consistent with theories of behavioral concordance, interaction results suggest individuals higher on Extroversion have more intense positive mood reactions after engaging in altruistic behaviors. Interactions with courtesy were not significant.

Godwin, M., Birtwhistle, R., Delva, D., Lam, M., Casson, I., MacDonald, S., & Seguin, R. (2011). Manual and automated office measurements in relation to awake ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Family Practice, 28, 110-117.

Background: Automated blood pressure (BP) devices are commonly used in doctor’s offices. How BP measured on these devices relates to ambulatory BP monitoring is not clear. Objective: To assess how well office-based manual and automated BP predicts ambulatory BP. Methods: Using data on 654 patients, we assessed how well sphygmomanometer measurements and measurements taken with an automated device (BpTRU) predicted results on ambulatory BP monitoring. We assess positive and negative predictive values and overall accuracy. We look at different cut-points for systolic (130, 135 and 140 mmHg) and diastolic (80, 85 and 90 mmHg) BP. Results: A single automated office BP (AOBP) assessment provides superior predictive values and overall accuracy compared to three manual office BP assessments. For systolic BP, the predictive values are Gëñ 69% for any of the cut-points while the positive predictive values for the single automated measurement is between 80.0% and 86.9% and the overall accuracy gets as high as 74% for the 130 mmHg cut-point. For diastolic BP, the automated readings are also more predictive but in this case, it is the negative predictive values that are better, as well as the overall accuracy. Conclusions: Based on the results, we suggest that 135/85 mmHg continue to be used as the cut-point defining high BP with the BpTRU device. However, future research might suggests that values in a grey zone between 130139 mmHg systolic and 8089 mmHg diastolic be confirmed using ambulatory BP monitoring. As well, three AOBP assessments might produce much greater accuracy than the single AOBP assessment used in the study.

Goldner, J., Peters, T. L., Richards, M. H., & Pearce, S. (2011). Exposure to community violence and protective and risky contexts among low income urban African American adolescents: A prospective study. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40, 174-186.

This study examined protective and risky companionship and locations for exposure to community violence among African American young adolescents living in high crime, urban areas. The Experience Sampling Method (ESM), an in vivo data collection method, was employed to gather information from 233 students (62% female) over 3 years, beginning in the 6th grade. Questionnaire variables of exposure to community violence were regressed onto ESM companionship and location variables, cross-sectionally and longitudinally, separately for boys and girls. At different points, time spent with parents, in school, and outside in private space was associated with less exposure to violence for boys and girls, while time spent with girls was protective for boys. In addition, time spent outside in public and with older peers was associated with increased risk for boys and girls. These findings are discussed in relation to previous and potential future research, and to strategies to prevent exposure to community violence.

Gregoski, M. J., Barnes, V. A., Tingen, M. S., Harshfield, G. A., & Treiber, F. A. (2011). Breathing awareness meditation and LifeSkills Training programs influence upon ambulatory blood pressure and sodium excretion among African American adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 48, 59-64.

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of breathing awareness meditation (BAM), Botvin LifeSkills Training (LST), and health education control (HEC) on ambulatory blood pressure and sodium excretion in African American adolescents. Methods: Following 3 consecutive days of systolic blood pressure (SBP) screenings, 166 eligible participants (i.e., SBP > 50th 95th percentile) were randomized by school to either BAM (n = 53), LST (n = 69), or HEC (n = 44). In-school intervention sessions were administered for 3 months by health education teachers. Before and after the intervention, overnight urine samples and 24-hour ambulatory SBP, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate were obtained. Results: Significant group differences were found for changes in overnight SBP and SBP, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate over the 24-hour period and during school hours. The BAM treatment exhibited the greatest overall decreases on these measures (Bonferroni adjusted, ps < .05). For example, for school-time SBP, BAM showed a change of 3.7 mmHg compared with no change for LST and a change of GêÆ.1 mmHg for HEC. There was a nonsignificant trend for overnight urinary sodium excretion (p = .07), with the BAM group displaying a reduction of GêÆ.92 -¦ 1.1 mEq/hr compared with increases of .89 -¦ 1.2 mEq/hr for LST and .58 -¦ .9 mEq/hr for HEC group. Conclusion: BAM appears to improve hemodynamic function and may affect sodium handling among African American adolescents who are at increased risk for development of cardiovascular disease.

Hansen, T. W., Li, Y., Boggia, J., Thijs, L., Richart, T., & Staessen, J. A. (2011). Predictive role of the nighttime blood pressure. Hypertension, 57, 3-10.

Numerous studies addressed the predictive value of the nighttime blood pressure (BP) as captured by ambulatory monitoring. However, arbitrary cutoff limits in dichotomized analyses of continuous variables, data dredging across selected subgroups, extrapolation of cross-sectional studies to prospective outcomes, and lack of comprehensive adjustments for confounders make interpretation of the literature difficult. We reviewed prospective studies with total mortality or a composite cardiovascular end point as an outcome in relation to the level and the circadian profile of systolic BP. We analyzed studies in hypertensive patients (n = 23 856) separately from those in individuals randomly recruited from populations (n = 9641). We pooled summary statistics and individual subject data, respectively. In both patients and populations, in analyses in which nighttime BP was additionally adjusted for daytime BP and vice versa, nighttime BP was a stronger predictor than daytime BP. With adjustment for the 24-hour BP, both the night-to-day BP ratio and dipping status remained significant predictors of outcome but added little prognostic value over and beyond the 24-hour BP level. In the absence of conclusive evidence proving that nondipping is a reversible risk factor, the option whether or not to restore the diurnal blood pressure profile to a normal pattern should be left to the clinical judgment of doctors and should be individualized for each patient. Current guidelines on the interpretation of ambulatory BP recording need to be updated

Havermans, R., Nicolson, N. A., Berkhof, J., & deVries, M. W. (2011). Patterns of salivary cortisol secretion and responses to daily events in patients with remitted bipolar disorder. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 36, 258-265.

Previous studies on bipolar disorder revealed abnormalities in the function of the HPA axis, including disturbed patterns of cortisol secretion, during depressive and manic episodes. It is less clear whether these abnormalities persist after symptomatic recovery. In the present study we used the experience sampling method with intensive salivary cortisol sampling to study patterns of cortisol secretion in relation to negative and positive daily events during the normal daily life of a group of 36 patients with remitted bipolar disorder and 38 healthy controls. Results of multilevel regression analysis indicated that daytime cortisol levels and reactivity to daily events were similar in remitted bipolar patients and healthy controls, but bipolar patients showed flatter diurnal slopes and larger cortisol fluctuations over successive measures. Patients with many previous episodes had higher overall cortisol levels, reduced cortisol reactivity to negative daily events, and flatter diurnal slopes than patients with fewer episodes. These results provide additional evidence of subtle HPA axis dysregulation in remitted bipolar patients, especially in those with many recurrent episodes.

Hooker, S. P., Feeney, A., Hutto, B., Pfeiffer, K. A., McIver, K., Heil, D. P., Vena, J. E., Lamonte, M. J., & Blair, S. N. (2011). Validation of the actical activity monitor in middle-aged and older adults. J Phys.Act.Health, 8, 372-381.

PURPOSE: This study was designed to validate the Actical activity monitor in middle-aged and older adults of varying body composition to develop accelerometer thresholds to distinguish between light and moderate intensity physical activity (PA). METHODS: Nonobese 45 to 64 yr (N = 29), obese 45 to 64 yr (N = 21), and >/=65 yr (N = 23; varying body composition) participants completed laboratory-based sitting, household, and locomotive activities while wearing an Actical monitor and a portable metabolic measurement system. Nonlinear regression analysis was used to identify activity count (AC) cut-points to differentiate between light intensity (<3 METs) and moderate intensity (>/=3METs) PA. RESULTS: Using group-specific algorithms, AC cut points for 3 METs were 1634, 1107, and 431 for the obese 45 to 64 yr group, nonobese 45 to 64 yr group, and >/=65 yr group, respectively. However, sensitivity and specificity analysis revealed that an AC cut-point of 1065 yielded similar accuracy for detecting an activity as less than or greater than 3 METs, regardless of age and body composition. CONCLUSION: For the Actical activity monitor, an AC cut-point of 1065 can be used to determine light and moderate intensity PA in people >/=45 years of age

Ilies, R., Johnson, M. D., Judge, T. A., & Keeney, J. (2011). A within-individual study of interpersonal conflict as a work stressor: Dispositional and situational moderators. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32, 44-64.

Focusing on interpersonal conflict as a work stressor, the authors used a within-subjects research design to examine the effect of conflict episodes on employees’ negative affect on the job. The roles of agreeableness and social support in moderating the negative effects of conflict episodes were also examined. A two-week experience-sampling study revealed that interpersonal conflict influenced employees’ intraindividual fluctuations in negative affect. As predicted, agreeableness and social support influenced individuals’ patterns of affective responses to conflict, such that conflict was more strongly associated with negative affect for agreeable employees, and for those with lower levels of social support at work. Overall, the results suggest that both personality (agreeableness) and context (social support) significantly moderate the affective implications of interpersonal conflict at work.

Ilies, R., Keeney, J., & Scott, B. A. (2011). Workfamily interpersonal capitalization: Sharing positive work events at home. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 114, 115-126.

In a 3-week experience-sampling study of 52 full-time employees, the authors investigated the within individual relationships among positive work events, affective states, and job satisfaction. They also examined the influence of workfamily interpersonal capitalization (sharing work events with ones spouse or partner at home) on employees job and relationship satisfaction. Results revealed that positive events influenced job satisfaction through positive affect, and workfamily interpersonal capitalization on the most positive work event of the day positively impacted job satisfaction over and above the effects of the events pleasantness and of the number of other positive work events experienced that day.

Jacobs, K., Foley, G., Punnett, L., Hall, V., Gore, R., Brownson, E., Ansong, E., Markowitz, J., McKinnon, M., Steinberg, S., & Ing, A. (2011). University students’ notebook computer use: Lessons learned using e-diaries to report musculoskeletal discomfort. Ergonomics, 54, 206-219.

