Society for Ambulatory Assessment

Second quarter 2011 (April to June)

Alschuler, K. N., Hoodin, F., Murphy, S. L., & Geisser, M. E. (2011). Ambulatory Monitoring as a Measure of Disability in Chronic Low Back Pain Populations. Clin J Pain.

PURPOSE: The link between chronic back pain and disability is well established. Despite this, the literature also reflects an inconsistency in methods of assessing disability, as studies interchangeably use self-report measures, clinical tests, and electronic monitoring. The purpose of this study was to conduct a multimethod comparison of disability measures to identify similarities and differences in the constructs measured by each. METHOD: Twenty chronic back pain patients participated in a clinic visit to complete questionnaires and clinical tests, followed by 5 days of wearing a wrist-worn electronic ambulatory monitoring device to measure activity. RESULTS: Multiple regression analyses were conducted to identify the significant predictors of each disability assessment. Results showed that operant variables were predictive of physical activity, cognitive-behavioral variables were predictive of perceived disability, and no variables were predictive of physical ability. DISCUSSION: The results indicate substantial differences in the types of variables that predict disability when measured through 3 different methods. This is suggestive of differences in the constructs measured by each type of disability assessment. The implications for researchers who assess predictors of disability and clinicians who use disability measures in their assessment of patients are that the measures of disability they select should be carefully matched to the proposed purposes. Strong theoretical and practical considerations support using electronic ambulatory monitoring in future research and clinical service

Aronen, E. T., Simola, P., & Soininen, M. (2011). Motor activity in depressed children. J Affect.Disord.

BACKGROUND: Motor retardation is a cardinal feature in adult depression. Limited information exists about motor activity in depressed children. The present study evaluated motor activity in depressed children compared to controls and investigated whether motor activity can be linked with the severity of symptoms in depressed children. METHOD: Motor activity during both day- and night time was recorded by actigraphy in twenty-two depressed children and their controls. A K-SADS-PL interview of the child and his/her mother was used to diagnose depression. The depressed children filled in the Child Depression Inventory (CDI) as a self-report of the severity of depression. Parents and teachers of both depressed children and controls filled in the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Teacher Report Form (TRF). RESULTS: Motor activity was reduced during the daytime in depressed children compared to controls (p<0.001). Depressed children spent more time in total immobility during the night time than their peers (p<0.05). In depressed children motor activity was linked with the severity of self- (r=-0.45, p<0.05) and teacher-reported (r=-0.52, p<0.05) symptoms. Depressed children with suicidal ideation (n=10) differed significantly in motor activity compared to depressed children without suicidal ideation (n=12) and controls (n=22). LIMITATIONS: Sample size was only moderate. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced motor activity is an important feature of childhood depression. Objectively measured motor activity can distinguish depressed children from their peers. Motor retardation can be linked with the severity of depression, especially suicidal ideation and possibly subtype depressed children into groups with different etiology, treatment needs and course of illness

Augustine, A. A., Hemenover, S. H., Larsen, R. J., & Shulman, T. E. (2010). Composition and consistency of the desired affective state: The role of personality and motivation. Motiv.Emot., 34, 133-143.

Using longitudinal and experience sampling designs, the consistency and composition, and personality and motivational predictors, of the desired affective state are explored. Findings indicate that, while the desired affect is relatively malleable throughout one semester, it is relatively stable throughout 1 week. Personality and motivations/goals were related to the content of the desired affective state. Extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were related to the content of the desired affective state. In addition, higher-order goals predicted the content of the desired affective state. Our results suggest that the content of the desired affective state may be largely dependent on personality, motivation, and, potentially, an interaction between personality and motivation

Basterfield, L., Adamson, A. J., Pearce, M. S., & Reilly, J. J. (2011). Stability of habitual physical activity and sedentary behavior monitoring by accelerometry in 6- to 8-year-olds. J Phys.Act.Health, 8, 543-547.

BACKGROUND: Accelerometry is rapidly becoming the instrument of choice for measuring physical activity in children. However, as limited data exist on the minimum number of days accelerometry required to provide a reliable estimate of habitual physical activity, we aimed to quantify the number of days of recording required to estimate both habitual physical activity and habitual sedentary behavior in primary school children. METHODS: We measured physical activity and sedentary behavior over 7 days in 2

Behrens, T. K. & Dinger, M. K. (2011). Comparisons of accelerometer and pedometer determined steps in free living samples. J Phys.Act.Health, 8, 390-397.

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare steps.d-1 between an accelerometer and pedometer in 2 free-living samples. METHODS: Data from 2 separate studies were used for this secondary analysis (Sample 1: N = 99, Male: n = 28, 20.9 +/- 1.4 yrs, BMI = 27.2 +/- 5.0 kg.m-2, Female: n = 71, 20.9 +/- 1.7 yrs, BMI = 22.7 +/- 3.0 kg.m-2; Sample 2: N = 74, Male: n = 27, 38.0 +/- 9.5 yrs, BMI = 25.7 +/- 4.5 kg.m-2, Female: n = 47, 38.7 +/- 10.1 yrs, BMI = 24.6 +/- 4.0 kg.m-2). Both studies used identical procedures and analytical strategies. RESULTS: The mean difference in steps.d-1 for the week was 1643.4 steps.d-1 in Study 1 and 2199.4 steps.d-1 in Study 2. There were strong correlations between accelerometer- and pedometer-determined steps.d-1 in Study 1 (r = .85, P < .01) and Study 2 (r = 0.87, P < .01). Bland-Altman plots indicated agreement without bias between steps recorded from the devices in Study 1 (r = -0.14, P < .17) and Study 2 (r = -0.09, P < .40). Correlations examining the difference between accelerometer-pedometer steps.d-1 and MVPA resulted in small, inverse correlations (range: r = -0.03 to -0.28). CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate agreement between accelerometer- and pedometer-determined steps.d-1; however, measurement bias may still exist because of known sensitivity thresholds between devices

Berenson, K. R., Downey, G., Rafaeli, E., Coifman, K. G., & Leventhal, P. N. (2011). The rejection-rage contingency in borderline personality disorder. J Abnorm.Psychol.

Though long-standing clinical observation reflected in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.) suggests that the rage characteristic of borderline personality disorder (BPD) often appears in response to perceived rejection, the role of perceived rejection in triggering rage in BPD has never been empirically tested. Extending basic personality research on rejection sensitivity to a clinical sample, a priming-pronunciation experiment and a 21-day experience-sampling diary examined the contingent relationship between perceived rejection and rage in participants diagnosed with BPD compared with healthy controls. Despite the differences in these 2 assessment methods, the indices of rejection-contingent rage that they both produced were elevated in the BPD group and were strongly interrelated. They provide corroborating evidence that reactions to perceived rejection significantly explain the rage seen in BPD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved)

Berkman, E. T., Falk, E. B., & Lieberman, M. D. (2011). In the trenches of real-world self-control: Neural correlates of breaking the link between craving and smoking. Psychological Science, 22, 498-506.

Successful goal pursuit involves repeatedly engaging self-control against temptations or distractions that arise along the way. Laboratory studies have identified the brain systems recruited during isolated instances of self-control, and ecological studies have linked self-control capacity to goal outcomes. However, no study has identified the neural systems of everyday self-control during long-term goal pursuit. The present study integrated neuroimaging and experience-sampling methods to investigate the brain systems of successful self-control among smokers attempting to quit. A sample of 27 cigarette smokers completed a go/ no-go task during functional magnetic resonance imaging before they attempted to quit smoking and then reported everyday self-control using experience sampling eight times daily for 3 weeks while they attempted to quit. Increased activation in right inferior frontal gyrus, pre-supplementary motor area, and basal ganglia regions of interest during response inhibition at baseline was associated with an attenuated association between cravings and subsequent smoking. These findings support the ecological validity of neurocognitive tasks as indices of everyday response inhibition.

Bhuachalla, B. N., Walsh, S., & Harbison, J. (2011). Actimeter-derived sleep and wake data and nocturnal ambulatory blood pressure estimation in subjects with stroke and transient ischaemic attack. Int J Stroke.

Background/Aims Abnormalities in nocturnal blood pressure control identified using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring are associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Sleep and wake episodes during such studies are usually identified by means of sleep diaries but these may be inaccurate in stroke patients. We performed a study to determine whether sleep-wake data obtained using wrist-mounted actimeters would significantly influence the results of routinely performed nocturnal ambulatory blood pressure monitoring when compared with diary-based sleep-wake recording and fixed time-period data. Methods Actimetry was performed using a wrist-mounted device during routine ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in subjects who had suffered a transient ischaemic attack or stroke. The mean nocturnal blood pressure readings were calculated using sleep data derived from actimetry and diaries and compared for a fixed time period from 11:00 pm to 8:00 am. Results Twenty subjects (mean age 68 years, and 13 female) were studied. Patients were found to have slept for a median of six-hours (one- to eight-hours) by diary and five-hours (zero- to eight-hours) by actimeter data. Diary and actimeter data agreed in 69% of recordings. The mean sleeping systolic blood pressure was lower when calculated by actimeter data than by diary data (119.6 mmHg vs. 123.2 mmHg, P=0.049, paired t-test) but there was no significant difference in diastolic blood pressure. The mean nocturnal blood pressure calculated from 11:00 pm to 7:00 am was higher than sleeping blood pressure calculated from diary data. (mean systolic blood pressure: 127.6 mmHg vs. 123.6 mmHg, P=0.065; mean diastolic blood pressure 69.0 vs. 64.0, P=0.028). Conclusion Calculation of nocturnal and sleeping blood pressure is lower in subjects with stroke and transient ischaemic attack when objective actimeter-derived sleep/wake data are used

Brown, L. H., Strauman, T., Barrantes-Vidal, N., Silvia, P. J., & Kwapil, T. R. (2011). An experience-sampling study of depressive symptoms and their social context. J Nerv.Ment.Dis, 199, 403-409.

Both clinical and subclinical depression are associated with social impairment; however, few studies have examined the impact of social contact in the daily lives of people with depressive symptoms. The current study used the experience-sampling methodology to examine associations between depressive symptoms, social contact, and daily life impairment in 197 young adults. Depressive symptoms were associated with increased isolation, negative affect, anhedonia, and physical symptoms, decreased positive affect, and social and cognitive impairment in daily life. For people with more depressive symptoms, being with social partners who were perceived as close was associated with greater decreases in negative affect, as well as increases in positive affect. Ironically, participants with depressive symptoms reported spending less time with people whom they perceived as close, minimizing the protective effects of socializing. These results suggest that people experiencing depressive symptoms may be especially sensitive to the nature of social interactions

Carter, B. L., Paris, M. M., Lam, C. Y., Robinson, J. D., Traylor, A. C., Waters, A. J., Wetter, D. W., & Cinciripini, P. M. (2010). RealÇÉtime craving differences between Black and White smokers. The American Journal on Addictions, 19, 136-140.

Black and White smokers may experience aspects of nicotine dependence, including craving, differently. This study used a naturalistic technique, ecological momentary assessment (EMA), to explore differences in craving, mood, expectancy, and smoking enjoyment between Black and White smokers. Participants carried personal digital assistants (PDAs) programmed to obtain multiple daily assessments. Black smokers reported higher craving after smoking and at random assessment times and higher cigarette enjoyment. No differences were found in mood or expectancy. Racial differences in psychological factors related to smoking are explored in the contexts of genetic, sociological, and psychophysiological distinctions. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

Cohn, A. M., Hunter-Reel, D., Hagman, B. T., & Mitchell, J. (2011). Promoting Behavior Change from Alcohol Use Through Mobile Technology: The Future of Ecological Momentary Assessment. Alcohol Clin Exp.Res.

