Society for Ambulatory Assessment

Third quarter 2013 (July to September)

Bump Buddy and Baby Buddy smartphone apps trialled (2013). Nurs.Child Young.People., 25, 5.

TWO FREE mobile phone apps to help young women prepare for parenthood are being tested with the backing of the RCN, Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health, and the Royal College of Midwives

Ainsworth, J., Palmier-Claus, J. E., Machin, M., Barrowclough, C., Dunn, G., Rogers, A. et al. (2013). A comparison of two delivery modalities of a mobile phone-based assessment for serious mental illness: Native smartphone application vs text-messaging only implementations. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 15, 43-55.

Background: Mobile phone-based assessment may represent a cost-effective and clinically effective method of monitoring psychotic symptoms in real-time. There are several software options, including the use of native smartphone applications and text messages (short message service, SMS). Little is known about the strengths and limitations of these two approaches in monitoring symptoms in individuals with serious mental illness. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare two different delivery modalities of the same diagnostic assessment for individuals with non-affective psychosis – a native smartphone application employing a graphical, touch user interface against an SMS text-only implementation. The overall hypothesis of the study was that patient participants with serious mental illness would find both delivery modalities feasible and acceptable to use, measured by the quantitative post-assessment feedback questionnaire scores, the number of data points completed, and the time taken to complete the assessment. It was also predicted that a native smartphone application would (1) yield a greater number of data points, (2) take less time, and (3) be more positively appraised by patient participant users than the text-based system. Methods: A randomized repeated measures crossover design was employed. Participants with currently treated Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (Fourth Edition) schizophrenia or related disorders (n = 24) were randomly allocated to completing 6 days of assessment (four sets of questions per day) with a native smartphone application or the SMS text-only implementation. There was then a 1-week break before completing a further 6 days with the alternative delivery modality. Quantitative feedback questionnaires were administered at the end of each period of sampling. Results: A greater proportion of data points were completed with the native smartphone application in comparison to the SMS text-only implementation (+¦ = -.25, SE = .11, P = .02), which also took significantly less time to complete (+¦ = .78, SE = .09, P < .001). Although there were no significant differences in participants’ quantitative feedback for the two delivery modalities, most participants reported preferring the native smartphone application (67%; n=16) and found it easier to use (71%; n = 16). 33% of participants reported that they would be willing to complete mobile phone assessment for 5 weeks or longer. Conclusions: Native smartphone applications and SMS text are both valuable methods of delivering real-time assessment in individuals with schizophrenia. However, a more streamlined graphical user interface may lead to better compliance and shorter entry times. Further research is needed to test the efficacy of this technology within clinical services, to assess validity over longer periods of time and when delivered on patients’ own phones.

Arundell, L., Ridgers, N. D., Veitch, J., Salmon, J., Hinkley, T., & Timperio, A. (2013). 5-year changes in afterschool physical activity and sedentary behavior. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 44, 605-611.

Background: The afterschool period holds promise for the promotion of physical activity, yet little is known about the importance of this period as children age. Purpose: To examine changes in physical activity of children aged 5-6 years and 10-12 years and their sedentary time in the afterschool period over 3 and 5 years, and to determine the contribution of this period to daily physical activity and sedentary behavior over time. Methods: Data from two longitudinal studies conducted in Melbourne, Australia, were used. Accelerometer data were provided for 2053 children at baseline (Children Living in Active Neighbourhoods Study [CLAN]: 2001; Health, Eating and Play Study [HEAPS]: 2002/2003); 756 at 3-year follow-up (time point 2 [T2]); and 622 at 5-year follow-up (T3). Light (LPA), moderate (MPA) and vigorous (VPA) physical activity were determined using age-adjusted cut-points. Sedentary time was defined as ≤ 100 counts/minute. Multilevel analyses, conducted in April 2012, assessed change in physical activity and sedentary time and the contributions of the afterschool period to overall levels. Results: Afterschool MPA and VPA decreased among both cohorts, particularly in the younger cohort, who performed less than half of their baseline levels at T3 (MPA: T1 = 24 minutes; T3 = 11 minutes; VPA: T1 = 12 minutes; T3 = 4 minutes). LPA also declined in the older cohort. Afterschool sedentary time increased among the younger (T1 = 42 minutes; T3 = 64 minutes) and older cohorts (T1 = 57 minutes; T3 = 84 minutes). The contribution of the afterschool period to overall MPA and VPA increased in the older cohort from 23% to 33% over 5 years. In the younger cohort, the contribution of the afterschool period to daily MPA and VPA decreased by 3% over 5 years. Conclusions: The importance of the afterschool period for children’s physical activity increases with age, particularly as children enter adolescence.

Ayyavoo, A., Derraik, J. G., Hofman, P. L., Mathai, S., Biggs, J., Stone, P. et al. (2013). Pre-pubertal children born post-term have reduced insulin sensitivity and other markers of the metabolic syndrome. PLoS ONE, 8, e67966.

BACKGROUND: There are no data on the metabolic consequences of post-term birth (>/=42 weeks gestation). We hypothesized that post-term birth would adversely affect insulin sensitivity, as well as other metabolic parameters and body composition in childhood. METHODS: 77 healthy pre-pubertal children, born appropriate-for-gestational-age were studied in Auckland, New Zealand: 36 born post-term (18 boys) and 41 (27 boys) born at term (38-40 weeks gestation). Primary outcome was insulin sensitivity measured using intravenous glucose tolerance tests and Bergman’s minimal model. Other assessments included fasting hormone concentrations and lipid profiles, body composition from whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and inflammatory markers. RESULTS: Insulin sensitivity was 34% lower in post-term than in term children (7.7 vs. 11.6 x10(-)(4).min(-)(1).(mU/l); p<0.0001). There was a compensatory increase in acute insulin response among post-term children (418 vs 304 mU/l; p=0.037), who also displayed lower glucose effectiveness than those born at term (2.25 vs 3.11 x10(-)(2).min(-)(1); p=0.047). Post-term children not only had more body fat (p=0.014) and less fat-free mass (p=0.014), but also had increased central adiposity with more truncal fat (p=0.017) and greater android to gynoid fat ratio (p=0.007) compared to term controls. Further, post-term children displayed other markers of the metabolic syndrome: lower normal nocturnal systolic blood pressure dipping (p=0.027), lower adiponectin concentrations (p=0.005), as well as higher leptin (p=0.008) and uric acid (p=0.033) concentrations. Post-term boys (but not girls) also displayed a less favourable lipid profile, with higher total cholesterol (p=0.018) and LDL-C (p=0.006) concentrations, and total cholesterol to HDL-C ratio (p=0.048). CONCLUSIONS: Post-term children have reduced insulin sensitivity and display a number of early markers of the metabolic syndrome. These findings could have important implications for the management of prolonged pregnancies. Future studies need to examine potential impacts later in life, as well as possible underlying mechanisms

Badr, H., Pasipanodya, E. C., & Laurenceau, J. P. (2013). An electronic diary study of the effects of patient avoidance and partner social constraints on patient momentary affect in metastatic breast cancer. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 45, 192-202.

Background: Metastatic breast cancer patients experience significance distress. Although talking with close others about cancer-related concerns may help to alleviate distress, patients often avoid such discussions, and their partners can engage in social constraints that may limit subsequent patient disclosures and exacerbate distress. Purpose: We examined how partner constraints unfold, how they influence patient affect, and whether they exacerbate patient avoidance of cancer-related disclosures. Methods: Fifty-four patients and 48 of their partners completed electronic diary assessments for 14 days. Results: PartnersÇÖ social constraints carried over from one day to the next, but patientsÇÖ avoidance of discussing cancer-related concerns did not. When partners engaged in more social constraints one day, patients reported greater negative affect the following day (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Findings suggest a temporal link between partner constraints and patient momentary affect. Helping partners to become aware of their constraining behaviors and teaching them skills to overcome this may facilitate patient adjustment to metastatic breast cancer. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)

Bai, J., He, B., Shou, H., Zipunnikov, V., Glass, T. A., & Crainiceanu, C. M. (2013). Normalization and extraction of interpretable metrics from raw accelerometry data. Biostatistics..

We introduce an explicit set of metrics for human activity based on high-density acceleration recordings from a hip-worn tri-axial accelerometer. These metrics are based on two concepts: (i) Time Active, a measure of the length of time when activity is distinguishable from rest and (ii) AI, a measure of the relative amplitude of activity relative to rest. All measurements are normalized (have the same interpretation across subjects and days), easy to explain and implement, and reproducible across platforms and software implementations. Metrics were validated by visual inspection of results and quantitative in-lab replication studies, and by an association study with health outcomes

Baird, B., Smallwood, J., Fishman, D. J., Mrazek, M. D., & Schooler, J. W. (2013). Unnoticed intrusions: Dissociations of meta-consciousness in thought suppression. Conscious.Cogn, 22, 1003-1012.

The current research investigates the interaction between thought suppression and individuals’ explicit awareness of their thoughts. Participants in three experiments attempted to suppress thoughts of a prior romantic relationship and their success at doing so was measured using a combination of self-catching and experience-sampling. In addition to thoughts that individuals spontaneously noticed, individuals were frequently caught engaging in thoughts of their previous partner at experience-sampling probes. Furthermore, probe-caught thoughts were: (i) associated with stronger decoupling of attention from the environment, (ii) more likely to occur under cognitive load, (iii) more frequent for individuals with a desire to reconcile, and (iv) associated with individual differences in the tendency to suppress thoughts. Together, these data suggest that individuals can lack meta-awareness that they have begun to think about a topic they are attempting to suppress, providing novel insight into the cognitive processes that are involved in attempting to control undesired mental states

Barak, S., Wu, S. S., Dai, Y., Duncan, P. W., & Behrman, A. L. (2013). Compliance with Accelerometry Measurement of Community Ambulation Poststroke. Phys.Ther..

BACKGROUND: The step activity monitor (SAM) quantifies steps taken in the home and community by patient populations. While the SAM has been used to study individuals post-stroke, compliance with SAM has not been addressed. Participants’ compliance in wearing the monitor is critical for obtaining accurate assessments. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of and predictors for inferred compliance with the SAM post-stroke. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: 408 community-dwelling individuals two-months post-stroke with moderate-to-severe gait impairment (gait speed of </= 0.8 m/s). Step activity was assessed for two days with the SAM. Inferred compliance was established in three periods: 6:00AM-12:00PM, 12:01PM-6:00PM, and 6:01PM-12:00AM. Compliance was defined as activity recorded in all three periods. The percentage of participant compliance for the first day, second day, both days, and either day was calculated. Demographic and clinical characteristics of compliers and non-compliers were compared. Independent compliance predictors were identified using stepwise logistic regression. RESULTS: Inferred compliance rate in the first day, second day, both days, and either day was 68, 61, 53, and 76%, respectively. Upper and lower extremity impairment, balance control and endurance were significantly different between compliers and non-compliers. On the other hand, older age, greater balance self-efficacy, and better walking endurance were found to be significant predictors of compliance. LIMITATIONS: Participants consisted of individuals with sub-acute stroke. Therefore, our findings may not be generalized to individuals during the acute and chronic phases of stroke recovery. CONCLUSIONS: Strategies to improve compliance are needed, when collecting data for more than one day, and in samples with younger individuals, and persons with low levels of balance self-efficacy and walking endurance

Beaty, R. E., Burgin, C. J., Nusbaum, E. C., Kwapil, T. R., Hodges, D. A., & Silvia, P. J. (2013). Music to the inner ears: Exploring individual differences in musical imagery. Conscious.Cogn, 22, 1163-1173.

In two studies, we explored the frequency and phenomenology of musical imagery. Study 1 used retrospective reports of musical imagery to assess the contribution of individual differences to imagery characteristics. Study 2 used an experience sampling design to assess the phenomenology of musical imagery over the course of one week in a sample of musicians and non-musicians. Both studies found episodes of musical imagery to be common and positive: people rarely wanted such experiences to end and often heard music that was personally meaningful. Several variables predicted musical imagery, including personality, musical preferences, and positive mood. Musicians tended to hear musical imagery more often, but they reported less frequent episodes of deliberately-generated imagery. Taken together, the present research provides new insights into individual differences in musical imagery, and it supports the emerging view that such experiences are common, positive, and more voluntary than previously recognized

Beckham, J. C., Calhoun, P. S., Dennis, M. F., Wilson, S. M., & Dedert, E. A. (2013). Predictors of lapse in first week of smoking abstinence in PTSD and non-PTSD smokers. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 15,  1122-1129.

Introduction: Retrospective research suggests smokers with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) lapse more quickly after their quit date. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) research is needed to confirm the presence of early smoking lapse in PTSD and form conceptualizations that inform intervention. Methods: Smokers with (n = 55) and without (n = 52) PTSD completed alarm-prompted EMA of situational and psychiatric variables the week before and after a quit date, and self-initiated EMA following smoking lapses. Blood samples at baseline and on the quit date allowed assessment of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA(S)). Results: PTSD was related to shorter time to lapse (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.677, 95% CI: 1.106-2.544). Increased smoking abstinence self-efficacy was related to longer time to lapse (HR = 0.608, 95% CI: 0.430-0.860). Analyses of participants’ real-time reports revealed that smokers with PTSD were more likely to attribute first-time lapses to negative affect ( Xéü-¦ = 5.412, p = .020), and trauma reminders (Fisher’s exact p = .003**). Finally, the quit date decrease in DHEA(S) was related to shorter time to lapse (HR = 1.009, 95% CI: 1.000-1.018, p < .05). Conclusions: Results provide evidence of shorter time to first smoking lapse in PTSD, and add to evidence that early lapse occasions are more strongly related to trauma reminders, negative affect, and cravings in smokers with PTSD.

Bekman, N. M., Winward, J. L., Lau, L. L., Wagner, C. C., & Brown, S. A. (2013). The impact of adolescent binge drinking and sustained abstinence on affective state. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 37, 1432-1439.

Background: While it is clear that affect is negatively impacted by heavy drinking in adulthood and that it improves with abstinence, little is known about effects of heavy drinking on mood during adolescence. Methods: This study examined negative mood states among 2 groups of 16- to 18-year-old high school students; youth with a history of recent heavy episodic drinking (HED; n = 39) and comparison youth with limited lifetime drinking experience (CON; n = 26). Affect was assessed at 3 time points during a 4- to 6-week period of monitored abstinence using the Hamilton Rating Scales for Anxiety and Depression; self-reports were obtained with the state portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and experience sampling of current affect was assessed via daily text messages sent at randomly determined times in the morning, afternoon, and evening. Results: Youth with a recent history of HED reported more negative affect compared with nondrinking youth during early stages of abstinence (days since last HED at assessment 1: M = 6.46; SD = 5.06); however, differences in affect were not observed after 4 to 6 weeks of abstinence. Sex differences were evident, with HED girls reporting greater depression and anxiety than HED male peers. Although not significant, response patterns indicated that boys may experience faster resolution of negative emotional states than girls with sustained abstinence. Conclusions: Findings suggest that high-dose drinking is associated with elevated negative affect for adolescents and that negative mood states may take longer to resolve for girls than for boys following heavy drinking episodes. Future research clarifying naturally occurring changes in affective response during early and sustained abstinence is necessary for improving programs designed to promote adolescent decision-making and to reduce risk for relapse.

Ben-Zeev, D., Kaiser, S. M., Brenner, C. J., Begale, M., Duffecy, J., & Mohr, D. C. (2013). Development and Usability Testing of FOCUS: A Smartphone System for Self-Management of Schizophrenia. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal.

Objective: Mobile Health (mHealth) approaches can support the rehabilitation of individuals with psychiatric conditions. In the current article, we describe the development of a smartphone illness self-management system for people with schizophrenia. Methods: The research was conducted with consumers and practitioners at a community-based rehabilitation agency. Stage 1: 904 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder completed a survey reporting on their current use of mobile devices and interest in mHealth services. Eight practitioners completed a survey examining their attitudes and expectations from an mHealth intervention, and identified needs and potential obstacles. Stage 2: A multidisciplinary team incorporated consumer and practitioner input and employed design principles for the development of e-resources for people with schizophrenia to produce an mHealth intervention. Stage 3: 12 consumers participated in laboratory usability sessions. They performed tasks involved in operating the new system, and provided “think aloud” commentary and post-session usability ratings. Results: 570 (63%) of survey respondents reported owning a mobile device and many expressed interest in receiving mHealth services. Most practitioners believed that consumers could learn to use and would benefit from an mHealth intervention. In response, we developed a smartphone system that targets medication adherence, mood regulation, sleep, social functioning, and coping with symptoms. Usability testing revealed several design vulnerabilities, and the system was adapted to address consumer needs and preferences accordingly. Conclusions and Implications for Practice: Through a comprehensive development process, we produced an mHealth illness self-management intervention that is likely to be used successfully, and is ready for deployment and systemic evaluation in real-world conditions.

Bledow, R., Rosing, K., & Frese, M. (2013). A dynamic perspective on affect and creativity. Academy of Management Journal, 56, 432-450.

We argue that creativity is influenced by the dynamic interplay of positive and negative affect: High creativity results if a person experiences an episode of negative affect that is followed by a decrease in negative affect and an increase in positive affect, a process referred to as an “affective shift.” An experience-sampling study with 102 full-time employees provided support for the hypotheses. An experimental study with 80 students underlined the proposed causal effect of an affective shift on creativity. We discuss practical implications for facilitating creativity in organizations.

Bogers, R. P., Bolte, J. F., Houtveen, J. H., Lebret, E., van Strien, R. T., Schipper, C. M. et al. (2013). Design of an ecological momentary assessment study of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields and non-specific physical symptoms. BMJ Open., 3, e002933.

INTRODUCTION: Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance (IEI) attributed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) refers to self-reported sensitivity mainly characterised by the attribution of non-specific physical symptoms to low-level EMF exposure emitted from sources such as mobile phones. Scientific studies have not provided evidence for the existence of IEI-EMF, but these studies did not resemble the real-life situation or suffered from poor exposure characterisation and biased recall of health symptoms. To improve existing methods for the study of IEI-EMF, an Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) study is designed. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The study is an EMA study in which respondents carry personal exposure metres (exposimeters) that measure radiofrequency (RF) EMF, with frequent assessment of health symptoms and perceived EMF exposure through electronic diary registration during five consecutive days. Participants will be a selection from an epidemiological study who report to be sensitive to RF EMF. The exposimeters measure electric field strength in 12 frequency bands. Diary questions include the occurrence and severity of 10 non-specific physical symptoms, mood states and perceived exposure to (sources of) EMF. The relationship of actual and perceived EMF exposure and mood with non-specific physical symptoms will be analysed using multilevel regression analysis with time-shift models. DISCUSSION: The study has several advantages over previous studies, including assessment of personal EMF exposure and non-specific physical symptoms by an ecological method with a minimised chance of recall bias. The within-person design reduces confounding by time-stable factors (eg, personal characteristics). In the conduct of the study and the analysis and interpretation of its outcomes, some methodological issues including a high participant burden, reactivity, compliance to the study protocol and the potential of chance findings due to multiple statistical testing will be accounted for and limited as much as possible

Bossmann, T., Kanning, M., Koudela-Hamila, S., Hey, S., & Ebner-Priemer, U. (2013). The association between short periods of everyday life activities and affective states: A replication study using ambulatory assessment. Frontiers in Psychology, 4.

Regularly conducted exercise programs effectively influence affective states. Studies suggest that this is also true for short bouts of physical activity (PA) of 10 min or less. Accordingly, everyday life activities of short duration might be used to regulate affective states. However, this association has rarely been studied in reference to unstructured activities in ongoing real-life situations. The current study examined the influence of various everyday life activities on three dimensions of mood (valence, calmness, energetic arousal) in a predominantly inactive sample. Ambulatory Assessment (AA) was used to investigate the association between actual PA and affective states during the course of 1 day. Seventy-seven students ages 19-30 participated in the study. PA was assessed with accelerometers, and affective state assessments were conducted hourly using an e-diary with a six-item mood scale that was specially designed for AA. Multilevel analyses indicated that the mood dimensions energetic arousal (p = 0.001) and valence (p = 0.005) were positively influenced by the intensity of the activity carried out in the 10-min prior to the assessment. As their activity increased, the participants’ positive feelings and energetic arousal increased. However, the students’ calmness was not affected by their activity levels. The findings highlight the importance of integrating short activity intervals of 10 min or less into everyday life routines to improve affective states.

Breland, J. Y., Yeh, V. M., & Yu, J. (2013). Adherence to evidence-based guidelines among diabetes self-management apps. Transl.Behav.Med, 3, 277-286.

Smartphone apps can provide real-time, interactive self-management aid to individuals with diabetes. It is currently unclear whether existing diabetes self-management apps follow evidence-based guidelines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent to which existing diabetes self-management apps address the seven self-management behaviors recommended by the American Association of Diabetes Educators (the AADE7). The term “diabetes” identified relevant self-management apps via the Apple App Store search engine in March 2012. Ratings were based on app descriptions and downloads. Chi-square analyses assessed differences in apps based on developer type. Apps promoted a median of two AADE7 skills. Overall reliability between description and download ratings was good (kappa = .66). Reliability of individual skills was variable (kappa = .25 to .91). Most diabetes apps do not conform to evidence-based recommendations, and future app reviews would benefit from testing app performance. Future apps may also benefit from theory-based designs

Burgin, C. J., Silvia, P. J., Eddington, K. M., & Kwapil, T. R. (2013). Palm or cell? Comparing personal digital assistants and cell phones for experience sampling research. Social Science Computer Review, 31, 244-251.

Personal digital assistants (PDA), particularly Palm Pilots, are popular data collection devices in experience sampling research. The declining availability of such devices, however, has prompted researchers to explore alternative technologies for signaling participants and collecting responses. The present research considers interactive voice response (IVR) methods, which can deliver questions and collect data using common cell phones. Participants completed an experience sampling study using either a PDA (n = 428) or a cell phone under three different conditions (IVR condition n = 98; IVR Callback condition n = 93; IVR Callback Comeback condition n = 94). We found that response rates were higher when people used PDAs (69%) than when they used their cell phones (IVR condition = 51%), but response rates increased when people could call back within a few minutes of missing a signal (IVR Callback condition = 58%) and had a face-to-face meeting with a researcher midweek (IVR Callback Comeback = 64%). The daily life ratings were similar across the conditions. The findings are encouraging for researchers interested in using IVR cell phone methods for ecological momentary assessment, but more work is needed to develop procedures or incentives that increase response rates.

Burns, J. W., Peterson, K. M., Smith, D. A., Keefe, F. J., Porter, L. S., Schuster, E. et al. (2013). Temporal associations between spouse criticism/hostility and pain among patients with chronic pain: A within-couple daily diary study. Pain.