The objective of this pilot study was to identify if notebook accessories (ergonomic chair, desktop monitor and notebook riser) combined with a wireless keyboard, mouse and participatory ergonomics training would have the greatest impact on reducing self-reported upper extremity musculoskeletal discomfort in university students. In addition to pre-post computing and health surveys, the Ecological Momentary Assessment was used to capture change in discomfort over time using a personal digital assistant (PDA) as the e-diary. The PDA was programmed with a survey containing 45 questions. Four groups of university students were randomised to either intervention (three external computer accessories) or to control. Participants reported less discomfort with the ergonomic chair and notebook riser based on the pre-post survey data and the e-diary/PDA ANOVA analysis. However, the PDA data, adjusted for the effect of hours per day of computer use, showed no benefit of the chair and limited benefit from the riser. Statement of Relevance: University students’ use of notebook computers has increased. This study found evidence of a positive effect of an adjustable chair or notebook riser when combined with ergonomic training on reducing discomfort. Daily notebook computer use of 4 h was confirmed as a risk factor. Without some form of ergonomic intervention, these students are likely to enter the workforce with poor computing habits, which places them on the road to future injuries as technology continues to play a dominant role in their lives.

Jehn, M., Schmidt-Trucksass, A., Hanssen, H., Schuster, T., Halle, M., & Koehler, F. (2011). Association of physical activity and prognostic parameters in elderly patients with heart failure. J Aging Phys.Act., 19, 1-15.

OBJECTIVE: Assessment of habitual physical activity (PA) in patients with heart failure. METHODS: This study included 50 patients with heart failure (61.9 +/- 4.0 yr). Seven days of PA were assessed by questionnaire (AQ), pedometer, and accelerometer and correlated with prognostic markers including VO(2peak), percent left-ventricular ejection fraction, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, and New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class. RESULTS: Accelerometry showed a stronger correlation with VO(2peak) and NYHA class (R = .73 and R = -.68; p < .001) than AQ (R = .58 and R = -.65; p < .001) or pedometer (R = .52 and R = -.50; p < .001). In the multivariable regression model accelerometry was the only consistent independent predictor of VO(2peak) (p = .002). Moreover, when its accuracy of prediction was tested, 59% of NYHA I and 95% of NYHA III patients were correctly classified into their assigned NYHA classes based on their accelerometer activity. CONCLUSION: PA assessed by accelerometer is significantly associated with exercise capacity in patients with heart failure and is predictive of disease severity. The data suggests that PA monitoring can aid in evaluating clinical status

Joundi, R. A., Brittain, J. S., Jenkinson, N., Green, A. L., & Aziz, T. (2011). Rapid tremor frequency assessment with the iphone accelerometer. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders.

The physician is often seeking more efficient ways of performing patient assessments. Currently, measuring tremor frequency requires expensive and bulky equipment. We propose the use of the in-built accelerometer of the iPhone via the iSeismo application for rapid measurement of tremor frequency. We use this device in a series of 7 different tremor cases, and show that the frequency measurements on the iSeismo graph closely match the more sophisticated EMG analysis during tremor. This is a preliminary confirmation of the usefulness of this device in the clinical setting for quick assessment of the dominant frequency component in a variety of tremors.

Jovanovic, J. L., Hughes, D. C., Baum, G. P., Carmack, C., Greisinger, A. J., & Basen-Engquist, K. (2011). Accelerometry and self-report in sedentary populations. Am J Health Behav., 35, 71-80.

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether self-reported exercise duration and intensity matched accelerometer data in sedentary endometrial cancer survivors and age-matched controls. METHODS: Participants were asked to wear an accelerometer and self-report exercise bouts, duration, and intensity for one week. Self-reported duration was compared with accelerometer data. RESULTS: Self-reported exercise-bout duration matched accelerometer duration 93% for survivors and 99% for controls. Self-reported exercise-bout intensity matched accelerometer intensity 70% for survivors and 66% for controls. There were no significant differences between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Sedentary endometrial cancer survivors and controls self-reported duration and intensity of physical activity consistent with accelerometer data

Kackar, H. Z., Shumow, L., Schmidt, J. A., & Grzetich, J. (2011). Age and gender differences in adolescents’ homework experiences. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 32, 70-77.

Extant data collected through the Experience Sampling Method were analyzed to describe adolescents’ subjective experiences of homework. Analyses explored age and gender differences in the time adolescents spend doing homework, and the situational variations (location and companions) in adolescents’ reported concentration, effort, interest, positive affect and stress while doing homework. Regarding age differences, middle school students reported more positive experiences when homework was done with companions and in locations other than home, whereas high school students reported more positive experiences when homework was done alone and at home. Regarding gender differences, girls, regardless of age, reported greater stress than boys when doing homework alone, and lower stress when doing homework with friends. High school girls reported lower interest than middle school boys when doing homework alone. Findings provide an understanding of age and gender differences in adolescents’ perceptions of homework, which might help educators and parents structure engaging homework environments.

Kamarck, T. W., Shiffman, S., & Wethington, E. (2011). Measuring psychosocial stress using ecological momentary assessment methods. In R.J.Contrada, A. Baum, R. J. Contrada, & A. Baum (Eds.), The handbook of stress science: Biology, psychology, and health (pp. 597-617). New York, NY US: Springer Publishing Co.

(from the chapter) Research reviewed throughout this Handbook has included a number of different self-report instruments used to measure psychosocial stress. Most of these instruments have involved retrospective methods. In this chapter, we argue that an alternative self-report methodology, capturing the manifestations of psychosocial stress as it unfolds over the course of daily life, may have some distinct advantages when the study design permits. This approach is sometimes referred to as ecological momentary assessment (EMA), and it involves the real-time capture of real-world behavior and experience.

Kawahara, J., Tanaka, S., Tanaka, C., Hikihara, Y., Aoki, Y., & Yonemoto, J. (2011). Estimation of the respiratory ventilation rate of preschool children in daily life using accelerometers. J Air Waste Manag.Assoc., 61, 46-54.

Inhalation rate is an essential factor for determining the inhaled dose of air pollutants. Here, accelerometers were used to develop regression equations for predicting the minute ventilation rate (V(E)) to estimate the daily inhalation rate in young children. Body acceleration and heart rate were measured in 29 Japanese preschool children (6 yr of age) during nine different levels of activities (lying down, sitting, standing, playing with plastic bricks, walking, building with blocks, climbing stairs, ball tossing, and running) using the Actical omnidirectional accelerometer, the ActivTracer triaxial accelerometer, and a heart rate monitor. Measurements were calibrated against the V(E) measured by the Douglas bag method. ActivTracer accelerometer measurements gave a strong correlation with V(E) (Pearson’s r = 0.913), which was marginally stronger than that for the Actical counts (r = 0.886) and comparable to the correlation between heart rate and logarithmic V(E) (r = 0.909). According to the linear regression equation, the V(E) for lying down, sitting, standing, playing with plastic bricks, walking, and running was overestimated by 14-60% by the Actical and by 14-37% by the ActivTracer. By comparison, for building with blocks, climbing stairs, and ball tossing, the V(E) was underestimated by 19-23% by the Actical and by 13-18% by the ActivTracer. When these three activities were excluded, a stronger correlation was found between the V(E) and ActivTracer measurements (r = 0.949); this correlation was 0.761 for the three excluded activities. Discriminant analysis showed that the ratio between vertical and horizontal acceleration obtained by the ActivTracer could discriminate walking from building with blocks, climbing stairs, and ball tossing with a sensitivity of 75%. The error in estimating V(E) was considerably improved for the ActivTracer measurements by the use of two regression equations developed for each type of activity

Kikuya, M., Staessen, J. A., Ohkubo, T., Thijs, L., Asayama, K., Satoh, M., Hashimoto, T., Hirose, T., Metoki, H., Obara, T., Inoue, R., Li, Y., Dolan, E., Hoshi, H., Totsune, K., Satoh, H., Wang, J. G., O’Brien, E., & Imai, Y. (2011). How many measurements are needed to provide reliable information in terms of the ambulatory arterial stiffness index? The Ohasama study. Hypertens.Res., 34, 314-318.

The aim of this study was to investigate how frequent ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) readings need to be obtained to reproduce the ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) and pulse pressure (PP) without loss of information. We compared concordance from full and reduced ABP recordings. We recorded 24-h ABP at 30-min intervals in 1542 residents of Ohasama, Japan (baseline age, 40-93 years; 63.4% women). We randomly excluded up to 16 readings per recording or we selected readings at fixed 1- or 2-h intervals. Using full recordings as reference, we computed for the reduced recordings repeatability coefficient by Bland and Altman’s approach. By Cox regression, we also calculated multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for cardiovascular mortality. The median number of ABP readings per recording was 46. Randomly excluding more readings reduced the concordance of AASI, but not PP. Selecting blood pressure readings at 1- or 2-h intervals produced mean values of AASI and PP, which significantly differed from those in full recordings. During follow-up (median, 13.3 years) 126 cardiovascular deaths occurred. Across quartiles, AASI significantly predicted cardiovascular mortality in a U-shaped manner. AASI lost its prognostic significance when the number of randomly excluded readings increased from 8 to 16 or when the interval between readings was 1 h or longer. Compared with PP, AASI is less reproducible when the number of readings in ABP decreases, but this does not affect the predictive accuracy of AASI for cardiovascular mortality, until the median number of readings per ABP recording is less than approximately 35

Kolodyazhniy, V., Sp+ñti, J., Frey, S., G+Âtz, T., Wirz-Justice, A., Kr+ñuchi, K., Cajochen, C., & Wilhelm, F. H. (2011). Estimation of human circadian phase via a multi-channel ambulatory monitoring system and a multiple regression model. Journal of Biological Rhythms, 26, 55-67.

Reliable detection of circadian phase in humans using noninvasive ambulatory measurements in real-life conditions is challenging and still an unsolved problem. The masking effects of everyday behavior and environmental input such as physical activity and light on the measured variables need to be considered critically. Here, we aimed at developing techniques for estimating circadian phase with the lowest subject burden possible, that is, without the need of constant routine (CR) laboratory conditions or without measuring the standard circadian markers, (rectal) core body temperature (CBT), and melatonin levels. In this validation study, subjects (N = 16) wore multi-channel ambulatory monitoring devices and went about their daily routine for 1 week. The devices measured a large number of physiological, behavioral, and environmental variables, including CBT, skin temperatures, cardiovascular and respiratory function, movement/posture, ambient temperature, and the spectral composition and intensity of light received at eye level. Sleep diaries were logged electronically. After the ambulatory phase, subjects underwent a 32-h CR procedure in the laboratory for measuring unmasked circadian phase based on the “midpoint” of the salivary melatonin profile. To overcome the complex masking effects of confounding variables during ambulatory measurements, multiple regression techniques were applied in combination with the cross-validation approach to subject-independent prediction of circadian phase. The most accurate estimate of circadian phase was achieved using skin temperatures, irradiance for ambient light in the blue spectral band, and motion acceleration as predictors with lags of up to 24 h. Multiple regression showed statistically significant improvement of variance of prediction error over the traditional approaches to determining circadian phase based on single predictors (motion acceleration or sleep log), although CBT was intentionally not included as the predictor. Compared to CBT alone, our method resulted in a 40% smaller range of prediction errors and a nonsignificant reduction of error variance. The proposed noninvasive measurement method could find applications in sleep medicine or in other domains where knowing the exact endogenous circadian phase is important (e.g., for the timing of light therapy).