Background: Interactive and mobile technologies (i.e., smartphones such as Blackberries, iPhones, and palm-top computers) show promise as an efficacious and cost-effective means of communicating health-behavior risks, improving public health outcomes, and accelerating behavior change. The present study was conducted as a “needs assessment” to examine the current available mobile smartphone applications (e.g., apps) that utilize principles of ecological momentary assessment (EMA)-daily self-monitoring or near real-time self-assessment of alcohol-use behavior-to promote positive behavior change, alcohol harm reduction, psycho-education about alcohol use, or abstinence from alcohol. Methods: Data were collected and analyzed from iTunes for Apple iPhone((c)) . An inventory assessed the number of available apps that directly addressed alcohol use and consumption, alcohol treatment, or recovery, and whether these apps incorporated empirically based components of alcohol treatment. Results: Findings showed that few apps addressed alcohol-use behavior change or recovery. Aside from tracking drinking consumption, a minority utilized empirically based components of alcohol treatment. Some apps claimed they could serve as an intervention; however, no empirical evidence was provided. Conclusions: More studies are needed to examine the efficacy of mobile technology in alcohol intervention studies. The large gap between availability of mobile apps and their use in alcohol treatment programs indicates several important future directions for research.

Collip, D., Oorschot, M., Thewissen, V., van Os, J., Bentall, R., & Myin-Germeys, I. (2011). Social world interactions: How company connects to paranoia. Psychological Medicine: A Journal of Research in Psychiatry and the Allied Sciences, 41, 911-921.

Background: Experimental studies have indicated that social contact, even when it is neutral, triggers paranoid thinking in people who score high on clinical or subclinical paranoia. We investigated whether contextual variables are predictive of momentary increases in the intensity of paranoid thinking in a sample of participants ranging across a psychometric paranoia continuum. Method: The sample (n = 154) consisted of 30 currently paranoid patients, 34 currently non-paranoid patients, 15 remitted psychotic patients, 38 high-schizotypy participants, and 37 control subjects. Based on their total score on Fenigstein’s Paranoia Scale (PS), three groups with different degrees of paranoia were defined. The Experience Sampling Method (ESM), a structured diary technique, was used to assess momentary social context, perceived social threat and paranoia in daily life. Results: There were differences in the effect of social company on momentary levels of paranoia and perceived social threat across the range of trait paranoia. The low and medium paranoia groups reported higher levels of perceived social threat when they were with less-familiar compared to familiar individuals. The medium paranoia group reported more paranoia in less-familiar company. The high paranoia group reported no difference in the perception of social threat or momentary paranoia between familiar and unfamiliar contacts. Conclusions: Paranoid thinking is context dependent in individuals with medium or at-risk levels of trait paranoia. Perceived social threat seems to be context dependent in the low paranoia group. However, at high levels of trait paranoia, momentary paranoia and momentary perceived social threat become autonomous and independent of social reality.

Deal, L. S., Williams, V. S. L., & Fehnel, S. E. (2011). Development of an electronic daily uterine fibroid symptom diary. The Patient: Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, 4, 31-44.

Background: In some women, uterine fibroids are associated with severe, disabling symptoms. There is a lack of high-quality evidence supporting the effectiveness of most interventions for symptomatic uterine fibroids. In part, this is due to the lack of available disease-specific instruments with comprehensive validation evidence that measure treatment benefit from the patient perspective. Objective: The aim of this study was to develop an electronic patient-reported outcomes (PRO) instrument that measures treatment benefit from the patientÇÖs perspective that is easily administered and practical for use in clinical trials. Rigorous methods that are consistent with the US FDAÇÖs PRO Guidance to Industry were employed. Methods: The study took place in two phases: a content development phase (eight focus groups; three sets of cognitive interviews) and a prospective nonintervention usability pilot phase. Both phases were conducted in the US. The study population comprised women diagnosed with symptomatic uterine fibroids. A total of 68 women (mean age 40 years) participated in the eight focus groups; 27 women (mean age 41 years) who were not part of the focus groups participated in the cognitive interviews. Fourteen additional women (mean age 39 years) participated in a usability pilot. Efforts were made to recruit a diverse population with respect to race and education. Results: After completing eight focus groups, no new symptom concepts or severity-level measurement ideas were introduced, indicating that concept saturation was achieved. Fourteen draft items were developed during the focus groups for testing in the cognitive interviews. Every symptom represented by the draft items was endorsed by at least two-thirds of the participants in the cognitive interviews. After completing three rounds of cognitive interviews, the Fibroid Symptom Diary[sup]-®[/sup] (FSD) contained eight items that assessed bleeding severity, menstrual cramping, and fibroid-related fatigue. An open-field item, tailored to each participant, was also included to assess the most bothersome fibroid-related pain. However, to accommodate electronic administration of the diary this item was replaced, prior to the usability pilot, with three pain-specific items (i.e. abdominal pain, low back pain, and pain during intercourse) that were most commonly expressed during the development phase. The final FSD includes 11 items: five addressing menstrual bleeding or spotting; one each relating to cramping (distinct from other pain), fatigue, and bloating; and three that address other fibroid-related pain. The average time for completing the diary was 1Çô2 minutes per day. A total of 118 daily diary records were collected from 14 participants (average of nine daily diary completions per participant; range 5Çô18 days) in the usability pilot. Seven participants completed the diary every day. Most participants experienced the majority of the symptoms included in the FSD. Conclusions: The FSD captures the concepts most important to women with uterine fibroids and has strong evidence of content validity as required by the FDA PRO Guidance to Industry. Once fully validated, the FSD may replace other measures for assessing changes in symptoms and treatment benefit that are both burdensome to patients and cumbersome to trial sponsors.

Dencker, M. & Andersen, L. B. (2011). Accelerometer-measured daily physical activity related to aerobic fitness in children and adolescents. J Sports Sci., 29, 887-895.

Maximum oxygen uptake ([Vdot]O(2PEAK)) is generally considered to be the best single marker for aerobic fitness. While a positive relationship between daily physical activity and aerobic fitness has been established in adults, the relationship appears less clear in children and adolescents. The purpose of this paper is to summarise recently published data on the relationship between daily physical activity, as measured by accelerometers, and [Vdot]O(2PEAK) in children and adolescents. A PubMed search was performed on 29 October 2010 to identify relevant articles. Studies were considered relevant if they included measurement of daily physical activity by accelerometry and related to a [Vdot]O(2PEAK) either measured directly at a maximal exercise test or estimated from maximal power output. A total of nine studies were identified, with a total number of 6116 children and adolescents investigated. Most studies reported a low-to-moderate relationship (r = 0.10-0.45) between objectively measured daily physical activity and [Vdot]O(2PEAK). No conclusive evidence exists that physical activity of higher intensities are more closely related to [Vdot]O(2PEAK), than lower intensities

Dockray, S., Grant, N., Stone, A. A., Kahneman, D., Wardle, J., & Steptoe, A. (2010). A comparison of affect ratings obtained with ecological momentary assessment and the day reconstruction method. Social Indicators Research, 99, 269-283.

Measurement of affective states in everyday life is of fundamental importance in many types of quality of life, health, and psychological research. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is the recognized method of choice, but the respondent burden can be high. The day reconstruction method (DRM) was developed by Kahneman and colleagues (Science, 2004, 306, 1776Çô1780) to assess affect, activities and time use in everyday life. We sought to validate DRM affect ratings by comparison with contemporaneous EMA ratings in a sample of 94 working women monitored over work and leisure days. Six EMA ratings of happiness, tiredness, stress, and anger/frustration were obtained over each 24 h period, and were compared with DRM ratings for the same hour, recorded retrospectively at the end of the day. Similar profiles of affect intensity were recorded with the two techniques. The between-person correlations adjusted for attenuation ranged from 0.58 (stress, working day) to 0.90 (happiness, leisure day). The strength of associations was not related to age, educational attainment, or depressed mood. We conclude that the DRM provides reasonably reliable estimates both of the intensity of affect and variations in affect over the day, so is a valuable instrument for the measurement of everyday experience in health and social research.

Elfering, A. & Grebner, S. (2011). Ambulatory assessment of skin conductivity during first thesis presentation: lower self-confidence predicts prolonged stress response. Appl.Psychophysiol.Biofeedback, 36, 93-99.

In this field study self-confidence was tested to predict the course of galvanic electrodermal stress response prior, during and after public speaking. Ten graduate students initially rated their self-confidence and afterwards presented their thesis proposals orally in a 10-min presentation to their supervisor and peers. Galvanic skin response level was measured throughout and analysed for 10 min prior to, during, and 10 min after the presentation. Two major galvanic electrodermal stress response types were observed. Five students showed a ‘healthy response’, i.e. an anticipatory increase in electrodermal conductance, followed by a decrease after termination of the presentation. The other five students showed a steady increase of skin conductance during and after their presentation (‘prolonged response’). In line with the allostatic load model the ‘prolonged response’ group reported significantly lower self-confidence before presentation than the ‘healthy response’ group (p < 0.01). Self-confidence is a resource in novices facing an unfamiliar stressor

Entringer, S., Buss, C., Andersen, J., Chicz-Demet, A., & Wadhwa, P. D. (2011). Ecological momentary assessment of maternal cortisol profiles over a multiple-day period predicts the length of human gestation. Psychosom.Med, 73, 469-474.

Objective Biobehavioral models of prenatal stress highlight the importance of the stress-related hormone cortisol. However, the association between maternal cortisol levels and the length of human gestation requires further investigation because most previous studies have relied on one-time cortisol measures assessed at varying gestational ages. This study assessed whether ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of cortisol sampling improves the ability to predict the length of human gestation. In addition, associations between EMA-based measures of psychological state (negative affect) with cortisol levels during pregnancy were assessed. Methods For a 4-day period, 25 healthy pregnant women (mean gestational age at assessment = 23.4 [standard deviation = 9.1] weeks) collected seven salivary samples per day for the assessment of cortisol and provided a rating of negative affect every waking hour using an electronic diary. Results Higher salivary cortisol concentrations at awakening and throughout the day (p = .001), as well as a flatter cortisol response to awakening (p = .005), were associated with shorter length of gestation. Women who delivered an infant at 36 weeks of gestations had 13% higher salivary cortisol levels at awakening than women who delivered an infant at 41 weeks of gestation. The EMA-based measure of negative affect was associated with higher cortisol throughout the day (p = .006) but not to gestational length (p = .641). The one-time measure of cortisol was not associated with length of gestation, and traditional retrospective recall measures of negative affect were not associated with cortisol. Conclusions Our findings support the ecological validity of repeated ambulatory assessments of cortisol in pregnancy and their ability to improve the prediction of adverse birth outcomes

Ewart, C. K., Elder, G. J., Smyth, J. M., Sliwinski, M. J., & Jorgensen, R. S. (2011). Do agonistic motives matter more than anger? Three studies of cardiovascular risk in adolescents. Health Psychol.

Objectives: Three motivational profiles have been associated with recurring psychological stress in low-income youth and young adults: Striving to control others (agonistic striving), striving to control the self (transcendence striving), and not asserting control (dissipated striving). Agonistic striving has been associated with elevated ambulatory blood pressure during daily activities. Three studies tested the hypotheses that: (1) agonistic striving is associated with poor anger regulation, and (2) agonistic striving and poor anger regulation interactively elevate blood pressure. Design: Motivational profiles, anger regulation, and ambulatory blood pressure were assessed in a multiethnic sample of 264 urban youth. Main Outcome Measures: (1) anger regulation/recovery during laboratory challenge; (2) anger/blood pressure during daily activities (48 hours). Results and Conclusion: Replication of the profiles in distant cities showed they occur with similar frequency across differences of region, race, and gender. Analyses controlling for body size, race, and gender revealed that individuals with the agonistic striving profile had higher ambulatory pressure, especially during social encounters. They became more openly angry and aggressive when challenged but did not exhibit difficulty regulating anger in the laboratory, nor did they feel angrier during monitoring. However, individuals with the agonistic striving profile who did display poor anger regulation in the lab had the highest blood pressure; deficient self-regulatory capability amplified the positive association between agonistic striving and cardiovascular risk in both genders and all ethnic groups. Although anger is thought to increase cardiovascular risk, present findings suggest that anger and elevated blood pressure are coeffects of agonistic struggles to control others. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved)

Forbes, E. E. (2011). fMRI studies of reward processing in adolescent depression. Neuropsychopharmacology, 36, 372-373.