Chronic musculoskeletal pain can strain marriages, perhaps even to the point of engendering spouse criticism and hostility directed toward patients. Such negative spouse responses may have detrimental effects on patient well-being. While results of cross-sectional studies support this notion, we extended these efforts by introducing expressed emotion (EE) and interpersonal theoretical perspectives, and by using electronic diary methods to capture both patient and spouse reports in a prospective design. Patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and their spouses (N=105 couples) reported on perceived spouse behavior and patient pain 5 times/day for 14days using Personal Data Assistants (PDAs). Concurrent and lagged within-couple associations between patient’s perceptions of spouse criticism/hostility and patient self-reported pain and spouses’ observations of patient pain behaviors revealed that (1) patient perceived spouse criticism and hostility were correlated significantly with pain intensity, and spouse observed patient pain behavior was related significantly with patient perceived hostility at the same time point; (2) patient perceived spouse hostility significantly predicted patient pain intensity 3hours later, and spouse observed pain behaviors significantly predicted patient perceived spouse hostility 3hours later. Results support both EE and interpersonal models, and imply that a comprehensive model would combine these conceptualizations to fully illustrate how spouse criticism/hostility and patient pain interact to produce a negative spiral. Given that marital interactions are amenable to clinical intervention, improved insight into how spouse behavior and patient pain are tightly linked will encourage productive translational efforts to target this neglected area

Burrow, A. L. & Hill, P. L. (2013). Derailed by Diversity? Purpose Buffers the Relationship Between Ethnic Composition on Trains and Passenger Negative Mood. Pers.Soc.Psychol.Bull.

Many individuals feel socially isolated and distressed in ethnically diverse settings. Purpose in life may buffer this form of distress by fostering one’s sense of having a meaningful direction, which may also be of significance to others. In two experience-sampling studies with ethnically diverse participants, we examined associations between the ethnic composition of urban trains and passenger distress, and tested purpose as a moderator of these relationships. Study 1 showed that participants of all ethnic backgrounds reported greater negative mood when the percentage of ethnic out-group members aboard their train increased. However, individual differences in purpose significantly attenuated this effect. Study 2 replicated and extended these findings experimentally by showing that relative to a control condition, briefly writing about purpose prior to boarding trains also diminished the impact of ethnic composition on negative mood. The discussion addresses strategies for promoting positive adjustment in our increasingly diverse society

Bussmann, J. B. & van den Berg-Emons RJ (2013). To total amount of activity….. and beyond: perspectives on measuring physical behavior. Front Psychol., 4, 463.

The aim of this paper is to describe and discuss some perspectives on definitions, constructs, and outcome parameters of physical behavior. The paper focuses on the following constructs: Physical activity and active lifestyle vs. sedentary behavior and sedentary lifestyle; Amount of physical activity vs. amount of walking; Detailed body posture and movement data vs. overall physical activity data; Behavioral context of activities; Quantity vs. quality; Physical behavior vs. physiological response. Subsequently, the following outcome parameters provided by data reduction procedures are discussed: Distribution of length of bouts; Variability in bout length; Time window; Intensity and intensity threshold. The overview indicates that physical behavior is a multi-dimensional construct, and it stresses the importance and relevance of constructs and parameters other than total amount of physical activity. It is concluded that the challenge for the future will be to determine which parameters are most relevant, valid and responsive. This is a matter for physical behavior researchers to consider, that is critical to multi-disciplinary collaboration

Carter, M. C., Burley, V. J., Nykjaer, C., & Cade, J. E. (2013). Adherence to a smartphone application for weight loss compared to website and paper diary: Pilot randomized controlled trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 15, 56-72.

Background: There is growing interest in the use of information communication technologies to treat obesity. An intervention delivered by smartphone could be a convenient, potentially cost-effective, and wide-reaching weight management strategy. Although there have been studies of texting-based interventions and smartphone applications (apps) used as adjuncts to other treatments, there are currently no randomized controlled trials (RCT) of a stand-alone smartphone application for weight loss that focuses primarily on self-monitoring of diet and physical activity. Objective: The aim of this pilot study was to collect acceptability and feasibility outcomes of a self-monitoring weight management intervention delivered by a smartphone app, compared to a website and paper diary. Methods: A sample of 128 overweight volunteers were randomized to receive a weight management intervention delivered by smartphone app, website, or paper diary. The smartphone app intervention, My Meal Mate (MMM), was developed by the research team using an evidence-based behavioral approach. The app incorporates goal setting, self-monitoring of diet and activity, and feedback via weekly text message. The website group used an existing commercially available slimming website from a company called Weight Loss Resources who also provided the paper diaries. The comparator groups delivered a similar self-monitoring intervention to the app, but by different modes of delivery. Participants were recruited by email, intranet, newsletters, and posters from large local employers. Trial duration was 6 months. The intervention and comparator groups were self-directed with no ongoing human input from the research team. The only face-to-face components were at baseline enrollment and brief follow-up sessions at 6 weeks and 6 months to take anthropometric measures and administer questionnaires. Results: Trial retention was 40/43 (93%) in the smartphone group, 19/42 (55%) in the website group, and 20/43 (53%) in the diary group at 6 months. Adherence was statistically significantly higher in the smartphone group with a mean of 92 days (SD 67) of dietary recording compared with 35 days (SD 44) in the website group and 29 days (SD 39) in the diary group (P < .001). Self-monitoring declined over time in all groups. In an intention-to-treat analysis using baseline observation carried forward for missing data, mean weight change at 6 months was -4.6 kg (95% CI -6.2 to -3.0) in the smartphone app group, -2.9 kg (95% CI -4.7 to -1.1) in the diary group, and -1.3 kg (95% CI -2.7 to 0.1) in the website group. BMI change at 6 months was -1.6 kg/m-¦ (95% CI -2.2 to -1.1) in the smartphone group, -1.0 kg/m-¦ (95% CI -1.6 to -0.4) in the diary group, and -0.5 kg/m-¦ (95% CI -0.9 to 0.0) in the website group. Change in body fat was -1.3% (95% CI -1.7 to -0.8) in the smartphone group, -0.9% (95% CI -1.5 to -0.4) in the diary group, and -0.5% (95% CI -0.9 to 0.0) in the website group. Conclusions: The MMM app is an acceptable and feasible weight loss intervention and a full RCT of this approach is warranted.

Chaix, B., M+®line, J., Duncan, S., Merrien, C., Karusisi, N. l., Perchoux, C. et al. (2013). GPS tracking in neighborhood and health studies: A step forward for environmental exposure assessment, a step backward for causal inference? Health & Place, 21, 46-51.

Recent studies have relied on GPS tracking to assess exposure to environmental characteristics over daily life schedules. Combining GPS and GIS allows for advances in environmental exposure assessment. However, biases related to selective daily mobility preclude assessment of environmental effects, to the extent that these studies may represent a step backward in terms of assessment of causal effects. A solution may be to integrate the Public health/Nutrition approach and the Transportation approach to GPS studies, so as to combine a GPS and accelerometer data collection with an electronic mobility survey. Correcting exposure measures and improving study designs with this approach may permit mitigating biases related to selective daily mobility.

Champagne, C. M., Han, H., Bajpeyi, S., Rood, J., Johnson, W. D., Lammi-Keefe, C. J. et al. (2013). Day-to-Day Variation in Food Intake and Energy Expenditure in Healthy Women: The Dietitian II Study. J Acad Nutr.Diet..

Because day-to-day food intake varies, we tested the hypothesis that ad libitum food intake and energy expenditure show corrective responses over periods of 1 to 10 days in healthy young women. Food intake and accelerometry measurements were collected daily for 17 days in 15 young women. Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) using doubly labeled water was also measured. The daily deviations in macronutrient and energy intake and energy expenditure from the average values were compared with the deviations observed over succeeding intervals to estimate the corrective responses. The intraindividual coefficients of variation for energy intake averaged +/-25%, ranging from 16% to 34%. TDEE had a coefficient of variation of 8.3%, and accelerometry had a coefficient of variation of 8.4% (range=4.6% to 16.4%). Energy expenditure by accelerometry (2,087+/-191 kcal/day) was not significantly different from TDEE (2,128+/-177 kcal/day), but reported daily energy intake was 20.4% lower (1,693+/-276 kcal/day). There were significant corrective responses in energy from fat and total energy intake. This occurred from Days 3 to 6, with a peak at Day 5 that disappeared when data were randomized within each subject. Human beings show corrective responses to deviations from average energy and macronutrient intakes with a lag time of 3 to 6 days, but not 1 to 2 days. These corrective responses are likely to play a role in bringing about weight stability

Chandler, M. M. (2013). The antecedents and consequences of core affect variability at work. ProQuest Information & Learning, US.

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the antecedents and consequences of intra-individual variability in affect at work. In particular, the current study sought to investigate how aspects of the job, social characteristics, and individual differences relate to the variability in affective experience over time using experience sampling methodology. The current study also sought to investigate how affect variability relates to well-being and performance outcomes. The present study operationalized within-person affect variability using three calculations employed by Kuppens, van Mechelen, Nezlek, Dossche, and Timmermans (2007), and attempted to improve upon these operationalizations by testing key assumptions of the calculations used in Kuppens et al. (2007) and making modifications to the calculations as necessary. The current study found that various aspects of oneÇÖs work environment (i.e., role ambiguity, affect in others) and individual differences (i.e., BIS/BAS; Action-State Preoccupation) were related to the variability in oneÇÖs affective experience at work. Additionally, the present study found that the variability of oneÇÖs affective experiences, and more specifically Spin, were significantly related to important work outcomes such as task performance, emotional exhaustion, and job satisfaction. Thus, the present study contributed to the literature on workplace affect by (a) advancing the operationalization of within-person affect variability, (b) examining this variability in a work context, and (c) testing the links of both individual difference and work context variables with this within-person variability.

Chih, M. Y., Patton, T., McTavish, F. M., Isham, A. J., Judkins-Fisher, C. L., Atwood, A. K. et al. (2013). Predictive modeling of addiction lapses in a mobile health application. J Subst.Abuse Treat..

The chronically relapsing nature of alcoholism leads to substantial personal, family, and societal costs. Addiction-comprehensive health enhancement support system (A-CHESS) is a smartphone application that aims to reduce relapse. To offer targeted support to patients who are at risk of lapses within the coming week, a Bayesian network model to predict such events was constructed using responses on 2,934 weekly surveys (called the Weekly Check-in) from 152 alcohol-dependent individuals who recently completed residential treatment. The Weekly Check-in is a self-monitoring service, provided in A-CHESS, to track patients’ recovery progress. The model showed good predictability, with the area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.829 in the 10-fold cross-validation and 0.912 in the external validation. The sensitivity/specificity table assists the tradeoff decisions necessary to apply the model in practice. This study moves us closer to the goal of providing lapse prediction so that patients might receive more targeted and timely support

Collip, D., Habets, P., Marcelis, M., Gronenschild, E., Lataster, T., Lardinois, M. et al. (2013). Hippocampal volume as marker of daily life stress sensitivity in psychosis. Psychological Medicine, 43, 1377-1387.

Background: Reduced hippocampal size and increased stress sensitivity are associated with psychotic disorder and familial risk for psychosis. However, to what degree the hippocampus is implicated in daily life stress reactivity has not yet been examined. The current study investigated (i) whether familial risk (the contrast between controls, patients and siblings of patients) moderated the relationship between hippocampal volume (HV) and emotional daily stress reactivity and (ii) whether familial risk (the contrast between controls and siblings of patients) moderated the relationship between HV and cortisol daily stress reactivity. Method: T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were acquired from 20 patients with schizophrenia, 37 healthy siblings with familial risk for schizophrenia and 32 controls. Freesurfer 5.0.0 was used to measure HV. The experience sampling method (ESM), a structured momentary assessment technique, was used to assess emotional stress reactivity, that is the effect of momentary stress on momentary negative affect (NA). In addition, in the control and sibling groups, cortisol stress reactivity was assessed using momentary cortisol levels extracted from saliva. Results: Multilevel linear regression analyses revealed a significant three-way interaction between group, HV and momentary stress in both the model of NA and the model of cortisol. Increased emotional stress reactivity was associated with smaller left HV in patients and larger total HV in controls. In line with the results in patients, siblings with small HV demonstrated increased emotional and cortisol stress reactivity compared to those with large HV. Conclusions: HV may index risk and possibly disease-related mechanisms underlying daily life stress reactivity in psychotic disorder.

Collip, D., Wigman, J. T. W., Myin-Germeys, I., Jacobs, N., Derom, C., Thiery, E. et al. (2013). From epidemiology to daily life: Linking daily life stress reactivity to persistence of psychotic experiences in a longitudinal general population study. PLoS ONE, 8.

Subclinical psychotic experiences at the level of the general population are common, forming an extended psychosis phenotype with clinical psychosis. Persistence of subclinical experiences is associated with transition to later mental disorder. Increased daily life stress reactivity is considered an endophenotype for psychotic disorders. We examined, in a longitudinal framework, whether baseline momentary assessment markers of stress reactivity would predict persistence of subclinical psychotic experiences over time. In a general population sample of female twins (N = 566), the Experience Sampling Method (ESM; repetitive random sampling of momentary emotions, psychotic experiences and context) was used to assess (emotional and psychotic) daily life stress reactivity. Persistence of subclinical psychotic experiences was based on the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE), assessed three times over 14 months post-baseline. It was investigated whether baseline daily life emotional and psychotic stress reactivity predicted persistence of psychotic experiences over time. Higher levels of emotional stress reactivity (a decrease in positive and an increase in negative affect in response to stress), and increased psychotic reactivity to daily stress was found in individuals with persistent psychotic experiences over time compared to individuals with transient psychotic experiences. The results suggest that markers of daily life stress reactivity may predict “macro-level” persistence of normally transient expression of psychotic liability over time. Linking daily life markers of altered reactivity in terms of emotions and psychotic experiences to longitudinal persistence of psychotic experiences, associated with increased risk of transition to overt mental disorder, may contribute to earlier and more accurate diagnosis of risk.

Corral-Penafiel, J., Pepin, J. L., & Barbe, F. (2013). Ambulatory monitoring in the diagnosis and management of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. Eur.Respir.Rev., 22, 312-324.

Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a highly prevalent disorder associated with complications such as arterial hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and traffic accidents. The resources allocated for OSA are insufficient and OSA is a significant public health problem. Portable recording devices have been developed for the detection of OSA syndrome and have proved capable of providing an equivalent diagnosis to in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG), at least in patients with a high pre-test probability of OSA syndrome. PSG becomes important in patients who have symptoms and certain comorbidities such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or stroke, as well as in patients with a clinical history suggesting a different sleep disorder. Continuous positive airway pressure is the most effective treatment in OSA. Ambulatory monitoring of the therapeutic modalities has been evaluated to enhance the care process and reduce costs compared to the conventional approach, without sacrificing efficiency. This review evaluates the role of portable monitoring devices in the diagnostic process of OSA and the search for alternative strategies based on ambulatory management protocols

Cortinovis, I., Luraschi, E., Intini, S., Sessa, M., & Fave, A. D. (2011). The daily experience of people with achondroplasia. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 3, 207-227.

This study aimed at investigating the daily experience of adults with achondroplasia. From the perspective of positive psychology, the experience reported in work, family, and relationships was analysed to detect resources and opportunities for social integration and personal growth. Participants were ten women and eight men, members of AISAC-the Italian Association for the Knowledge and Study of Achondroplasia. Following a mixed method approach, quantitative data gathered through the Experience Sampling Method provided information on daily activities and their associated experience, while qualitative data obtained through the Flow Questionnaire and Life Theme Questionnaire enabled us to explore optimal experience and associated activities, participants’ present challenges and future goals. Results highlighted the role of work as a key resource to achieving well-being. Interactions with parents and siblings provided support and relaxation, while building one’s own family emerged as a major future goal. Participants associated socialising with highly positive experiences of involvement and creativity; however, they reported spending a large percentage of time alone. Findings suggested that challenging and qualified work opportunities are crucial in promoting the personal growth and social integration of persons with achondroplasia. Promoting socialisation and removing social and communication barriers should be major issues for policy makers, health professionals, and associations.

Cranwell, J., Benford, S., Houghton, R. J., Golembewksi, M., Fischer, J. E., & Hagger, M. S. (2013). Increasing Self-Regulatory Energy Using an Internet-Based Training Application Delivered by Smartphone Technology.  Cyberpsychol.Behav.Soc.Netw..

Self-control resources can be defined in terms of “energy.” Repeated attempts to override desires and impulses can result in a state of reduced self-control energy termed “ego depletion” leading to a reduced capacity to regulate future self-control behaviors effectively. Regular practice or “training” on self-control tasks may improve an individual’s capacity to overcome ego depletion effectively. The current research tested the effectiveness of training using a novel Internet-based smartphone application to improve self-control and reduce ego depletion. In two experiments, participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental group, which received a daily program of self-control training using a modified Stroop-task Internet-based application delivered via smartphone to participants over a 4-week period, or a no-training control group. Participants assigned to the experimental group performed significantly better on post-training laboratory self-control tasks relative to participants in the control group. Findings support the hypothesized training effect on self-control and highlight the effectiveness of a novel Internet-based application delivered by smartphone as a practical means to administer and monitor a self-control training program. The smartphone training application has considerable advantages over other means to train self-control adopted in previous studies in that it has increased ecological validity and enables effective monitoring of compliance with the training program

Daniels, K., Beesley, N., Wimalasiri, V., & Cheyne, A. (2013). Problem solving and well-being: Exploring the instrumental role of job control and social support. Journal of Management, 39, 1016-1043.

Enacting social support and job control can enable effective problem solving and protect well-being. The authors operationalized social support used for problem solving as “discussing problems with others to solve problems” (DIS-SP) and job control used to solve problems as “changing aspects of work activities to solve problems” (CHA-SP). Analyses of experience sampling data (N = 191) revealed that DIS-SP was inversely associated with subsequent negative affect and that there were curvilinear relationships between CHA-SP and subsequent levels of negative affect, fatigue, and cognitive failure, such that only high levels of CHA-SP were associated with lower levels of negative affect, fatigue, and cognitive failure. Fatigue was inversely associated with subsequent levels of DIS-SP and CHA-SP. Contrary to expectations, there was a positive association between cognitive failure and subsequent CHA-SP.)

De Meyer, J., Tallir, I. B., Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., Aelterman, N., Van den Berghe, L. et al. (2013). Does Observed Controlling Teaching Behavior Relate to Students’ Motivation in Physical Education? Journal of Educational Psychology.

Self-determination theory (SDT) has served as a theoretical framework for considerable research on teaching behavior and student motivation. The majority of studies have focused on need-supportive teaching behavior at the expense of need-thwarting teaching behavior (i.e., the “dark side” of teaching). The goal of the present study was to examine motivational dynamics involved in controlling teaching behavior in the context of physical education (PE). The majority of studies on observed teaching behavior were conducted in the laboratory. To augment the ecological validity in the present study, the behavior of PE teachers was videotaped to rate their controlling teaching behavior in a real-life setting. In a sample of 56 teachers and 702 secondary school students, controlling teaching behavior during a specific PE class, as observed by external raters, was related positively to students’ perceived controlling teaching behavior and, through these perceptions, to controlled motivation and amotivation. These associations were obtained in spite of the low incidence of controlling teaching behaviors, suggesting that students may be quite sensitive to controlling teaching behaviors. No associations were found between observed controlling behavior and student autonomous motivation and students’ perceptions of autonomy-supportive teaching. Practical implications and recommendations for PE teachers’ professional development training are included.

de Wild-Hartmann, J. A., Wichers, M., van Bemmel, A. L., Derom, C., Thiery, E., Jacobs, N. et al. (2013). Day-to-day associations between subjective sleep and affect in regard to future depression in a female population-based sample. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 202, 407-412.

Background: Poor sleep is a risk factor for depression, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Aims: Disentangling potential mechanisms by which sleep may be related to depression by zooming down to the ‘micro-level’ of within-person daily life patterns of subjective sleep and affect using the experience sampling method (ESM). Method: A population-based twin sample consisting of 553 women underwent a 5-day baseline ESM protocol assessing subjective sleep and affect together with four follow-up assessments of depression. Results: Sleep was associated with affect during the next day, especially positive affect. Daytime negative affect was not associated with subsequent night-time sleep. Baseline sleep predicted depressive symptoms across the follow-up period. Conclusions: The subtle, repetitive impact of sleep on affect on a daily basis, rather than the subtle repetitive impact of affect on sleep, may be one of the factors on the pathway to depression in women.

De Young, K. P., Lavender, J. M., Steffen, K., Wonderlich, S. A., Engel, S. G., Mitchell, J. E. et al. (2013). Restrictive eating behaviors are a nonweight-based marker of severity in anorexia nervosa. Int.J Eat.Disord..

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the type and frequency of restrictive eating behaviors across the two subtypes of anorexia nervosa (AN; restricting [ANr] and binge eating/purging [ANbp]) using ecological momentary assessment (EMA) and to determine whether subtype differences in restrictive eating behaviors were attributable to severity of the disorder or the frequency of binge eating. METHOD: Participants (N = 118) were women at least 18 years of age with full (n = 59) or subthreshold (n = 59) AN who participated in a two week (EMA) protocol. RESULTS: General estimating equations revealed that individuals with ANbp generally reported more frequent restrictive eating behaviors than individuals with ANr. These differences were mostly accounted for by greater severity of eating psychopathology, indicating that the presence and frequency of restrictive eating behaviors in AN may be nonweight-based markers of severity. Binge eating frequency did not account for these findings. DISCUSSION: The present findings are especially interesting in light of the weight-based severity rating in the DSM-5. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2013)

Debrot, A., Schoebi, D., Perrez, M., & Horn, A. B. (2013). Touch as an interpersonal emotion regulation process in couples’ daily lives: the mediating role of psychological intimacy. Pers.Soc.Psychol.Bull, 39, 1373-1385.

Interpersonal touch seems to promote physical health through its effects on stress-sensitive parameters. However, less is known about the psychological effects of touch. The present study investigates associations between touch and romantic partners’ affective state in daily life. We hypothesized that this association is established by promoting the recipient’s experience of intimacy. Both partners of 102 dating couples completed an electronic diary 4 times a day during 1 week. Multilevel analyses revealed that touch was associated with enhanced affect in the partner. This association was mediated by the partner’s psychological intimacy. Touch was also associated with intimacy and positive affect in the actor. Finally, participants who were touched more often during the diary study week reported better psychological well-being 6 months later. This study provides evidence that intimate partners benefit from touch on a psychological level, conveying a sense of strengthened bonds between them that enhances affect and well-being

Dellon, E. S., Irani, A. M., Hill, M. R., & Hirano, I. (2013). Development and field testing of a novel patient-reported outcome measure of dysphagia in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis. Aliment.Pharmacol.Ther., 38, 634-642.