Konrad, T., Franke, S., Schneider, F., Bar, F., Vetter, G., & Winkler, K. (2011). Nocturnal blood pressure but not insulin resistance influences endothelial function in treated hypertensive patients. J Hum.Hypertens., 25, 18-24.

The impact of insulin sensitivity, casual blood pressure and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure on endothelial function was studied in treated hypertensive subjects. Flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery after reperfusion was used to determine endothelial function. Insulin sensitivity indices were obtained by using the homeostasis model assessment, after 75 g Dextrose oral glucose tolerance tests (Matsuda index) and the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp (M-value) in 49 patients with arterial hypertension. The insulin sensitivity indices were compared with healthy controls matched for body weight, age and sex (n=23). Hypertensive patients under therapy were insulin resistant, had higher LDL-cholesterol levels, higher blood pressure and lower endothelial function than healthy controls. Flow-mediated dilatation showed, in the study population being treated for arterial hypertension, no relationships of all insulin sensitivity indices with flow-mediated dilatation, casual blood pressure in the morning before the tests and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure. Flow-mediated dilatation was strongly influenced by nocturnal systolic and diastolic 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (systolic: R(2)=0.0943, P<0.05; diastolic: R(2)=0.0947, P<0.05). Therefore, endothelial function in these patients is predominantly influenced by nocturnal systolic and diastolic blood pressure and not by insulin sensitivity

Lane, A. M. & Wilson, M. (2011). Emotions and trait emotional intelligence among ultra-endurance runners. J Sci.Med Sport.

Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate relationships between trait emotional intelligence and emotional state changes over the course of an ultra-endurance foot race covering a route of approximately 175 miles (282km) and held in set stages over six days. Design A repeated measures field design that sought to maintain ecological validity was used. Trait emotional intelligence was defined as a relatively stable concept that should predict adaptive emotional states experienced over the duration of the race and therefore associate with pleasant emotions during a 6-stage endurance event. Method Thirty-four runners completed a self-report measure of trait emotional intelligence before the event started. Participants reported emotional states before and after each of the six races. Results Repeated measures ANOVA results showed significant variations in emotions over time and a main effect for trait emotional intelligence. Runners high in self-report trait emotional intelligence also reported higher pleasant and lower unpleasant emotions than runners low in trait emotional intelligence. Conclusions Findings lend support to the notion that trait emotional intelligence associates with adaptive psychological states, suggesting that it may be a key individual difference that explains why some athletes respond to repeated bouts of hard exercise better than others. Future research should test the effectiveness of interventions designed to enhance trait emotional intelligence and examine the attendant impact on emotional responses to intense exercise during multi-stage events

Lardinois, M., Lataster, T., Mengelers, R., van Os, J., & MyinGÇÉGermeys, I. (2011). Childhood trauma and increased stress sensitivity in psychosis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 123, 28-35.

Objective: The notion that traumatic experiences in childhood may predict later psychotic outcomes would be strengthened if a plausible mechanism could be demonstrated. Because increased stress sensitivity is part of the behavioural expression of psychosis liability, the possible mediating role of childhood trauma was investigated. Method: Fifty patients with psychosis were studied with the experience sampling method to assess stress reactivity in daily life, defined as emotional and psychotic reactivity to stress. Traumatic experiences in childhood were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Results: A significant interaction was found between stress and CT on both negative affect (event stress: +¦ = 0.04, P < 0.04; activity stress: +¦ = 0.12, P < 0.001) and psychotic intensity (event stress: +¦ = 0.06, P < 0.001; activity stress: +¦ = 0.11, P < 0.001), showing that a history of CT is associated with increased sensitivity to stress. Conclusion: A history of childhood trauma in patients with psychosis is associated with increased stress reactivity later in life, suggestive for an underlying process of behavioural sensitization.

Lawman, H. G., Wilson, D. K., Van Horn, M. L., Resnicow, K., & Kitzman-Ulrich, H. (2011). The relationship between psychosocial correlates and physical activity in underserved adolescent boys and girls in the ACT trial. J Phys.Act.Health, 8, 253-261.

BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests motivation, enjoyment, and self-efficacy may be important psychosocial factors for understanding physical activity (PA) in youth. While previous studies have shown mixed results, emerging evidence indicates relationships between psychosocial factors and PA may be stronger in boys than girls. This study expands on previous research by examining the effects of motivation, enjoyment and self-efficacy on PA in underserved adolescent (low income, ethnic minorities) boys and girls. Based on previous literature, it was hypothesized the effects of motivation, enjoyment and self-efficacy on moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) would be stronger in boys than in girls. METHODS: Baseline cross-sectional data were obtained from a randomized, school-based trial (Active by Choice Today; ACT) in underserved 6th graders (N=771 girls, 651 boys). Intrapersonal variables for PA were assessed via self-report and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted for each predictor. MVPA was assessed with 7-day accelerometry estimates. RESULTS: Multivariate regression analyses stratified by sex demonstrated a significant positive main effect of self-efficacy and motivation on MVPA for girls. Boys also showed a positive trend for the effect of motivation on MVPA. CONCLUSIONS: The results from this study suggest motivation and self-efficacy should be better integrated to facilitate the development of more effective interventions for increasing PA in underserved adolescents

Layne, C. S., Mama, S. K., Banda, J. A., & Lee, R. E. (2011). Development of an ecologically valid approach to assess moderate physical activity using accelerometry in community dwelling women of color: A cross-sectional study. Int J Behav.Nutr Phys.Act., 8, 21.

BACKGROUND: Women of color report the lowest levels of physical activity and highest rates of overweight and obesity in the US. The purpose of this study was to develop an individualized, ecologically valid, field based method to assess physical activity over seven days for community dwelling women of color using accelerometers. METHODS: Accelerometer-measured physical activity, Borg perceived exertion, demographics, blood pressure, heart rate, and anthropometric measures were collected from African American and Hispanic or Latina women (N = 209). A threshold for increased physical activity was determined for each participant by calculating the average count per minute (plus one standard deviation) for each participant collected during a self-selected pace that corresponded to a ‘recreational’ walk about their neighborhood. The threshold was then used to calculate the amount of time spent doing increased intensity physical activity during a typical week. RESULTS: Women were middle-aged and obese (M BMI = 34.3 +/- 9.3). The average individual activity counts per day ranged from 482-1368 in African American women and 470-1302 in Hispanic or Latina women. On average, African American women spent significantly more time doing what was labeled ‘increased’ physical activity than Hispanic and Latino women. However neither group approached recommended physical activity levels, as African American women, averaged 1.73% and Hispanic and Latino women averaged 0.83% of their day engaged in increased physical activity (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study presents a simple field-based method for developing accelerometer thresholds that identify personalized thresholds of moderate intensity physical activity that can be used by in community-based settings. Findings highlight a need for physical activity programs whose starting points are based upon the individual’s typical baseline physical activity level, which is likely to be well below the minimum recommended published guidelines

Leahey, T. M., Crowther, J. H., & Ciesla, J. A. (2011). An ecological momentary assessment of the effects of weight and shape social comparisons on women with eating pathology, high body dissatisfaction, and low body dissatisfaction. Behavior Therapy.

This research examined the effects of naturally occurring appearance comparisons on women’s affect, body satisfaction, and compensatory cognitions and behaviors. Using ecological momentary assessment, women with high body dissatisfaction and eating pathology (EPHB), high body dissatisfaction (HB), or low body dissatisfaction (LB) recorded their reactions to appearance-focused social comparisons. EPHB and HB women made more upward appearance comparisons than LB women. All women experienced negative emotions and cognitions after upward comparisons, including increased guilt, body dissatisfaction, and thoughts of dieting. EPHB women were most negatively affected by comparisons; they experienced more intense negative emotions, more thoughts of dieting/exercising, and an increase in eating-disordered behavior after upward comparisons. HB women experienced more negative affective consequences and thoughts of dieting than LB women. Results are consistent with social comparison theory and provide important information that may be used to inform eating disorder treatment and prevention efforts.

Lee-Flynn, S. C., Pomaki, G., DeLongis, A., Biesanz, J. C., & Puterman, E. (2011). Daily cognitive appraisals, daily affect, and long-term depressive symptoms: The role of self-esteem and self-concept clarity in the stress process. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37, 255-268.

The current study investigated how self-esteem and self-concept clarity are implicated in the stress process both in the short and long term. Initial and 2-year follow-up interviews were completed by 178 participants from stepfamily unions. In twice-daily structured diaries over 7 days, participants reported their main family stressor, cognitive appraisals (perceived stressor threat and stressor controllability), and negative affect. Results of multilevel modeling indicated that high self-esteem ameliorated the effect of daily negative cognitive appraisals on daily negative affect. Self-concept clarity also buffered the effect of low self-self-esteem on depressive symptoms 2 years later. Our findings point to the vulnerability of those having low self-esteem or low self-concept clarity in terms of both short- and long-term adaptation to stress. They indicate the need for the consideration of such individual differences in designing stress management interventions.

Lischetzke, T., Angelova, R., & Eid, M. (2011). Validating an indirect measure of clarity of feelings: Evidence from laboratory and naturalistic settings. Psychological Assessment.

This study analyzed the reliability and validity of an indirect measure of clarity of feelings that is based on response latencies (RTs) of mood ratings. Fifty-two participants completed a laboratory session and an experience-sampling week with 6 measurement occasions per day. Shorter RT of mood ratings measured in the laboratory (but not self-reported dispositional clarity) predicted higher overall mood regulation success during the experience-sampling week. As a new indirect ambulatory measure of clarity, RTs of mood ratings were measured on handheld devices during the experience-sampling week. The new ambulatory RT measure of clarity demonstrated good psychometric properties. Within-occasions reliability (internal consistency) was satisfactory, and between-occasions reliability (consistency of aggregated scores) was high. Ambulatory RT of mood ratings demonstrated moderate to high convergence with RT of mood ratings measured in the laboratory session. Both RT measures were unrelated to self-reported dispositional clarity of feelings. However, momentary RT converged with a self-report measure of momentary clarity on the within-persons level: Participants were faster to rate those mood items that they were more certain about. Evidence for the predictive validity of the new ambulatory RT measure was provided by the finding that on the within-persons level, shorter RT (but not self-reported momentary clarity) predicted higher mood regulation success and better mood at subsequent measurement occasions. The results suggest that RT of mood ratings can be used as a reliable and valid indicator of an individual’s clarity of feelings in laboratory and experience-sampling studies.