Reward function is increasingly considered to be an important aspect of affective disorders such as depression and bipolar disorder. Conceptual models of affective disorders emphasize disrupted reward function as a neural characteristic of low positive affect in depression, and studies with adults have indicated that brain function in reward-related regions distinguishes those with depression from healthy controls. Functional neuroimaging findings indicate that adolescents with depression and adolescents at risk for depression exhibit low striatal response to rewarding stimuli, such as money or happy facial expressions. Exciting new approaches to investigating reward function in adolescent depression include examining brainÇô behavior associations and employing personally relevant social stimuli. When combined with experience sampling, functional neuroimaging can identify regions of the striatum whose response distinguishes adolescents with depression from healthy adolescents and is also correlated with higher levels of positive affect experienced in natural environments.

Fukuoka, Y., Kamitani, E., Dracup, K., & Jong, S. S. (2011). New insights into compliance with a mobile phone diary and pedometer use in sedentary women. J Phys.Act.Health, 8, 398-403.

OBJECTIVES: The purposes of this study were 1) to determine compliance with a pedometer and mobile phone- based physical activity diary, and 2) to assess concordance between self-reported daily steps recorded and transmitted by a mobile phone and pedometer-measured daily steps in sedentary women. METHODS: In this 3-week pilot clinical study, 41 sedentary women who met all inclusion criteria were recruited from local communities. We asked the participants to wear a pedometer every day and to report their daily steps using a mobile phone diary each night before retiring. In the first week, women were asked to monitor their daily steps (baseline steps). In the second and third weeks, they were asked to increase their steps by 20% from the previous week. Although the pedometer can automatically store the most recent 41 days’ performance, the participants were not informed of this function of the pedometer. RESULTS: Overall compliance was 93.8% with pedometer use and 88.3% with the mobile phone physical activity diary. Bland Altman plots showed that the agreement between self-reported daily steps by mobile phone diary and pedometer-recorded daily steps from week 1 to week 3 was high. CONCLUSION: The combination of a pedometer and a mobile phone diary may enhance the quality of self-reported data in clinical studies

Gehricke, J. G., Hong, N., Wigal, T. L., Chan, V., & Doan, A. (2011). ADHD medication reduces cotinine levels and withdrawal in smokers with ADHD. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 98, 485-491.

Individuals with ADHD may self-medicate with nicotine, the main psychoactive ingredient in tobacco smoke, in order to reduce symptoms and negative moods associated with ADHD. ADHD medication (e.g., methylphenidate and atomoxetine) may mimic some of the effects of nicotine and may aid smoking cessation in smokers with ADHD. The present study examined if ADHD medication reduces smoking and withdrawal in non-treatment seeking smokers with ADHD. Fifteen adult smokers with ADHD participated in the study, which consisted of an experimental phase and field monitoring phase to examine the acute and extended effects, respectively, of ADHD medication. During the experimental phase, smokers were asked to complete a Continuous Performance Task (CPT) and the ShiffmanÇôJarvik smoking withdrawal questionnaire during the following four conditions: (1) ADHD medication+cigarette smoking, (2) ADHD medication+ overnight abstinence, (3) placebo+cigarette smoking, and (4) placebo+overnight abstinence. During the field monitoring phase, participants were asked to provide salivary cotinine samples and complete electronic diaries about smoking, smoking urge, ADHD symptoms, and stress in everyday life for two days on ADHD medication and for two days on placebo. Results of the experimental phase showed that ADHD medication improved task performance on the CPT and reduced withdrawal during overnight abstinence. During the field monitoring phase, ADHD medication reduced salivary cotinine levels compared to placebo. In addition, the electronic diary revealed that ADHD medication improved difficulty concentrating during no smoking events and stress. The findings of the present study suggest that, along with other strategies, ADHD medication may be used to aid smoking withdrawal and cessation in smokers with ADHD.

Gonokami, K., Kikuya, M., Ohkubo, T., Satoh, M., Hashimoto, T., Hirose, T., Obara, T., Metoki, H., Inoue, R., Asayama, K., Kanno, A., Totsune, K., Hoshi, H., Satoh, H., & Imai, Y. (2011). Associated Factors of Home Versus Ambulatory Heart Rate Variability in the General Population: The Ohasama Study. Clin Exp.Hypertens.

We previously demonstrated that heart rate (HR) variability obtained by daytime ambulatory monitoring and that of daily home measurement associated differently with cardiovascular mortality risk; cardiovascular mortality was linked with decreased daytime ambulatory HR variability and increased day-by-day home HR variability. The aim of this study was to identify factors contributing to each variability, clarifying possible reasons for their different predictive values. We obtained daytime ambulatory HR and home HR in 538 individuals of a general Japanese population aged >/=55 years. Daytime ambulatory HR variability and day-by-day home HR variability were estimated as a standard deviation measured every 30 min by daytime ambulatory monitoring and day-by-day home measurements once in the morning for 4 weeks, respectively. There was only weak correlation between daytime ambulatory HR variability and day-by-day home HR variability (r = 0.08 approximately 0.14). In a multiple regression model, daytime ambulatory HR variability was associated with daytime ambulatory HR (P < 0.0001), daytime ambulatory blood pressure (BP) variability (P < 0.0001), and male sex (P = 0.003), while negatively associated with daytime ambulatory systolic blood pressure (SBP) (P < 0.0001) and smoking (P = 0.038). Meanwhile, day-by-day home HR variability was positively associated with home HR (P < 0.0001), day-by-day home BP variability (P < 0.0001), and male sex (P = 0.018). Associated factors of daytime ambulatory HR variability and day-by-day home HR variability were different. Our findings suggest that HR variabilities by different intervals of measurements might be mediated by different mechanisms

Grimley, M., Green, R., Nilsen, T., Thompson, D., & Tomes, R. (2011). Using computer games for instruction: The student experience. Active Learning in Higher Education, 12, 45-56.

Computer games are fun, exciting and motivational when used as leisure pursuits. But do they have similar attributes when utilized for educational purposes? This article investigates whether learning by computer game can improve student experiences compared with a more formal lecture approach and whether computer games have potential for improving performance. Instruction was split between lectures and computer games, and student experiences were recorded using an Experience Sampling Method to capture real-time experience and feelings of flow. Results indicated that student experiences in the game mode showed increased alertness, increased feelings of being active, increased feelings of involvement and an increased perception of challenge. Flow characteristics revealed boredom during standard lectures but anxiety and flow during game modes. Finally, some evidence of improved attainment was evident. By using contemporary interactive approaches such as computer games, student learning experiences and attainment may be improved. Some practical issues of implementing games are also discussed.

Guinhouya, B. C. (2011). [How to use motion sensors in a pediatric clinic?]. Rev.Med Brux., 32, 27-38.

Physical activity is a key construct for growth, development and maturation of children. Regular physical activity contributes to the prevention of a number of chronic diseases and their risk factors already present from an early age. Thus, physical activity counseling should be included into the routine of pediatricians. This involves a detailed assessment of different dimensions of physical activity and its associated behaviors. Indeed, the relevance of any clinical decision also depends on the performance of the tools used to evaluate targeted parameters, including physical activity. To assess physical activity of children, the use of motion sensors (pedometers and accelerometers) proved to be a good compromise between validity, reliability, accuracy and cost. However, the use of motion sensors also raises some practical problems because of complex technologies, and especially the lack of instant results. One way to overcome this shortcoming would be to outsource the assessment of movement behaviors by developing a partnership with dedicated structures. In practice, if pedometry seems appropriate for the promotion of physical activity in children, accelerometry seems more efficient for an accurate and comprehensive diagnosis, providing rich information on the overall profile of a child. The fact remains that in paediatric setting, taking into account the child-reported outcomes still important to guide the practitioner in both analyses and any necessary therapeutic decision

Haedt-Matt, A. A. & Keel, P. K. (2011). Revisiting the affect regulation model of binge eating: A meta-analysis of studies using ecological momentary assessment. Psychological Bulletin, 137, 660-681.

The affect regulation model of binge eating, which posits that patients binge eat to reduce negative affect (NA), has received support from cross-sectional and laboratory-based studies. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involves momentary ratings and repeated assessments over time and is ideally suited to identify temporal antecedents and consequences of binge eating. This meta-analytic review includes EMA studies of affect and binge eating. Electronic database and manual searches produced 36 EMA studies with N = 968 participants (89% Caucasian women). Meta-analyses examined changes in affect before and after binge eating using within-subjects standardized mean gain effect sizes (ESs). Results supported greater NA preceding binge eating relative to average affect (ES = 0.63) and affect before regular eating (ES = 0.68). However, NA increased further following binge episodes (ES = 0.50). Preliminary findings suggested that NA decreased following purging in bulimia nervosa (ES = Çô0.46). Moderators included diagnosis (with significantly greater elevations of NA prior to bingeing in binge eating disorder compared to bulimia nervosa) and binge definition (with significantly smaller elevations of NA before binge vs. regular eating episodes for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders definition compared to lay definitions of binge eating). Overall, results fail to support the affect regulation model of binge eating and challenge reductions in NA as a maintenance factor for binge eating. However, limitations of this literature include unidimensional analyses of NA and inadequate examination of affect during binge eating, as binge eating may regulate only specific facets of affect or may reduce NA only during the episode.

Hanisch, L. J. & Gehrman, P. R. (2011). Circadian rhythm of hot flashes and activity levels among prostate cancer patients on androgen deprivation therapy. Aging Male.

Abstract Objective. Altered circadian rhythms have been identified in untreated prostate cancer patients. Findings of restored rhythmicity following cancer treatment may have relevance for cancer control and symptom management. This study assessed and compared the cyclic patterns of hot flashes and activity levels in treated prostate cancer patients. Methods. Data were collected during two 24-h periods among 47 prostate patients undergoing androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Hot flashes were detected objectively through sternal skin conductance and by patients via electronic event marking. Activity levels were recorded on a wrist actigraphy device. Results. The mean frequency of objectively measured and patient-reported hot flashes was 13.6 (SD = 14.3) and 12.6 (SD = 9.6), respectively. There were significant 24-h circadian rhythms of both hot flashes and activity levels. The peak of the rhythms occurred in early afternoon. There was no significant cross correlation between hot flashes and activity levels. Conclusions. The acrophases of hot flashes and elevated activity levels in this study may represent a normalisation of circadian rhythms following ADT, pointing to the need for more research, including controlled, prospective chronobiologic studies. Future research may have important implications for the survival of prostate cancer patients and the identification of new and safe hot flash treatments

Hill, E., Dumouchel, P., & Moehs, C. (2011). An Evidence-based Toolset to Capture, Measure and Assess Emotional Health. Stud.Health Technol.Inform., 167, 176-181.