BACKGROUND: Dysphagia is the hallmark of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), but no validated dysphagia instruments in this population exist. AIM: To develop and field test a patient-reported outcome (PRO) for dysphagia in subjects with EoE. METHODS: This was a multi-centre/multi-phase prospective study. The first phase developed a dysphagia questionnaire using qualitative methods. The second phase was a 30-day field trial to test the instrument and assess content validity. Adolescents and adults with EoE, active symptoms of dysphagia and oesophageal eosinophilia (>/=15 eosinophils per high-power field) were enrolled. Solid-food-avoidance days, dysphagia days and actions taken to get relief were recorded. A dysphagia score was calculated and compared to the Straumann Dysphagia Instrument (SDI). RESULTS: Ten adolescents and 10 adults were included in the first phase and the Dysphagia Symptom Questionnaire (DSQ), a three-item daily electronic diary, was developed. In the second phase, 35 subjects finished the field trial (18 adults, 17 adolescents, mean age 24, 54% male, 95% white, 54% currently on topical corticosteroids). The median number of dysphagia days per week was 2 for adolescents vs. 4 for adults (P < 0.001), and 2 for those on topical steroids vs. 4 for those not on topical steroids (P < 0.001). The DSQ score strongly correlated with the number of dysphagia days (R = 0.96; P < 0.001) and the SDI (R = 0.77; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The DSQ, a three-question patient-reported outcome, was successfully developed and field tested. The DSQ had content validity and the score accurately measured dysphagia frequency and intensity. The Dysphagia Symptom Questionnaire is suitable for use in clinical trials of EoE patients with dysphagia

Donaire-Gonzalez, D., de Nazelle, A., Seto, E., Mendez, M., Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J., & Jerrett, M. (2013). Comparison of physical activity measures using mobile phone-based CalFit and actigraph. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 15, 67-77.

Background: Epidemiological studies on physical activity often lack inexpensive, objective, valid, and reproducible tools for measuring physical activity levels of participants. Novel sensing technologies built into smartphones offer the potential to fill this gap. Objective: We sought to validate estimates of physical activity and determine the usability for large population-based studies of the smartphone-based CalFit software. Methods: A sample of 36 participants from Barcelona, Spain, wore a smartphone with CalFit software and an Actigraph GT3X accelerometer for 5 days. The ease of use (usability) and physical activity measures from both devices were compared, including vertical axis counts (VT) and duration and energy expenditure predictions for light, moderate, and vigorous intensity from FreedsonÇÖs algorithm. Statistical analyses included (1) Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test for usability measures, (2) Spearman correlation and linear regression for VT counts, (3) concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), and (4) Bland-Altman plots for duration and energy expenditure measures. Results: Approximately 64% (23/36) of participants were women. Mean age was 31 years (SD 8) and mean body mass index was 22 kg/m-¦ (SD 2). In total, 25/36 (69%) participants recorded at least 3 days with at least 10 recorded hours of physical activity using CalFit. The linear association and correlations for VT counts were high (adjusted R-¦ = 0.85; correlation coefficient .932, 95% CI 0.931-0.933). CCCs showed high agreement for duration and energy expenditure measures (from 0.83 to 0.91). Conclusions: The CalFit system had lower usability than the Actigraph GT3X because the application lacked a means to turn itself on each time the smartphone was powered on. The CalFit system may provide valid estimates to quantify and classify physical activity. CalFit may prove to be more cost-effective and easily deployed for large-scale population health studies than other specialized instruments because cell phones are already carried by many people.

Elkins, G., Sliwinski, J., Bowers, J., & Encarnacion, E. (2013). Feasibility of clinical hypnosis for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease: A case study. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 61, 172-182.

Parkinson’s disease is a severe neurodegenerative disorder with a prevalence rate of approximately 1.6% in elderly Americans. This case study reports on a 51-year-old male Parkinson’s patient who received 3 weekly sessions of a hypnosis intervention, as well as instruction in self-hypnosis. Actigraphy was used to assess rest-tremor severity. Results revealed a 94% reduction in rest tremors following treatment. Self-reported levels of anxiety, depression, sleep quality, pain, stiffness, libido, and quality of life also showed improvements. The patient reported a high level of satisfaction with treatment. These findings suggest clinical hypnosis is potentially feasible and beneficial treatment for some Parkinson’s symptoms. Further investigation with diverse samples and an ambulatory monitoring device is warranted.

Engel, S. G., Wonderlich, S. A., Crosby, R. D., Mitchell, J. E., Crow, S., Peterson, C. B. et al. (2013). The role of affect in the maintenance of anorexia nervosa: Evidence from a naturalistic assessment of momentary behaviors and emotion. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 122, 709-719.

The current study examines the relationship of affect and eating disorder behavior in anorexia nervosa (AN) using ecological momentary assessment. Participants were 118 adult females recruited at three sites from eating disorder treatment centers and community advertisements. All participants met full Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.) criteria or subthreshold criteria for AN. Participants were provided handheld computers and asked to report positive affect, negative affect, loss of control (LOC) eating, purging, exercise, drinking fluids to curb appetite, and weighing one’s self multiple times per day as well as dietary restriction once daily over a 2-week interval. Mixed-effects models were used to examine the extent to which affective states predict dietary restriction. In addition, we used two analytic approaches to compare affect before and after other eating disorder behaviors. We found that higher daily ratings of negative affect were associated with a greater likelihood of dietary restriction on subsequent days. When examining the single rating immediately before and after behaviors, we found that negative affect increased significantly after LOC eating, purging, the combination of LOC and eating/purging, and weighing of one’s self. Using this same analytic approach, we also found negative affect to decrease significantly after the consumption of fluids to curb appetite and exercise. When examining the covariation of AN behaviors and negative affect assessed multiple times in the hours and minutes before the behaviors, we found negative affect significantly increased before LOC eating, purging, the combination of LOC eating/and purging, and weighing behavior. Negative affect also significantly decreased after the occurrence of these behaviors. These findings are consistent with the idea that that negative affect is potentially a critical maintenance mechanism of some AN symptoms, but that the analytic approach used to examine affect and behavior may have significant implications on the interpretation of findings.

Faurholt-Jepsen, M., Faurholt-Jepsen, D., Range, N., Praygod, G., Jeremiah, K., Aabye, M. G. et al. (2013). The use of combined heart rate response and accelerometry to assess the level and predictors of physical activity in tuberculosis patients in Tanzania. Epidemiol.Infect., 1-9.

SUMMARY We assessed the role of tuberculosis (TB) disease and HIV infection on the level of physical activity. A combined heart rate and movement sensor was used to assess habitual physical activity in TB patients and non-TB controls. The association between sputum-negative TB, sputum-positive TB, HIV and physical activity estimates were assessed in multivariable linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, haemoglobin and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP). Sputum-positive [eB 0.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.29-0.64] and sputum-negative (eB 0.67, 95% CI 0.47-0.94) TB as well as HIV infection (eB 0.59, 95% CI 0.46-0.75) were associated with reduced activity compared to controls. Anaemia accounted for a substantial part of the effects of HIV, while elevated AGP primarily mediated the TB effect. The level of physical activity is highly influenced by TB and HIV, and mainly mediated through anaemia of infection and associated with elevated acute phase response

Faurholt-Jepsen, M., Vinberg, M., Christensen, E. M., Frost, M., Bardram, J., & Kessing, L. V. (2013). Daily electronic self-monitoring of subjective and objective symptoms in bipolar disorder–the MONARCA trial protocol (MONitoring, treAtment and pRediCtion of bipolAr disorder episodes): a randomised controlled single-blind trial. BMJ Open., 3.

INTRODUCTION: Electronic self-monitoring of affective symptoms using cell phones is suggested as a practical and inexpensive way to monitor illness activity and identify early signs of affective symptoms. It has never been tested in a randomised clinical trial whether electronic self-monitoring improves outcomes in bipolar disorder. We are conducting a trial testing the effect of using a Smartphone for self-monitoring in bipolar disorder. METHODS: We developed the MONARCA application for Android-based Smartphones, allowing patients suffering from bipolar disorder to do daily self-monitoring-including an interactive feedback loop between patients and clinicians through a web-based interface. The effect of the application was tested in a parallel-group, single-blind randomised controlled trial so far including 78 patients suffering from bipolar disorder in the age group 18-60 years who were given the use of a Smartphone with the MONARCA application (intervention group) or to the use of a cell phone without the application (placebo group) during a 6-month study period. The study was carried out from September 2011. The outcomes were changes in affective symptoms (primary), social functioning, perceived stress, self-rated depressive and manic symptoms, quality of life, adherence to medication, stress and cognitive functioning (secondary and tertiary). ANALYSIS: Recruitment is ongoing. ETHICS: Ethical permission has been obtained. DISSEMINATION: Positive, neutral and negative findings of the study will be published. REGISTRATION DETAILS: The trial is approved by the Regional Ethics Committee in The Capital Region of Denmark (H-2-2011-056) and The Danish Data Protection Agency (2013-41-1710). The trial is registered at as NCT01446406

Franklin, M. S., Mrazek, M. D., Anderson, C. L., Smallwood, J., Kingstone, A., & Schooler, J. W. (2013). The silver lining of a mind in the clouds: interesting musings are associated with positive mood while mind-wandering. Front Psychol., 4, 583

The negative effects of mind-wandering on performance and mood have been widely documented. In a recent well-cited study, Killingsworth and Gilbert (2010) conducted a large experience sampling study revealing that all off-task episodes, regardless of content, have equal to or lower happiness ratings, than on-task episodes. We present data from a similarly implemented experience sampling study with additional mind-wandering content categories. Our results largely conform to those of the Killingsworth and Gilbert (2010) study, with mind-wandering generally being associated with a more negative mood. However, subsequent analyses reveal situations in which a more positive mood is reported after being off-task. Specifically when off-task episodes are rated for interest, the high interest episodes are associated with an increase in positive mood compared to all on-task episodes. These findings both identify a situation in which mind-wandering may have positive effects on mood, and suggest the possible benefits of encouraging individuals to shift their off-task musings to the topics they find most engaging

Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, M., Skouteris, H., Richardson, B., Blore, J., Holmes, M., & Mills, J. (2013). Does the burden of the experience sampling method undermine data quality in state body image research? Body Image.

Despite growing popularity of experience sampling methodology (ESM) for evaluations of state-based components of body image, there have been concerns that the frequent repeated measurement might encourage problematic responding resulting in low data quantity and/or quality. Using a sample of 105 women (mean age=24.84), this study used multilevel modelling to investigate whether (a) there were changes in compliance or response variability across a 7-day period, and (b) whether such changes are explained by participant characteristics. Present findings suggest that demands of ESM protocol undermine quantity more so than quality of obtained data. Decline in procedural compliance across the testing period correlated with BMI and body shame, whereas reduced variability in state-based assessments did not adversely impact the strength of association between state body satisfaction ratings and other variables in the dataset. The authors make several recommendations for ensuring the quality of ESM-based data in future studies.

Garcia-Ortiz, L., Recio-Rodriguez, J. I., Puig-Ribera, A., Lema-Bartolome, J., Ibanez-Jalon, E., Gonzalez-Viejo, N. et al. (2013). Blood Pressure Circadian Pattern and Physical Exercise Assessment by Accelerometer and 7-Day Physical Activity Recall Scale. Am J Hypertens..

BACKGROUND: The relationship between regular physical activity, measured objectively and by self-report, and the circadian pattern of 24-hour ambulatory arterial blood pressure (BP) has not been clarified. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study in a cohort of healthy patients. We included 1,345 patients from the EVIDENT study (mean age 55+/-14 years; 59.3% women). Physical activity was assessed using the 7-day physical activity recall (PAR) questionnaire (metabolic equivalents (MET)/hour/week) and the Actigraph GT3X accelerometer (counts/minute) for 7 days; ambulatory arterial BP was measured with a radial tonometer (B-pro device). RESULTS: The dipper-pattern patients showed a higher level of activity than nondipper patients, as assessed by accelerometer and 7-day PAR. Physical activity measures correlated positively with the percent drop in systolic BP (SBP; rho = 0.19 to 0.11; P < 0.01) and negatively with the systolic and diastolic sleep to wake ratios (rho = -0.10 to -0.18; P < 0.01) and heart rate (rho = -0.13; P < 0.01). In logistic regression, considering the circadian pattern (1, dipper; 0, nondipper) as the dependent variable, the odds ratio of the third tertile of counts/minute was 1.79 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35-2.38; P < 0.01) and of MET/hour/week was 1.33 (95% CI, 1.01-1.75; P = 0.04) after adjustment for confounding variables. CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity, as evaluated by both the accelerometer and the 7-day PAR, was associated with a more marked nocturnal BP dip and, accordingly, a lower SBP and diastolic BP sleep to wake ratio. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Identifier: NCT01083082

Goetz, T., Bieg, M., Ludtke, O., Pekrun, R., & Hall, N. C. (2013). Do Girls Really Experience More Anxiety in Mathematics? Psychol.Sci.

Two studies were conducted to examine gender differences in trait (habitual) versus state (momentary) mathematics anxiety in a sample of students (Study 1: N = 584; Study 2: N = 111). For trait math anxiety, the findings of both studies replicated previous research showing that female students report higher levels of anxiety than do male students. However, no gender differences were observed for state anxiety, as assessed using experience-sampling methods while students took a math test (Study 1) and attended math classes (Study 2). The discrepant findings for trait versus state math anxiety were partly accounted for by students’ beliefs about their competence in mathematics, with female students reporting lower perceived competence than male students despite having the same average grades in math. Implications for educational practices and the assessment of anxiety are discussed

Goldschmidt, A. B., Crosby, R. D., Engel, S. G., Crow, S. J., Cao, L., Peterson, C. B. et al. (2013). Affect and eating behavior in obese adults with and without elevated depression symptoms. Int.J Eat.Disord..

OBJECTIVE: Although there is a modest relation between obesity and depression, mechanisms that contribute to this co-occurrence are unclear. This study examined mood and eating behavior among obese adults with and without elevated depression symptoms. METHOD: Obese adults (N = 50) were subtyped according to a Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) cutoff of 14, indicating “probable depression.” Participants with (BDI >/= 14; n = 15) and without (BDI < 14; n = 35) elevated depression symptoms were compared on affect- and eating-related variables measured via questionnaire and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) using ANCOVA and mixed model regression. RESULTS: After adjusting for group differences in body mass index (BMI; p = .03), participants with elevated depression symptoms reported greater emotional eating via self-report questionnaire [F(1,50) = 4.3; p = .04], as well as more frequent binge eating (Wald chi2 = 13.8; p < .001) and higher daily negative affect (Wald chi2 = 7.7; p = .005) on EMA recordings. Emotional eating mediated the relationship between depression status and BMI (indirect effect estimate = 3.79; 95% CI = 1.02-7.46). DISCUSSION: Emotional eating and binge eating were more commonly reported by obese adults with elevated depression symptoms compared to those without and may occur against a general backdrop of overall low mood. Intervention and prevention programs for obesity and/or depression should address disordered eating to prevent or minimize adverse health consequences. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2013)

Grenard, J. L., Stacy, A. W., Shiffman, S., Baraldi, A. N., MacKinnon, D. P., Lockhart, G. et al. (2013). Sweetened drink and snacking cues in adolescents: A study using ecological momentary assessment. Appetite, 67, 61-73.

The objective of this study was to identify physical, social, and intrapersonal cues that were associated with the consumption of sweetened beverages and sweet and salty snacks among adolescents from lower SES neighborhoods. Students were recruited from high schools with a minimum level of 25% free or reduced cost lunches. Using ecological momentary assessment, participants (N=158) were trained to answer brief questionnaires on handheld PDA devices: (a) each time they ate or drank, (b) when prompted randomly, and (c) once each evening. Data were collected over 7days for each participant. Participants reported their location (e.g., school grounds, home), mood, social environment, activities (e.g., watching TV, texting), cravings, food cues (e.g., saw a snack), and food choices. Results showed that having unhealthy snacks or sweet drinks among adolescents was associated with being at school, being with friends, feeling lonely or bored, craving a drink or snack, and being exposed to food cues. Surprisingly, sweet drink consumption was associated with exercising. Watching TV was associated with consuming sweet snacks but not with salty snacks or sweet drinks. These findings identify important environmental and intrapersonal cues to poor snacking choices that may be applied to interventions designed to disrupt these food-related, cue-behavior linked habits.

Haar, S., Fees, B., Trost, S., Crowe, L. K., & Murray, A. (2013). Design of a garment for data collection of toddler language and physical activity. Clothing & Textiles Research Journal, 31, 125-140.

Design process phases of development, evaluation and implementation were used to create a garment to simultaneously collect reliable data of speech production and intensity of movement of toddlers (18-36 months). A series of prototypes were developed and evaluated that housed accelerometer-based motion sensors and a digital transmitter with microphone. The approved test garment was a top constructed from loop-faced fabric with interior pockets to house devices. Extended side panels allowed for sizing. In total, 56 toddlers (28 male; 28 female; 16-36 months of age) participated in the study providing pilot and baseline data. The test garment was effective in collecting data as evaluated for accuracy and reliability using ANOVA for accelerometer data, transcription of video for type of movement, and number and length of utterances for speech production. The data collection garment has been implemented in various studies across disciplines.

Hamer, M., Kivimaki, M., & Steptoe, A. (2012). Longitudinal patterns in physical activity and sedentary behaviour from mid-life to early old age: A substudy of the Whitehall II cohort. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 66, 1110-1115.

Background: There are few longitudinal data on physical activity patterns from mid-life into older age. The authors examined associations of self-reported physical activity, adiposity and socio-demographic factors in mid-life with objectively assessed measures of activity in older age. Methods: Participants were 394 healthy men and women drawn from the Whitehall II population-based cohort study. At the baseline assessment in 1997 (mean age 54 years), physical activity was assessed through self-report and quantified as metabolic equivalent of task hours/week. At the follow-up in 2010 (mean age 66 years), physical activity was objectively measured using accelerometers worn during waking hours for seven consecutive days (average daily wear time 891 -¦ 68 min/day). Results Self-reported physical activity at baseline was associated with objectively assessed activity at follow-up in various activity categories, including light-, moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity (all ps < 0.04). Participants in the highest compared with lowest quartile of self-reported activity level at baseline recorded on average 64.1 (95% CI 26.2 to 102.1) counts per minute more accelerometer-assessed activity at follow-up and 9.0 (2.0-16.0) min/day more moderate-to-vigorous daily activity, after adjusting for baseline covariates. Lower education, obesity and self-perceived health status were also related to physical activity at follow-up. Only age and education were associated with objectively measured sedentary time at follow-up. Conclusion Physical activity behaviour in middle age was associated with objectively measured physical activity in later life after 13 years of follow-up, suggesting that the habits in adulthood are partly tracked into older age.

Hartley, S., Haddock, G., Vasconcelos E Sa, Emsley, R., & Barrowclough, C. (2013). An experience sampling study of worry and rumination in psychosis. Psychol.Med, 1-10.

BACKGROUND: Increasing research effort is being dedicated to investigating the links between emotional processes and psychosis, despite the traditional demarcation between the two. Particular focus has alighted upon two specific anxious and depressive processes, worry and rumination, given the potential for links with aspects of delusions and auditory hallucinations. This study rigorously explored the nature of these links in the context of the daily life of people currently experiencing psychosis. METHOD: Experience sampling methodology (ESM) was used to assess the momentary links between worry and rumination on the one hand, and persecutory delusional ideation and auditory hallucinations on the other. Twenty-seven participants completed the 6-day experience sampling period, which required repeated self-reports on thought processes and experiences. Multilevel modelling was used to examine the links within the clustered data. RESULTS: We found that antecedent worry and rumination predicted delusional and hallucinatory experience, and the distress they elicited. Using interaction terms, we have shown that the links with momentary symptom severity were moderated by participants’ trait beliefs about worry/rumination, such that they were reduced when negative beliefs about worry/rumination (meta-cognitions) were high. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings offer an ecologically valid insight into the influence of worry and rumination on the experience of psychotic symptoms, and highlight possible avenues for future intervention strategies

Hayes, G. R. & Truong, K. N. (2013). Paratyping: A contextualized method of inquiry for understanding perceptions of mobile and ubiquitous computing technologies. Human-Computer Interaction, 28, 265-286.

In this article, we describe the origins, use, and efficacy of a contextualized method for evaluating mobile and ubiquitous computing systems. This technique, which we called paratyping, is based on experience prototyping and event-contingent experience sampling and allows researchers to survey people in real-life situations without the need for costly and sometimes untenable deployment evaluations. We used this tool to probe the perceptions of the conversation partners of users of the Personal Audio Loop, a memory aid with the potential for substantial privacy implications. Based on that experience, we refined and adapted the approach to evaluate SenseCam, a wearable, automatic picture-taking device, across multiple geographic locations. We describe the benefits, challenges, and methodological considerations that emerged during our use of the paratyping method across these two studies. We describe how this method blends some of the benefits of survey-based research with more contextualized methods, focusing on trustworthiness of the method in terms of generating scientific knowledge. In particular, this method is a good fit for studying certain classes of mobile and ubiquitous computing applications but can be applied to many types of applications.

Heathers, J. A. J. (2013). Smartphone-enabled pulse rate variability: An alternative methodology for the collection of heart rate variability in psychophysiological research. International Journal of Psychophysiology.

Heart rate variability (HRV) is widely used to assess autonomic nervous system (ANS) function. It is traditionally collected from a dedicated laboratory electrocardiograph (ECG). This presents a barrier to collecting the large samples necessary to maintain the statistical power of between-subject psychophysiological comparisons. An alternative to ECG involves an optical pulse sensor or photoplethysmograph run from a smartphone or similar portable device: smartphone pulse rate variability (SPRV). Experiment 1 determined the simultaneous accuracy between ECG and SPRV systems in n=10 participants at rest. Raw SPRV values showed a consistent positive bias, which was successfully attenuated with correction. Experiment 2 tested an additional n=10 participants at rest, during attentional load, and during mild stress (exercise). Accuracy was maintained, but slightly attenuated during exercise. The best correction method maintained an accuracy of +/-2% for low-frequency spectral power, and +/-5% for high-frequency spectral power over all points. Thus, the SPRV system records a pulse-to-pulse approximation of an ECG-derived heart rate series that is sufficiently accurate to perform time- and frequency-domain analysis of its variability, as well as accurately reflecting change in autonomic output provided by typical psychophysiological stimuli. This represents a novel method by which an accurate approximation of HRV may be collected for large-sample or naturalistic cardiac psychophysiological research.

Hebden, L., Cook, A., van der Ploeg, H. P., King, L., Bauman, A., & Allman-Farinelli, M. (2013). A mobile health intervention for weight management among young adults: a pilot randomised controlled trial. J Hum.Nutr.Diet..