Mann, E. & Hunter, M. S. (2011). Concordance between self-reported and sternal skin conductance measures of hot flushes in symptomatic perimenopausal and postmenopausal women: a systematic review. Menopause.

OBJECTIVE:: Sternal skin conductance is considered the gold standard in hot flush and night sweat measurement, but results sometimes differ from women’s own self-reports. To date, there has been no systematic review of concordance between sternal skin conductance and self-report measures. An exploratory meta-analysis was conducted to quantify concordance between these measures and to explore the reasons for discordance between them. METHODS:: A search of Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, and PsychInfo from inception to December 2009 was conducted. Studies that measured self-reported hot flushes and/or night sweats and sternal skin conductance concurrently in symptomatic perimenopausal and postmenopausal women were retained for data extraction. Studies were included if data on concordance between the two measures were available. RESULTS:: Concordance rates overall were 29%, but variability between studies was too broad to identify a single typical concordance rate. However, concordance rates for ambulatory monitoring were more homogeneous and also had a 29% concordance rate. Nonambulatory studies tended to result in more concordant hot flushes (54%) than ambulatory studies did, and night sweats tended to be under-reported more often than over-reported (46% and 22%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Concordance rates were typically lower than early reports of sternal skin conductance measures but were highly variable between studies. Possible measurement error and study conditions might partly explain the discordance and variation in study findings, but further exploration of the effects of symptom perception is warranted. Use of both measures concurrently is likely to achieve more reliable and valid measurement of hot flushes and night sweats than either measure alone

Matias, G. P., Nicolson, N. A., & Freire, T. (2011). Solitude and cortisol: Associations with state and trait affect in daily life. Biological Psychology.

The social context can impact psychological and physiological functioning. Being alone, in particular, is experienced as more negative on average than being with others, in both normative and pathological populations. This study investigates whether daily solitude is associated with changes in cortisol and, if so, whether momentary and trait affect can explain this relationship. Forty-four female college students used the Experience Sampling Method during a week, completing questionnaires and collecting saliva 8 times daily. Effects of current solitude, affect, and trait affectivity on cortisol were tested with multilevel regression. Cortisol levels were significantly higher when individuals were alone. Although momentary affective states changed during solitude and were also associated with cortisol, they did not fully explain the effects of solitude on cortisol. Trait affectivity moderated the association between solitude and cortisol. Findings may help clarify how daily experience may heighten risk of depression or other negative health outcomes in vulnerable individuals.

Meeus, M., van Eupen, I., Willems, J., Kos, D., & Nijs, J. (2011). Is the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF) valid for assessing physical activity in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome? Disability and Rehabilitation: An International, Multidisciplinary Journal, 33, 9-16.

Purpose: To evaluate the criterion validity and internal consistency of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short form (IPAQ-sf) in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) patients. Method: Fifty-six CFS patients completed the IPAQ-sf after they wore a tri-axial accelerometer and filled out activity diaries during 1 week. Spearman rank correlation coefficients and Cronbach’s Alpha were calculated. Results: The IPAQ-sf correlated significantly with the energy expenditure and Metabolic Equivalents (METs) minutes spent moderately to vigorously active following the activity diary and accelerometer. These correlation coefficients were however low (r varying between 0.282 and 0.426) and rather irrelevant, since CFS patients hardly reach moderate or vigorous activity levels. Internal consistency between the three subitems used for the total score of the IPAQ-sf was 0.337. Conclusion: The observed associations between the IPAQ-sf data and the data obtained from the accelerometer (gold standard) and the diaries were too low to be in support of the use of the IPAQ-sf in patients with CFS. The IPAQ-sf does not seem an appropriate tool to assess physical activity in CFS patients. Further study is required to seek for a valid, practical and affordable tool.

Minami, H., McCarthy, D. E., Jorenby, D. E., & Baker, T. B. (2011). An Ecological Momentary Assessment analysis of relations among coping, affect and smoking during a quit attempt. Addiction, 106, 641-650.

AIMS: This study used Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) data from smokers trying to quit to assess relations among coping, positive affect, negative affect and smoking. The effects of stress coping on affect and smoking were examined. DESIGN: Data from a randomized clinical trial of smoking cessation treatments were submitted to multi-level modeling to test the effects of coping with stressful events on subsequent affect and smoking. SETTING: Center for Tobacco Research and Intervention, Madison, Wisconsin. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 372 adult daily smokers who reported at least one stressful event and coping episode and provided post-quit data. MEASUREMENTS: Participants’ smoking, coping and affect were assessed in near real time with multiple EMA reports using electronic diaries pre- and post-quit. FINDINGS: Multi-level models indicated that a single coping episode did not predict a change in smoking risk over the next 4 or 48 hours, but coping in men was associated with concurrent reports of increased smoking. Coping predicted improved positive and negative affect reported within 4 hours of coping, but these affective gains did not predict reduced likelihood of later smoking. Pre-quit coping frequency and gender moderated post-quit stress coping relations with later positive affect. Men and those with greater pre-quit coping frequency reported greater gains in positive affect following post-quit coping. CONCLUSIONS: Coping responses early in a quit attempt may help smokers trying to quit feel better, but may not help them stay smoke-free

Motl, R. W., Snook, E. M., & Agiovlasitis, S. (2011). Does an accelerometer accurately measure steps taken under controlled conditions in adults with mild multiple sclerosis? Disabil.Health J, 4, 52-57.

BACKGROUND: Accurate measurement is required by researchers and clinicians who are interested in the physical activity behavior of individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Advances in technology have resulted in an increased number of motion sensors such as pedometers and accelerometers that are worn on the body and that measure bodily movement. Accelerometers are becoming less expensive and more user-friendly, but there is limited evidence regarding the accuracy of measurement in persons with MS. OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the accuracy of an ActiGraph accelerometer for measuring steps taken during controlled conditions in persons with MS compared with a sample of individuals without MS. METHODS: The participants were 24 adults with mild MS and 24 adults without MS who undertook three 6-minute periods of walking at 54, 80, and 107 m.min(-1) on a motor-driven treadmill. We measured steps taken through observation and an ActiGraph model 7164 accelerometer worn around the waist above the right hip. RESULTS: The accelerometer accurately measured steps during moderate (80 m.min(-1)) and fast (107 m.min(-1)) walking in both persons with MS and control subjects. There was a small degree of underestimation of step counts ( approximately 4% error) for the accelerometer during slower walking (54 m.min(-1)) in both persons with MS and control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Such findings support the accuracy of a waist worn ActiGraph accelerometer for the measurement of steps in persons with MS and control subjects

Moullec, G., Maiano, C., Morin, A. J., Monthuy-Blanc, J., Rosello, L., & Ninot, G. (2011). A very short visual analog form of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) for the idiographic measurement of depression. J Affect.Disord, 128, 220-234.

BACKGROUND: The experience sampling method, also referred to as ecological momentary assessment (ESM-EMA) has recently gained popularity in the study of depression. However, no psychometrically sound multidimensional depression questionnaires specifically designed for the ESM-EMA context are currently available. AIMS: The main objective of the present study was to develop and validate a very short visual analog scale of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scales (CES-D-VAS-VS) specifically designed for the ESM-EMA context. To this end, the full French version of the CES-D was adapted for the ESM-EMA context. From this full-length adapted version a very short version was then extracted from this longer instrument and validated. STUDY DESIGN: A sample comprising 163 patients with a major depressive episode (MDE) and 306 participants without mental disorders was involved in this study. RESULTS: The obtained results provided support for the factor validity, strong measurement invariance (invariance of the loadings and intercepts of the measurement model) across sex and clinical status groups, reliability and convergent validity of the CES-D-VAS-VS. This instrument comprises 4 items measuring positive affect, depressive affect, somatic complaints and disturbed interpersonal relationships. CONCLUSION: The present results provide preliminary evidence regarding the construct validity of the CES-D-VAS-VS among patients and community adults sample but also underline the need to rely on latent variables methods in the use of this instrument to account for the differential levels of measurement errors (uniquenessess) that were observed across groups

Murray, C. S. & Rees, J. L. (2011). Are subjective accounts of itch to be relied on? The lack of relation between visual analogue itch scores and actigraphic measures of scratch. Acta Derm.Venereol., 91, 18-23.

There is a widespread belief that subjective accounts of disease are key components of measures of disease severity and quality of life. In the present study we have set out to test this hypothesis using visual analogue scales (VAS) for itch, as a subjective measure, and actigraphy as an objective measure. One-hundred and seventeen itchy children and adults (and 25 controls) were studied for clusters of nights (total number 1,654) and actigraphy scores and VAS itch taken daily. Fifty-six percent of the night-to-night variation in actigraphy scores occurred between different individuals, while 44% was intra-subject. Neither age nor sex (children’s or adults’) predicted actigraphy scores, and the only significant predictor of actigraphy score was disease type (p = 0.001, r(2) = 0.51). In a multivariate model VAS itch score was not a significant determinant of actigraphy scores for either children or adults (p = 0.26). In order to see if there was a relation between VAS itch and actigraphy within the same patients (rather than between patients), 20 eczema patients wore the actigraph and scored VAS itch nightly for 42 nights. Little relationship was found between the actigraphy score and the VAS itch. Empirical autocorrelation analysis of VAS itch and actigraphy score reveal a clear autocorrelation for subjective VAS scores that was not found for the objective actigraphy score. Our data suggest a dissociation between scratch and perceived or recalled itch. One explanation is that VAS itch scores suffer from considerable anchoring, and context bias, and that their use in measures of disease severity is problematic

Nett, U. E., Goetz, T., & Hall, N. C. (2011). Coping with boredom in school: An experience sampling perspective. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 36, 49-59.

The present study explored students use of boredom-related coping strategies at trait and state levels. Two trait-based dimensions of coping relevant to boredom were considered, namely approachversus avoidance-oriented and cognitivelyversus behaviorally-oriented coping strategies. The two dimensions were assessed in a self-report questionnaire administered to 537 grade 11 students (55.3% female, M<xh:sub>age[/sub][sub]age[/sub] = 17.15 years). Additionally, 79 of these participants completed state-based boredom-related coping measures over a 2-week period using an experience sampling method. Analyses of the trait measures suggested that two contrasting, broad approaches characterized participants strategies for coping with boredom, namely a cognitive-approach orientation and a behavioral-avoidance orientation. In both the trait- and state-based analyses, the cognitive-approach orientation was associated with lower levels of boredom. Implications for interventions promoting the use of cognitive-approach strategies for dealing with boredom in the classroom are discussed.