We present: (1) an automated telephone check-in system to capture emotional health, based on automatic emotion classification, crowd-sourcing, and the experience sampling method; (2) a method that combines acoustic-based and perception-based emotion classifiers to maximize the likelihood of correctly identifying the emotion in a speech recording; (3) an evidence-based toolkit to measure and assess emotional health; and (4) the results of three experimental trials held in 2010 and 2011: (a) English speaking members of Alcoholics Anonymous, (b) English and French speaking general population, and (c) English speaking Opioid addicts undergoing Suboxone maintenance treatment. Emotional health can be defined as the ability to express emotions, identify one’s own emotions, relate to other people’s emotions, and to live life with predominantly positive emotions. Emotional health plays a major role in addiction treatment and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)

Hiremath, S. V. & Ding, D. (2011). Evaluation of activity monitors in manual wheelchair users with paraplegia. J Spinal Cord.Med, 34, 110-117.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of SenseWear (SW) and RT3 activity monitors (AMs) in estimating energy expenditure (EE) in manual wheelchair users (MWUs) with paraplegia for a variety of physical activities. METHODS: Twenty-four subjects completed four activities including resting, wheelchair propulsion, arm-ergometry exercise, and deskwork. The criterion EE was measured by a K4b2 portable metabolic cart. The EE estimated by the SW and RT3 were compared with the criterion EE by the absolute differences and absolute percentage errors. Intraclass correlations and the Bland and Altman plots were also used to assess the agreements between the two AMs and the metabolic cart. Correlations between the criterion EE and the estimated EE and sensors data from the AMs were evaluated. RESULTS: The EE estimation errors for the AMs varied from 24.4 to 125.8% for the SW and from 22.0 to 52.8% for the RT3. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) between the criterion EE and the EE estimated by the two AMs for each activity and all activities as a whole were considered poor with all the ICCs smaller than 0.75. Except for deskwork, the EE from the SW was more correlated to the criterion EE than the EE from the RT3. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that neither of the AMs is an appropriate tool for quantifying physical activity in MWUs with paraplegia. However, the accuracy of EE estimation could be potentially improved by building new regression models based on wheelchair-related activities

Hodgkinson, J., Mant, J., Martin, U., Guo, B., Hobbs, F. D., Deeks, J. J., Heneghan, C., Roberts, N., & McManus, R. J. (2011). Relative effectiveness of clinic and home blood pressure monitoring compared with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in diagnosis of hypertension: systematic review. BMJ, 342, d3621.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the relative accuracy of clinic measurements and home blood pressure monitoring compared with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring as a reference standard for the diagnosis of hypertension. DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analysis with hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic models. Methodological quality was appraised, including evidence of validation of blood pressure measurement equipment. DATA SOURCES: Medline (from 1966), Embase (from 1980), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, DARE, Medion, ARIF, and TRIP up to May 2010. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Eligible studies examined diagnosis of hypertension in adults of all ages using home and/or clinic blood pressure measurement compared with those made using ambulatory monitoring that clearly defined thresholds to diagnose hypertension. RESULTS: The 20 eligible studies used various thresholds for the diagnosis of hypertension, and only seven studies (clinic) and three studies (home) could be directly compared with ambulatory monitoring. Compared with ambulatory monitoring thresholds of 135/85 mm Hg, clinic measurements over 140/90 mm Hg had mean sensitivity and specificity of 74.6% (95% confidence interval 60.7% to 84.8%) and 74.6% (47.9% to 90.4%), respectively, whereas home measurements over 135/85 mm Hg had mean sensitivity and specificity of 85.7% (78.0% to 91.0%) and 62.4% (48.0% to 75.0%). CONCLUSIONS: Neither clinic nor home measurement had sufficient sensitivity or specificity to be recommended as a single diagnostic test. If ambulatory monitoring is taken as the reference standard, then treatment decisions based on clinic or home blood pressure alone might result in substantial overdiagnosis. Ambulatory monitoring before the start of lifelong drug treatment might lead to more appropriate targeting of treatment, particularly around the diagnostic threshold

Hogarth, R. M., Portell, M., Cuxart, A., & Kolev, G. I. (2011). Emotion and reason in everyday risk perception. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 24, 202-222.

Although research has documented the importance of emotion in risk perception, little is known about it in the context of everyday life. Using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM), 94 part-time students were prompted at randomÇövia cellular telephonesÇöto report on mood state and three emotions and to assess risk on thirty occasions during their working hours. The emotionsÇövalence, arousal, and dominanceÇöwere measured using self-assessment manikins (SAMs) (Bradley & Lang, 1994). Hierarchical linear models (HLM) revealed that mood state and emotions explained significant variance in risk perception. In addition, valence and arousal accounted for variance over and above “reason” (measured by severity and possibility of risks). Six risks were re-assessed in a post-experimental session and found to be lower than their real-time counterparts. The study demonstrates the feasibility and value of collecting representative samples of data with simple technology. Evidence is also provided to demonstrate the statistical consistency of the HLM estimates.

Hong, R. Y. & Paunonen, S. V. (2010). Personality Vulnerabilities to Psychopathology: Relations between Trait Structure and Affective-Cognitive Processes. J Pers..

The present research examined (a) the relations among various affective-cognitive vulnerabilities to psychopathology, (b) the relations between vulnerabilities and dispositional traits, and (c) the mediating role of vulnerabilities between dispositional traits and psychopathological symptoms. Self-report questionnaires were administered to two independent samples in Study 1 (total N=274) whereas a longitudinal experience-sampling method was employed in Study 2 (N=100). Results suggested that affective-cognitive vulnerabilities showed a pattern of intercorrelations consistent with a two-factor model representing general vulnerability to internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, respectively. The vulnerabilities also revealed common and unique aspects when mapped onto the trait structure represented by the Five-Factor Model. Most important, affective-cognitive vulnerabilities were found to constitute proximal-specific mechanisms that mediated between distal-broad dispositional vulnerabilities, such as Neuroticism, and different psychopathological symptoms. Our data support a model of personality-psychopathology relations that benefits from an integration of both the dispositional trait and social-cognitive approaches

Huang, J. L. & Ryan, A. m. (2011). Beyond personality traits: A study of personality states and situational contingencies in customer service jobs. Personnel Psychology, 64, 451-488.

Although the interactionist approach has been applied to understanding situational influences on the expression of personality at work, examination of within-person variation in personality trait expression in the workplace is lacking. Using experience sampling methodology, this study examined the moment-to-moment influences of situational characteristics on personality states (i.e., situational contingencies) during social interactions on 56 customer service employees over 10 days at work. At the within-individual level, state Conscientiousness was associated with the immediacy of the task, and state Extraversion and Agreeableness were associated with the friendliness of the other party in the interaction. At the between-individual level, self-monitoring did not moderate the associations between situational characteristics and personality states but predicted the mean level of state Conscientiousness at work over and above trait Conscientiousness. Contrary to expectations, the relationship between state Extraversion and friendliness was weaker in customized service jobs than in noncustomized ones.

Hughes, J. W., Casey, E., Doe, V. H., Glickman, E. L., Stein, P. K., Waechter, D., Josephson, R., & Rosneck, J. (2010). Depression and heart rate variability in cardiac rehabilitation patients: Exploring the roles of physical activity and fitness. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 111, 608-624.

Cardiac patients with depression have shown altered autonomic nervous system functioning, expressed as reduced heart rate variability. This may be associated with poorer physical fitness and less physical activity among depressed patients. These relationships were explored among patients enrolled in outpatient cardiac rehabilitation. 22 depressed and 22 nondepressed patients, matched for sex and age, were assessed at enrollment. The Beck Depression Inventory and structured interviews were used to measure depression. Patients completed ambulatory monitoring of ECG (i.e., Holter) and physical activity, as well as a treadmill stress test. Depression was associated with several measures of heart rate variability. Activity and fitness were lower among the depressed patients. Although exploratory, accounting for activity and fitness attenuated the relationship between depression and heart rate variability. This suggests that altered fitness and activity may help explain altered autonomic tone that characterizes patients with cardiovascular diseases who are psychologically depressed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)

Ishikawa, J., Ishikawa, Y., Edmondson, D., Pickering, T. G., & Schwartz, J. E. (2011). Age and the difference between awake ambulatory blood pressure and office blood pressure: a meta-analysis. Blood Press Monit., 16, 159-167.

BACKGROUND: Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) (ABP) is a better predictor of adverse cardiovascular events than office BP (OBP). Owing to the extensive literature on the ‘white coat effect’, it is widely believed that ABP tends to be lower than OBP, with statements to this effect in Joint National Committee VII. However, recent evidence suggests that the difference varies systematically with age. METHODS: We searched PubMed to identify population studies, published before April 2009, which assessed OBP and either ABP or home BP (HBP). On account of significant heterogeneity in the outcomes, random effect models were used for the meta-analyses. RESULTS: OBP increased with age more steeply than awake ABP. OBP became higher than awake systolic/diastolic ABP at the age of 51.3/42.7 years in men (13 studies, N=3562) and 51.9/42.3 years in women (11 studies, N=2585). In the data in which OBP and HBP were measured (eight studies, N=4916), OBP was higher than HBP at all ages. In the data in which OBP, awake ABP, and HBP were all measured (two studies, N=895), awake ABP was higher than HBP at younger ages, becoming similar at the older age. CONCLUSION: OBP tends to be higher than awake ABP only after the age of 50 years for systolic and after the age of 45 years for diastolic BP, but is lower than ABP at younger ages; in contrast OBP tends to exceed HBP at all ages

Jacobs, K., Foley, G., Punnett, L., Hall, V., Gore, R., Brownson, E., Ansong, E., Markowitz, J., McKinnon, M., Steinberg, S., & Ing, A. (2011). ‘University students’ notebook computer use: Lessons learned using e-diaries to report musculoskeletal discomfort’: Corrigendum. Ergonomics, 54.

Reports an error in “University students’ notebook computer use: Lessons learned using e-diaries to report musculoskeletal discomfort” by K. Jacobs, G. Foley, L. Punnett, V. Hall, R. Gore, E. Brownson, E. Ansong, J. Markowitz, M. McKinnon, S. Steinberg and A. Ing (Ergonomics, 2011[Feb], Vol 54[2], 206-219). In the original article, two authors, Ellen Wuest and Leah Dibiccari were erroneously omitted as co-authors. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2011-02427-010). The objective of this pilot study was to identify if notebook accessories (ergonomic chair, desktop monitor and notebook riser) combined with a wireless keyboard, mouse and participatory ergonomics training would have the greatest impact on reducing self-reported upper extremity musculoskeletal discomfort in university students. In addition to pre-post computing and health surveys, the Ecological Momentary Assessment was used to capture change in discomfort over time using a personal digital assistant (PDA) as the e-diary. The PDA was programmed with a survey containing 45 questions. Four groups of university students were randomised to either intervention (three external computer accessories) or to control. Participants reported less discomfort with the ergonomic chair and notebook riser based on the pre-post survey data and the e-diary/PDA ANOVA analysis. However, the PDA data, adjusted for the effect of hours per day of computer use, showed no benefit of the chair and limited benefit from the riser. Statement of Relevance: University students’ use of notebook computers has increased. This study found evidence of a positive effect of an adjustable chair or notebook riser when combined with ergonomic training on reducing discomfort. Daily notebook computer use of 4 h was confirmed as a risk factor. Without some form of ergonomic intervention, these students are likely to enter the workforce with poor computing habits, which places them on the road to future injuries as technology continues to play a dominant role in their lives.

Jones, M. & Johnston, D. (2011). Understanding phenomena in the real world: the case for real time data collection in health services research. J Health Serv.Res.Policy, 16, 172-176.

Understanding the environmental and behavioural predictors of wellbeing is a key driver of health and social care research. Research set in the social world examines the relationships between behavioural, cognitive, emotional and environmental factors, linking these to disease or social ills with the aim of providing better preventive or treatment services. Much of this research is based on retrospective measurement tools, such as questionnaires or interviews. However, retrospective accounts are prone to bias arising from the influence of the participant’s current affective state on autobiographical memory and error-inducing heuristic strategies related to memory. Participant introspection also biases self-reports of behaviour and symptoms. This essay offers a critical examination of the advantages of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods over retrospective accounts in understanding social phenomena. Advantages of EMA include collection of longitudinal data from a representative part of the participant’s daily experience, in real time and in the participant’s natural environment. EMA accounts are gathered more closely in time to the event and are less biased by heuristic, autobiographical memory strategies. Real-time longitudinal data may be combined from a range of devices or forms of data collection; for example, self-report can be linked with objective physiological data. EMA allows testing of within-person variation in variables of interest in a way that is difficult to achieve using retrospective measures and between-person (group level) designs. EMA approaches provide not just more data, but better data than previously, allowing the application of more powerful analytic techniques to critical, real life questions than ever before

Kööts, L., Realo, A., & Allik, J. +. (2011). The influence of the weather on affective experience: An experience sampling study. Journal of Individual Differences, 32, 74-84.