BACKGROUND: Today’s generation of young adults are gaining weight faster than their parents; however, there remains insufficient evidence to inform interventions to prevent this weight gain. Mobile phones are a popular means of communication that may provide a convenient, inexpensive means to deliver health intervention programmes. This pilot study aimed to measure the effect of a 12-week mobile health (mHealth) intervention on body weight, body mass index and specific lifestyle behaviours addressed by the programme. METHODS: University students and staff aged 18-35 years (n = 51) were randomised (ratio 1 : 1, intervention : control). Both groups received a printed diet booklet with instructions prepared by a dietitian. The intervention group also received Short Message Service (SMS) text messages (four per week), e-mails (four per week), and had access to smartphone applications and Internet forums. RESULTS: Pre- to post-intervention, participants in the intervention group decreased their body weight [mean (SD)] [-1.6 (2.6) kg], increased their light intensity activity [34 (35) min day-1 ] and reported an increased vegetable (1.0 median serving day-1 ) and decreased sugar-sweetened beverage intake [-355 (836) mL week-1 ]. Despite this, post-intervention changes in outcomes were not significantly different from controls. CONCLUSIONS: The piloted mHealth programme provided some short-term positive changes in weight, nutrition and physical activity using a low cost, convenient delivery method for this population. However, changes were no different from those observed among controls. This might partly be explained by intervention participants’ low engagement with the programme, which is likely to require further modification to provide more regular, personalised, monitored support

Hershfield, H. E., Scheibe, S., Sims, T. L., & Carstensen, L. L. (2013). When Feeling Bad Can Be Good: Mixed Emotions Benefit Physical Health Across Adulthood. Soc.Psychol.Personal Sci, 4, 54-61.

Traditional models of emotion-health interactions have emphasized the deleterious effects of negative emotions on physical health. More recently, researchers have turned to potential benefits of positive emotions on physical health as well. Both lines of research, though, neglect the complex interplay between positive and negative emotions and how this interplay affects physical well-being. Indeed, recent theoretical work suggests that a strategy of “taking the good with the bad” may benefit health outcomes. In the present study, the authors assessed the impact of mixed emotional experiences on health outcomes in a 10-year longitudinal experience-sampling study across the adult life span. The authors found that not only were frequent experiences of mixed emotions (co-occurrences of positive and negative emotions) strongly associated with relatively good physical health, but that increases of mixed emotions over many years attenuated typical age-related health declines

Houtveen, J. H. & Sorbi, M. J. (2013). Prodromal functioning of migraine patients relative to their interictal state – an ecological momentary assessment study. PLoS ONE, 8, e72827.

Smartphones were used in an online Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) design to test prodromal functioning relative to the interictal state in migraine patients. Eighty-seven participants completed an electronic diary 4 times daily during 3-6 weeks to monitor their migraine attacks. Twice daily the diary additionally included 16 multi-answer questions covering physical symptoms (30 items), cognitive-affective functioning (25 items) and external factors (25 items). Eight clustered prodromal features were identified in the current study: sensory sensitivity, pain/stiffness, fatigue, cognitive functioning, positive affect, negative affect, effort spent and stressors encountered. Per feature, individual change scores with interictal control days – excluding 24-hour post-attack recovery – were computed for six 12-hour pre-attack time windows covering three prodromal days. Linear mixed model (fixed-effect) analysis established significant increases in sensory sensitivity, pain/stiffness and fatigue, and a tendency for increased negative affect, in the 12 hours prior to the attack. Positive affect and cognitive functioning were impaired both in the 25-36 hour and – more strongly – in the 12-hour time window before the attack. No effects were found for effort spent and stressors encountered. Exploratory (random effect) analysis revealed significant individual differences in the change scores in sensory sensitivity, pain/stiffness, fatigue and negative affect. It is concluded that the prodromal change in migraine – relative to interictal functioning – predominantly exists within the last 12 hours before attack onset. Individual diversity is large, however. Future research should zoom in to identify prodrome development within the 12 pre-attack hours as well as to isolate individual patterns

Iida, M., Stephens, M. A. P., Franks, M. M., & Rook, K. S. (2013). Daily symptoms, distress and interaction quality among couples coping with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 30, 293-300.

In this electronic diary study (N = 127 couples), we examined how a diabetic partner’s symptoms and distress are associated with relationship interactions over 24 days. Using dyadic multilevel models, we examined the effects of patients’ daily diabetes symptom severity and diabetes-specific distress on each partner’s evaluations of their daily interaction enjoyment and tension. For both patients and spouses, diabetes symptoms were associated with a decrease in enjoyment and an increase in tension. For spouses, but not for patients, daily diabetes distress was marginally associated with an increase in tension. Among spouses whose patients’ diabetes was of longer duration, the negative association of symptoms and spouses’ enjoyment was stronger. These findings suggest that the stress of patients’ disease and distress affects both partners on a daily basis.

Inkinen, M., Lonka, K., Hakkarainen, K., Muukkonen, H., Litmanen, T., & Salmela-Aro, K. (2013). The interface between core affects and the challenge-skill relationship. Journal of Happiness Studies.

Different models have been developed to describe human experiences. One of these models is the core affect model, which states that the core of emotional experience is a simple state of feeling good or bad, energized or drowsy. Another model is the experience fluctuation model (EFM), which has been developed to map how emotions and other experiences fluctuate along with the relationship between challenges and skills. In this study, we first mathematically refined the EFM. Second, we tested if fluctuations in core affect could be modeled with a continuous wave-like sine function (Study 1). Third, we applied the sine function to our own experience-sampling data, which we collected via mobile phones from 55 university students, and located each challenge-skill relationship in a two-dimensional core affect space (Study 2). The results were consistent in both studies and showed that fluctuations in core affect dimensions, measured as a function of the relationship between challenges and skills, can be modeled with the sine function. The results also indicated that there is a systematic link between challenge-skill relationships and core affect: High challenge-high skill situations were connected to a very active and pleasant core affect, whereas high challenge-low skill situations were connected to a quite active but unpleasant core affect, low challenge-low skill situations to a very passive and unpleasant core affect, and low challenge-high skill situations to a quite passive and pleasant core affect. Compared to previous studies, this study presents a more fine-grained and comprehensive level of information on the relationship between core affect and challenges and skills.

Jacobs, N., Menne-Lothmann, C., Derom, C., Thiery, E., van Os, J., & Wichers, M. (2013). Deconstructing the familiality of variability in momentary negative and positive affect. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 127, 318-327.

Objective: The daily life, affective phenotypes of momentary negative affect (NA), positive affect (PA) variability and NA variability are associated with future depressive symptomatology. This study investigates the extent to which genetic and environmental factors contribute to the inter-individual differences in these daily life, affective phenotypes. Method: Two hundred and seventy-nine female twins from the Flemish (Belgium) general population participated in an experience sampling study measuring affect in daily life. Structural equation modelling was used to fit univariate and bivariate models. Results: Genetic factors explained, respectively, 18%, 18% and 35% of the inter-individual differences in momentary NA, PA variability and NA variability. Non-shared environmental factors were found to explain the remaining inter-individual variation. In addition, 41% of the association between positive and NA variability was attributed to shared genetic factors. Conclusion: Results of this study show that daily life patterns of affective expression are subject to substantial environmental influence. Prospective assessments of the effect of interventions on these expressions may therefore represent a powerful tool to prevent transition from subclinical depressive symptomatology to a clinical outcome or to reduce symptomatology in those with clinical depression.

Jean, F. A. M., Swendsen, J. D., Sibon, I., Fehér, K., & Husky, M. (2013). Daily life behaviors and depression risk following stroke: A preliminary study using ecological momentary assessment. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 26, 138-143.

Approximately one-third of stroke survivors have symptoms of depression. A better understanding of the early risk factors implicated in this form of comorbidity may contribute to the development of early prevention strategies and to improving outcomes for this population. The current study uses ecological momentary assessment techniques to identify behavioral risk factors for depression 3 months after stroke. Thirty-six participants completed ambulatory monitoring of daily life circumstances (location, social environment, and activity) 5 times per day during a 1-week period after hospital discharge. Clinician-administered measures of depression were also provided before discharge and 3 months later. Ambulatory monitoring revealed that depression scores at 3 months were lower among individuals with more social interactions but higher among those who reported having sports activities and working in the week following hospital discharge. Daily life behaviors may have important implications for understanding the risk of poststroke depression, and mobile technologies may provide important contributions to their investigation.

Johnston, D. W., Jones, M. C., Charles, K., McCann, S. K., & McKee, L. (2013). Stress in nurses: Stress-related affect and its determinants examined over the nursing day. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 45, 348-356.

Background: Nurses are a stressed group and this may affect their health and work performance. The determinants of occupational stress in nurses and other occupational groups have almost invariably been examined in between subject studies. Purpose: This study aimed to determine if the main determinants of occupation stress, i.e. demand, control, effort and reward, operate within nurses. Methods: A real time study using personal digital-assistant-based ecological momentary assessment to measure affect and its hypothesised determinants every 90 min in 254 nurses over three nursing shifts. The measures were negative affect, positive affect, demand/effort, control and reward. Results: While the effects varied in magnitude between people, in general increased negative affect was predicted by high demand/effort, low control and low reward. Control and reward moderated the effects of demand/effort. High positive affect was predicted by high demand/effort, control and reward. Conclusions: The same factors are associated with variations in stress-related affect within nurses as between.

Jola, C. & Grosbras, M. H. (2013). In the here and now: Enhanced motor corticospinal excitability in novices when watching live compared to video recorded dance. Cogn Neurosci., 4, 90-98.

Enhanced motor corticospinal excitability (MCE) in passive action observation is thought to signify covert motor resonance with the actions seen. Actions performed by others are an important social stimulus and thus, motor resonance is prevalent during social interaction. However, most studies employ simple/short snippets of recorded movements devoid of any real-life social context, which has recently been criticized for lacking ecological validity. Here, we investigated whether the co-presence of the actor and the spectator has an impact on motor resonance by comparing novices’ MCE for the finger (FDI) and the arm (ECR) with single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation when watching five-minute solos of ballet dance, Bharatanatyam (Indian dance) and an acting control condition either live or on video. We found that (1) MCE measured in the arm muscle was significantly enhanced in the live compared to the video condition, (2) differences across performances were only evident in the live condition, and (3) our novices reported enjoying the live presentations significantly more. We suggest that novice spectators’ MCE is susceptible to the performers’ live presence

Kanning, M. K., Ebner-Priemer, U. W., & Schlicht, W. M. (2013). How to investigate within-subject associations between physical activity and momentary affective states in everyday life: A position statement based on a literature overview. Frontiers in Psychology, 4.

Several meta-analyses have investigated the association between physical activity and affective states and have found evidence suggesting that exercise exerts a positive effect on affective state. However, in this field of research, most studies have conducted between-subject analyses. Nonetheless, there is more and more interest in the within-subject associations between physical activity and momentary affective states in everyday life. This position statement pertains to this up-and-coming field of research and provides methodological recommendations for further studies. The paper is divided into three parts: first, we summarize and evaluate three methodological requirements necessary for the proper evaluation of within-subject associations between physical activity and momentary affective states in everyday life.We propose that the following issues should be considered: (a) to address the dynamic nature of such relationships, repeated assessments are necessary; (b) as activities performed in everyday life are mostly spontaneous and unconscious, an objective assessment of physical activity is useful; (c) given that recall of affective states is often affected by systematic distortions, real-time assessment is preferable. In sum, we suggest the use of ambulatory assessment techniques, and more specifically the combination of accelerometer-assessment of physical activity with an electronic diary assessment of the momentary affective state and additional context information. Second, we summarize 22 empirical studies published between 1980 and 2012 using ambulatory assessment to investigate within-subject associations between momentary affective states and physical activity in everyday life. Generally, the literature overview detects a positive association, which appears stronger among those studies that were of high methodological quality. Third, we propose the use of ambulatory assessment intervention (AAIs) strategies to change people’s behavior and to enable people to be active as often as possible during the day (e.g., reducing sitting time, taking more steps per day).

Kashdan, T. B., Farmer, A. S., Adams, L. M., Ferssizidis, P., McKnight, P. E., & Nezlek, J. B. (2013). Distinguishing healthy adults from people with social anxiety disorder: Evidence for the value of experiential avoidance and positive emotions in everyday social interactions. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 122, 645-655.

Despite the increased attention that researchers have paid to social anxiety disorder (SAD), compared with other anxiety and mood disorders, relatively little is known about the emotional and social factors that distinguish individuals who meet diagnostic criteria from those who do not. In this study, participants with and without a diagnosis of SAD (generalized subtype) described their daily face-to-face social interactions for 2 weeks using handheld computers. We hypothesized that, compared with healthy controls, individuals diagnosed with SAD would experience fewer positive emotions, rely more on experiential avoidance (of anxiety), and have greater self-control depletion (feeling mentally and physically exhausted after socializing), after accounting for social anxiety, negative emotions, and feelings of belonging during social interactions. We found that compared with healthy controls, individuals with SAD experienced weaker positive emotions and greater experiential avoidance, but there were no differences in self-control depletion between groups. Moreover, the differences we found could not be attributed to comorbid anxiety or depressive disorders. Our results suggest that negative emotions alone do not fully distinguish normal from pathological social anxiety, and that assessing social anxiety disorder should include impairments in positive emotional experiences and dysfunctional emotion regulation (in the form of experiential avoidance) in social situations.

Kawada, T. (2013). Sleep duration for residents in the nursing home by accelerometer: A preliminary study. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 20, 662-664.

In this study, sleep duration was measured using two different sensitivity settings of the Actiwatch-« in residents of a nursing home without medically identified intellectual disability (ID). A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect data on the sleep duration using the Actiwatch-«, an actigraph device, in 31 residents of a nursing home without medically identified ID; all the participants were aged 50 years or older. This study was conducted to present baseline data of sleep duration measured using the Actiwatch-« in residents of a nursing home without medically identified ID, aged 50 years or over. As expected, the low- and high-sensitivity settings yielded different sleep duration. There is an hour difference between two sensitivity settings. In this study, the author cannot claim superiority of high- or low-sensitivity setting of Actiwatch-«. Continuous study including observational survey on daytime, and information on medication should also be urgently surveyed

Kawada, T. (2013). Sleep parameters in rhesus monkeys by using actigraphy. Psychopharmacology, 228.

Comments on an article by ML. Andersen et al. (see record 2010-10371-013). Andersen et al. reported the effect of methamphetamine on sleep parameters in rhesus monkeys by using actigraphy. As a conclusion, methamphetamine (0.03 mg/kg) disrupted sleep by producing an increase in sleep latency and sleep fragmentation, in combination with a decrease in sleep efficiency. After concluding the drug experiment, the effect disappeared. Author have two concerns on their study. First, actigraphy cannot become a substitute for sleep polysomnography. Actigraphy is based on an accelerometer for movement, and it does not directly reflect brain activity. They quoted one validation study with Actiwatch-«. Second, they prepared two concentrations of methamphetamine and the effect of methamphetamine treatment was evaluated. Author agree with the simplicity of actigraphy to monitor sleep, but much more trials are needed to establish validation for the application of actigraphy to small nonhuman primates. Activity monitoring and sleep monitoring are different concepts, and special caution should be paid when inferring sleep based on actigraphy.

Kemps, E. & Tiggemann, M. (2013). Hand-held dynamic visual noise reduces naturally occurring food cravings and craving-related consumption. Appetite, 68, 152-157.

This study demonstrated the applicability of the well-established laboratory task, dynamic visual noise, as a technique for reducing naturally occurring food cravings and subsequent food intake. Dynamic visual noise was delivered on a hand-held computer device. Its effects were assessed within the context of a diary study. Over a 4-week period, 48 undergraduate women recorded their food cravings and consumption. Following a 2-week baseline, half the participants watched the dynamic visual noise display whenever they experienced a food craving. Compared to a control group, these participants reported less intense cravings. They were also less likely to eat following a craving and consequently consumed fewer total calories following craving. These findings hold promise for curbing unwanted food cravings and craving-driven consumption in real-world settings.

Khor, A. S., Melvin, G. A., Reid, S. C., & Gray, K. M. (2013). Coping, Daily Hassles and Behavior and Emotional Problems in Adolescents with High-Functioning Autism/Asperger’s Disorder. J Autism Dev.Disord..

Although daily hassles and coping are associated with behavior and emotional problems in non-clinical populations, few studies have investigated these relationships in individuals with high-functioning autism/Asperger’s Disorder (HFASD). This study examined the relationships between daily hassles, coping and behavior and emotional problems in adolescents with HFASD. Thirty-one adolescents with HFASD completed questionnaires assessing their coping and behavior and emotional problems, and completed an Ecological Momentary Assessment run via a mobile phone application on their coping and daily hassles. Parents completed questionnaires of the adolescents’ daily hassles, coping, and behavior and emotional problems. The disengagement coping style was associated with significantly higher levels of behavior and emotional problems regardless of respondent or methodology, suggesting it may be a valuable target for intervention

Kim, J., Nakamura, T., Kikuchi, H., Sasaki, T., & Yamamoto, Y. (2013). Co-variation of depressive mood and locomotor dynamics evaluated by ecological momentary assessment in healthy humans. PLoS ONE, 8, e74979.

Computerized ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is widely accepted as a “gold standard” method for capturing momentary symptoms repeatedly experienced in daily life. Although many studies have addressed the within-individual temporal variations in momentary symptoms compared with simultaneously measured external criteria, their concurrent associations, specifically with continuous physiological measures, have not been rigorously examined. Therefore, in the present study, we first examined the variations in momentary symptoms by validating the associations among self-reported symptoms measured simultaneously (depressive mood, anxious mood, and fatigue) and then investigated covariant properties between the symptoms (especially, depressive mood) and local statistics of locomotor activity as the external objective criteria obtained continuously. Healthy subjects (N = 85) from three different populations (adolescents, undergraduates, and office workers) wore a watch-type computer device equipped with EMA software for recording the momentary symptoms experienced by the subjects. Locomotor activity data were also continuously obtained by using an actigraph built into the device. Multilevel modeling analysis confirmed convergent associations by showing positive correlations among momentary symptoms. The increased intermittency of locomotor activity, characterized by a combination of reduced activity with occasional bursts, appeared concurrently with the worsening of depressive mood. Further, this association remained statistically unchanged across groups regardless of group differences in age, lifestyle, and occupation. These results indicate that the temporal variations in the momentary symptoms are not random but reflect the underlying changes in psychophysiological variables in daily life. In addition, our findings on the concurrent changes in depressive mood and locomotor activity may contribute to the continuous estimation of changes in depressive mood and early detection of depressive disorders

Kirste, T., Hoffmeyer, A., Koldrack, P., Bauer, A., Schubert, S., Schroder, S. et al. (2013). Detecting the Effect of Alzheimer’s Disease on Everyday Motion Behavior. J Alzheimers.Dis..

Background: Early detection of behavioral changes in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) would help the design and implementation of specific interventions. Objective: The target of our investigation was to establish a correlation between diagnosis and unconstrained motion behavior in subjects without major clinical behavior impairments. Method: We studied everyday motion behavior in 23 dyads with one partner suffering from AD dementia and one cognitively healthy partner in the subjects’ home, employing ankle-mounted three-axes accelerometric sensors. We determined frequency features obtained from the signal envelopes computed by an envelope detector for the carrier band 0.5 Hz to 5 Hz. Based on these features, we employed quadratic discriminant analysis for building models discriminating between AD patients and healthy controls. Results: After leave-one-out cross-validation, the classification accuracy of motion features reached 91% and was superior to the classification accuracy based on the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI). Motion features were significantly correlated with MMSE and CMAI scores. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that changes of everyday behavior are detectable in accelerometric behavior protocols even in the absence of major clinical behavioral impairments in AD

Kirwan, M., Duncan, M. J., Vandelanotte, C., & Mummery, W. K. (2013). Design, development, and formative evaluation of a smartphone application for recording and monitoring physical activity levels: The 10,000 steps “iStepLog”. Health Education & Behavior, 40, 140-151.

Objectives: Limited research exists addressing the development of health-related smartphone apps, a new and potentially effective health promotion delivery strategy. This article describes the development and formative evaluation of a smartphone app associated with a physical activity promotion website. Methods: A combination of qualitative and quantitative techniques (performance measures, direct observation, and subjective participant preferences) were implemented during two usability testing sessions (pre- and postmodification) while participants were completing tasks using the app. Results: Design improvements to the app resulted in a reduction in the problems experienced and a decrease in the time taken to complete tasks. Four usability themes emerged from the data: design, feedback, navigation, and terminology. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the relevance of usability testing to the design and modification of a smartphone app related to a health promotion website. This study resulted in an app with much higher usability, which might increase usage and maintenance of health behavior change in the long term. Practical implications: This study demonstrates the need for formative evaluation in health-related smartphone apps. Attention should be given to basic design principles as well as feedback, navigation, and terminology in order to ensure utility and ease of use of future smartphone app designs.

Koval, P., Pe, M. L., Meers, K., & Kuppens, P. (2013). Affect Dynamics in Relation to Depressive Symptoms: Variable, Unstable or Inert?  Emotion.

Depression not only involves disturbances in prevailing affect, but also in how affect fluctuates over time. Yet, precisely which patterns of affect dynamics are associated with depressive symptoms remains unclear; depression has been linked with increased affective variability and instability, but also with greater resistance to affective change (inertia). In this paper, we argue that these paradoxical findings stem from a number of neglected methodological/analytical factors, which we address using a novel paradigm and analytic approach. Participants (N = 99), preselected to represent a wide range of depressive symptoms, watched a series of emotional film clips and rated their affect at baseline and following each film clip. We also assessed participants’ affect in daily life over 1 week using experience sampling. When controlling for overlap between different measures of affect dynamics, depressive symptoms were independently associated with higher inertia of negative affect in the lab, and with greater negative affect variability both in the lab and in daily life. In contrast, depressive symptoms were not independently related to higher affective instability either in daily life or in the lab.

Kristjánsdóttir, Ó. B., Fors, E. A., Eide, E., Finset, A., Stensrud, T. L., van Dulmen, S. et al. (2013). A smartphone-based intervention with diaries and therapist-feedback to reduce catastrophizing and increase functioning in women with chronic widespread pain: Randomized controlled trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 15, 125-146.

Background: Internet-based interventions using cognitive behavioral approaches can be effective in promoting self-management of chronic pain conditions. Web-based programs delivered via smartphones are increasingly used to support the self-management of various health disorders, but research on smartphone interventions for persons with chronic pain is limited. Objective: The aim of this trial was to study the efficacy of a 4-week smartphone-delivered intervention with written diaries and therapist feedback following an inpatient chronic pain rehabilitation program. Methods: A total of 140 women with chronic widespread pain who participated in a 4-week inpatient rehabilitation program were randomized into 2 groups: with or without a smartphone intervention after the rehabilitation. The smartphone intervention consisted of 1 face-to-face session and 4 weeks of written communication via a smartphone. Participants received 3 smartphone diary entries daily to support their awareness of and reflection on pain-related thoughts, feelings, and activities. The registered diaries were immediately available to a therapist who submitted personalized written feedback daily based on cognitive behavioral principles. Both groups were given access to a noninteractive website after discharge to promote constructive self-management. Outcomes were measured with self-reported questionnaires. The primary outcome measure of catastrophizing was determined using the pain catastrophizing scale (score range 0-52). Secondary outcomes included acceptance of pain, emotional distress, functioning, and symptom levels. Results: Of the 140 participants, 112 completed the study: 48 in the intervention group and 64 in the control group. Immediately after the intervention period, the intervention group reported less catastrophizing (mean 9.20, SD 5.85) than the control group (mean 15.71, SD 9.11, P < .001), yielding a large effect size (Cohen’s d = 0.87) for study completers. At 5-month follow-up, the between-group effect sizes remained moderate for catastrophizing (Cohen’s d = 0.74, P = .003), acceptance of pain (Cohen’s d = 0.54, P = .02), and functioning and symptom levels (Cohen’s d = 0.75, P = .001). Conclusions: The results suggest that a smartphone-delivered intervention with diaries and personalized feedback can reduce catastrophizing and prevent increases in functional impairment and symptom levels in women with chronic widespread pain following inpatient rehabilitation.