O’Connell, K. A., Shiffman, S., & DeCarlo, L. T. (2011). Does extinction of responses to cigarette cues occur during smoking cessation? Addiction, 106, 410-417.

Aims: This study investigated whether Pavlovian extinction occurs during smoking cessation by determining whether experience abstaining from smoking in the presence of cigarette cues leads to decreased probability of lapsing and whether this effect is mediated by craving. Design: Secondary analyses were carried out with data sets from two studies with correlational/observational designs. Setting: Data were collected in smokers natural environments using ecological momentary assessment techniques. Participants: Sixty-one and 207 smokers who were attempting cessation participated. Measurements: Multi-level path models were used to examine effects of prior experience abstaining in the presence of available cigarettes and while others were smoking on subsequent craving intensity and the probability of lapsing. Control variables included current cigarette availability, current exposure to others smoking, number of prior lapses and time in the study. Findings: Both currently available cigarettes [odds ratios (OR) = 36.60, 11.59] and the current presence of other smoking (OR = 5.00, 1.52) were powerful predictors of smoking lapse. Repeated exposure to available cigarettes without smoking was associated with a significantly lower probability of lapse in subsequent episodes (OR = 0.44, 0.52). However, exposure to others smoking was not a reliable predictor, being significant only in the smaller study (OR = 0.30). Craving functioned as a mediator between extinction of available cigarettes and lapsing only in the smaller study and was not a mediator for extinction of others smoking in either study. Conclusions: This study showed that exposure to available cigarettes is a large risk factor for lapsing, but that this risk can also be reduced over time by repeated exposures without smoking. Smoking cessation interventions should attempt to reduce cigarette exposure (by training cigarette avoidance) but recognize the potential advantage of unreinforced exposure to available cigarettes.

Okifuji, A., Bradshaw, D. H., Donaldson, G. W., & Turk, D. C. (2011). Sequential analyses of daily symptoms in women with fibromyalgia syndrome. The Journal of Pain, 12, 84-93.

Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic musculoskeletal pain disorder characterized by generalized pain, chronic fatigue, sleep disturbance, and a range of other symptoms having no definitive pathology. Consequently, patient evaluations rely on self-report. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) allows frequent real-time collection of self-report measures, removing recall bias and increasing external validity. We studied 81 females with FMS aged 18 to 42 years. Participants carried EMA devices (Palm Pilot M100) programmed to request ratings to 8 FMS symptoms/conditions 3 times daily for 30 days. Completeness of response rates varied across participants and over time. Controlling for immediately previous fatigue (ie, fatigue rating from the immediately preceding rating), unit increases in immediately previous pain and immediately previous emotional distress predicted 9 and 7% increases, respectively, in current fatigue. Controlling for immediately previous emotional distress, a unit increase in immediately previous pain predicted 7% increase in current emotional distress. Controlled for immediately previous pain, a unit increase in immediately previous fatigue predicted a 7% increase in current pain, enhanced by prior diurnal effects; immediately previous emotional distress was not significant. Collectively these results suggest an asymmetry in which emotional stress and pain may increase fatigue, fatigue but not emotional distress may increase pain, and pain but not fatigue may increase emotional distress. Despite small effects and person-to-person variability, these findings suggest that longitudinal data collection by EMA may reveal sequential or causal explanatory patterns with important clinical implications. Perspective: Understanding how multiple symptoms covary in FMS is essential for optimal treatment planning. Our results show that small but significant temporal relations among pain, fatigue, and emotional distress. Our results also provide support for the use of EMA as a viable data collection method that allows longitudinal, real-time assessment of multiple FMS symptoms.

Oliver, M., Schluter, P. J., Schofield, G. M., & Paterson, J. (2011). Factors related to accelerometer-derived physical activity in Pacific children aged 6 years. Asia Pac.J Public Health, 23, 44-56.

The objective of this study was to investigate potential factors related to Pacific children’s moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). A total of 393 Pacific children aged 6 years and their mothers were invited to participate. Participants wore accelerometers over 8 days; height, weight, and waist circumference were measured, and mothers reported on individual, social, and perceived environmental factors. Generalized estimation equation models were used to identify associates of children’s daily MVPA. In all, 135 children and 91 mothers were included in analyses. Children spent 24% of time in MVPA; 99% of days had >/=60 minutes of MVPA. Higher maternal MVPA, male sex, longer sunlight hours, and rain-free days were associated with children’s MVPA. Approaches for improving activity in Pacific children may be most efficacious if strategies for inclement weather and the encouragement of activity in mothers and, in particular, their daughters are included. Also, 60 minutes of daily MVPA may be insufficient to protect Pacific children from increased body size

Oravecz, Z. & Tuerlinckx, F. (2011). The linear mixed model and the hierarchical OrnsteinUhlenbeck model: Some equivalences and differences. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 64, 134-160.

We focus on comparing different modelling approaches for intensive longitudinal designs. Two methods are scrutinized, namely the widely used linear mixed model (LMM) and the relatively unexplored OrnsteinUhlenbeck (OU) process based state-space model. On the one hand, we show that given certain conditions they result in equivalent outcomes. On the other hand, we consider it important to emphasize that their perspectives are different and that one framework might better address certain types of research questions than the other. We show that, compared to a LMM, an OU process based approach can cope with modelling inter-individual differences in aspects that are more substantively interesting. However, the estimation of the LMM is faster and the model is more straightforward to implement. The models are illustrated through an experience sampling study.

Ottevaere, C., Huybrechts, I., De, M. F., De, B., I, Cuenca-Garcia, M., & De, H. S. (2011). The use of accelerometry in adolescents and its implementation with non-wear time activity diaries in free-living conditions. J Sports Sci., 29, 103-113.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a non-wearing time activity diary (hereafter non-wear activity diary) when using accelerometry in adolescents to provide insight into their physical activity levels. In total, 213 Belgian adolescents (89 boys, 124 girls) were eligible for this study. Adolescents wore an accelerometer for seven consecutive days and kept a non-wear activity diary. On the last day, they completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents. The differences between the accelerometer data with and without use of the non-wear activity diary were significant for all physical activity intensities according to the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Bland-Altman plots showed that with more time spent in any physical activity intensity, the difference between including and not including the non-wear activity diary increased. The correlation coefficient between the International Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents and the accelerometer data increased when the non-wear activity diary was included. Differences in the percentage of adolescents reaching the physical activity recommendations between the accelerometer data only and the accelerometer with the non-wear activity diary were significant. We conclude that if the non-wear activity diary data are not included, some adolescents could be misclassified as not being physically active according to the physical activity recommendations. It is therefore recommended to use a non-wear activity diary for gaining insight into the physical activity levels of individuals

Pagels, P., Boldemann, C., & Raustorp, A. (2011). Comparison of pedometer and accelerometer measures of physical activity during preschool time on 3- to 5-year-old children. Acta Paediatr., 100, 116-120.

AIMS: To compare pedometer steps with accelerometer counts and to analyse minutes of engagement in light, moderate and vigorous physical activity in 3- to 5-year-old children during preschool time. METHODS: Physical activity was recorded during preschool time for five consecutive days in 55 three- to five-year-old children. The children wore a Yamax SW200 pedometer and an Actigraph GTIM Monitor. RESULTS: The average time spent at preschool was 7.22 h/day with an average step of 7313 (+/-3042). Steps during preschool time increased with increasing age. The overall correlation between mean step counts and mean accelerometer counts (r = 0.67, p < 0.001), as well as time in light to vigorous activity (r = 0.76, p < 0.001), were moderately high. Step counts and moderate to vigorous physical activity minutes were poorly correlated in 3 years old (r = 0.19, p < 0.191) and moderately correlated (r = 0.50, p < 0.001) for children 4 to 5 years old. CONCLUSION: Correlation between the preschool children’s pedometer-determined step counts and total engagement in physical activity during preschool time was moderately high. Children’s step counts at preschool were low, and the time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity at preschool was very short

Palmier-Claus, J. E., Myin-Germeys, I., Barkus, E., Bentley, L., Udachina, A., Delespaul, P. A., Lewis, S. W., & Dunn, G. (2011). Experience sampling research in individuals with mental illness: reflections and guidance. Acta Psychiatr.Scand., 123, 12-20.

OBJECTIVE: The experience sampling method (ESM) represents a valuable way of assessing clinical phenomena in real world settings and across time. Despite its theoretical advantages, using this methodology in psychiatric populations is challenging. This paper acts as a guide to researchers wishing to employ this approach when investigating mental illness. METHOD: The contents represent the opinions of researchers around the United Kingdom and the Netherlands who are experienced at using the ESM. RESULTS: In ESM studies, participants are required to fill in questions about their current thoughts, feelings and experiences when prompted by an electronic device (e.g. a wristwatch, PDA). Entries are typically made at fixed or random intervals over 6 days. This article outlines how to design and validate an ESM diary. We then discuss which sampling procedure to use and how to increase compliance through effective briefing and telephone sessions. Debriefing, data management and analytical issues are considered, before suggestions for future clinical uses of the ESM are made. CONCLUSION: The last decade has seen an increase in the number of studies employing the ESM in clinical research. Further research is needed to examine the optimal equipment and procedure for different clinical groups

Piasecki, T. M., Jahng, S., Wood, P. K., Robertson, B. M., Epler, A. J., Cronk, N. J., Rohrbaugh, J. W., Heath, A. C., Shiffman, S., & Sher, K. J. (2011). The subjective effects of alcohol-tobacco co-use: An ecological momentary assessment investigation. J Abnorm.Psychol.

Alcohol and tobacco use covary at multiple levels of analysis, and co-use of the 2 substances may have profound health consequences. To characterize the motivationally relevant processes contributing to co-use, the current study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to examine the subjective consequences of naturally occurring simultaneous use of alcohol and tobacco. Current smokers who reported frequently drinking alcohol (N = 259) used electronic diaries to monitor their daily experiences for 21 days. Participants responded to prompted assessments and also initiated recordings when they smoked a cigarette or completed the first drink in a drinking episode. Momentary reports of smoking and alcohol consumption were associated with one another, and these effects remained after adjustment for occasion- and person-level covariates. When participants consumed alcohol, they reported increased pleasure and decreased punishment from the last cigarette. Smoking was associated with small increases in pleasure from the last drink. Ratings of buzzed and dizzy were synergistically affected by co-use of alcohol and tobacco. Co-use was also followed by higher levels of craving for both alcohol and tobacco. Results point to the importance of reward and incentive processes in ongoing drug use and suggest that alcohol intensifies real-time reports of the motivational consequences of smoking more strongly than smoking affects corresponding appraisals of alcohol effects.