This study examined the relationship between affective experiences and weather variables using an experience-sampling method. The moderating effects of personality and age on the relationship were also investigated. Two age groups of participants (students and elderly people) recorded their moods when signalled during 14 consecutive days on 7 randomly determined occasions per day. Hourly weather data (temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, and luminance) for the same period were obtained from the local weather station. Previously participants had completed the Estonian versions of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (Kallasmaa, Allik, Realo, & McCrae, 2000) and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Allik & Realo, 1997). Multilevel random coefficient modeling analyses showed that momentary ratings of positive and negative affect were weakly related to temperature, positive affect was also related to sunlight. However, momentary ratings of fatigue showed a distinct tendency for greater incidence of sleepiness in the cold and dark. Age group was one of the most important moderators of the weather-emotion models. The influence of weather on emotions interacted with being outdoors. Personality traits also explained a small portion of variance in the influence of weather on affective states.

Kronick, I., Auerbach, R. P., Stich, C., & Knauper, B. (2011). Compensatory beliefs and intentions contribute to the prediction of caloric intake in dieters. Appetite, 57, 435-438.

One cognitive process that impacts dieters’ decision to indulge is the activation of compensatory beliefs. Compensatory beliefs (CBs) are convictions that the consequences of engaging in an indulgent behaviour (eating cake) can be neutralized by the effects of another behaviour (skipping dinner). Using experience sampling methodology, this study hypothesized that, in addition to the cognitive processes associated with restraint and disinhibition, compensatory thinking contributes to the prediction of caloric intake. Results indicated that higher scores on CB, CI and TFEQ-D predicted a greater number of portions eaten signifying that, along with disinhibition, compensatory thinking predicts caloric intake in dieters

Kwapil, T. R., Barrantes-Vidal, N., Armistead, M. S., Hope, G. A., Brown, L. H., Silvia, P. J., & Myin-Germeys, I. (2011). The expression of bipolar spectrum psychopathology in daily life. Journal of Affective Disorders, 130, 166-170.

Background: Bipolar psychopathology has traditionally been defined by categorical diagnoses. However, these disorders may simply reflect the extremes of a broader spectrum of clinical and subclinical bipolar psychopathology. Method: The present study examined the validity of the Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS) as a measure of bipolar spectrum psychopathology in 305 young adults using experience sampling methodology. The participants completed the HPS and were signaled randomly eight times daily for seven days to complete brief questionnaires on their current experiences. Results: High HPS scores were associated with elevated energetic-enthusiasm, irritability, dysphoria, flight of ideas, mild grandiose beliefs, and risky behavior, as well as increased variability in affect in daily life. High HPS scores were also associated with greater reactivity in negative affect and behavior in response to viewing themselves as unsuccessful in their activities. Limitations: It is not clear to what extent the participants had diagnosable bipolar disorders. Conclusions: The findings support a broader spectrum of bipolar psychopathology and the validity of the HPS as a measure of this construct.

Lataster, T., Collip, D., Lardinois, M., van Os, J., & Myin-Germeys, I. (2010). Evidence for a familial correlation between increased reactivity to stress and positive psychotic symptoms. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 122, 395-404.

Objective: This study tested the hypothesis that stress-reactivity may represent an intermediary phenotype underlying positive psychotic symptoms. It was examined whether: (i) stress-reactivity clusters within families of psychotic patients and (ii) stress-reactivity in relatives cosegregates with positive symptoms in patients. Method: The sample consisted of 40 patients and 47 siblings of these patients. The Experience Sampling Method (ESMÇöa structured diary technique) was used to measure stress-reactivity. Positive symptoms in patients were measured with the Comprehensive Assessment of Symptoms and History. Results: Within-trait, cross-sib associations showed a significant association between stress-reactivity in the patient and stress-reactivity in their siblings. Significant cross-trait, cross-sib associations were established showing a significant association between positive psychotic symptoms in the patient and stress-reactivity in the sibling. Conclusion: The findings show familial clustering of increased stress-reactivity, suggesting common aetiological influences, probably both genetic and environmental, underlying stress-reactivity in the siblings and patients. In addition, the results underscore the hypothesis that increased stress-reactivity is an unconfounded mechanism of risk underlying the positive symptoms of psychotic disorders.

Le, M. G. & Denrell, J. (2011). Rational learning and information sampling: on the “naivety” assumption in sampling explanations of judgment biases. Psychol.Rev., 118, 379-392.

Recent research has argued that several well-known judgment biases may be due to biases in the available information sample rather than to biased information processing. Most of these sample-based explanations assume that decision makers are “naive”: They are not aware of the biases in the available information sample and do not correct for them. Here, we show that this “naivety” assumption is not necessary. Systematically biased judgments can emerge even when decision makers process available information perfectly and are also aware of how the information sample has been generated. Specifically, we develop a rational analysis of Denrell’s (2005) experience sampling model, and we prove that when information search is interested rather than disinterested, even rational information sampling and processing can give rise to systematic patterns of errors in judgments. Our results illustrate that a tendency to favor alternatives for which outcome information is more accessible can be consistent with rational behavior. The model offers a rational explanation for behaviors that had previously been attributed to cognitive and motivational biases, such as the in-group bias or the tendency to prefer popular alternatives

Leahey, T. M., Crowther, J. H., & Ciesla, J. A. (2011). An ecological momentary assessment of the effects of weight and shape social comparisons on women with eating pathology, high body dissatisfaction, and low body dissatisfaction. Behav.Ther., 42, 197-210.

This research examined the effects of naturally occurring appearance comparisons on women’s affect, body satisfaction, and compensatory cognitions and behaviors. Using ecological momentary assessment, women with high body dissatisfaction and eating pathology (EPHB), high body dissatisfaction (HB), or low body dissatisfaction (LB) recorded their reactions to appearance-focused social comparisons. EPHB and HB women made more upward appearance comparisons than LB women. All women experienced negative emotions and cognitions after upward comparisons, including increased guilt, body dissatisfaction, and thoughts of dieting. EPHB women were most negatively affected by comparisons; they experienced more intense negative emotions, more thoughts of dieting/exercising, and an increase in eating-disordered behavior after upward comparisons. HB women experienced more negative affective consequences and thoughts of dieting than LB women. Results are consistent with social comparison theory and provide important information that may be used to inform eating disorder treatment and prevention efforts

Lecheminant, J. D. & Tucker, L. A. (2011). Recommended levels of physical activity and insulin resistance in middle-aged women. Diabetes Educ., 37, 573-580.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between recommended levels of physical activity (PA) and insulin resistance, as estimated by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in middle-aged women without diabetes. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 264 women located in the Mountain West region of the United States. Sedentary time and moderate- and vigorous-intensity PA were determined objectively, via accelerometry, over 7 days. HOMA-IR was calculated from fasting insulin and glucose. Body mass index (kg/m(2)) was calculated from measured weight and height; body fat percentage was assessed using air displacement plethysmography; and abdominal circumference was measured at the umbilicus. Moderate- and vigorous-intensity PA levels were based on recommendations for PA and health from the American College of Sports Medicine. RESULTS: Total time spent in sedentary activity was significantly related to insulin resistance. Time spent in moderate-intensity or vigorous-intensity activity, at recommended levels, was also significantly and inversely related to insulin resistance. However, after statistically adjusting for body fat percentage or abdominal circumference individually, the relationship between sedentary activity, moderate-intensity, or vigorous-intensity activity and HOMA-IR was eliminated. CONCLUSIONS: Achieving recommended levels of PA is associated with lower HOMA-IR in healthy women without diabetes; however, adiposity accounts for part of this relationship

Lee, J., Steele, C. M., & Chau, T. (2011). Classification of healthy and abnormal swallows based on accelerometry and nasal airflow signals. Artif.Intell.Med, 52, 17-25.

BACKGROUND: Dysphagia assessment involves diagnosis of individual swallows in terms of the depth of airway invasion and degree of bolus clearance. The videofluoroscopic swallowing study is the current gold standard for dysphagia assessment but is time-consuming and costly. An ideal alternative would be an automated abnormal swallow detection methodology based on non-invasive signals. OBJECTIVE: Building upon promising results from single-axis cervical accelerometry, the objective of this study was to investigate the combination of dual-axis accelerometry and nasal airflow for classification of healthy and abnormal swallows in a patient population with dysphagia. METHODS: Signals were acquired from 24 adult patients with dysphagia (17.8+/-8.8 swallows per patient). The abnormality of each swallow was quantified using 4-point videofluoroscopic rating scales for its depth of airway invasion, bolus clearance from the valleculae, and bolus clearance from the pyriform sinuses. For each scale, we endeavored to automatically discriminate between the 2 extreme ratings, yielding 3 separate binary classification problems. Various time, frequency, and time-frequency domain features were extracted. A genetic algorithm was deployed for feature selection. Smoothed bootstrapping was utilized to balance the two classes and provide sufficient training data for a multidimensional feature space. RESULTS: A Euclidean linear discriminant classifier resulted in a mean adjusted accuracy of 74.7% for the depth of airway invasion rating, whereas Mahalanobis linear discriminant classifiers yielded mean adjusted accuracies of 83.7% and 84.2% for bolus clearance from the valleculae and pyriform sinuses, respectively. The bolus clearance from the valleculae problem required the lowest feature space dimensionality. Wavelet features were found to be most discriminatory. CONCLUSIONS: This exploratory study confirms that dual-axis accelerometry and nasal airflow signals can be used to discriminate healthy and abnormal swallows from patients with dysphagia. The fact that features from all signal channels contributed discriminatory information suggests that multi-sensor fusion is promising in abnormal swallow detection

Lee, R. E., Mama, S. K., Medina, A. V., Reese-Smith, J. Y., Banda, J. A., Layne, C. S., Baxter, M., O’Connor, D. P., McNeill, L., & Estabrooks, P. A. (2011). Multiple Measures of Physical Activity, Dietary Habits and Weight Status in African American and Hispanic or Latina Women. J Community Health.

Compared measures of physical activity and dietary habits used in the Health Is Power (HIP) study, and described the associations of physical activity and dietary habits among African American and Hispanic or Latino women, adjusted for weight status. Cross-sectional baseline data were compared for community dwelling, healthy African American (N = 262) and Hispanic or Latina women (N = 148) who participated in HIP. Physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) long form, the Check And Line Questionnaire (CALQ) log and accelerometry. Dietary habits were measured using NCI 24-h recall screeners, vegetable and fruit (VF) logs and the NCI Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ). Differences in physical activity and dietary habits were assessed using simultaneous 2 (ethnicity) x 3 (weight status) ANCOVAs adjusted for age and socioeconomic status. Women (M age = 44.4 +/- 10.9 years) were obese (M = 34.0 +/- 9.7 kg/m(2)), did not meet physical activity guidelines as measured by accelerometry (M = 19.4 +/- 19.1 min MVPA/day) and ate few VF (M = 2.8 +/- 2.7 servings/day). DHQ variables differed by weight status. IPAQ was associated with CALQ, and CALQ with accelerometry (P < .05). IPAQ was not associated with accelerometry. Regardless of ethnicity, normal weight women did more physical activity, reported more VF consumption, and consumed more fat calories than overweight and obese women (Ps < .05). African American women did more MVPA than Hispanic or Latino women (P < .001). Relationships between behaviors and weight status suggest accelerometry and DHQ are preferable, regardless of ethnicity; and studies may capture different domains of physical activity and dietary habits depending on measure used

Lefforge, N. L. (2011). The experience of feelings in depression. ProQuest Information & Learning, US.