Kross, E., Verduyn, P., Demiralp, E., Park, J., Lee, D. S., Lin, N. et al. (2013). Facebook use predicts declines in subjective well-being in young adults. PLoS ONE, 8, e69841.

Over 500 million people interact daily with Facebook. Yet, whether Facebook use influences subjective well-being over time is unknown. We addressed this issue using experience-sampling, the most reliable method for measuring in-vivo behavior and psychological experience. We text-messaged people five times per day for two-weeks to examine how Facebook use influences the two components of subjective well-being: how people feel moment-to-moment and how satisfied they are with their lives. Our results indicate that Facebook use predicts negative shifts on both of these variables over time. The more people used Facebook at one time point, the worse they felt the next time we text-messaged them; the more they used Facebook over two-weeks, the more their life satisfaction levels declined over time. Interacting with other people “directly” did not predict these negative outcomes. They were also not moderated by the size of people’s Facebook networks, their perceived supportiveness, motivation for using Facebook, gender, loneliness, self-esteem, or depression. On the surface, Facebook provides an invaluable resource for fulfilling the basic human need for social connection. Rather than enhancing well-being, however, these findings suggest that Facebook may undermine it

Kuhnhausen, J., Leonhardt, A., Dirk, J., & Schmiedek, F. (2013). Physical activity and affect in elementary school children’s daily lives. Front Psychol., 4, 456.

A positive influence of physical activity (PA) on affect has been shown in numerous studies. However, this relationship has not yet been studied in the daily life of children. We present a part of the FLUX study that attempts to contribute to filling that gap. To this end, a proper way to measure PA and affect in the daily life of children is needed. In pre-studies of the FLUX study, we were able to show that affect can be measured in children with self-report items that are answered using smartphones. In the current article, we show that it is feasible to objectively measure children’s PA with accelerometers for a period of several weeks and report descriptive information on the amount of activity of 51 children from 3rd and 4th grade. Additionally, we investigate the influence of daily PA on daily affect in children. Mixed effects models show no effect of PA on any of the four measured dimensions of affect. We discuss that this might be due to effects taking place at shorter time intervals, which can be investigated in future analyses

Lataster, T., Valmaggia, L., Lardinois, M., van Os, J., & Myin-Germeys, I. (2013). Increased stress reactivity: A mechanism specifically associated with the positive symptoms of psychotic disorder. Psychological Medicine, 43, 1389-1400.

Background: An increased reactivity to stress in the context of daily life is suggested to be an independent risk factor underlying the positive symptoms of psychotic disorder. The aim of this study was to investigate whether positive symptoms moderate the association between everyday stressful events and negative affect (NA), known as stress reactivity. This hypothesis was put to the test in patients with a diagnosis of psychotic disorder. Method: The Comprehensive Assessment of Symptoms and History (CASH) and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) were used to assess positive and negative symptoms. The experience sampling method (ESM), a structured diary technique, was used to measure stress reactivity and psychotic symptoms in daily life. Results: Higher levels of positive symptoms (CASH: B = 0.14, p = 0.005 ; PANSS: B = 0.05, p = 0.000 ; ESM: B = 0.03, p = 0.000) and lower levels of negative symptoms (PANSS: B = -0.05, p = 0.001) significantly moderate the association between unpleasant events and NA. No significant moderating effect was found for CASH negative symptoms. Moreover, the moderating effect of lifetime and current symptoms on the stress-NA association was significantly larger for those patients with predominantly positive symptoms (CASH: B = 0.09, p = 0.000 ; PANSS: B = 0.08, p = 0.000 ; ESM: B = 0.13, p = 0.000). Conclusions: Patients with a  ‘psychotic syndrome’ with high levels of positive symptoms and low levels of negative symptoms show increased reactivity to stress in daily life, indicating that stress reactivity is a possible risk factor underlying this syndrome.

Licskai, C., Sands, T. W., & Ferrone, M. (2013). Development and pilot testing of a mobile health solution for asthma self-management: asthma action plan smartphone application pilot study. Can.Respir.J, 20, 301-306.

BACKGROUND: Collaborative self-management is a core recommendation of national asthma guidelines; the written action plan is the knowledge tool that supports this objective. Mobile health technologies have the potential to enhance the effectiveness of the action plan as a knowledge translation tool. OBJECTIVE: To design, develop and pilot a mobile health system to support asthma self-management. METHODS: The present study was a prospective, single-centre, nonrandomized, pilot preintervention-postintervention analysis. System design and development were guided by an expert steering committee. The network included an agnostic web browser-based asthma action plan smartphone application (SPA). Subjects securely transmitted symptoms and peak flow data daily, and received automated control assessment, treatment advice and environmental alerts. RESULTS: Twenty-two adult subjects (mean age 47 years, 82% women) completed the study. Biophysical data were received on 84% of subject days (subject day = 1 subject x 1 day). Subjects viewed their action plan current zone of control on 54% and current air quality on 61% of subject days, 86% followed self-management advice and 50% acted to reduce exposure risks. A large majority affirmed ease of use, clarity and timeliness, and 95% desired SPA use after the study. At baseline, 91% had at least one symptom criterion for uncontrolled asthma and 64% had >/=2, compared with 45% (P=0.006) and 27% (P=0.022) at study close. Mean Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire score improved from 4.3 to 4.8 (P=0.047). CONCLUSIONS: A dynamic, real-time, interactive, mobile health system with an integrated asthma action plan SPA can support knowledge translation at the patient and provider levels

Mackinnon, S. P., Battista, S. R., Sherry, S. B., & Stewart, S. H. (2013). Perfectionistic self-presentation predicts social anxiety using daily diary methods. Personality and Individual Differences.

Perfectionistic self-presentation is thought to confer risk for social anxiety. Although this relationship is thought to occur dynamically from moment-to-moment, no research has yet tested this relationship using experience sampling methods. The present study stringently tested whether perfectionistic self-presentation predicted social anxiety beyond several important covariates using a 21-day experience sampling design. A sample of 165 undergraduates (75.6% women) completed a series of questionnaires each day for 21days using palm pilots. Generalizability theory and multilevel factor analyses suggested daily measures of perfectionistic self-presentation, social anxiety, perfectionism cognitions, and depressed mood evidence within-subjects and between-subjects variability, can be measured reliably, and represent distinct factors, allowing hypothesis testing. Multilevel regressions showed perfectionistic self-presentation predicted social anxiety at the between-subjects and within-subjects levels, even when controlling for socially prescribed perfectionism, perfectionism cognitions, and depressed mood. Overall, perfectionistic self-presentation emerged as a robust predictor of daily social anxiety, clearly extending prior cross-sectional research on this topic. By understanding how perfectionism operates from day-to-day, we can better understand the processes that give rise to social anxiety, and ultimately how to devise more effective ways to help people suffering from social anxiety.

Malik, A., Goodwin, G. M., & Holmes, E. A. (2012). Contemporary approaches to frequent mood monitoring in bipolar disorder. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 3, 572-581.

Mood fluctuations are problematic in bipolar disorder. Current approaches to frequent monitoring of mood in bipolar disorder are paper diaries and electronic handheld devices. These approaches are limited in several ways, notably in the reliability of the data being collected which is often retrospectively reported. The experience sampling method offers a research paradigm which could be modified for use in clinical settings, to real time frequent mood monitoring. Mobile phone technology has also recently been developed to monitor weekly mood in a bipolar sample, demonstrating successful compliance rates. We propose the use of mobile phone technology as a novel method for frequently monitoring mood in bipolar disorder.

Mangera, A., Marzo, A., Heron, N., Fernando, D., Hameed, K., Soliman, A. H. et al. (2013). Development of two electronic bladder diaries: A patient and healthcare professionals pilot study. Neurourol.Urodyn..

AIMS: Assess patients’ preferences in a pilot crossover study of two different electronic voiding diaries against a standard paper diary. Assess urological health professional (HP) opinions on the electronic bladder diary reporting system. METHODS: Two different electronic diaries were developed: (1) electronically read diary-a card with predefined slots read by a card reader and (2) e-diary-a handheld touch screen device. Data uploaded from either electronic diary produced an electronic report. We recruited 22 patients split into two cohorts for each electronic diary, 11 completed each type of electronic diary for 3 days either preceded or followed by a standard paper diary for 3 days. Both diaries were completed on the 7th day. Patients’ perceptions of both diaries were recorded using a standardized questionnaire. A HP study recruited 22 urologists who were given the paper diary and the electronic reports. Time taken for analysis was recorded along with accuracy and HP preferences. RESULTS: The majority of patients (82%) preferred the e-diary and only 1/11 found it difficult to use. Patients had the same preference for the electronically read diary as the paper diary. The paper diary took 66% longer to analyze than the electronic report (P < 0.001) and was analyzed with an accuracy of 58% compared to 100%. Slightly more HP (9%) preferred the electronic report to the paper diary. CONCLUSIONS: This proposed e-diary with its intuitive interface has overcome previous deficiencies in electronic diaries with most patients finding the format user-friendly. Electronic reports make analysis and interpretation by HP quicker and more accurate. Neurourol. Urodynam. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

Martin, C. K., Nicklas, T., Gunturk, B., Correa, J. B., Allen, H. R., & Champagne, C. (2013). Measuring food intake with digital photography. J Hum.Nutr.Diet..

The Digital Photography of Foods Method accurately estimates the food intake of adults and children in cafeterias. When using this method, images of food selection and leftovers are quickly captured in the cafeteria. These images are later compared with images of ‘standard’ portions of food using computer software. The amount of food selected and discarded is estimated based upon this comparison, and the application automatically calculates energy and nutrient intake. In the present review, we describe this method, as well as a related method called the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM), which relies on smartphones to estimate food intake in near real-time in free-living conditions. When using the RFPM, participants capture images of food selection and leftovers using a smartphone and these images are wirelessly transmitted in near real-time to a server for analysis. Because data are transferred and analysed in near real-time, the RFPM provides a platform for participants to quickly receive feedback about their food intake behaviour and to receive dietary recommendations for achieving weight loss and health promotion goals. The reliability and validity of measuring food intake with the RFPM in adults and children is also reviewed. In sum, the body of research reviewed demonstrates that digital imaging accurately estimates food intake in many environments and it has many advantages over other methods, including reduced participant burden, elimination of the need for participants to estimate portion size, and the incorporation of computer automation to improve the accuracy, efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the method

Martire, L. M., Keefe, F. J., Schulz, R., Parris Stephens, M. A., & Mogle, J. A. (2013). The impact of daily arthritis pain on spouse sleep. Pain, 154, 1725-1731.

Although chronic pain has been linked to poorer psychosocial well-being in the spouse, the extent to which patient pain affects spouse sleep is unknown. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that greater daily knee pain would be associated with poorer sleep for the spouse that evening. We also tested the hypothesis that this pain contagion is exacerbated in couples who have a close relationship. A total of 138 knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients and their spouses completed baseline interviews and a 22-day diary assessment. Multilevel lagged models indicated that greater knee OA pain at the end of the day was associated with spouses’ poorer overall sleep quality that night and feeling less refreshed after sleep. In contrast, there was no evidence that spouse sleep was related to greater patient pain the next day. The effects of patient pain on spouse sleep were not due to disturbances in patient sleep and were also independent of spouse sex, depressive symptoms, and physical comorbidities; both partners’ negative affect; and the quality of marital interactions throughout the day. As predicted, we also found that patient pain was more strongly related to less refreshing sleep for spouses who were in a close relationship. Findings illustrate that chronic pain may place the spouse’s health at risk and suggest an important target for couple-oriented interventions

Martire, L. M., Stephens, M. A. P., Mogle, J., Schulz, R., Brach, J., & Keefe, F. J. (2013). Daily spousal influence on physical activity in knee osteoarthritis. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 45, 213-223.

Background: Physical activity is critical for the management of knee osteoarthritis, and the spouse may play a role in encouraging or discouraging physical activity. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine four types of spousal influence-spouses’ daily activity, autonomy support, pressure, and persuasion-on the daily physical activity of adults living with knee osteoarthritis. Methods: A total of 141 couples reported their daily experiences for 22 days using a handheld computer and wore an accelerometer to measure moderate activity and steps. Results: Spouses’ autonomy support for patient physical activity, as well as their own level of activity, was concurrently associated with patients’ greater daily moderate activity and steps. In addition, on days when male patients perceived that spouses exerted more pressure to be active, they spent less time in moderate activity. Conclusions: Couple-oriented interventions for knee osteoarthritis should target physical activity in both partners and spousal strategies for helping patients stay active.

Matt, A. A. H. (2013). Ecological Momentary Assessment of Purging Disorder. ProQuest Information & Learning, US.

Purging Disorder (PD) is characterized by purging after normal or small amounts of food among individuals who are not underweight. Several studies indicate that PD is associated with distress and impairment, underscoring the need for intervention. However, little is known about factors that trigger and maintain purging in PD. This study examined antecedents and consequences of purging using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA), a design that involved repeated assessments of current psychological states in participants’ natural environments. Women with PD (N = 24) were recruited from the community to make multiple daily ratings of affect, shape/weight concerns, violation of dietary rules, and stomach discomfort using random-, interval-, and event-contingent recordings over a two-week period. Multilevel model analyses were used to examine between-day differences (purge versus non-purge day) and within-day changes in psychological variables relative to purging behavior. Results supported study hypotheses that negative affect and shape/weight concerns would be higher and positive affect would be lower on days when participants purged compared to days they did not purge. In addition, antecedent analyses supported within-day increases in negative affect, shape/weight concerns, and stomach discomfort prior to purging; however, only changes in positive affect and shape/weight concerns on purge days differed from naturally-occurring changes observed on non-purge days. For consequence analyses, negative affect, shape/weight concerns, and stomach discomfort decreased following purging on purge days, and trajectories of change were significantly different from non-purge days. Finally, exploratory analyses suggested that lower levels of impulsivity enhanced associations between antecedent affect and purging. These data are crucial to understand why women with PD purge after consuming normal or small amounts of food and may point to specific targets for the development of effective interventions.

McGillicuddy, J. W., Gregoski, M. J., Weiland, A. K., Rock, R. A., Brunner-Jackson, B. M., Patel, S. K. et al. (2013). Mobile Health Medication Adherence and Blood Pressure Control in Renal Transplant Recipients: A Proof-of-Concept Randomized Controlled Trial. JMIR.Res Protoc., 2, e32.

BACKGROUND: Mobile phone based programs for kidney transplant recipients are promising tools for improving long-term graft outcomes and better managing comorbidities (eg, hypertension, diabetes). These tools provide an easy to use self-management framework allowing optimal medication adherence that is guided by the patients’ physiological data. This technology is also relatively inexpensive, has an intuitive interface, and provides the capability for real-time personalized feedback to help motivate patient self-efficacy. Automated summary reports of patients’ adherence and blood pressure can easily be uploaded to providers’ networks helping reduce clinical inertia by reducing regimen alteration time. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary outcomes of a prototype mobile health (mHealth) medication and blood pressure (BP) self-management system for kidney transplant patients with uncontrolled hypertension. METHODS: A smartphone enabled medication adherence and BP self-management system was developed using a patient and provider centered design. The development framework utilized self-determination theory with iterative stages that were guided and refined based on patient/provider feedback. A 3-month proof-of-concept randomized controlled trial was conducted in 20 hypertensive kidney transplant patients identified as non-adherent to their current medication regimen based on a month long screening using an electronic medication tray. Participants randomized to the mHealth intervention had the reminder functions of their electronic medication tray enabled and received a bluetooth capable BP monitor and a smartphone that received and transmitted encrypted physiological data and delivered reminders to measure BP using text messaging. Controls received standard of care and their adherence continued to be monitored with the medication tray reminders turned off. Providers received weekly summary reports of patient medication adherence and BP readings. RESULTS: Participation and retention rates were 41/55 (75%) and 31/34 (91%), respectively. The prototype system appears to be safe, highly acceptable, and useful to patients and providers. Compared to the standard care control group (SC), the mHealth intervention group exhibited significant improvements in medication adherence and significant reductions in clinic-measured systolic blood pressures across the monthly evaluations. Physicians made more anti-hypertensive medication adjustments in the mHealth group versus the standard care group (7 adjustments in 5 patients versus 3 adjustments in 3 patients) during the 3-month trial based on the information provided in the weekly reports. CONCLUSIONS: These data support the acceptability and feasibility of the prototype mHealth system. Further trials with larger sample sizes and additional biomarkers (eg, whole blood medication levels) are needed to examine efficacy and effectiveness of the system for improving medication adherence and blood pressure control after kidney transplantation over longer time periods. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01859273; (Archived by WebCite at

Mena, L. J., Maestre, G. E., Hansen, T. W., Thijs, L., Liu, Y., Boggia, J. et al. (2013). How Many Measurements Are Needed to Estimate Blood Pressure Variability Without Loss of Prognostic Information? Am J Hypertens..

BACKGROUND: Average real variability (ARV) is a recently proposed index for short-term blood pressure (BP) variability. We aimed to determine the minimum number of BP readings required to compute ARV without loss of prognostic information. METHODS: ARV was calculated from a discovery dataset that included 24-hour ambulatory BP measurements for 1,254 residents (mean age = 56.6 years; 43.5% women) of Copenhagen, Denmark. Concordance between ARV from full (>/=80 BP readings) and randomly reduced 24-hour BP recordings was examined, as was prognostic accuracy. A test dataset that included 5,353 subjects (mean age = 54.0 years; 45.6% women) with at least 48 BP measurements from 11 randomly recruited population cohorts was used to validate the results. RESULTS: In the discovery dataset, a minimum of 48 BP readings allowed an accurate assessment of the association between cardiovascular risk and ARV. In the test dataset, over 10.2 years (median), 806 participants died (335 cardiovascular deaths, 206 cardiac deaths) and 696 experienced a major fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular event. Standardized multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were computed for associations between outcome and BP variability. Higher diastolic ARV in 24-hour ambulatory BP recordings predicted (P < 0.01) total (HR = 1.12), cardiovascular (HR = 1.19), and cardiac (HR = 1.19) mortality and fatal combined with nonfatal cerebrovascular events (HR = 1.16). Higher systolic ARV in 24-hour ambulatory BP recordings predicted (P < 0.01) total (HR = 1.12), cardiovascular (HR = 1.17), and cardiac (HR = 1.24) mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Forty-eight BP readings over 24 hours were observed to be adequate to compute ARV without meaningful loss of prognostic information

Miller, C. B., Kyle, S. D., Marshall, N. S., & Espie, C. A. (2013). Ecological momentary assessment of daytime symptoms during sleep restriction therapy for insomnia. Journal of Sleep Research, 22, 266-272.

This study profiles changes in self-reported daytime functioning during sleep restriction therapy (SRT) for insomnia. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) captured point-in-time symptomatology to map the time-course of symptoms. We hypothesized a deterioration (week 1) followed by improvements at week 3 of therapy relative to baseline. Nine patients with psychophysiological insomnia completed the Daytime Insomnia Symptom Scale (DISS) at rise-time, 12:00 hours, 18:00 hours and bedtime for 1 week before and 3 weeks during SRT. Four validated factors from the DISS were analyzed (alert cognition, positive mood, negative mood and sleepiness/fatigue) across 28 days yielding 17 170 data points. Factors evaluated week (baseline versus weeks 1 and 3) and time of day symptomatology. Insomnia Severity Index scores decreased significantly pre-to-post treatment (mean 18 versus 7). Reflecting acute effects of SRT, significant differences were found for all factors, except negative mood, between baseline and week 1 of SRT, suggesting adverse effects. By week 3, sleepiness/fatigue and negative mood decreased significantly compared to baseline, and positive mood showed a trend towards improvement (P = 0.06). Sleepiness/fatigue displayed a significant week +ù time of day interaction, explained by a reduction in sleepiness/fatigue at every daytime assessment point (except bedtime, which remained high). A significant interaction for alert cognition was associated with reduction in alertness at bedtime by week 3 and an increase in alertness at rise-time, suggesting that SRT not only improves sleep, but moderates alertness and sleepiness in therapeutic ways. Initial SRT is associated with an increase in sleepiness/fatigue and a decrease in alert cognition.

Modesti, P. A. (2013). Season, temperature and blood pressure: A complex interaction. Eur.J Intern.Med, 24, 604-607.

An increase in blood pressure values measured during winter either in the office, at home, or at ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was consistently observed. Besides potentially contributing to increase the risk for cardiovascular events during the cold season, long term blood pressure variations can influence results of clinical trials, epidemiological surveys, and require personalized management of antihypertensive medications in the single patient. Those variations are often considered as an effect of climate, due to the close correlation observed in various countries and in different settings between temperature and blood pressure among children, adults, and specially the elderly. However, obtaining true measurements of exposition is a main problem when investigating the effects of climate on human health especially when the aim is to disentangle the effects of climate from those of seasonality. The aim of the present note is not to provide a complete review of the literature demonstrating the implications of seasonal blood pressure changes in the clinical and experimental setting; rather it is to consider methodological aspects useful to investigate the interaction between seasonality and temperature on blood pressure and to make health care providers aware of the implications of environmental factors on blood pressure in clinical and research settings

Moreno, M. A., Jelenchick, L., Koff, R., & Eickhoff, J. (2012). Depression and internet use among older adolescents: An experience sampling approach. Psychology, 3, 743-748.

Background: Depression is common and consequential among adolescents. Previous work has found varied relationships between depression and internet use. The purpose of this study was to examine internet use and depression by applying a rigorous assessment tool: experience sampling method (ESM). Methods: Older adolescents between the ages of 18 and 23 years were recruited from a large state university. Participants received 6 text message surveys randomly each day during a 7-day ESM campaign. Survey questions assessed whether they were currently online and for how long. Participants also completed the PHQ-9 depression survey. Calculation of internet use time included multilevel modeling and probability modeling. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) assessed the association between internet use and depression. Results: Among our 189 participants, the mean age was 18.9 (SD=.9), 58.8% were female and most were Caucasian (90.5%). Total daily internet use time was calculated as 66 minutes by ESM summary, 55 minutes by ESM modeling and 65 minutes by probability modeling. We found a difference in PHQ-9 scores when comparing low daily internet use (<30 minutes), regular use (30 minutes to 3 hours) and high use (>3 hours) (p=.01) with a significant U-shaped association (p=.004). The high use group had a mean PHQ-9 score of 7.3 (SD=5.1) compared to the regular use group score of 4.9 (SD=3.9) (p=.02). Conclusions: Results suggest a U shaped association between internet use and depression. These findings may present statistical differences that lack clinical significance.