Pierdomenico, S. D. & Cuccurullo, F. (2011). Prognostic value of white-coat and masked hypertension diagnosed by ambulatory monitoring in initially untreated subjects: an updated meta analysis. Am J Hypertens., 24, 52-58.

BACKGROUND: The prognostic relevance of white-coat hypertension (WCH) and masked hypertension (MH) is controversial. The aim of this study was to perform an updated meta-analysis on the prognostic value of WCH and MH diagnosed by ambulatory monitoring in initially untreated subjects. METHODS: We searched for articles evaluating cardiovascular outcome in WCH or MH or sustained hypertension (SH) in comparison with normotension, investigating untreated subjects at baseline or performing separate analysis for untreated or treated subjects, and reporting adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Eight studies were identified. Five whole studies and untreated groups of three others were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled population consisted of 7,961 subjects who experienced 696 events. When compared with normotension, the overall adjusted HR was 0.96 (95% CI 0.65-1.42) for WCH (P = 0.85), 2.09 (1.55-2.81) for MH (P = 0.0001), and 2.59 (2.0-3.35) for SH (P = 0.0001). There was no significant difference between WCH and normotension according to normotensive subjects source (same or different study population) and follow-up length. Where reported, prevalence of drug therapy was higher in subjects with WCH than in those with normotension at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiovascular risk is not significantly different between WCH and normotension, regardless of normotensive population type and follow-up length. However, at follow-up drug therapy was more frequent in WCH than in normotension and its possible impact on outcome should be evaluated in future studies. MH shows significantly higher risk than normotension, although the best way for its detection and treatment remains to be established

Potvin, M. J., Rouleau, I., Audy, J., Charbonneau, S., & Gigure, J. F. (2011). Ecological prospective memory assessment in patients with traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 25, 192-205.

Primary objective: Prospective memory (PM) impairments are often observed after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although PM is crucial for daily functioning, few sensitive, valid and ecological clinical tests are available. To address these concerns, the authors developed a PM task, the TEMP, using naturalistic stimuli, in which each PM phase and component is evaluated independently in time- and event-based conditions. Main outcomes and results: The results show that moderate and severe TBI patients (n = 30), evaluated after spontaneous neurological recovery, experienced problems in learning the delayed intentions content and retrieving these intentions in the right context (prospective component), especially in the time-based condition. They also recalled fewer associated actions (retrospective component), but only in the time-based condition. Correlations revealed that the retrospective component was mainly supported by episodic retrospective memory processes, while the prospective component was supported by episodic retrospective memory processes, along with attentional and executive functions. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between performance on the TEMP and results on a questionnaire assessing PM functioning in daily living completed by participants’ relatives. Conclusions: The TEMP therefore appears to be a sensitive tool for assessing PM problems that combines internal and ecological validity.

Prajapati, S. K., Gage, W. H., Brooks, D., Black, S. E., & McIlroy, W. E. (2011). A novel approach to ambulatory monitoring: investigation into the quantity and control of everyday walking in patients with subacute stroke. Neurorehabil.Neural Repair, 25, 6-14.

BACKGROUND: Promoting whole body activities, such as walking, can help improve recovery after stroke. However, little information exists regarding the characteristics of daily walking in patients enrolled in rehabilitation poststroke. The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine the quantity of walking and duration of individual bouts of walking during an inpatient day, (2) compare standard laboratory symmetry measures with measures of symmetry captured throughout the day, and (3) investigate the association between quantity of walking and indices of stroke severity. METHODS: The study examined ambulatory activity among 16 inpatients with subacute stroke who were bilaterally instrumented with a wireless accelerometer above the ankle for approximately 8 continuous hours. RESULTS: On average, patients demonstrated 47.5 minutes (standard deviation [SD] = 26.6 minutes) of total walking activity and walking bout durations of 54.4 s (SD = 21.5 s). A statistically significant association was found between the number of walking bouts to total walking time (r = .76; P = .006) and laboratory gait speed (r = .51; P = .045) and between laboratory gait speed and balance impairment (r = .60; P = .013). Also, a significant increase in gait asymmetry was observed during day-long measurement compared with the standard laboratory-based assessment (P = .006). CONCLUSIONS: Rather modest amounts of daily walking were found for these ambulatory inpatients, consistent with previous reports about patients after stroke. Bouts of walking were short in duration, and the gait was more asymmetrical, compared with a standard gait assessment. Unobtrusive monitoring of daily walking exposes the characteristics and temporal qualities of poststroke ambulation

Preston, K. L. & Epstein, D. H. (2011). Stress in the daily lives of cocaine and heroin users: relationship to mood, craving, relapse triggers, and cocaine use. Psychopharmacology (Berl).

RATIONALE: Quantitative real-time data on the stress experienced by drug misusers in their daily lives may provide additional insight into stress’s role in drug use. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate stress in relation to craving, mood, relapse-trigger exposure, and cocaine use in cocaine-dependent outpatients. METHODS: Methadone-maintained cocaine- and heroin-abusing outpatients (N = 114) provided ecological momentary assessment data on handheld computers. Ratings of stress were compared to those of craving and mood and past-hour exposure to putative drug-use triggers in randomly prompted entries and in the 5 h prior to participant-initiated cocaine use reports. RESULTS: Stress had significant positive relationships with current ratings of craving for cocaine, heroin, and tobacco and with ratings of tiredness, boredom, and irritation, and had significant negative relationships with ratings of happiness and relaxation. Stress was significantly greater in entries in which participants also reported past-hour exposure to negative-mood triggers, most of the drug-exposure triggers, or any trigger involving thoughts about drugs (e.g., tempted out of the blue). The linear increase in stress during the 5-h preceding individual episodes of cocaine use was not significant (p = 0.12), though there was a trend for such an increase before the use episodes that participants attributed to stressful states when they occurred (p = 0.87). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest a complex role of stress in addiction. Stress reported in real time in the natural environment showed strong cross-sectional momentary relationships with craving, mood, and exposure to drug-use trigger. However, the prospective association between stress ratings and cocaine-use episodes was, at best, weak

Reimuller, A., Shadur, J., & Hussong, A. M. (2011). Parental social support as a moderator of self-medication in adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, 36, 203-208.

Objective: We examined the moderating effects of parenting on the temporal relationship between negative affect and subsequent alcohol use in adolescents as an indicator of self-medication. Specifically, we tested whether youth are more likely to self-medicate if they receive less parental social support. Method: We used a multi-method, multi-reporter strategy and an experience sampling paradigm to examine these mechanisms in an elevated-risk sample preparing for the transition to high school. Seventy-one adolescents and their parents completed home-based interviews and adolescents completed a 21-day experience sampling protocol in which they reported their alcohol use daily and their affect thrice daily. Results: Parent-reported family communication, though no other parental support indicators, moderated the relation between daily negative affect and alcohol use. Plotting of interactions showed a greater likelihood of drinking on days characterized by greater negative affect only in adolescents with higher levels of parent-reported family communication. Conclusions: This study offers tentative support for parental support as a moderator of the relation between daily negative affect and alcohol use. Parental support may be a response to alcohol use and self-medication in teens such that parents become more involved and open in talking with their teens when they notice these patterns of behavior.

Robbins, M. L., Mehl, M. R., Holleran, S. E., & Kasle, S. (2011). Naturalistically observed sighing and depression in rheumatoid arthritis patients: A preliminary study. Health Psychology, 30, 129-133.

Objective: This study tested the degree to which naturalistically observed sighing in daily life is a behavioral indicator of depression and reported physical symptoms (i.e., experienced pain and flare days) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Design: Thirteen RA patients wore the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR), an observational ambulatory assessment tool, for two weekends (Friday through Sunday) approximately one month apart. The EAR periodically recorded snippets of ambient sounds from participants’ momentary environments (50 s every 18 min). Sighs were coded from the sampled ambient sounds. Main Outcome Measures: Depression was assessed with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory. Pain during the past month was assessed with a 10-cm visual-analog scale, and number of flare days during the prior 6 months was reported. Results: Sighing was significantly and strongly related to patients’ levels of depression and nonsignificantly and less strongly related to their reported pain and number of flare days. Conclusion: The findings suggest that sighing can serve as an observable marker of depression in RA patients. Because the sample size was small, the findings should be considered preliminary.

Samuels, T. Y., Raedeke, T. D., Mahar, M. T., Karvinen, K. H., & DuBose, K. D. (2011). A randomized controlled trial of continuous activity, short bouts, and a 10,000 step guideline in inactive adults. Preventive Medicine: An International Journal Devoted to Practice and Theory, 52, 120-125.

Objective: Although several studies have examined the effect of accumulated bouts on health outcomes, the impact of recommending short bouts on activity-related behavior in health promotion efforts has received minimal investigation. Method: During this 5-week study in 20072008, 43 university employees (8 male, 35 female) in the Southeastern United States were randomly assigned to a group recommended to achieve (a) 10,000 steps (10 K), (b) 30-minutes (30 min) of continuous physical activity, or (c) 30-minutes of activity in bouts of at least 10 minutes (bouts). Results and conclusions: Repeated measures ANOVA revealed that the 10 K group showed the largest increase in step counts whereas the bouts group showed the smallest change over the intervention period, p = 0.01. Condition differences were most pronounced on days in which participants met their activity recommendation. Accelerometer results revealed that the 10 K (d = 1.1) and 30 min groups (d = 0.89) showed large increases in minutes of moderate to vigorous activity (MVPA), whereas the bouts group showed minimal change (d = 0.11). Although activity recommendations did not differentially affect self-efficacy, participants from all conditions showed decreased self-efficacy across the intervention (p = 0.02), highlighting the need to develop strategies to increase self-efficacy in activity promotion efforts.

Sanbonmatsu, D. M., Uchino, B. N., & Birmingham, W. (2011). On the importance of knowing your partners views: Attitude familiarity is associated with better interpersonal functioning and lower ambulatory blood pressure in daily life. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 41, 131-137.

Background: Relationships have been linked to significant physical health outcomes. However, little is known about the more specific processes that might be responsible for such links. Purpose: The main aim of this study was to examine a previously unexplored and potentially important form of partner knowledge (i.e., attitude familiarity) on relationship processes and cardiovascular function. Methods: In this study, 47 married couples completed an attitude familiarity questionnaire and ambulatory assessments of daily spousal interactions and blood pressure. Results: Attitude familiarity was associated with better interpersonal functioning between spouses in daily life (e.g., greater partner responsiveness). Importantly, attitude familiarity was also related to lower overall ambulatory systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusions: These data suggest that familiarity with a spouses attitudes may be an important factor linking relationships to better interpersonal and physical health outcomes.