Emotions, such as sadness, guilt, and irritability, are at the core of depressive symptoms and suggest a need for an in-depth understanding of feelings, the experiential component of emotion, during depression. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe the experience of emotion in depressed participants and find out if these experiences are similar to those of nondepressed participants. Descriptive Experience Sampling (DES) was used to sample five depressed and four nondepressed participants for four days and then in a controlled setting while watching positive, negative, and neutral film clips. Due to the limited sample size, this study was largely exploratory. The primary findings were that depressed participants experienced more feelings than nondepressed participants. They also experienced a higher ratio of negative to positive feelings and more sadness in response to the negative film clip. In addition, depressed participants experienced more secondary depressive symptoms in momentary awareness. However, differences between the groups in overall experience of depression in momentary experience were much smaller than was expected based upon their differences on a depression questionnaire. Additionally, depressed participants’ feelings included the types of phenomena that have been found in previous studies of nondepressed participants. The depressed participants also demonstrated a significant decline in self-reported depression over the course of the study.

Lockman, J., Fisher, R. S., & Olson, D. M. (2011). Detection of seizure-like movements using a wrist accelerometer. Epilepsy & Behavior, 20, 638-641.

Caregivers of people with epilepsy are commonly concerned about unwitnessed seizures causing injury and even death. The goal of this study was to determine if a wrist-worn motion detector could detect tonicÇôclonic seizures. Individuals admitted for continuous video/EEG monitoring wore a wristwatch-size device that was programmed to detect rhythmic movements such as those that occur during tonicÇôclonic seizures. When such movement was detected, the device sent a Bluetooth signal to a computer that registered the time and duration of the movements. Recorded detections were compared with the routinely recorded video/EEG data. Six of 40 patients had a total of eight tonicÇôclonic seizures. Seven of the eight seizures were detected. Nonseizure movements were detected 204 times, with opportunity for canceling transmission by the patient. Only one false detection occurred during sleep. In principle, this device should allow caregivers of people with tonicÇôclonic seizures to be alerted when a seizure occurs.

Luyten, P., Kempke, S., Van Wambeke, P., Claes, S., Blatt, S. J., & Van Houdenhove, B. (2011). Self-critical perfectionism, stress generation, and stress sensitivity in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Relationship with severity of depression. Psychiatry: Interpersonal and Biological Processes, 74, 21-30.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is a highly disabling disorder that is part of a broader spectrum of chronic pain and fatigue disorders. Although the etiology and pathogenesis of CFS largely remain unclear, there is increasing evidence that CFS shares important pathophysiological disturbances with mood disorders in terms of disturbances in the stress response and the stress system. From a psychodynamic perspective, self-critical perfectionism and related personality factors are hypothesized to explain in part impairments of the stress response in both depression and CFS. Yet, although there is ample evidence that high levels of self-critical perfectionism are associated with stress generation and increased stress sensitivity in depression, evidence supporting this hypothesis in CFS is currently lacking. This study therefore set out to investigate the relationship between self-critical perfectionism, the active generation of stress, stress sensitivity, and levels of depression in a sample of 57 patients diagnosed with CFS using an ecological momentary assessment approach. Results showed, congruent with theoretical assumptions, that self-critical perfectionism was associated with the generation of daily hassles, which in turn predicted higher levels of depression. Moreover, multilevel analyses showed that self-critical perfectionism was related to increased stress sensitivity in CFS patients over a 14-day period, and that increased stress sensitivity in turn was related to increased levels of depression. The implications of these findings for future research and particularly for the development of psychodynamic treatment approaches of CFS and related conditions are discussed.

Mata, J., Thompson, R. J., Jaeggi, S. M., Buschkuehl, M., Jonides, J., & Gotlib, I. H. (2011). Walk on the bright side: Physical activity and affect in major depressive disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology.

Although prescribed exercise has been found to improve affect and reduce levels of depression, we do not know how self-initiated everyday physical activity influences levels of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) in depressed persons. Fifty-three individuals diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and 53 never-depressed controls participated in a seven-day experience sampling study. Participants were prompted randomly eight times per day and answered questions about their physical activity and affective state. Over the week, the two groups of participants did not differ in average level of physical activity. As expected, participants with MDD reported lower average PA and higher average NA than did never-depressed controls. Both participants with MDD and controls reported higher levels of PA at prompts after physical activity than at prompts after inactive periods; moreover, for both groups of participants, PA increased from a prompt after an inactive period to a subsequent prompt at which activity was reported. Depressed participants in particular showed a dose-response effect of physical activity on affect: longer duration and/or higher intensity of physical activity increased their PA significantly more than did short duration and/or lower intensity physical activity. Physical activity did not influence NA in either group. In contrast to previous treatment studies that examined the effects of prescribed structured exercise, this investigation showed that self-initiated physical activity influences PA. These findings also underscore the importance of distinguishing between PA and NA to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of physical activity on affect in MDD.

Messiah, A., Grondin, O., & Encrenaz, G. l. (2011). Factors associated with missing data in an experience sampling investigation of substance use determinants. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 114, 153-158.

Background: The Experience Sampling Method (ESM) collects data repeatedly over time, and is therefore prone to missing observations. Little is known about the characteristics of the subjects and of the ESM procedure associated with unanswered records. Through an ESM investigation of substance use determinants, these characteristics were able to be analyzed. Methods: Participants (n = 224) were undergraduate university students enrolled for a study of substance use factors, providing data through the use of classic questionnaires and through the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) using palmtop computers. For the ESM, they were signaled five times per day for 7 days (7840 records). Characteristics of the ESM procedure and of the participants were analyzed jointly. The probability of an unanswered ESM record was analyzed using a random-intercept logistic regression, fitting a multivariate mixed-effect model for repeated measurements. Results: Factors significantly associated with an unanswered record were: male gender, being a Sport Science student, having higher scores of novelty seeking and of persistence, and being a poly-substance user. Unanswered records were also more frequent in the middle of the week and at the beginning of the day. Conclusion: Findings are discussed in term of the possible impact of missing observations. In particular, the lower compliance of poly-substance users with the ESM protocol may curtail the validity of the method, since ESM records are less representative of all moments in these persons daily life. Thus, results from ESM studies of substance use should be regarded cautiously and complemented with other data gathering procedures.

Minami, H., McCarthy, D. E., Jorenby, D. E., & Baker, T. B. (2011). An Ecological Momentary Assessment analysis of relations among coping, affect and smoking during a quit attempt. Addiction, 106, 641-650.

Aims This study used Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) data from smokers trying to quit to assess relations among coping, positive affect, negative affect and smoking. The effects of stress coping on affect and smoking were examined. Design Data from a randomized clinical trial of smoking cessation treatments were submitted to multi-level modeling to test the effects of coping with stressful events on subsequent affect and smoking. Setting Center for Tobacco Research and Intervention, Madison, Wisconsin. Participants A total of 372 adult daily smokers who reported at least one stressful event and coping episode and provided post-quit data. Measurements Participants’ smoking, coping and affect were assessed in near real time with multiple EMA reports using electronic diaries pre- and post-quit. Findings Multi-level models indicated that a single coping episode did not predict a change in smoking risk over the next 4 or 48 hours, but coping in men was associated with concurrent reports of increased smoking. Coping predicted improved positive and negative affect reported within 4 hours of coping, but these affective gains did not predict reduced likelihood of later smoking. Pre-quit coping frequency and gender moderated post-quit stress coping relations with later positive affect. Men and those with greater pre-quit coping frequency reported greater gains in positive affect following post-quit coping. Conclusions Coping responses early in a quit attempt may help smokers trying to quit feel better, but may not help them stay smoke-free.

Muller, S., Hemmi, M. H., Wilhelm, F. H., Barr, R. G., & Schneider, S. (2011). Parental report of infant sleep behavior by electronic versus paper-and-pencil diaries, and their relationship to actigraphic sleep measurement. J Sleep Res..

Reliable, valid and cost-effective methods for the assessment of infant sleep and sleep problems are of major importance. In this study, the first aim was to assess the agreement of an electronic diary as well as a paper diary with actigraphy for measuring infant sleep patterns in a community sample. The second aim was to assess the feasibility and acceptance of, and compliance with, the electronic diary and the paper diary. Ninety parents reported infant sleep behavior in a paper diary in their home environments for a total of 6 days, 95 in an electronic diary, within two consecutive weeks while actigraphic data were obtained simultaneously. We found moderate to good agreement between electronic diaries and actigraphy (r = 0.41-0.65, P < 0.01), and paper diaries and actigraphy (r = 0.47-0.70, P < 0.01). In addition, this study also found good agreement between both diaries and also between both diaries and actigraphy for sleep percentage over 24 h (electronic diaries and actigraphy: 54.1 +/- 0.7%, 52.5 +/- 0.7%, P < 0.05; paper diaries and actigraphy: 55.1 +/- 0.5%, 52.2 +/- 0.6%, P < 0.01) and for daytime (electronic diaries and actigraphy: 27.3 +/- 0.9%, 23.5 +/- 1.2%, P < 0.01; paper diaries and actigraphy: 27.3 +/- 0.8%, 23.2 +/- 1.0%, P < 0.01), with the exception that less daytime sleep was recorded on actigraphy than on either diary. In conclusion, the electronic diary and the paper diary are valid and well-accepted methods for the assessment of infant sleep. Parents preferred the electronic diary but, conversely, they were less compliant in completing it

Nielsen, K. & Cleal, B. (2011). Under which conditions do middle managers exhibit transformational leadership behaviors? Çö an experience sampling method study on the predictors of transformational leadership behaviors. The Leadership Quarterly, 22, 344-352.

Transformational leadership has been widely researched and associated with followers’ performance, attitudes, health and well-being. However, less research has focused on the antecedents of transformational leadership behaviors. A few studies have examined the characteristics of followers and the attitudes of transformational leaders themselves. There is, however, a lack of knowledge on how the context may encourage transformational leadership behaviors. A study of 58 middle managers from two companies in Denmark; a private accountancy firm and a public elderly care explored this. Using the Experience Sampling Method and questionnaires it was found that both situational factors and working conditions were associated with transformational leadership behaviors at work. The results suggest that research strategies using multiple levels and methods can provide additional information on the antecedents of transformational leadership behaviors in middle managers.

Obeid, J., Nguyen, T., Gabel, L., & Timmons, B. W. (2011). Physical activity in Ontario preschoolers: prevalence and measurement issues. Appl.Physiol Nutr Metab, 36, 291-297.

Early childhood is a critical period for the development of active living behaviours; however, very little is known about the physical activity levels of preschoolers from Canada. The objectives of this study were to (i) examine physical activity in a sample of Ontario preschoolers by using high-frequency accelerometry to determine activity and step counts; (ii) assess the relationship between step counts and physical activity; (iii) examine the influence of epoch length or sampling interval on physical activity; and (iv) compare measured physical activity to existing recommendations. Thirty 3- to 5-year-old children wore accelerometers to monitor habitual physical activity in 3-s epochs over a 7-day period. Preschoolers engaged in an average of 220 min of daily physical activity, 75 min of which were spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and they accumulated 7529 +/- 1539 Preschoolers who engaged in more MVPA also took more steps on a daily basis (r = 0.81, p < 0.001). Compared with a 3-s epoch, sampling intervals of 15, 30, and 60 s resulted in an average of 2.9, 9.0, and 16.7 missed minutes of MVPA per day, respectively. All 30 preschoolers met the National Association for Sport and Physical Education recommendation of at least 120 min of total physical activity per day for preschool-age children. Our data highlight important methodological considerations when measuring physical activity in preschoolers and the need for preschool-specific physical activity guidelines for Canadian children

Ojiambo, R., Cuthill, R., Budd, H., Konstabel, K., Casajus, J. A., Gonzalez-Aguero, A., Anjila, E., Reilly, J. J., Easton, C., & Pitsiladis, Y. P. (2011). Impact of methodological decisions on accelerometer outcome variables in young children. Int J Obes.(Lond), 35 Suppl 1, S98-103.