Moses Passini, C., Pihet, S., & Favez, N. (2013). Assessing specific discipline techniques: A mixed-methods approach. Journal of Child and Family Studies.

This study explored, in a community sample of mothers of toddlers, parenting beliefs and values, to gain insight into the parent-child relationship. Acceptance of specific discipline techniques (DTs), and their actual use in daily life were examined. A mixed-methods approach comprising three different methods was used: (1) parenting beliefs and values were explored with Q-methodology; (2) acceptance of the DTs was assessed with the questionnaire Dimensions of Discipline Inventory; and (3) actual use of those DTs in daily-life incidents of discipline was documented using ecological momentary assessment for ten consecutive days. The results showed the mothers’ parenting beliefs and values reflected a warm parent-child relationship. The mothers rated explaining rules, timeout, removal of privileges, and social reinforcement as moderately to highly acceptable. However, planned ignoring received a low acceptance rating. Mothers’ high acceptability ratings of the DTs contrasted with moderate use when they were faced with their misbehaving child, with the exception of explaining rules, which was always manifested. Yelling and spanking received the lowest acceptance ratings. Nonetheless, in daily life, yelling was employed as often as timeout. These findings suggest the need for more attention to be paid to both acceptance and daily use of specific DTs in order to highlight DTs which parents may have difficulty implementing.

Mulvaney, S. A., Ho, Y. X., Cala, C. M., Chen, Q., Nian, H., Patterson, B. L. et al. (2013). Assessing adolescent asthma symptoms and adherence using mobile phones. J Med Internet Res, 15, e141.

BACKGROUND: Self-report is the most common method of measuring medication adherence but is influenced by recall error and response bias, and it typically does not provide insight into the causes of poor adherence. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of health behaviors using mobile phones offers a promising alternative to assessing adherence and collecting related data that can be clinically useful for adherence problem solving. OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of using EMA via mobile phones to assess adolescent asthma medication adherence and identify contextual characteristics of adherence decision making. METHODS: We utilized a descriptive and correlational study design to explore a mobile method of symptom and adherence assessment using an interactive voice response system. Adolescents aged 12-18 years with a diagnosis of asthma and prescribed inhalers were recruited from an academic medical center. A survey including barriers to mobile phone use, the Illness Management Survey, and the Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire were administered at baseline. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of asthma symptoms and adherence were conducted with daily calls to mobile phones for 1 month. The Asthma Control Test (ACT) was administered at 2 study time points: baseline and 1 month after baseline. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 53 adolescents who were primarily African American (34/53, 64%) and female (31/53, 58%) with incomes US$40K/year or lower (29/53, 55%). The majority of adolescents (37/53, 70%) reported that they carried their phones with them everywhere, but only 47% (25/53) were able to use their mobile phone at school. Adolescents responded to an average of 20.1 (SD 8.1) of the 30 daily calls received (67%). Response frequency declined during the last week of the month (b=-0.29, P<.001) and was related to EMA-reported levels of rescue inhaler adherence (r= 0.33, P=.035). Using EMA, adolescents reported an average of 0.63 (SD 1.2) asthma symptoms per day and used a rescue inhaler an average of 70% of the time (SD 35%) when they experienced symptoms. About half (26/49, 53%) of the instances of nonadherence took place in the presence of friends. The EMA-measured adherence to rescue inhaler use correlated appropriately with asthma control as measured by the ACT (r=-0.33, P=.034). CONCLUSIONS: Mobile phones provided a feasible method to assess asthma symptoms and adherence in adolescents. The EMA method was consistent with the ACT, a widely established measure of asthma control, and results provided valuable insights regarding the context of adherence decision making that could be used clinically for problem solving or as feedback to adolescents in a mobile or Web-based support system

Nguyen, D. M., Lecoultre, V., Sunami, Y., & Schutz, Y. (2012). Assessment of Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure by GPS Combined With Accelerometry in Real-Life Conditions. J Phys.Act.Health, 10, 880-888.

Background: Physical activity (PA) and related energy expenditure (EE) is often assessed by means of a single technique. Because of inherent limitations, single techniques may not allow for an accurate assessment both PA and related EE. The aim of this study was to develop a model to accurately assess common PA types and durations and thus EE in free-living conditions, combining data from global positioning system (GPS) and 2 accelerometers. Methods: Forty-one volunteers participated in the study. First, a model was developed and adjusted to measured EE with a first group of subjects (Protocol I, n = 12) who performed 6 structured and supervised PA. Then, the model was validated over 2 experimental phases with 2 groups (n = 12 and n = 17) performing scheduled (Protocol I) and spontaneous common activities in real-life condition (Protocol II). Predicted EE was compared with actual EE as measured by portable indirect calorimetry. Results: In protocol I, performed PA types could be recognized with little error. The duration of each PA type could be predicted with an accuracy below 1 minute. Measured and predicted EE were strongly associated (r = .97, P < .001). Conclusion: Combining GPS and 2 accelerometers allows for an accurate assessment of PA and EE in free-living situations

Ochoa-Angrino, S. (2013). Factors related to students’ engaged reading in high school science classrooms. ProQuest Information & Learning, US.

Using emergent motivation theory, this study analyzes the relationships between high school students’ perceptions of their reading skills, task challenge, and personal control over assigned reading activities and their reading engagement (i.e., interest, enjoyment, and concentration) during science instruction. The study also examines how these relationships differ between struggling and proficient readers. Further, the study examines the association between students’ experiences of conditions of anxiety, apathy, boredom or relaxation and flow on their reading engagement during science instruction. Finally, the study investigates the relationship between reading engagement and science achievement. The experience sampling method (ESM) was used with a sample of 244 high school students in grades 9-12 to measure students’ perceptions of skill, challenge, and control, and their reading engagement during science instruction. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was employed with repeated-measures analysis of students’ momentary experiences of skill, challenge, control, and engagement during reading. Results show that when students perceive having both high reading skills and high control, they exhibit deeper reading engagement than when they perceive having both low reading skills and low control. These feelings of control were noticeably important for struggling readers as compared to proficient readers. It was also found that students experience deeper reading engagement during flow (i.e., when students perceive they have high reading skills and the reading task is highly challenging), but reading engagement decreases significantly whenever students experience conditions of anxiety or apathy when reading science materials. Finally, reading engagement was positively related to science achievement. Educational implications of the results are presented. Limitations of the study are discussed and suggestions for future research are described.

Ortlieb, S., Gorzelniak, L., Dias, A., Schulz, H., & Horsch, A. (2013). Recommendations for collecting and processing accelerometry data in elderly people. Stud.Health Technol.Inform., 192, 1175.

Due to the large variety of methods for collecting and analyzing accelerometer data to assess physical activity, it is difficult to compare results from different studies. Therefore, this work aims to provide recommendations for the collection and processing of such data in older people, focusing on the assessment of wearing time and intensity levels

Ottaviani, C. & Couyoumdjian, A. (2013). Pros and cons of a wandering mind: a prospective study. Front Psychol., 4, 524.

Mind wandering (MW) has recently been associated with both adaptive (e.g., creativity enhancement) and maladaptive (e.g., mood worsening) consequences. This study aimed at investigating whether proneness to MW was prospectively associated with negative health outcomes. At time 0, 21 women, 19 men; mean age = 24.5 (4.9) underwent a 5-min baseline electrocardiogram (ECG), a 20-min laboratory tracking task with thought probes, and personality questionnaires. At time 1 (1 year follow-up), the same participants underwent a 24-h Ecological Momentary Assessment characterized by ambulatory ECG recording and electronic diaries. First, we examined if the likelihood of being a “mind wanderer” was associated with specific personality dispositions. Then, we tested if the occurrence of episodes of MW in the lab would be correlated with frequency of MW in daily life. Finally, multiple regression models were used to test if MW longitudinally acted as a risk factor for health, accounting for the effects of biobehavioral variables. Among dispositional traits, the frequency of MW episodes in daily life was inversely associated with the capacity of being mindful (i.e., aware of the present moment and non-judging). There was a positive correlation between frequency of MW in the lab and in daily life, suggesting that it is a stable disposition of the individual. When differentiated from perseverative cognition (i.e., rumination and worry), MW did not predict the presence of health risk factors 1 year later, however, a higher occurrence of episodes of MW was associated with short-term adverse consequences, such as increased 24-h heart rate (HR) on the same day and difficulty falling asleep the subsequent night. Present findings suggest that MW may be associated with short term “side effects” but argue against a long term dysfunctional view of this cognitive process

Pe, M. L., Raes, F., Koval, P., Brans, K., Verduyn, P., & Kuppens, P. (2013). Interference resolution moderates the impact of rumination and reappraisal on affective experiences in daily life. Cognition and Emotion, 27, 492-501.

Research has shown that cognitive control processes play a central role in emotion regulation. While most research has examined whether individual differences in such processes are related to the use of these strategies, a crucial next step involves examining whether such differences influence their impact on people’s feelings, especially in normal daily life. The present study examined whether impairments in cognitive control (measured using an affective interference resolution task) moderate the impact of using rumination and reappraisal on affective experiences in everyday life (assessed using experience sampling methods). Multilevel analyses revealed that difficulties removing previously relevant negative information from working memory were associated with a larger increase in negative affect following rumination, and smaller increase and decrease in positive and negative affect, respectively, following reappraisal. These findings show that impaired interference resolution for negative information aggravates the deleterious effects of rumination and curbs the benefits of reappraisal in daily life.

Phillips, K. A., Epstein, D. H., & Preston, K. L. (2013). Daily temporal patterns of heroin and cocaine use and craving: Relationship with business hours regardless of actual employment status. Addictive Behaviors, 38, 2485-2491.

Real-time monitoring of behavior using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) has provided detailed data about daily temporal patterns of craving and use in cigarette smokers. We have collected similar data from a sample of cocaine and heroin users. Here we analyzed it in the context of its relationship with a societal construct of daily temporal organization: 9-to-5 business hours. In a 28-week prospective study, 112 methadone-maintained polydrug-abusing individuals initiated an electronic-diary entry and provided data each time they used cocaine, heroin, or both during weeks 4 to 28. EMA data were collected for 10,781 person-days and included: 663 cocaine-craving events, 710 cocaine-use events, 288 heroin-craving events, 66 heroin-use events, 630 craving-both-drugs events, and 282 use-of-both-drugs events. At baseline, 34% of the participants reported full-time employment in the preceding 3-year period. Most participants’ current employment status fluctuated throughout the study. In a generalized linear mixed model (SAS Proc Glimmix), cocaine use varied by time of day relative to business hours (p < 0.0001) and there was a significant interaction between Day of the Week and Time Relative to Business Hours (p < 0.002) regardless of current work status. Cocaine craving also varied by time of day relative to business hours (p < 0.0001), however, there was no significant interaction between Day of the Week and Time Relative to Business Hours (p = .57). Heroin craving and use were mostly reported during business hours, but data were sparse. Cocaine craving is most frequent during business hours while cocaine use is more frequent after business hours. Cocaine use during business hours, but not craving, seems suppressed on most weekdays, but not weekends, suggesting that societal conventions reflected in business hours influence drug-use patterns even in individuals whose daily schedules are not necessarily dictated by employment during conventional business hours.

Piasecki, T. M., Trela, C. J., Hedeker, D., & Mermelstein, R. J. (2013). Smoking Antecedents: Separating Between- and Within-Person Effects of Tobacco Dependence in a Multiwave Ecological Momentary Assessment Investigation of Adolescent Smoking. Nicotine Tob.Res.

INTRODUCTION: Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) investigations have shown that the antecedents of smoking vary with individual differences in tobacco dependence. This has been interpreted as indicating that the transition to dependence is characterized by an erosion of external stimulus control over smoking. Rigorously testing this requires collecting multiple waves of EMA data, permitting separation of the influence of between- and within-person tobacco dependence variation in multilevel models. METHODS: Adolescents (n = 313, 9th or 10th grade at baseline) participated in up to four waves of week-long EMA assessment over the course of 2 years as part of a larger longitudinal, observational study. At each wave, participants recorded contextual features and subjective states in response to prompted diary assessments and when smoking. They completed a youth-specific form of the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale at each wave. RESULTS: In cross-sectional multilevel analyses, smoking was less contingent on alcohol/drug use and was more common at home and in the morning for adolescents at higher levels of dependence. Multiwave analyses demonstrated that these effects were largely attributable to between-person variation in dependence, although parameter estimates for intraindividual dependence x antecedent effects tended to be in the predicted direction. DISCUSSION: Findings provided partial support for the contention that the antecedents of smoking shift as an individual progresses to higher levels of dependence. Distinctive choices concerning smoking settings also appear to reflect between-person differences in propensity to dependence. More generally, the findings illustrate the value of using multilevel modeling and repeated EMA assessments to investigate the correlates of tobacco dependence at different levels of analysis

Powell, D. J., Liossi, C., Moss-Morris, R., & Schlotz, W. (2013). Unstimulated cortisol secretory activity in everyday life and its relationship with fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome: A systematic review and subset meta-analysis. Psychoneuroendocrinology.

The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a psychoneuroendocrine regulator of the stress response and immune system, and dysfunctions have been associated with outcomes in several physical health conditions. Its end product, cortisol, is relevant to fatigue due to its role in energy metabolism. The systematic review examined the relationship between different markers of unstimulated salivary cortisol activity in everyday life in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fatigue assessed in other clinical and general populations. Search terms for the review related to salivary cortisol assessments, everyday life contexts, and fatigue. All eligible studies (n=19) were reviewed narratively in terms of associations between fatigue and assessed cortisol markers, including the cortisol awakening response (CAR), circadian profile (CP) output, and diurnal cortisol slope (DCS). Subset meta-analyses were conducted of case-control CFS studies examining group differences in three cortisol outcomes: CAR output; CAR increase; and CP output. Meta-analyses revealed an attenuation of the CAR increase within CFS compared to controls (d=-.34) but no statistically significant differences between groups for other markers. In the narrative review, total cortisol output (CAR or CP) was rarely associated with fatigue in any population; CAR increase and DCS were most relevant. Outcomes reflecting within-day change in cortisol levels (CAR increase; DCS) may be the most relevant to fatigue experience, and future research in this area should report at least one such marker. Results should be considered with caution due to heterogeneity in one meta-analysis and the small number of studies

Priebe, K., Kleindienst, N., Zimmer, J., Koudela, S., Ebner-Priemer, U., & Bohus, M. (2013). Frequency of Intrusions and Flashbacks in Patients With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Related to Childhood Sexual Abuse: An Electronic Diary Study. Psychological Assessment.

Intrusions and flashbacks are core features of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The frequency of these symptoms is usually assessed through retrospective questionnaires, which may be subject to recall bias of unknown magnitude. Electronic diaries that enable real-time assessment have been used to address recall biases in several psychiatric disorders. However, to our knowledge, this is the first study to apply this method to assess intrusions and flashbacks in PTSD related to childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Female patients with PTSD related to CSA (n = 28) were provided with electronic diaries for repeated real-time assessment of intrusions and flashbacks over the period of 1 week. At the end of this period, they were asked to retrospectively report how many such symptoms they recalled having experienced over the past week. The total number of symptoms reported in the electronic diaries (74.5 -¦ 62.0 intrusions and 24.4 -¦ 36.0 flashbacks for the week) was substantially higher than those reported in previous studies. Furthermore, electronic diaries revealed the occurrence of about 50% more intrusions and flashbacks than did the retrospective assessment (74.5 vs. 49.5 for intrusions, and 24.4 vs. 13.4 for flashbacks). Such high frequencies are not captured with existing assessment instruments and suggest a possible ceiling effect. Future research needs to clarify whether these high numbers are specific to highly symptomatic PTSD patients or might generalize to other populations of PTSD patients.

Ram, N., Coccia, M., Conroy, D., Lorek, A., Orland, B., Pincus, A. et al. (2013). Behavioral Landscapes and Change in Behavioral Landscapes: A Multiple Time-Scale Density Distribution Approach. Res Hum.Dev., 10, 88-110.

In developmental arenas, it is well accepted that multiple observations are needed to obtain a robust characterization of individuals’ behavioral tendencies across time and context. In this paper, we fuse core ideas from the study of lifespan development with intraindividual variability based approaches to personality and methods used to characterize the topography of geographic landscapes. We generalize the notion of density distributions into bivariate and multivariate space and draw parallels between the resulting behavioral landscapes and geographic landscapes. We illustrate through an empirical example how multiple time-scale study designs, measures of intraindividual variability, and methods borrowed from geography can be used to describe both an individual’s behavioral landscape and changes in the behavioral landscape

Ram, N., Brose, A., & Molenaar, P. C. M. (2013). Dynamic factor analysis: Modeling person-specific process. In T.D.Little (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of quantitative methods (Vol 2): Statistical analysis (pp. 441-457). New York, NY US: Oxford University Press.

(from the chapter) Modern data collection technologies are providing large data sets, with many repeated observations of many individuals on many variables-and new opportunities for application of analytical techniques that consider individuals as unique, complex, multivariate, dynamic entities. In this chapter we review the conceptual and technical background for dynamic factor analysis and provide a primer for application to multivariate time series data. Step-by-step procedures are illustrated using daily diary data obtained from three women over 100+ days. Specifically, we provide background on and demonstrate (I) formulation of DFA research questions; (2) study design and data collection; (3) variable selection and data pre-processing procedures; (4) the fitting and evaluation of person-specific DFA models; and (5) examination of between-person differences/similarities. We conclude by pointing to some extensions that might be elaborated and used to articulate additional complexities of within-person process.

Rauers, A., Blanke, E., & Riediger, M. (2013). Everyday Empathic Accuracy in Younger and Older Couples: Do You Need to See Your Partner to Know His or Her Feelings? Psychol.Sci.

On average, older adults are less accurate than younger adults at recognizing emotions from faces or voices. We challenge the view that such differences in emotion-recognition tasks reflect differences in empathic accuracy (the ability to infer other people’s feelings): Empathic accuracy relies not only on sensory cues (e.g., emotional expressions) but also on knowledge about the target person. Using smartphone-based measures, we assessed empathic accuracy in younger and older couples’ daily lives and found that younger adults’ empathic accuracy was higher than older adults’ empathic accuracy when their partners were visibly present. During the partners’ absence, however, when judgments relied exclusively on knowledge of those partners, no age differences emerged, and performance in both age groups was still more accurate than chance. We conclude that across adulthood, sensory information and knowledge differentially support empathic accuracy. Laboratory emotion-recognition tasks may therefore underestimate older adults’ empathic competencies

Richmond, M. J., Mermelstein, R. J., & Wakschlag, L. S. (2013). Direct observations of parenting and real-time negative affect among adolescent smokers and nonsmokers. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 42, 617-628.

This longitudinal study examined how observations of parental general communication style and control with their adolescents predicted changes in negative affect over time for adolescent smokers and nonsmokers. Participants were 9th- and 10th-grade adolescents (N = 111; 56.8% female) who had all experimented with cigarettes and were thus at risk for continued smoking and escalation; 36% of these adolescents (n = 40) had smoked in the past month at baseline and were considered smokers in the present analyses. Adolescents participated separately with mothers and fathers in observed parent-adolescent problem-solving discussions to assess parenting at baseline. Adolescent negative affect was assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 24 months via ecological momentary assessment. Among both smoking and nonsmoking adolescents, escalating negative affect significantly increased risk for future smoking. Higher quality maternal and paternal communication predicted a decline in negative affect over 1.5 years for adolescent smokers but was not related to negative affect for nonsmokers. Controlling maternal, but not paternal, parenting predicted escalation in negative affect for all adolescents. Findings suggest that reducing negative affect among experimenting youth can reduce risk for smoking escalation. Therefore, family-based prevention efforts for adolescent smoking escalation might consider parental general communication style and control as intervention targets. However, adolescent smoking status and parent gender may moderate these effects.

Robinson, E., Higgs, S., Daley, A. J., Jolly, K., Lycett, D., Lewis, A. et al. (2013). Development and feasibility testing of a smart phone based attentive eating intervention. BMC Public Health, 13, 639.

BACKGROUND: Attentive eating means eating devoid of distraction and increasing awareness and memory for food being consumed. Encouraging individuals to eat more attentively could help reduce calorie intake, as a strong evidence base suggests that memory and awareness of food being consumed substantially influence energy intake. METHODS: The development and feasibility testing of a smartphone based attentive eating intervention is reported. Informed by models of behavioral change, a smartphone application was developed. Feasibility was tested in twelve overweight and obese volunteers, sampled from university staff. Participants used the application during a four week trial and semi-structured interviews were conducted to assess acceptability and to identify barriers to usage. We also recorded adherence by downloading application usage data from participants’ phones at the end of the trial. RESULTS: Adherence data indicated that participants used the application regularly. Participants also felt the application was easy to use and lost weight during the trial. Thematic analysis indicated that participants felt that the application raised their awareness of what they were eating. Analysis also indicated barriers to using a smartphone application to change dietary behavior. CONCLUSIONS: An attentive eating based intervention using smartphone technology is feasible and testing of its effectiveness for dietary change and weight loss is warranted

Runyan, J. D., Steenbergh, T. A., Bainbridge, C., Daugherty, D. A., Oke, L., & Fry, B. N. (2013). A smartphone ecological momentary assessment/intervention “app” for collecting real-time data and promoting self-awareness. PLoS ONE, 8, e71325.

We have designed a flexible ecological momentary assessment/intervention smartphone (EMA/EMI) “app”. We examine the utility of this app for collecting real-time data, and assessing intra-subject variability, by using it to assess how freshman undergraduates spend their time. We also explore whether its use can promote greater self-awareness. Participants were randomly divided into an experimental group, who used the app, and a control group, who did not. We used the app to collect both randomized in-the-moment data as well as end-of-day data to assess time use. Using a posttest survey we asked participants questions about how they spent time throughout the school semester. We also asked the experimental group about their experience with the app. Among other findings, 80.49% participants indicated that they became more aware of how they spent their time using the app. Corroborating this report, among the experimental group, end-of-semester self-assessment of time spent wasted, and time spent using electronics recreationally, predicted semester GPA at a strength comparable to high school GPA and ACT score (two of the best single predictors for first semester college GPA), but had no correlation among controls. We discuss the advantages and limitations of using apps, such as ours, for EMA and/or EMI

Santangelo, P. S., Ebner-Priemer, U. W., & Trull, T. J. (2013). Experience sampling methods in clinical psychology. In J.S.Comer & P. C. Kendall (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of research strategies for clinical psychology (pp. 188-210). New York, NY US: Oxford University Press.