Shetty, V., Zigler, C., Robles, T. F., Elashoff, D., & Yamaguchi, M. (2011). Developmental validation of a point-of-care, salivary +¦-amylase biosensor. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 36, 193-199.

The translation of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) to the ambulatory assessment of stress hinges on the development of technologies capable of speedy and accurate reporting of sAA levels. Here, we describe the developmental validation and usability testing of a point-of-care, colorimetric, sAA biosensor. A disposable test strip allows for streamlined sample collection and a corresponding hand-held reader with integrated analytic capabilities permits rapid analysis and reporting of sAA levels. Bioanalytical validation utilizing saliva samples from 20 normal subjects indicates that, within the biosensor’s linear range (10230U/ml), its accuracy (R-¦ =0.989), precision (CV < 9%), and measurement repeatability (range GêÆ3.1% to +3.1%) approach more elaborate laboratory-based, clinical analyzers. The truncated sampling-reporting cycle (< 1min) and the excellent performance characteristics of the biosensor has the potential to take sAA analysis out of the realm of dedicated, centralized laboratories and facilitate future sAA biomarker qualification studies.

Shively, M., Rutledge, T., Rose, B. A., Graham, P., Long, R., Stucky, E., Weinger, M. B., & Dresselhaus, T. (2011). Real-time assessment of nurse work environment and stress. J Healthc.Qual., 33, 39-48.

Ecological momentary assessment methods were used to examine real-time relationships between work environment factors and stress in a sample of 119 registered nurses (RNs) in acute and critical care settings of three hospitals. The RNs carried handheld computers for 1 week of work shifts and were randomly surveyed within 90-min intervals to self-report work activity, perceived workload, and stress. Mixed effects linear regression analyses were completed to predict the stress score in the sample. The number of patients assigned significantly predicted stress; the greater the number of assigned patients, the higher the reported stress (p<.01). Age, gender, adult versus pediatric facility type, familiarity with patients, and proportion of direct care tasks were not significant predictors of stress. Further research is needed to link work environment factors and stress with errors among nurses

Simpson, T. L., Galloway, C., Rosenthal, C. F., Bush, K. R., McBride, B., & Kivlahan, D. R. (2011). Daily telephone monitoring compared with retrospective recall of alcohol use among patients in early recovery. Am J Addict., 20, 63-68.

Most studies comparing frequent self-monitoring protocols and retrospective assessments of alcohol use find good correspondence, but have excluded participants with significant comorbidity and/or social instability, and some have included abstainers. We evaluated the correspondence between measures of alcohol use based on daily interactive voice response (IVR) telephone monitoring and a 28-day modification of the Form-90 (Form-28). Participants were 25 outpatients with alcohol use disorder and significant PTSD symptomatology . Overall correlations between the IVR and Form-28 on days drinking and total standard drink units (SDUs) were strong for the entire sample and the subsample of drinkers (n = 7). Day-to-day correspondence between IVR and Form-28 was modest, but much stronger for the most recent week assessed than for the prior 3 weeks. Finally, the drinkers reported significantly greater total SDUs and heavy drinking days on the Form-28 than via IVR. The results indicate a need for further refinement of IVR methodology for treatment seeking populations as well as caution when retrospectively assessing drinking over time periods longer than a week among these individuals

Song, Z., Foo, M. D., Uy, M. A., & Sun, S. (2010). Unraveling the daily stress crossover between unemployed individuals and their employed spouses. Journal of Applied Psychology.

This study examined the dynamic relationship of distress levels between spouses when one is unemployed (and looking for a job) while the other is engaged in full-time employment. Using the diary survey method, we sampled 100 couples in China for 10 days and tested a model comprising three stress crossover mechanisms: the direct crossover, the mediating crossover, and the common stressor mechanisms. Results supported the direct crossover and common stressor mechanisms. Other stressors (e.g., workfamily conflict and negative job search experience) were also related to distress of the unemployed individuals and their employed spouses. Additionally, we found a three-way interaction involving gender, marital satisfaction, and distress levels of employed spouses. We discuss how the study contributes to the unemployment and stress crossover literatures.

Steca, P., Bassi, M., Caprara, G. V., & Delle, F. A. (2011). Parents’ self-efficacy beliefs and their children’s psychosocial adaptation during adolescence. J Youth Adolesc., 40, 320-331.

Research has shown that parents’ perceived parental self-efficacy (PSE) plays a pivotal role in promoting their children’s successful adjustment. In this study, we further explored this issue by comparing psychosocial adaptation in children of parents with high and low PSE during adolescence. One hundred and thirty Italian teenagers (55 males and 75 females) and one of their parents (101 mothers and 29 fathers) participated in the research. Data were collected at T1 (adolescents’ mean age = 13.6) and T2 (mean age = 17.5). Parents reported their PSE at T1. At T1 and T2, adolescents reported their perceived academic self-efficacy, aggressive and violent conducts, well-being, and perceived quality of their relationships with parents. At T2, they were also administered questions by using Experience Sampling Method to assess their quality of experience in daily life. As hypothesized, adolescents with high PSE parents reported higher competence, freedom and well-being in learning activities as well as in family and peer interactions. They also reported fewer problematic aspects and more daily opportunities for optimal experience. Findings pointed to the stability of adolescents’ psychosocial adaptation and highlighted possible directions in future research

Sullivan, T. P., Khondkaryan, E., Dos Santos, N. P., & Peters, E. N. (2011). Applying experience sampling methods to partner violence research: Safety and feasibility in a 90-day study of community women. Violence Against Women, 17, 251-266.

An experience sampling method (ESM) rarely has been applied in studies of intimate partner violence (IPV) despite the benefits to be gained. Because ESM approaches and women who experience IPV present unique challenges for data collection, an empirical question exists: Is it safe and feasible to apply ESM to community women who currently are experiencing IPV? A 90-day, design-driven feasibility study examined daily telephone data collection, daily paper diaries, and monthly retrospective semistructured interview methods among a community sample of 123 women currently experiencing IPV to study within-person relationships between IPV and substance use. Findings suggest that ESM is a promising method for collecting data among this population and can elucidate daily dynamics of victimization as well as associated behaviors and experiences. Lessons learned from the application of ESM to this population are also discussed.

Swendsen, J., Ben-Zeev, D., & Granholm, E. (2011). Real-time electronic ambulatory monitoring of substance use and symptom expression in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry, 168, 202-209.

OBJECTIVE: Despite evidence demonstrating elevated comorbidity between schizophrenia and substance use disorders, the underlying mechanisms of association remain poorly understood. The brief time intervals that characterize interactions between substance use and psychotic symptoms in daily life are inaccessible to standard research protocols. The authors used electronic personal digital assistants (PDAs) to examine the temporal association of diverse forms of substance use with psychotic symptoms and psychological states in natural contexts. METHOD: Of 199 community-dwelling individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who were contacted to participate in the study, 92% accepted and 73% completed the study. The 145 participants who completed the study provided reports of substance use, psychotic symptoms, mood, and event negativity multiple times per day over 7 consecutive days through PDAs. RESULTS: Participants responded to 72% of the electronic interviews (N=2,737) across daily life contexts. Strong within-day prospective associations were observed in both directions between substance use and negative psychological states or psychotic symptoms, but considerable variation was observed by substance type. Consistent with the notion of self-medication, alcohol use was most likely to follow increases in anxious mood or psychotic symptoms. Cannabis and other illicit substances, demonstrating more complex patterns, were more likely to follow certain psychological states but were also associated with the later onset of psychotic symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The dynamic interplay of substance use and psychotic symptoms is in many cases consistent with both causal and self-medication mechanisms, and these patterns of association should be considered in the design of treatment and prevention strategies

Thewissen, V., Bentall, R. P., Oorschot, M., Campo, A., van, L. T., van, O. J., & Myin-Germeys, I. (2011). Emotions, self-esteem, and paranoid episodes: An experience sampling study. Br.J Clin Psychol., 50, 178-195.

Objectives. The evidence to date for a causal role of emotions in the generation of paranoid symptoms is scarce, mainly because of a lack of studies investigating the longitudinal association between emotional processes and paranoia. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether momentary emotional experiences (anxiety, depression, anger/irritability) and self-esteem predicted the onset and duration of a paranoid episode. We also studied whether levels of emotional experiences and self-esteem were respectively higher and lower during a paranoid episode. Design. A 1-week, prospective momentary assessment study. Methods. Data were collected using the experience sampling method, a structured self-assessment diary technique. The sample consisted of 158 individuals who ranged across the paranoia continuum. Participants with a psychotic disorder were recruited from in-patient and out-patient mental health services. Participants without psychotic disorder were sampled from the general population. Results. Specific aspects of emotional experience were implicated in the onset and persistence of paranoid episodes. Both an increase in anxiety and a decrease in self-esteem predicted the onset of paranoid episodes. Cross-sectionally, paranoid episodes were associated with high levels of all negative emotions and low level of self-esteem. Initial intensity of paranoia and depression was associated with longer, and anger/irritability with shorter duration of paranoid episodes. Conclusions. Paranoid delusionality is driven by negative emotions and reductions in self-esteem, rather than serving an immediate defensive function against these emotions and low self-esteem. Clinicians need to be aware of the central role of emotion-related processes and especially self-esteem in paranoid thinking

Thomas, J. G., Bond, D. S., Ryder, B. A., Leahey, T. M., Vithiananthan, S., Roye, G. D., & Wing, R. R. (2011). Ecological momentary assessment of recommended postoperative eating and activity behaviors. Surg.Obes.Relat Dis, 7, 206-212.

BACKGROUND: Successful weight loss after bariatric surgery depends on the patient’s adherence to prescribed eating and physical activity behaviors. However, few studies have assessed patients’ adherence to the behavioral recommendations and most have used retrospective self-report measures. The present study is the first to use ecological momentary assessment (EMA) via a palmtop computer to assess bariatric surgery patients’ eating and activity behaviors in real-time in the natural environment. The study was conducted at Miriam Hospital (Providence, RI). METHODS: A total of 21 patients (14 laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding and 7 Roux-en-Y; 81% women; mean age 48.5 yr) were studied 6.1 +/- 2.1 months postoperatively. The participants used a palmtop computer for 6 days to report on all eating and physical activity episodes as they occurred in the natural environment. RESULTS: All participants demonstrated good compliance with the EMA, using the device on >/=5 full days. Most participants (94.8%) adhered to the recommendation to not drink while eating, and most took their vitamin supplements and medication as prescribed (85.7% and 90.5%, respectively). Few (4.8%) participants ate the recommended >/=5 meals daily, most participants exceeded the recommended portion sizes during meals and snacks (100% and 72.0% of the participants, respectively), and 47.6% of the participants consumed >/=5 servings of fruit and vegetables daily. Only 15.8% regularly consumed adequate liquids. Only 23.8% of participants engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity for >/=30 minutes daily, as recommended. CONCLUSION: The EMA results suggested that adherence to the recommended behaviors varied considerably, depending on the behavior, with greater adherence to simple versus complex behaviors. EMA might eventually be a useful tool to help optimize the outcomes of bariatric surgery by identifying behavioral targets for additional monitoring and intervention

Thomas, J. G., Doshi, S., Crosby, R. D., & Lowe, M. R. (2011). Ecological Momentary Assessment of Obesogenic Eating Behavior: Combining Person-Specific and Environmental Predictors. Obesity.(Silver.Spring).