BACKGROUND: The impact of accelerometer-related methodological decisions relating to the assessment of physical activity and sedentary time has not been conclusively determined in young children. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of epoch and cutoff points on the assessment of physical activity and sedentary time and to determine the accelerometer wear time required to achieve reliable accelerometer data in children. DESIGN: Children were recruited from centres at Ghent, Glasgow, Gothenburg and Zaragoza. METHODS: Physical activity was assessed for 1 week in 86 children (41 girls, 45 boys; mean age 7+/-2 years) by uniaxial accelerometry. The epoch was set at 15 s and reintegrated to 30 and 60 s. Time spent sedentary and in moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed using a range of cutoff points. Number of days required to achieve 80% reliability was predicted using the Spearman-Brown Prophecy formula. RESULTS: The Reilly cutoff points (<1100 counts per min (CPM)) indicated less sedentary time per day when comparing 15 vs 30 s and 15 vs 60 s epochs: 570+/-91 vs 579+/-93 min and 570+/-91 vs 579+/-94 min, respectively; P<0.05. Pate cutoff points (>420 counts per 15 s) reported more MVPA time per day compared with Sirard (890 counts per 15 s) and Puyau cutoff points (>3200 counts per min) using 15 s epoch: 78 (4-197) min (median (range) vs 18 (1-80) min and 24 (1-100) min, respectively; P<0.001. Compliance with guidelines of at least 60 min MVPA was 84, 78 and 73% for Pate cutoff points using 15, 30 and 60 s epochs, respectively, but 0% for Sirard and Puyau cutoff points across epochs. The number of days required to achieve 80% reliability for CPM, sedentary and MVPA time was 7.4-8.5 days. CONCLUSION: Choice of epoch and cutoff point significantly influenced the classification of sedentary and MVPA time and observed compliance to the MVPA guidelines

Oravecz, Z. & Tuerlinckx, F. (2011). The linear mixed model and the hierarchical Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model: some equivalences and differences. Br.J Math.Stat.Psychol., 64, 134-160.

We focus on comparing different modelling approaches for intensive longitudinal designs. Two methods are scrutinized, namely the widely used linear mixed model (LMM) and the relatively unexplored Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) process based state-space model. On the one hand, we show that given certain conditions they result in equivalent outcomes. On the other hand, we consider it important to emphasize that their perspectives are different and that one framework might better address certain types of research questions than the other. We show that, compared to a LMM, an OU process based approach can cope with modelling inter-individual differences in aspects that are more substantively interesting. However, the estimation of the LMM is faster and the model is more straightforward to implement. The models are illustrated through an experience sampling study

Palade, D., Iliescu, D., Cotarlet, L., & Pandele, G. I. (2010). [Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in elderly]. Rev.Med Chir Soc.Med Nat.Iasi, 114, 973-976.

AIM: Comparison of blood pressure values measured by two methods. MATERIAL AND METHOD: 94 hypertensive patients (66 women and 28 men in relation to 2.36/1) were assessed classically and also by ABPM. For statistic evaluation we have used t - Student test, chi2 test, Pearson correlation coefficient and variation coefficient (cv%). RESULTS: It shows significant differences between mean values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure obtained by the 2 methods. CONCLUSIONS: ABPM measured values are more accurate compared to clinic, bringing also information on pattern hypertensive therapy

Prajapati, S. K., Gage, W. H., Brooks, D., Black, S. E., & McIlroy, W. E. (2011). A novel approach to ambulatory monitoring: Investigation into the quantity and control of everyday walking in patients with subacute stroke. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 25, 6-14.

Background. Promoting whole body activities, such as walking, can help improve recovery after stroke. However, little information exists regarding the characteristics of daily walking in patients enrolled in rehabilitation poststroke. The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine the quantity of walking and duration of individual bouts of walking during an inpatient day, (2) compare standard laboratory symmetry measures with measures of symmetry captured throughout the day, and (3) investigate the association between quantity of walking and indices of stroke severity. Methods. The study examined ambulatory activity among 16 inpatients with subacute stroke who were bilaterally instrumented with a wireless accelerometer above the ankle for approximately 8 continuous hours. Results. On average, patients demonstrated 47.5 minutes (standard deviation [SD] = 26.6 minutes) of total walking activity and walking bout durations of 54.4 s (SD = 21.5 s). A statistically significant association was found between the number of walking bouts to total walking time (r = .76; P = .006) and laboratory gait speed (r = .51; P = .045) and between laboratory gait speed and balance impairment (r = .60; P = .013). Also, a significant increase in gait asymmetry was observed during day-long measurement compared with the standard laboratory-based assessment (P = .006). Conclusions. Rather modest amounts of daily walking were found for these ambulatory inpatients, consistent with previous reports about patients after stroke. Bouts of walking were short in duration, and the gait was more asymmetrical, compared with a standard gait assessment. Unobtrusive monitoring of daily walking exposes the characteristics and temporal qualities of poststroke ambulation.

Primack, B. A., Silk, J. S., DeLozier, C. R., Shadel, W. G., Dillman Carpentier, F. R., Dahl, R. E., & Switzer, G. E. (2011). Using ecological momentary assessment to determine media use by individuals with and without major depressive disorder. Arch Pediatr.Adolesc.Med, 165, 360-365.

OBJECTIVE: To use ecological momentary assessment techniques to measure the association of major depressive disorder (MDD) with media use. DESIGN: Data were collected using an ecological momentary assessment protocol with cellular telephone-based brief interviews. SETTING: Participants received as many as 60 telephone calls from a trained staff member during 5 extended weekends in an 8-week period. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred six adolescent participants who were part of a larger neurobehavioral study of depression in Pittsburgh from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2008. MAIN EXPOSURE: At each call, participants were asked whether they were using the following 5 types of media: television or movies, music, video games, Internet, and print media, such as magazines, newspapers, and books. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We developed multivariable models to determine the independent association of each type of media use with MDD, controlling for sociodemographic variables. RESULTS: Of the 106 participants, 46 were diagnosed as having MDD. In multivariable models controlling for age, sex, and race, each increasing quartile of audio use was associated with an 80% increase in the odds of having MDD (odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.8; P = .01 for trend). Conversely, each increasing quartile of print media use was associated with a 50% decrease in the odds of having MDD (odds ratio, 0.5; 95% confidence interval, 0.3-0.9; P = .009 for trend). CONCLUSIONS: Major depressive disorder is positively associated with popular music exposure and negatively associated with reading print media such as books. Further research elucidating the directionality and strength of these relationships may help advance understanding of the relationships between media use and MDD

Raustorp, A., Boldemann, C., Johansson, M., & M+Ñrtensson, F. (2010). Objectively measured physical activity level during a physical education class: A pilot study with Swedish youth. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 22, 469-476.

The aim of this study is to advance our knowledge of the contribution of a typical physical education (PE) class to children’s daily physical activity. Methods: The pilot project is a part of a survey study comprising 11 fourth grader classes (250 pupils). One class of 19 pupils (9 girls) participated in the pilot study. Daily step counts were measured by Yamax pedometers during four consecutive weekdays. During PE class, the participants wore a second pedometer and an Actigraph GT1M accelerometer. Results: The total average step count during PE class was 2512, average 74 steps/ min. The counts for the whole day were 16668, and 19 steps/ min respectively. The total share of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) of the PE class was 50,4% (52,5% and 48,3 % for boys and girls respectively). There was an inverse correlation between daily mean step count and contribution of PE class step to daily mean step (r = -0.64, p= .003). Conclusion: The contribution of PE class to MVPA was in high in both boys and girls. Considering the suggested independent role of physical fitness for cardiovascular health in children, the PE class must be seen as an important health factor, especially for otherwise inactive children.

Ravert, R. D., Calix, S. I., & Sullivan, M. J. (2010). Research In brief: Using mobile phones to collect daily experience data from college undergraduates. Journal of College Student Development, 51, 343-352.

This research brief describes our recent efforts collecting daily experience data from college undergraduates at a large midwestern U.S. university through mobile phone text messaging. We undertook the current pilot study to explore the feasibility of collecting quantitative and qualitative data from undergraduates by sending them text messages via their mobile phone. Procedures used in the study were approved by the campus institutional review board. Following a course announcement, we randomly selected a set of potential participants from the course roster and sent those students a recruitment e-mail. Text messaging as a data collection method appears to hold substantial potential for collecting numerical and text responses, but within a set of limitations. Collecting data from students within the context of their natural environment via experience sampling methodology appears to be a valuable methodology for researchers and student affairs professionals who seek to collect data from students regarding their day-to-day experiences.

Razavi, N., Horn, H., Koschorke, P., Hugli, S., Hofle, O., Muller, T., Strik, W., & Walther, S. (2011). Measuring motor activity in major depression: The association between the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and actigraphy. Psychiatry Res..

Despite the use of actigraphy in depression research, the association of depression ratings and quantitative motor activity remains controversial. In addition, the impact of recurring episodes on motor activity is uncertain. In 76 medicated inpatients with major depression (27 with a first episode, 49 with recurrent episodes) continuous wrist actigraphy for 24h as well as scores of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) were obtained. In addition, 10 subjects of the sample wore the actigraph over a period of five days, in order to assess the reliability of a one day measurement. Activity levels were stable over 5 consecutive days. Actigraphic parameters did not differ between patients with a first or a recurrent episode, and quantitative motor activity failed to correlate with the HAMD total score. However, of the motor-related single items of HAMD, the item activities was associated with motor activity parameters, while the item agitation and retardation were not. Actigraphy is consistent with clinical observation for the item activities. Expert raters may not correctly rate the motor aspects of retardation and agitation in major depression

Riediger, M., Wrzus, C., Schmiedek, F., Wagner, G. G., & Lindenberger, U. (2011). Is seeking bad mood cognitively demanding? Contra-hedonic orientation and working-memory capacity in everyday life. Emotion, 11, 656-665.

Hedonism, or wanting to feel good, is central to human motivation. At times, however, people also seek to maintain or enhance negative affect or to dampen positive affect, and this can be instrumental for the later attainment of their goals. Here, we investigate the assumption that such contra-hedonic orientation is cognitively more demanding than prohedonic orientation, above and beyond the effects of momentary affective experience. We provided 378 participants with mobile phones that they carried with them for 3 weeks while pursuing their daily routines. The phones prompted participants at least 54 times to report their current affect-regulation orientation and to work on two trials of a cognitively demanding working memory task. As expected, contra-hedonic orientation was substantially less prevalent than prohedonic orientation. It was reported in 15% of the measurement occasions. Participants who reported on average more contra-hedonic orientation showed lower average working memory performance throughout the study interval. Further, controlling for the effects of accompanying affective experiences, momentary occurrences of contra-hedonic orientation were associated with temporary declines in working memory performance within individuals, and this could neither be explained by lacking task compliance nor by other characteristics of the individual or the situation. Prohedonic orientation showed a considerably smaller association with working memory performance. These findings are consistent with the view that contra-hedonic orientation is accompanied by momentarily more diminished cognitive resources than is prohedonic orientation.

Rodriguez-Saínchez, A. M., Schaufeli, W., Salanova, M., Cifre, E., & Sonnenschein, M. (2011). Enjoyment and absorption: An electronic diary study on daily flow patterns. Work & Stress, 25, 75-92.