(from the chapter) The Experience Sampling Method (ESM) can improve our understanding of how psychopathological symptoms unfold over time in everyday life. We discuss major benefits of ESM by presenting selected studies involving (a) real-time assessment (i.e., assessments focusing on individuals’ momentary states, experiences, or behaviors); (b) real-world assessments enhancing laboratory-to-life generalizability; (c) multiple assessments over time allowing the study of dynamic processes; (d) multimodal assessment integrating psychological, physiological, and behavioral data; (e) assessment of setting or context specificities allowing for context-sensitive analyses; and (f) the provision of immediate interactive feedback. Furthermore, we offer recommendations concerning design issues for ESM studies, namely with regard to (a) choosing a sampling strategy, (b) participants’ burden, compliance, and reactivity, (c) hardware and software solutions, (d) mathematical procedures when analyzing ESM data, and (e) visualization of ESM data. Regardless of remaining challenges, ESM offers great potential in clinical psychology with its possible application as a therapeutic tool and by revealing a comprehensive and generalizable picture of patients’ and research participants’ symptomatology.

Scherbaum, C. A. & Meade, A. W. (2013). New directions for measurement in management research. International Journal of Management Reviews, 15, 132-148.

Despite its importance, measurement has received less attention in the management sciences than it deserves. Currently, there is an over-reliance on a narrow set of methods of measuring cognitive, affective, motivational, attitudinal and individual difference constructs that are often of interest in behavioural management research. The authors argue that there is a need to expand the scope of the measurement methods commonly employed by management researchers and that a greater diversity of measurement methods would benefit the field by contributing to theory development and the pursuit of new areas of research. The goals of this review are twofold: (1) to increase awareness among management researchers of the alternative measurement methods that can capture many of the cognitive, affective, motivational, attitudinal and individual difference constructs of interest; (2) to critically evaluate how these methods can and should be used, with a focus on both the strengths and limitations of each method. This review focuses on three classes of measures: physiological and biological measures; experience-sampling measures; and implicit measures. These measures have had a tremendous impact on the research and theories of other fields such as marketing and economics, despite still being in their infancy. The authors believe that these three classes of measures have the potential to impact the nature and scope of management research and theory as well.

Schreiber-Gregory, D. N., Lavender, J. M., Engel, S. G., Wonderlich, S. A., Crosby, R. D., Peterson, C. B. et al. (2013). Examining duration of binge eating episodes in binge eating disorder. Int.J Eat.Disord..

OBJECTIVE: The primary goal of this article is to examine and clarify characteristics of binge eating in individuals with binge eating disorder (BED), particularly the duration of binge eating episodes, as well as potential differences between individuals with shorter compared to longer binge eating episodes. METHOD: Two studies exploring binge eating characteristics in BED were conducted. Study 1 examined differences in clinical variables among individuals (N = 139) with BED who reported a short (<2 h) versus long (>/=2 h) average binge duration. Study 2 utilized an ecological momentary assessment design to examine the duration and temporal pattern of binge eating episodes in the natural environment in a separate sample of nine women with BED. RESULTS: Participants in Study 1 who were classified as having long duration binge eating episodes displayed greater symptoms of depression and lower self-esteem, but did not differ on other measures of eating disorder symptoms, compared to those with short duration binge eating episodes. In Study 2, the average binge episode duration was approximately 42 min, and binge eating episodes were most common during the early afternoon and evening hours, as well as more common on weekdays versus weekends. DISCUSSION: Past research on binge episode characteristics, particularly duration, has been limited to studies of binge eating episodes in bulimia nervosa. This study contributes to the existing literature on characteristics of binge eating in BED. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2013)

Schuz, N., Walters, J. A., Frandsen, M., Bower, J., & Ferguson, S. G. (2013). Compliance With an EMA Monitoring Protocol and Its Relationship With Participant and Smoking Characteristics. Nicotine Tob.Res .

INTRODUCTION: Arguably, the greatest advantage of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) studies is that data are collected repeatedly in real-time and real-world situations, which reduces recall and situational biases and thus improves the accuracy and validity of the data collected. However, the validity of EMA data is contingent upon compliance rates. If participant characteristics are related to missing data, analyses should control for these factors, or they should be targeted in EMA training sessions. This study evaluates the impact of demographic and smoking-related participant characteristics on compliance to an EMA smoking study protocol. METHODS: Prequit day data were taken from the control arm of an ongoing randomized controlled trial of a smoking-cessation program. After training, N = 119 participants were asked to carry a mobile device with them at all times for ~6 days and log every cigarette they smoked in addition to completing randomly scheduled assessments. Different types of compliance were assessed: the percentage of completed random prompts (signal-contingent compliance), the percentage of logged cigarettes per day compared to a timeline follow-back measure, and the correlation between logged cigarettes and a carbon monoxide assessment 2hr later (both event-contingent compliance). RESULTS: Overall compliance rates were 78.48% for event-contingent and 72.17% for signal-contingent compliance. None of the demographic or smoking-related participant characteristics predicted signal-contingent compliance; however, female participants showed higher event-contingent compliance than male participants, and Caucasian participants showed higher event-contingent compliance than non-Caucasian participants. CONCLUSIONS: Compliance did not depend on smoking-related characteristics. EMA is a valid method to assess smoking behavior in real-time and real-world settings

Shadel, W. G., Martino, S. C., Setodji, C., & Scharf, D. (2013). Exposure to pro-smoking media in college students: Does type of media channel differentially contribute to smoking risk? Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 45, 387-392.

Background: There are almost no data on whether the different channels through which pro-smoking media appear (i.e., point-of-sale advertising, movie smoking) differently influence smoking. Purpose: This study used ecological momentary assessment to examine whether differences in smoking risk were observed for exposures to different pro-smoking media channels. Methods: College students (n = 134) carried smartphones for 21 days, recording their exposures to pro-smoking media and the media channels for that exposure and responding to three randomly issued control prompts per day. Participants answered questions about their future smoking risk after each pro-smoking media exposure and random prompt. Results: Participants had elevated future smoking risk following exposure to pro-smoking media at point of sale (p < 0.001); smoking risk at times of exposure to smoking in movies did not differ from risk measured during control prompts (p = 0.78). Conclusions: There is merit to examining the relative contribution of different pro-smoking media channels to smoking behavior.

Shockley, K. M. & Allen, T. D. (2013). Episodic work-family conflict, cardiovascular indicators, and social support: an experience sampling approach. J Occup.Health Psychol., 18, 262-275.

Work-family conflict, a prevalent stressor in today’s workforce, has been linked to several detrimental consequences for the individual, including physical health. The present study extends this area of research by examining episodic work-family conflict in relation to objectively measured cardiovascular health indicators (systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate) using an experience sampling methodology. The results suggested that the occurrence of an episode of work interference with family conflict is linked to a subsequent increase in heart rate but not blood pressure; however, the relationship between episodes of family interference with work conflict and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure is moderated by perceptions of family-supportive supervision. No evidence was found for the moderating role of work-supportive family. Further theoretical and practical implications are discussed

Sievert, L. L. (2013). Subjective and objective measures of hot flashes. Am J Hum.Biol., 25, 573-580.

Up to 75% of women in the US report having experienced hot flashes during the menopausal transition. The purpose of this review is to describe the physiology of hot flashes, and the ways in which hot flashes have been examined by subjective report and by objective measurement. Hot flashes occur because of an activation of the heat dissipation response, possibly triggered by a hypothalamic mechanism within the context of declining estrogen levels. There is cross-population variation in the frequency of self-reported hot flashes, although cross-study comparisons are problematic because of incompatibilities in study design. Diaries are a good way to collect information on the time and severity of hot flashes, and body diagrams allow researchers to study the pattern of heat and sweating. Hot flashes can be objectively measured by increases in heart rate, finger blood flow, respiratory exchange ratio, skin temperature, and core body temperature. Sternal skin conductance is the method most highly correlated with subjective hot flash report. In a laboratory, concordance between subjective report and sternal skin conductance can approach 100%. Ambulatory monitoring allows for the tracking of hot flashes during a woman’s daily routine or sleep; however, concordance is much lower with ambulatory, compared to laboratory, monitoring. The study of hot flashes at menopause provides a model for the study of any experience that can be assessed by both self-report and biometric measurement. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 25:573-580, 2013. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

So, S. H., Peters, E. R., Swendsen, J., Garety, P. A., & Kapur, S. (2013). Detecting improvements in acute psychotic symptoms using experience sampling methodology. Psychiatry Research.

This study aimed to explore the feasibility and validity of using experience sampling methodology (ESM, or ecological momentary assessment or mobile device signaling) to measure temporal changes and fluctuations in psychotic symptoms in patients with acute psychosis at the start of antipsychotic treatment. Twenty-six in-patients with delusions were assessed within 2 weeks of starting antipsychotic treatment using ESM on a personal digital assistant (PDA), seven times a day for 14 consecutive days. They were also interviewed at baseline, 1 week and 2 weeks after using standardized symptom measures. Sixteen patients (61.5%) completed at least one-third of the entries, with a compliance rate of 70.7%. Responses to the ESM items were internally consistent. At baseline, ESM and clinical ratings converged on suspiciousness and images, but not on voices and most of the delusion dimensions. Conducting ESM with patients in an acute episode was found to be feasible and internally valid. There is some divergence in symptom data obtained by ESM and standard symptom interviews, but ESM captures rich information about change that may not be represented by observer ratings.

Sotgiu, I. & Rusconi, M. L. (2013). Investigating emotions in Parkinson’s disease: What we know and what we still don’t know. Frontiers in Psychology, 4.

Over the last decade, there has been an increasing attention to the role played by emotional processes in Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, most of what is known in this area is based on research conducted in laboratory or clinical settings. In this article, the authors underline the need to expand our current knowledge of the psychological correlates of PD by investigating patients’ everyday emotions in natural contexts. Specifically, the authors illustrate new research avenues based on the implementation of experience sampling methods. It is argued that these methods could permit future researchers to ecologically assess the frequency and intensity with which parkinsonian patients experience specific emotions (either negative or positive) during their everyday life, providing at the same time precious information on what are the most typical situations in which these emotions occur and on how patients behave in these circumstances. Potential practical implications associated with investigating these issues are discussed.

South, S. C. & Miller, M. L. (2013). Measuring momentary stress, affect, and cognition: Relationships with the internalizing and externalizing spectra. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment .

The Internalizing (INT) and Externalizing (EXT) spectra are an emerging way to conceptualize the structure of psychopathology. Demonstrating relationships with emotional reactions to, and cognitive appraisals of, daily stressful events would be strong evidence of ecological validity. In the current study (N=78), the experience sampling method (ESM, a structured diary technique with Palm Pilots) was used to capture affect and cognition related to current stressor, five times per day, for 1 week. Multilevel random coefficient modeling was used to examine affective and cognitive reactivity to daily stressors as a function of baseline levels of INT and EXT. INT scores were related to higher levels of negative affect (NA), lower levels of positive affect (PA) and more negative cognitive appraisals of the stressful situation. Several cross-level interactions were found between psychopathology scores, cognitive appraisals, and affect. Participants higher in INT psychopathology showed less decrease in NA as level of control increased, compared to participants low in INT. EXT moderated the association between NA and distress, with higher levels of EXT resulting in a stronger association between distress and NA. INT and EXT also moderated the relationships between the cognitive variables (distress and control, coping and control). Findings support both the utility and validity of the INT and EXT dimensions in understanding different forms of stress-related impairment in emotion and cognition.

Spook, J. E., Paulussen, T., Kok, G., & Van, E. P. (2013). Monitoring dietary intake and physical activity electronically: feasibility, usability, and ecological validity of a mobile-based ecological momentary assessment tool. J Med Internet Res, 15, e214.

BACKGROUND: Despite the growing body of research on complex lifestyle behaviors (eg, Dietary Intake [DI] and Physical Activity [PA]), monitoring of these behaviors has been hampered by a lack of suitable methods. A possible solution to this deficiency is mobile-based Ecological Momentary Assessment (mEMA), which enables researchers to collect data on participants’ states in real-time by means of a smartphone application. However, feasibility, usability, and ecological validity need to be anticipated and managed in order to enhance the validity of mEMA. OBJECTIVE: To examine the feasibility, usability, and ecological validity of a mEMA application (app) with regard to DI and PA among Dutch vocational education students. METHODS: The students (n=30) participated in the mEMA study for seven consecutive days. They downloaded the mEMA app on their smartphone. Feasibility and usability of the mEMA app were evaluated by completing an online evaluation after seven days of participation. Ecological validity was measured by assessing the degree to which the content of the mEMA app approximated the real-world setting that was being examined, through several multiple-choice questions. RESULTS: Compliance rates, as registered by the mEMA app, declined 46% over a seven-day period, while self-reported compliance, as measured with an online evaluation questionnaire afterwards, indicated a smaller decrease in compliance (29%). The students evaluated the mEMA app as feasible and usable. Ecological validity analyses showed that all DI and almost all PA multiple-choice options were covered with the compound response categories. CONCLUSIONS: The mEMA app offers the opportunity to assess complex health behaviors (eg, DI and PA) in real-time settings, in which specifically routinized behaviors are involved. However, the mEMA app faced several challenges that needed to be overcome in order to improve its validity. Overall, the present study showed that the mEMA app is a usable and ecologically valid tool to measure DI and PA behaviors among vocational education students, but compliance is still limited

Stopczynski, A., Stahlhut, C., Petersen, M. K., Larsen, J. E., Jensen, C. F., Ivanova, M. G. et al. (2013). Smartphones as pocketable labs: Visions for mobile brain imaging and neurofeedback. International Journal of Psychophysiology.

Mobile brain imaging solutions, such as the Smartphone Brain Scanner, which combines low cost wireless EEG sensors with open source software for real-time neuroimaging, may transform neuroscience experimental paradigms. Normally subject to the physical constraints in labs, neuroscience experimental paradigms can be transformed into dynamic environments allowing for the capturing of brain signals in everyday contexts. Using smartphones or tablets to access text or images may enable experimental design capable of tracing emotional responses when shopping or consuming media, incorporating sensorimotor responses reflecting our actions into brain machine interfaces, and facilitating neurofeedback training over extended periods. Even though the quality of consumer neuroheadsets is still lower than laboratory equipment and susceptible to environmental noise, we show that mobile neuroimaging solutions, like the Smartphone Brain Scanner, complemented by 3D reconstruction or source separation techniques may support a range of neuroimaging applications and thus become a valuable addition to high-end neuroimaging solutions.

Thompson, R. J., Mata, J., Jaeggi, S. M., Buschkuehl, M., Jonides, J., & Gotlib, I. H. (2013). The role of attention to emotion in recovery from major depressive disorder. Depress.Res Treat., 2013, 540726.

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is characterized by several emotional disturbances. One possible but not well-examined disturbance is in attention to emotion, an important facet of emotional awareness. We examined whether attention to emotion predicted recovery from MDD. Fifty-three adults with current MDD completed a week of experience sampling (Time 1). At each prompt, participants reported attention to emotion, negative affect (NA), and positive affect (PA). Approximately one year later (Time 2), the depressive status of 27 participants was reassessed. Participants who had recovered from MDD (n = 8) indicated paying less attention to their emotions at Time 1 than did participants who had not fully recovered (n = 19). Attention to emotion was better predictor of recovery than was severity of MDD, NA, or PA at Time 1. Levels of attention to emotion at Time 1 in participants who recovered from MDD did not differ significantly from the levels reported by 53 never-depressed individuals who had participated in the experience sampling. Findings indicate that high levels of an otherwise adaptive emotional facet can adversely affect the course of MDD

Timms, K. P., Rivera, D. E., Collins, L. M., & Piper, M. E. (2013). A Dynamical Systems Approach to Understand Self-Regulation in Smoking Cessation Behavior Change. Nicotine Tob.Res.

INTRODUCTION: Self-regulation, a key component of the addiction process, has been challenging to model precisely in smoking cessation settings, largely due to the limitations of traditional methodological approaches in measuring behavior over time. However, increased availability of intensive longitudinal data (ILD) measured through ecological momentary assessment facilitates the novel use of an engineering modeling approach to better understand self-regulation. METHODS: Dynamical systems modeling is a mature engineering methodology that can represent smoking cessation as a self-regulation process. This article shows how a dynamical systems approach effectively captures the reciprocal relationship between day-to-day changes in craving and smoking. Models are estimated using ILD from a smoking cessation randomized clinical trial. RESULTS: A system of low-order differential equations is presented that models cessation as a self-regulatory process. It explains 87.32% and 89.16% of the variance observed in craving and smoking levels, respectively, for an active treatment group and 62.25% and 84.12% of the variance in a control group. The models quantify the initial increase and subsequent gradual decrease in craving occurring postquit as well as the dramatic quit-induced smoking reduction and postquit smoking resumption observed in both groups. Comparing the estimated parameters for the group models suggests that active treatment facilitates craving reduction and slows postquit smoking resumption. CONCLUSIONS: This article illustrates that dynamical systems modeling can effectively leverage ILD in order to understand self-regulation within smoking cessation. Such models quantify group-level dynamic responses in smoking cessation and can inform the development of more effective interventions in the future

Valdivieso-Lopez, E., Flores-Mateo, G., Molina-Gomez, J. D., Rey-Renones, C., Barrera Uriarte, M. L., Duch, J. et al. (2013). Efficacy of a mobile application for smoking cessation in young people: study protocol for a clustered, randomized trial. BMC Public Health, 13, 704.

BACKGROUND: Tobacco consumption is the most preventable cause of morbidity-mortality in the world. One aspect of smoking cessation that merits in-depth study is the use of an application designed for smartphones (app), as a supportive element that could assist younger smokers in their efforts to quit. To assess the efficacy of an intervention that includes the assistance of a smoking cessation smartphone application targeted to young people aged 18 to 30 years who are motivated to stop smoking. METHODS/DESIGN: Cluster randomised clinical trial. Setting: Primary Health Care centres (PHCCs) in Catalonia. Analyses based on intention to treat. Participants: motivated smokers of 10 or more cigarettes per day, aged 18 to 30 years, consulting PHCCs for any reason and who provide written informed consent to participate in the trial. Intervention group will receive a 6-month smoking cessation programme that implements recommendations of a Clinical Practice Guideline, complemented with a smartphone app designed specifically for this programme. Control group will receive the usual care. The outcome measure will be abstinence at 12 months confirmed by exhaled-air carbon monoxide concentration of at least 10 parts per million at each control test. DISCUSSION: To our knowledge this is the first randomised controlled trial of a programme comparing the efficacy of usual care with a smoking cessation intervention involving a mobile app. If effective, the modality could offer a universal public health management approach to this common health concern. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01734421

van Deutekom, A. W., Chinapaw, M. J., Vrijkotte, T. G., & Gemke, R. J. (2013). Study protocol: the relation of birth weight and infant growth trajectories with physical fitness, physical activity and sedentary behavior at 8-9 years of age – the ABCD study. BMC Pediatr., 13, 102.

BACKGROUND: Low birth weight and accelerated infant growth have been identified as independent risk factors for childhood and adult obesity and cardiovascular disease. This led to the ‘Developmental Origins of Health and Disease’ (DOHaD) hypothesis, stating that environmental factors during pregnancy and early postnatal life affect disease risk in later life. There is growing evidence that perinatal factors may influence adult health through the programming of energy balance regulation, including sedentary behavior and physical activity. The present study focuses on the influence of birth weight and infant growth on physical fitness, physical activity and sedentary behavior in 8-9 year old children, as this might partly explain the higher obesity and cardiovascular risk associated with low birth weight and accelerated infant growth. In addition, this study provides the opportunity for a validation study of a linguistic and cross-cultural translated physical activity questionnaire compared to accelerometer data. This article describes the study protocol for this study. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a study embedded in the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) birth cohort. In 200 children of Dutch ethnicity, physical fitness, physical activity and sedentary behavior were assessed at age 8-9. We measured aerobic fitness using the 20 meter multistage shuttle run test, and neuromuscular fitness using the standing broad jump and handgrip strength test. Sedentary behavior and physical activity levels were measured using accelerometry. All children also completed a translated physical activity questionnaire, the scores of which will be compared to accelerometry data to assess the construct validity of the questionnaire in Dutch school-aged children. DISCUSSION: This study will be the first population-based prospective cohort study to address the association of both prenatal and postnatal growth with physical fitness and objectively-assessed physical activity and sedentary behavior. This will contribute to a better understanding of the way perinatal growth relate to lifestyle and obesity in later life. The results may guide both future studies in the field of DOHaD, and public health strategies in the prevention of childhood obesity

van Ryckeghem, D. M. L., Crombez, G., Goubert, L., de Houwer, J., Onraedt, T., & van Damme, S. (2013). The predictive value of attentional bias towards pain-related information in chronic pain patients: A diary study. Pain, 154, 468-475.

Theoretical accounts of chronic pain hypothesize that attentional bias towards pain-related information is a maintaining or exacerbating factor, fuelling further pain, disability, and distress. However, empirical research testing this idea is currently lacking. In the present study, we investigated whether attentional bias towards pain-related information predicts daily pain-related outcomes in a sample of chronic pain patients (n = 69; M[sub]age[/sub] = 49.64 years; 46 females). During an initial laboratory session, attentional bias to pain-related information was assessed using a modified spatial cueing task. In advance, patients completed a number of self-report measures assessing current pain intensity, current disability, and pain duration. Subsequently, daily pain outcomes (self-reported pain severity, disability, avoidance behaviour, and distractibility) were measured for 2 weeks by means of an electronic diary. Results indicated that, although an attentional bias towards pain-related information was associated with the current level of disability and pain severity, it had no additional value above control variables in predicting daily pain severity, avoidance, distractibility, and disability. Attentional bias towards pain-related information did, however, moderate the relationship between daily pain severity and both daily disability and distractibility, indicating that, particularly in those patients with a strong attentional bias, increases in pain were associated with increased disability and distractibility. The use of interventions that diminish attentional bias may therefore be helpful to reduce daily disability and the level of distraction from current tasks despite the presence of pain in chronic pain patients.

Van Voorhees, E. E., Dennis, M. F., McClernon, F. J., Calhoun, P. S., Buse, N. A., & Beckham, J. C. (2013). The association of dehydroepiandrosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate with anxiety sensitivity and electronic diary negative affect among smokers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 33, 556-560.

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased smoking initiation, maintenance, and relapse. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate (DHEAS) are neurosteroids that have been associated with mood measures as well as smoking status, and nicotine is associated with increased DHEA and DHEAS levels. Given the difficulties with mood experienced by smokers with PTSD, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate the association between negative affect and anxiety sensitivity with DHEA and DHEAS levels. Ninety-six smokers with and without PTSD provided blood samples for neurosteroid analyses and completed self-report measures of anxiety sensitivity and electronic diary ratings of negative affect. As expected, PTSD smokers reported higher levels of anxiety sensitivity (F[sub]1,94[/sub] = 20.67, partial +À-¦ = 0.18, P < 0.0001) and negative affect (F[sub]1,91[/sub] = 7.98, partial +À-¦ = 0.08, P = 0.006). After accounting for age and sex, DHEAS was significantly inversely associated with both anxiety sensitivity (F[sub]3,92[/sub] = 6.97, partial +À-¦ = 0.07, P = 0.01) and negative affect (F[sub]3,87[/sub] = 10.52, partial +À-¦ = 0.11, P = 0.002) across groups. Effect sizes indicated that these effects are moderate to high. No significant interactions of diagnosis and DHEA(S) levels with mood measures were detected. Given that nicotine is known to elevate DHEA(S) levels, these results suggest that DHEAS may serve as a biomarker of the association between mood and nicotine among smokers. Implications for the results include (1) the use of DHEAS measurement across time and across quit attempts and (2) the potential for careful use of DHEA supplementation to facilitate abstinence during smoking cessation.