Obesity has been promoted by a food environment that encourages excessive caloric intake. An understanding of how the food environment contributes to obesogenic eating behavior in different types of individuals may facilitate healthy weight control efforts. In this study, Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) via palmtop computers was used to collect real-time information about participants’ environment and eating patterns to predict overeating (i.e., greater than usual intake during routine meals/snacks, and eating outside of a participant’s normal routine) that could lead to weight gain. Thirty-nine women (BMI = 21.6 +/- 1.8; age = 20.1 +/- 2.0 years; 61% white) of normal weight (BMI 18.5-25) completed the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire and the Power of Food Scale (PFS), and carried a palmtop computer for 7-10 days, which prompted them to answer questions about eating events, including a count of the types of good tasting high-calorie foods that were available. None of the self-report measures predicted overeating, but BMI interacted with the number of palatable foods available to predict overeating (P = 0.035). Compared to leaner individuals who reported a relatively low frequency of overeating regardless of the availability of palatable food, the probability of overeating among heavier individuals was very low in the absence of palatable food, but quickly increased in proportion to the number of palatable foods available. Our findings suggest that the eating behavior of those with higher relative weights is susceptible to the presence of palatable foods in the environment. Individuals practicing weight control may benefit from limiting their exposure to good tasting high-calorie food in their immediate environment

Tims, M., Bakker, A. B., & Xanthopoulou, D. (2011). Do transformational leaders enhance their followers’ daily work engagement? The Leadership Quarterly, 22, 121-131.

This diary study investigated whether and how supervisors’ leadership style influences followers’ daily work engagement. On the basis of leadership theories and the job demandsresources model, we predicted that a transformational leadership style enhances employees’ work engagement through the mediation of self-efficacy and optimism, on a day-to-day basis. Forty-two employees first filled in a general questionnaire, and then a diary survey over five consecutive workdays. The results of multilevel analyses offered partial support for our hypotheses. Daily transformational leadership related positively to employees’ daily engagement, and day-levels of optimism fully mediated this relationship. However, daily self-efficacy did not act as a mediator. These findings expand theory and previous research by illuminating the role of transformational leaders in fostering employee work engagement.

Tudor-Locke, C., Johnson, W. D., & Katzmarzyk, P. T. (2011). Relationship between accelerometer-determined steps/day and other accelerometer outputs in US adults. J Phys.Act.Health, 8, 410-419.

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) accelerometer-determined steps/day and activity counts/day, and between steps/day and estimates of nonwear time (as an indicator of the unmonitored day) and time spent in sedentary behaviors as well as a range of physical activity intensities. METHODS: Linear regression models were used to characterize the relationship between steps/day, activity counts/day, estimates of wear time, and intensity categories. RESULTS: 1781 males (mean age = 46.5 years) and 1963 females (mean age = 47.7 years) wore accelerometers 14.0 +/- SEM0.06 hours/day. The relationship between steps/day and activity counts/day was positive and strong (R2 = .87). The relationship between steps/day and time spent in sedentary behaviors was inverse and moderate (R2 = .25). Stronger and positive relationships were apparent between steps/day and time in light (R2 = .69) and moderate (R2 = .63) intensity activities. There was no discernable relationship between steps/day and time spent in low or vigorous intensity activities or with wear time. CONCLUSIONS: Assessed by accelerometer, steps/day explains 87% of the variation in activity counts/day, 25% of the variation in time in sedentary behaviors, 69% of time in light intensity, and 63% of time in moderate intensity

Vella, C. A., Ontiveros, D., Zubia, R. Y., & Bader, J. O. (2011). Acculturation and metabolic syndrome risk factors in young Mexican and MexicanAmerican women. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 13, 119-126.

Little is known about effects of acculturation on disease risk in young Mexican and MexicanAmerican women living in a border community. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between acculturation and features of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Mexican and MexicanAmerican women (n = 60) living in the largest US-Mexico border community. Acculturation was measured by the short acculturation scale for Hispanics and birthplace. Body composition was measured by Bod Pod and daily physical activity was measured by questionnaire and accelerometer. Increased acculturation was related to individual features of MetS and increased risk of MetS. These relationships were mediated by fat mass rather than inactivity. Fat mass mediates the relationships between acculturation and individual features of MetS in young Mexican and MexicanAmerican women. These findings suggest that fat mass, rather than inactivity, is an important contributor to disease risk in young Mexican and MexicanAmerican women living in a large US/Mexico border community.

Verduyn, P., Van Mechelen, I., & Tuerlinckx, F. (2011). The relation between event processing and the duration of emotional experience. Emotion, 11, 20-28.

An emotional experience can last for only a couple of seconds up to several hours or even longer. In the present study, we examine to which extent covert intrapersonal actions (cognitions both related and unrelated to the emotion-eliciting stimulus) as well as overt interpersonal actions (social sharing) account for this variability in emotion duration. Participants were asked to report the duration of their anger, sadness, joy, and gratitude episodes on a daily basis during five days. Furthermore, information was collected with regard to their cognitions during the episodes and their social sharing behavior. Discrete-time survival analyses revealed that for three of the four emotions under study, stimulus-related cognitions with the same valence as the emotion lead to a prolongation of the episode; in contrast, both stimulus-related and stimulus-unrelated cognitions with a valence opposite to the emotion lead to a shortening. Finally, for the four emotions under study, social sharing was associated with a prolongation. The findings are discussed in terms of a possible process basis underlying the time dynamics of negative as well as positive emotions.

West, S. G., Ryu, E., Kwok, O., & Cham, H. (2011). Multilevel modeling: Current and future applications in personality research. Journal of Personality, 79, 2-50.

Traditional statistical analyses can be compromised when data are collected from groups or multiple observations are collected from individuals. We present an introduction to multilevel models designed to address dependency in data. We review current use of multilevel modeling in 3 personality journals showing use concentrated in the 2 areas of experience sampling and longitudinal growth. Using an empirical example, we illustrate specification and interpretation of the results of series of models as predictor variables are introduced at Levels 1 and 2. Attention is given to possible trends and cycles in longitudinal data and to different forms of centering. We consider issues that may arise in estimation, model comparison, model evaluation, and data evaluation (outliers), highlighting similarities to and differences from standard regression approaches. Finally, we consider newer developments, including 3-level models, cross-classified models, nonstandard (limited) dependent variables, multilevel structural equation modeling, and nonlinear growth. Multilevel approaches both address traditional problems of dependency in data and provide personality researchers with the opportunity to ask new questions of their data.

Zanstra, Y. J. & Johnston, D. W. (2011). Cardiovascular reactivity in real life settings: measurement, mechanisms and meaning. Biol Psychol., 86, 98-105.

Cardiovascular reactivity to stress is most commonly studied in the laboratory. Laboratory stressors may have limited ecological validity due to the many constraints, operating in controlled environments. This paper will focus on paradigms that involve the measurement of cardiovascular reactions to stress in real life using ambulatory monitors. Probably the most commonly used paradigm in this field is to measure the response to a specific real life stressor, such as sitting an exam or public speaking. A more general approach has been to derive a measure of CV variability testing the hypothesis that more reactive participants will have more variable heart rate or blood pressure. Alternatively, self-reports of the participants’ perceived stress, emotion or demands may be linked to simultaneously collected ambulatory measures of cardiovascular parameters. This paper examines the following four questions: (1) What is the form and what are the determinants of stress-induced CV reactivity in real life? (2) What are the psychophysiological processes underlying heart rate and blood pressure reactivity in real life? (3) Does CV reactivity determined in the laboratory predict CV reactivity in real life? (4) Are ambulatory cardiovascular measures predictive of cardiovascular disease? It is concluded that the hemodynamic processes that underlie the blood pressure response can reliably be measured in real life and the psychophysiological relationships seen in the laboratory have been obtained in real life as well. Studies examining the effects of specific real life stressors show that responses obtained in real life are often larger than those obtained in the laboratory. Subjective ratings of stress, emotion and cognitive determinants of real life stress (e.g. demand, reward and control) also relate to real life CV responses. Surprisingly, ambulatory studies on real life cardiovascular reactivity to stress as a predictor of cardiovascular disease are rare. Measuring the CV response to stress in real life may provide a better measure of the stress-related process that are hypothesized to cause disease than is possible in the laboratory. In addressing these questions, below we review the studies that we believe are representative of the field. Therefore, this review is not comprehensive

Zarantonello, L. & Luomala, H. T. (2011). Dear Mr Chocolate: Constructing a typology of contextualized chocolate consumption experiences through qualitative diary research. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 14, 55-82.

Purpose: This paper aims to advance theory-building in the area of food consumption research, by exploring how consumers experience chocolate consumption in different contexts and by viewing these inductive findings in the light of the relevant existing body of knowledge. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative study is conducted on a non-student sample of Italian consumers. The qualitative diary research technique is used as it is particularly suitable to capturing sensations, feelings, thoughts, and behaviours related to various chocolate consumption contexts. Content analytical and interpretive principles are followed in the production of the study findings. Findings: Chocolate generates rich and complex consumption experiences as a function of various contextual forces. Seven main contextual chocolate consumption categories are identified: context of physiological need, context of sensorial gratification, context of memories and nostalgia, context of escapism, context of materialism, context of chocoholism, and context of interpersonal and self-gifts. On the basis of these chocolate consumption categories and ideas from past consumer behaviour research, four more general contextualized chocolate consumption experience types are extracted: chocolate consumption experience as medicine, as mind manoeuvring, as regression and as ritual enhancement. Originality/value: Past research has not explored how different chocolate consumption contexts shape and define these experiences, even though contextual variation in food consumption experiences is recognized as important. The nuances of chocolate consumption in various contexts are explored to the unprecedented depth, a conceptually novel typology of contextualized chocolate consumption experiences is presented, the field of application of self-congruity theory is expanded and the profiles of chocolate consumer segments identified by past research are enriched.

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