Vansteelandt, K., Probst, M., & Pieters, G. (2013). Assessing affective variability in eating disorders: Affect spins less in anorexia nervosa of the restrictive type. Eating Behaviors, 14, 263-268.

Differences in affective variability in eating disorders are examined using an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) protocol. It is hypothesized that restriction serves to pre-empt the activation of affect whereas bulimic behavior serves to cope with overwhelming affect once activated. Therefore, we expect anorexia nervosa (AN) patients of the restricting type (AN-RT) to have lower mean levels of affect and less affective variability than Bulimia Nervosa (BN) patients. Patients’ successive affective states over time are represented as different positions in a two-dimensional space defined by the orthogonal dimensions of valence and activation. Affective variability is measured by the within person variance and the new concepts of pulse and spin. Results of this exploratory study suggest that the diagnostic groups have the same mean levels of affect but affect spins less in patients with AN-RT. Using an EMA protocol and measures like pulse and spin may reveal insights in eating disorders that remain hidden with more traditional assessment methods.

Vilardaga, R., Hayes, S. C., Atkins, D. C., Bresee, C., & Kambiz, A. (2013). Comparing experiential acceptance and cognitive reappraisal as predictors of functional outcome in individuals with serious mental illness. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 51, 425-433.

Background: Two psychological regulation strategies to cope with psychotic symptoms proposed by the cognitive behavioral tradition were examined in this study: cognitive reappraisal and experiential acceptance. Although cognitive behavior therapy for psychosis has increasing empirical support, little is known about the role of these two strategies using methods of known ecological validity. Methods: Intensive longitudinal data was gathered from 25 individuals diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder with psychotic features. During the course of six days we measured contextual factors, psychotic and stressful events, psychological regulation strategies and functional outcome. Results: Positive psychotic symptoms and stressful events had negative associations with quality of life and affect, whereas experiential acceptance had positive associations with them. Cognitive reappraisal had inconsistent associations with quality of life and no association with affect. Social interactions and engagement in activities had a positive association with quality of life. Results were supported by additional and exploratory analyses. Conclusions: Across measures of functional outcome, experiential acceptance appears to be an effective coping strategy for individuals facing psychotic and stressful experiences, whereas cognitive reappraisal does not. In order to inform treatment development efforts, results suggest the need to further investigate the role of these psychological regulation strategies using ecologically valid methods.

von Haaren, B., Loeffler, S. N., Haertel, S., Anastasopoulou, P., Stumpp, J., Hey, S. et al. (2013). Characteristics of the activity-affect association in inactive people: An ambulatory assessment study in daily life. Frontiers in Psychology, 4.

Acute and regular exercise as well as physical activity (PA) is related to well-being and positive affect. Recent studies have shown that even daily, unstructured physical activities increase positive affect. However, the attempt to achieve adherence to PA or exercise in inactive people through public health interventions has often been unsuccessful. Most studies analyzing the activity-affect association in daily life, did not report participants’ habitual activity behavior. Thus, samples included active and inactive people, but they did not necessarily exhibit the same affective reactions to PA in daily life. Therefore the present study investigated whether the association between PA and subsequent affective state in daily life can also be observed in inactive individuals. We conducted a pilot study with 29 inactive university students (mean age 21.3 -¦ 1.7 years) using the method of ambulatory assessment. Affect was assessed via electronic diary and PA was measured with accelerometers. Participants had to rate affect every 2 h on a six item bipolar scale reflecting the three basic mood dimensions energetic arousal, valence, and calmness. We calculated activity intensity level [mean Metabolic Equivalent (MET) value] and the amount of time spent in light activity over the last 15 min before every diary prompt and conducted within-subject correlations. We did not find significant associations between activity intensity and the three mood dimensions. Due to the high variability in within-subject correlations we conclude that not all inactive people show the same affective reactions to PA in daily life. Analyzing the PA-affect association of inactive people was difficult due to little variance and distribution of the assessed variables. Interactive assessment and randomized controlled trials might help solving these problems. Future studies should examine characteristics of affective responses of inactive people to PA in daily life. General assumptions considering the relation between affect and PA might not be suitable for this target group.

Walter, K., von, H. B., Loffler, S., Hartel, S., Jansen, C. P., Werner, C. et al. (2013). Acute and medium term effects of a 10-week running intervention on mood state in apprentices. Front Psychol., 4, 411.

Exercise and physical activity have proven benefits for physical and psychological well-being. However, it is not clear if healthy young adults can enhance mood in everyday life through regular exercise. Earlier studies mainly showed positive effects of acute exercise and exercise programs on psychological well-being in children, older people and in clinical populations. Few studies controlled participants’ physical activity in daily life, performed besides the exercise program, which can impact results. In addition the transition from mood enhancement induced by acute exercise to medium or long-term effects due to regular exercise is not yet determined. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the acute effects of an aerobic running training on mood and trends in medium term changes of mood in everyday life of young adults. We conducted a 10-week aerobic endurance training with frequent mood assessments and continuous activity monitoring. 23 apprentices, separated into experimental and control group, were monitored over 12 weeks. To control the effectiveness of the aerobic exercise program, participants completed a progressive treadmill test pre and post the intervention period. The three basic mood dimensions energetic arousal, valence and calmness were assessed via electronic diaries. Participants had to rate their mood state frequently on 3 days a week at five times of measurement within 12 weeks. Participants’ physical activity was assessed with accelerometers. All mood dimensions increased immediately after acute endurance exercise but results were not significant. The highest acute mood change could be observed in valence (p = 0.07; eta(2) = 0.27). However, no medium term effects in mood states could be observed after a few weeks of endurance training. Future studies should focus on the interaction between acute and medium term effects of exercise training on mood. The decreasing compliance over the course of the study requires the development of strategies to maintain compliance over longer periods

Waters, A. J., Szeto, H., Wetter, D. W., Cinciripini, P. M., Robinson, J. D., & Li, Y. (2013). Cognition and Craving During Smoking Cessation: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study. Nicotine Tob.Res.

INTRODUCTION: Some studies using ecological momentary assessment (EMA) have revealed an association between craving for cigarettes and relapse. It is, therefore, important to understand the correlates of craving during smoking cessation. Attentional bias to smoking cues is a potential correlate of craving, but it has not previously been assessed using EMA during smoking cessation. METHODS: Smokers enrolled in a research smoking cessation study were offered the opportunity to take part in an EMA study. Volunteers carried around a personal digital assistant (PDA) for the first week of their quit attempt. They completed up to 4 random assessments (RAs) per day as well as assessments when they experienced a temptation to smoke and when they relapsed. Craving for cigarettes was assessed with a single item (1-7 scale). Attentional bias was assessed with a smoking Stroop task (a reaction time task) at every other assessment, as was self-reported attention to cigarettes. RESULTS: Data were available from 119 participants. Across 882 assessments, participants exhibited a significant smoking Stroop effect. Linear mixed models revealed a significant between-subject association between craving and the smoking Stroop effect. Individuals with higher levels of craving exhibited greater attentional bias. The within-subject association was not significant. Similar results were obtained for the relationship between self-reported attention to cigarettes and attentional bias. CONCLUSIONS: Attentional bias can be assessed in the natural environment using EMA during smoking cessation, and attentional bias is a correlate of craving during the early stages of a quit attempt

Watkins, K. L., Regan, S. D., Nguyen, N., Businelle, M. S., Kendzor, D. E., Lam, C. et al. (2013). Advancing Cessation Research by Integrating EMA and Geospatial Methodologies: Associations Between Tobacco Retail Outlets and Real-time Smoking Urges During a Quit Attempt. Nicotine Tob.Res.

INTRODUCTION: Residential tobacco retail outlet (TRO) density and proximity have been associated with smoking behaviors. More research is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying these relations and their potential relevance outside of the residential setting. This study integrates ecological momentary assessment (EMA) and geo-location tracking to explore real-time associations between exposure to TROs and smoking urges among 47 economically disadvantaged smokers in a cessation trial (59.6% female; 36.2% White). METHODS: EMA data were collected for 1 week postquit via smartphone, which recorded smoking urge strength </=4 random times daily along with real-time participant location data. For each assessment, the participants’ proximity to the closest TRO and the density of TROs surrounding the participant were calculated. Linear mixed model regressions examined associations between TRO variables and smoking urges, and whether relations varied based on participants’ distance from their home. Covariates included sociodemographics, prequit tobacco dependence, treatment group, and daily smoking status. RESULTS: Main effects were nonsignificant; however, the interaction between TRO proximity and distance from home was considered significant (p = .056). Specifically, closer proximity to TROs was associated with stronger smoking urges </=1 mile of home (p = .001) but not >1 mile from home (p = .307). Significant associations were attributable to assessments completed at participants’ home addresses. All density analyses were nonsignificant. CONCLUSIONS: Technological challenges encountered in this study resulted in a significant amount of missing data, highlighting the preliminary nature of these findings, and limiting the inferences that can be drawn. However, results suggest that closer residential proximity to tobacco outlets may trigger stronger urges to smoke among economically disadvantaged smokers trying to quit, perhaps due to enhanced cigarette availability and accessibility. Therefore, limiting tobacco sales in close proximity to residential areas may complement existing tobacco control efforts and facilitate cessation

Weise, S., Ong, J., Tesler, N. A., Kim, S., & Roth, W. T. (2013). Worried sleep: 24-h monitoring in high and low worriers. Biological Psychology, 94, 61-70.

Background: Commonly used trait measures might not accurately capture the relationship between worry and sleep difficulties in real life. Methods: In a 24-h ambulatory monitoring study, high and low trait worriers maintained a log of worry and sleep characteristics while actigraphy, heart rates (HR), skin conductance (SC), and ambient temperature were recorded. Results: Worrying in bed on the night of the recording was associated with longer self-reported and actigraphic nocturnal awakenings, lower actigraphic sleep efficiency, higher HR, lower HR variability, elevated SC level, and more non-specific SC fluctuations compared to not worrying in bed. High trait worriers had higher HR during waking and sleep, and reported shorter total sleep time and poorer sleep quality. Conclusions: While trait worry is mainly associated with subjective sleep difficulties, worrying in bed impairs sleep according to both subjective and objective sleep parameters, including heightened sympathetic and reduced parasympathetic activation.

Wichers, M. (2013). The dynamic nature of depression: a new micro-level perspective of mental disorder that meets current challenges. Psychol.Med, 1-12.

The examination of moment-to-moment, ‘micro-level’ patterns of experience and behaviour using experience sampling methodology has contributed to our understanding of the ‘macro-level’ development of full-blown symptoms and disorders. This paper argues that the micro-level perspective can be used to identify the smallest building blocks underlying the onset and course of mental ill-health. Psychopathology may be the result of the continuous dynamic interplay between micro-level moment-to-moment experiences and behavioural patterns over time. Reinforcing loops between momentary states may alter the course of mental health towards either a more or less healthy state. An example with observed data, from a population of individuals with depressive symptoms, supports the validity of a dynamic network model of psychopathology and shows that together and over time, this continuous interplay between momentary states may result in the cluster of symptoms we call major depressive disorder. This approach may help conceptualize the nature of mental disorders, and generate individualized insights useful for diagnosis and treatment in psychiatry

Wigman, J. T. W., Collip, D., Wichers, M., Delespaul, P., Derom, C., Thiery, E. et al. (2013). Altered transfer of momentary mental states (ATOMS) as the basic unit of psychosis liability in interaction with environment and emotions. PLoS ONE, 8.

Psychotic disorders are thought to represent altered neural function. However, research has failed to map diagnostic categories to alterations in neural networks. It is proposed that the basic unit of psychotic psychopathology is the moment-to-moment expression of subtle anomalous experiences of subclinical psychosis, and particularly its tendency to persist from moment-to-moment in daily life, under the influence of familial, environmental, emotional and cognitive factors. In a general population twin sample (n = 579) and in a study of patients with psychotic disorder (n = 57), their non-psychotic siblings (n = 59) and unrelated controls (n = 75), the experience sampling paradigm (ESM; repetitive, random sampling of momentary mental states and context) was applied. We analysed, in a within-person prospective design, (i) transfer of momentary anomalous experience at time point (t-1) to time point (t) in daily life, and (ii) moderating effects of negative affect, positive affect, daily stressors, IQ and childhood trauma. Additionally, (iii) familial associations between persistence of momentary anomalous experience and psychotic symptomatology were investigated. Higher level of schizotypy in the twins (but not higher level of psychotic symptoms in patients) predicted more persistence of momentary anomalous experience in daily life, both within subjects and across relatives. Persistence of momentary anomalous experience was highest in patients, intermediate in their siblings and lowest in controls. In both studies, persistence of momentary anomalous experience was moderated by higher levels of negative affect, daily stressors and childhood trauma (only in twins), and by lower levels of positive affect. The study of alterations in the moment-to-moment transfer of subtle anomalous experience of psychosis, resulting in their persistence, helps to explain why psychotic and emotional dysregulation tend to cluster in a single phenotype such as schizophrenia, and how familial and environmental risks increase the risk of expression of psychosis from, first, subtle momentary anomalous experience to, second, observable clinical symptoms.

Willett, L., Houston, T. K., Heudebert, G. R., & Estrada, C. (2012). Use of ecological momentary assessment to determine which structural factors impact perceived teaching quality of attending rounds. J Grad.Med Educ, 4, 322-328.

INTRODUCTION: Providing high-quality teaching to residents during attending rounds is challenging. Reasons include structural factors that affect rounds, which are beyond the attending’s teaching style and control. OBJECTIVE: To develop a new evaluation tool to identify the structural components of ward rounds that most affect teaching quality in an internal medicine (IM) residency program. METHODS: The authors developed a 10-item Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) tool and collected daily evaluations for 18 months from IM residents rotating on inpatient services. Residents ranked the quality of teaching on rounds that day, and questions related to their service (general medicine, medical intensive care unit, and subspecialty services), patient census, absenteeism of team members, call status, and number of teaching methods used by the attending. RESULTS: Residents completed 488 evaluation cards over 18 months. This found no association between perceived teaching quality and training level, team absenteeism, and call status. We observed differences by service (P < .001) and patient census (P = .009). After adjusting for type of service, census was no longer significant. Use of a larger variety of teaching methods was associated with higher perceived teaching quality, regardless of service or census (P for trend < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The EMA tool successfully identified that higher patient census was associated with lower perceived teaching quality, but the results were also influenced by the type of teaching service. We found that, regardless of census or teaching service, attendings can improve their teaching by diversifying the number of methods used in daily rounds

Wolfram, M., Bellingrath, S., Feuerhahn, N., & Kudielka, B. M. (2013). Cortisol responses to naturalistic and laboratory stress in student teachers: Comparison with a non-stress control day. Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress, 29, 143-149.

Ambulatory assessments of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to acute natural stressors yield evidence on stress regulation with high ecological validity. Sampling of salivary cortisol is a standard technique in this field. In 21 healthy student teachers, we assessed cortisol responses to a demonstration lesson. On a control day, sampling was repeated at analogous times. Additionally, the cortisol awakening response (CAR) was assessed on both days. Participants were also exposed to a laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test, and rated their individual levels of chronic work stress. In pre-to-post-stress assessment, cortisol levels declined after the lesson. However, post-stress cortisol levels were significantly higher compared with those on the control day. Also, the Trier Social Stress Test yielded higher cortisol responses when using the control day as reference baseline. Associations between the CAR and chronic stress measures were observed solely on the control day. There were no significant associations between cortisol responses to the natural and laboratory stressors. Our results indicate that a control day might be an important complement in laboratory but especially in ambulatory stress research. Furthermore, associations between chronic stress measures and the CAR might be obscured by acute stress exposure. Finally, responses to the laboratory stressor do not seem to mirror natural stress responses.

Yu, J. & Selby, E. A. (2013). The interaction between affective lability and interpersonal problems in binge eating. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 32, 465-481.

The current study aimed to examine how negative affective lability may moderate interpersonal problems to predict binge eating. Forty-seven (47) behaviorally-dysregulated participants completed experience sampling methodology (ESM) over a 2-week period to provide over 3,000 real-time recordings of affective experience, interpersonal events, and binge eating episodes. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to examine the main effects and interaction of affective lability and frequency of interpersonal problems on frequency of binge eating. Seventeen participants reported a total of 62 binge eating episodes. Affective lability and interpersonal problems independently predicted binge eating. An interaction between the two predictor variables suggested that participants with high affective lability who reported many interpersonal problems experienced the greatest number of binge episodes. These findings are consistent with recent theoretical accounts of the affect-regulating effects of binge eating. Further research is needed to explore how additional factors may interplay with affective lability or interpersonal problems to predict binge eating.

Zaki, L. F., Coifman, K. G., Rafaeli, E., Berenson, K. R., & Downey, G. (2013). Emotion differentiation as a protective factor against nonsuicidal self-injury in borderline personality disorder. Behavior Therapy, 44, 529-540.

Evidence that nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) serves a maladaptive emotion regulation function in borderline personality disorder (BPD) has drawn attention to processes that may increase risk for NSSI by exacerbating negative emotion, such as rumination. However, more adaptive forms of emotion processing, including differentiating broad emotional experiences into nuanced emotion categories, might serve as a protective factor against NSSI. Using an experience-sampling diary, the present study tested whether differentiation of negative emotion was associated with lower frequency of NSSI acts and urges in 38 individuals with BPD who reported histories of NSSI. Participants completed a dispositional measure of rumination and a 21-day experience-sampling diary, which yielded an index of negative emotion differentiation and frequency of NSSI acts and urges. A significant rumination by negative emotion differentiation interaction revealed that rumination predicted higher rates of NSSI acts and urges in participants with difficulty differentiating their negative emotions. The results extend research on emotion differentiation into the clinical literature and provide empirical support for clinical theories that suggest emotion identification and labeling underlie strategies for adaptive self-regulation and decreased NSSI risk in BPD.

Zawadzki, M. J., Smyth, J. M., Merritt, M. M., & Gerin, W. (2013). Absorption in Self-Selected Activities Is Associated With Lower Ambulatory Blood Pressure but Not for High Trait Ruminators. Am J Hypertens..

BACKGROUND: A range of nonpharmacological interventions (e.g., meditation) have positive effects on blood pressure (BP) but tend to have poor adherence. These interventions may lower BP partly by absorbing and directing attention away from one’s negative thoughts. We hypothesized that recurring self-selected activities (SSAs) that are attentionally absorbing may similarly lower BP. We examined the effect of reported engagement in SSAs during the previous month prior to participation on ambulatory BP (ABP) and whether those prone to rumination were less likely to show these effects. METHODS: Participants (n = 38) reported engagement in SSAs and how absorbing they were, responded to trait rumination and perceived stress questionnaires, wore an ABP monitor for 24 hours, and at each ABP measurement answered electronic diary questions assessing activity levels, affect, social interactions, and caffeine and tobacco use. RESULTS: Regression analyses tested whether the reported absorption of SSAs, trait rumination, and their interaction predicted daytime and nighttime systolic and diastolic ABP. Greater absorption predicted lower daytime and nighttime ABP (bs = -18.83 to -8.79; Ps < .05), but this relationship was moderated by trait rumination (bs = 3.72 to 9.97; Ps < .05). Follow-up analyses revealed that absorption was unrelated to ABP for those with high trait rumination but that more absorption predicted lower ABP for those less prone to rumination. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that regular engagement in absorbing SSAs is related to lower ABP. These findings have implications for the development of nonpharmacological interventions and suggest SSAs may serve as an adjuvant intervention strategy to lower BP

Zettl, U. K., Bauer-Steinhusen, U., Glaser, T., Hechenbichler, K., & Limmroth, V. (2013). Evaluation of an electronic diary for improvement of adherence to interferon beta-1b in patients with multiple sclerosis: design and baseline results of an observational cohort study. BMC Neurol., 13, 117.

BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, incurable, demyelinating disease that requires long-term treatment. Rates of non-adherence to prescribed therapy of up to 50% have been reported for chronic diseases. Strategies to improve treatment adherence are therefore of the utmost importance. This study will evaluate the effect of using electronic and paper diaries on treatment adherence to interferon beta-1b in patients with a first clinical isolated syndrome (CIS) or relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Here we report on the study design and results of baseline assessments. METHODS: Patients were recruited into a prospective national multicenter cohort study for an observational period of 2 years. At the start of the study, patients opted to use a digital (DiD) or paper diary (PD) to document self-administered injections of interferon beta-1b. Adherence to treatment will be assessed on the dropout rate at the end of the observation period and on the regularity of injections every other day at 6-month intervals. Patient-related health outcomes will also be evaluated. RESULTS: 700 patients with a mean age of 38.3 (SD 10.3) years and a mean duration of disease since diagnosis of 3.6 (SD 5.9) years were enrolled. 383 patients opted for the digital diary, 192 of which included an injection reminder. Significantly more male than female patients opted for the DiD. Only gender was identified as a factor influencing the decision for DiD or PD. Based on rating scales, a significantly higher proportion of women had depressive comorbidities at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Demographic characteristics of the two cohorts were similar at baseline. More women chose a paper diary, and more had depression at baseline. These imbalances will be addressed in the analysis of the study as possible confounders influencing long-term treatment adherence in the digital and paper diary cohorts.Trial Identifier: NCT00902135

Zuzanek, J. (2013). Does being well-off make us happier? Problems of measurement. Journal of Happiness Studies, 14, 795-815.

The article uses General Social Survey data (GSS) collected by Statistics Canada from 1986 to 2005 and experience sampling data (ESM) collected in 1985 and 2003 at the University of Waterloo to examine relationships between economic growth, household income, and subjective sense of well-being. The article puts to a test two propositions made by Easterlin (Nations and households in economic growth: Essays in Honor of Moses Abramovitz. Academic Press, New York, NY,1974), namely that personal and household incomes correlate positively with subjective well-being, but this does not apply to the relationship between subjective well-being and societal economic growth. Analyses of GSS data reported in this article support Easterlin’s findings. They show that higher household incomes correlate positively with respondents’ retrospective assessments of life satisfaction, but economic growth has not been accompanied by a corresponding rise of subjective wellbeing. Analyses of ESM data suggest that when relationships between household income and subjective well-being are measured by “experiential” measures (Csikszentmihalyi and Larson in J Nerv Ment Dis 175: 526-537, 1987), these relationships are not statistically significant and subjective valuations of well-being taper off at the top of the income pyramid.

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