Flow experience is a state of mind in which one is totally absorbed in a task. This study explored the daily flow patterns related to working and non-working tasks among healthy and non-healthy (burned-out) individuals using the Experience Sampling Method. Previously the flow experience has been measured in terms of high challenges and high skills. The main aim of this study was to explore flow throughout the day using an operationalization that focused on the flow experience itself, as indicated by enjoyment and absorption. Forty healthy participants and 60 burned-out individuals kept an electronic diary on activities (work/nonwork), and levels of flow (enjoyment and absorption) for 14 days. Entries were prompted by a signal on average five times a day, thus rendering 5455 entries. A curvilinear daily flow pattern was observed, with lower levels of flow during working hours. Differences were found between the components of flow: enjoyment was higher during non-working tasks, whereas absorption was higher when working. There were no differences in flow patterns between the healthy and burned-out group although the actual levels differed, with the former experiencing more flow than the latter. The results confirm the validity of this means of measuring flow, using enjoyment and absorption as indicators.

Rowson, S., Beckwith, J. G., Chu, J. J., Leonard, D. S., Greenwald, R. M., & Duma, S. M. (2011). A six degree of freedom head acceleration measurement device for use in football. J Appl.Biomech., 27, 8-14.

The high incidence rate of concussions in football provides a unique opportunity to collect biomechanical data to characterize mild traumatic brain injury. The goal of this study was to validate a six degree of freedom (6DOF) measurement device with 12 single-axis accelerometers that uses a novel algorithm to compute linear and angular head accelerations for each axis of the head. The 6DOF device can be integrated into existing football helmets and is capable of wireless data transmission. A football helmet equipped with the 6DOF device was fitted to a Hybrid III head instrumented with a 9 accelerometer array. The helmet was impacted using a pneumatic linear impactor. Hybrid III head accelerations were compared with that of the 6DOF device. For all impacts, peak Hybrid III head accelerations ranged from 24 g to 176 g and 1,506 rad/s(2) to 14,431 rad/s(2). Average errors for peak linear and angular head acceleration were 1% +/- 18% and 3% +/- 24%, respectively. The average RMS error of the temporal response for each impact was 12.5 g and 907 rad/s(2)

Ruggiero, J. S., Redeker, N. S., Fiedler, N., Avi-Itzhak, T., & Fischetti, N. (2011). Sleep and Psychomotor Vigilance in Female Shiftworkers. Biol Res.Nurs..

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between sleep and psychomotor vigilance in female nurses and the changes in these variables over time. Participants comprised 16 staff registered nurses (10 day, 6 night; aged 30-65 years [M = 47.6; SD = 8.1]) who wore wrist actigraphs continuously and completed a 10-min psychomotor vigilance test (PVT-192, Ambulatory Monitoring, Inc., Ardsley, New York) and the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS) in their homes before and after work for three consecutive 24-hr periods. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed that night nurses slept significantly less than day nurses, F(1, 15) = 26.06, p </= .001; M = 227.88 +/- 37.03 min versus M = 365.75 +/- 59.01 min, respectively, daily for three consecutive days. Night nurses napped more frequently and had more changes in the length of their main sleep periods than day nurses. Day nurses reported more wake episodes during main sleep periods. Night nurses were sleepier after work than day nurses; both groups had increased sleepiness after work for the first 2 days and similar psychomotor vigilance test results. These findings suggest that sleep deprivation, irregular sleep patterns, and sleepiness are significant issues for shiftworking nurses. Future study of the characteristics of sleep and sleepiness in a larger sample would be useful to evaluate the focus for interventions to improve sleep and alertness in shiftworking nurses

Saunders, T. J., Prince, S. A., & Tremblay, M. S. (2011). Clustering of children’s activity behaviour: the use of self-report versus direct measures. Int J Behav.Nutr Phys.Act., 8, 48.

While we concur with the objectives of the recent International Journal of Behavioural Nutrition and Physical Activity paper published by Jago and colleagues titled “Physical activity and sedentary behaviour typologies of 10-11 year olds”, we feel that the results as currently presented do not support their conclusions. Though the authors created groups of children with dramatically different patterns of self-reported physical activity and sedentary behaviour, an inspection of the objectively measured accelerometry data shows little difference between the groups. Further, in at least one instance the difference between groups was of the opposite direction when using objective measures, as opposed to the self-report measures used in the published analysis. Thus, we caution the authors from making conclusions based on their self-report data, and propose that they re-analyze their data using their objectively measured data instead

Schulc, E., Unterberger, I., Saboor, S., Hilbe, J., Ertl, M., Ammenwerth, E., Trinka, E., & Them, C. (2011). Measurement and quantification of generalized tonic-clonic seizures in epilepsy patients by means of accelerometry-An explorative study. Epilepsy Res., 95, 173-183.

Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases, which has a cumulative lifetime incidence of 3%. Two to threefold increased morbidity and mortality rates are reported, especially if generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) occur. A wireless small and user-friendly detection system would be helpful in early identification of seizures. This could minimize the risk of seizure-related injuries and further allow complete seizure frequency documentation, especially in a non-clinical private setting. The aim of our study was to develop a design and to conduct an exploratory validation of an accelerometry (ACM)-based detection system for GTCS detection in real-time. Patients were recruited via the Epilepsy Monitoring Unit at the Department of Neurology, Medical University Innsbruck. In three out of 20 patients, four GTCS could be recorded. The ACM sensors recorded increased activities at the stated seizure time, which clearly differed from everyday movements. The temporary sensitivity (100%), specificity (>/=88%) and the positive predictive value (>/=75%) of the detection suggests a promising alarm/false alarm ratio. The validity of the detection device has to be evaluated with more data in order to be able to significantly confirm the positive results and to further develop a cut-off algorithm for automatic seizure detection

Scott, B. A. & Barnes, C. M. (2011). A multilevel field investigation of emotional labor, affect, work withdrawal, and gender. Academy of Management Journal, 54, 116-136.

Using experience-sampling methodology, we examined within-individual relationships among emotional labor, negative and positive affective states, and work withdrawal, as well as the moderating role of gender. Fifty-eight bus drivers completed two daily surveys over a two-week period, producing 415 matched surveys. Results of hierarchical linear models revealed that affective states worsened when employees engaged in surface acting but improved when they engaged in deep acting. Surface acting was positively associated with work withdrawal, and state negative affect mediated this relationship. Results also revealed moderating effects of gender: the within-individual relationships were stronger for females than for males.

Sebire, S. J., Standage, M., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2011). Predicting objectively assessed physical activity from the content and regulation of exercise goals: Evidence for a mediational model. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 33, 175-197.

Grounded in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), the purpose of this work was to examine effects of the content and motivation of adults’ exercise goals on objectively assessed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). After reporting the content and motivation of their exercise goals, 101 adult participants (M[sub]age[/sub] = 38.79 years; SD = 11.5) wore an ActiGraph (GT1M) accelerometer for seven days. Accelerometer data were analyzed to provide estimates of engagement in MVPA and bouts of physical activity. Goal content did not directly predict behavioral engagement; however, mediation analysis revealed that goal content predicted behavior via autonomous exercise motivation. Specifically, intrinsic versus extrinsic goals for exercise had a positive indirect effect on average daily MVPA, average daily MVPA accumulated in 10-min bouts and the number of days on which participants performed 30 or more minutes of MVPA through autonomous motivation. These results support a motivational sequence in which intrinsic versus extrinsic exercise goals influence physical activity behavior because such goals are associated with more autonomous forms of exercise motivation.

Sherar, L. B., Griew, P., Esliger, D. W., Cooper, A. R., Ekelund, U., Judge, K., & Riddoch, C. (2011). International Children’s Accelerometry Database (ICAD): Design and methods. BMC Public Health, 11, 485.

BACKGROUND: Over the past decade, accelerometers have increased in popularity as an objective measure of physical activity in free-living individuals. Evidence suggests that objective measures, rather than subjective tools such as questionnaires, are more likely to detect associations between physical activity and health in children. To date, a number of studies of children and adolescents across diverse cultures around the globe have collected accelerometer measures of physical activity accompanied by a broad range of predictor variables and associated health outcomes. The International Children’s Accelerometry Database (ICAD) project pooled and reduced raw accelerometer data using standardized methods to create comparable outcome variables across studies. Such data pooling has the potential to improve our knowledge regarding the strength of relationships between physical activity and health. This manuscript describes the contributing studies, outlines the standardized methods used to process the accelerometer data and provides the initial questions which will be addressed using this novel data repository. Methods: Between September 2008 and May 2010 46,131 raw Actigraph data files and accompanying anthropometric, demographic and health data collected on children (aged 3-18 years) were obtained from 20 studies worldwide and data was reduced using standardized analytical methods. Results: When using greater than or equal to 8, 10 and 12 hrs of wear per day as a criterion, 96%, 93.5% and 86.2% of the males, respectively, and 96.3%, 93.7% and 86% of the females, respectively, had at least one valid day of data. Conclusions: Pooling raw accelerometer data and accompanying phenotypic data from a number of studies has the potential to: a) increase statistical power due to a large sample size, b) create a more heterogeneous and potentially more representative sample, c) standardize and optimize the analytical methods used in the generation of outcome variables, and d) provide a means to study the causes of inter-study variability in physical activity. Methodological challenges include inflated variability in accelerometry measurements and the wide variation in tools and methods used to collect non-accelerometer data

Shiffman, S. & Rathbun, S. L. (2011). Point process analyses of variations in smoking rate by setting, mood, gender, and dependence. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors.

The immediate emotional and situational antecedents of ad-libitum smoking are still not well understood. We reanalyzed data from ecological momentary assessment using novel point process analyses to assess how craving, mood, and social setting influence smoking rate, as well as to assess the moderating effects of gender and nicotine dependence. Smokers (N = 304) recorded craving, mood, and social setting using electronic diaries when smoking and at random nonsmoking times over 16 days of smoking. Point process analysis, which makes use of the known random sampling scheme for momentary variables, examined main effects of setting and interactions with gender and dependence. Increased craving was associated with higher rates of smoking, particularly among women. Negative affect was not associated with smoking rate, even in interaction with arousal, but restlessness was associated with substantially higher smoking rates. Women’s smoking tended to be less affected by negative affect. Nicotine dependence had little moderating effect on situational influences. Smoking rates were higher when smokers were alone or with others who were smoking, and smoking restrictions reduced smoking rates. However, the presence of others who are smoking undermined the effects of restrictions. The more sensitive point process analyses confirmed earlier findings, including the surprising conclusion that negative affect by itself was not related to smoking rates. Contrary to hypothesis, men’s and not women’s smoking was influenced by negative affect. Both smoking restrictions and the presence of others who are not smoking suppress smoking, but the presence of others who are not smoking undermines the effects of restrictions. Point process analyses of ecological momentary assessment data can bring out even small influences on smoking rate.

Soric, M., Mikulic, P., Misigoj-Durakovic, M., Ruzic, L., & Markovic, G. (2011). Validation of the Sensewear Armband during recreational in-line skating. Eur J Appl.Physiol.

Multi-sensor body monitors that combine accelerometry with other physiological data are designed to overcome drawbacks of accelerometers in assessing activities with little or no vertical movement. One of such devices is the Sensewear Armband (SWA) which has been extensively validated during various activities. However, very few of the validation studies included activities other than walking and running. The aim of this investigation was to assess the validity of the SWA during recreational in-line skating. Nineteen participants (11 females and 8 males), 28 (+/-6) years of age, performed in-line skating exercise on a circular track at a self-selected pace. Energy expenditure was measured with the SWA and the Cosmed K4b(2) breath-by-breath portable metabolic unit. The mean (SD) energy expenditure during in-line skating estimated by the SWA [25.5 (5.8) kJ/min] was significantly lower compared with indirect calorimetry [44.2 (9.7) kJ/min, P < 0.001]. Similarly, the mean (SD) MET values recorded by the SWA were also lower compared with IC [5.3 (1.0) METs vs. 9.1 (1.6) METs, P < 0.001]. The ratio limits of agreement suggest that in 95% of cases the SWA will underestimate the energy expenditure and MET values during in-line skating by as much as 24-56% compared with indirect calorimetry. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that the SWA is not able to overcome the drawbacks of accelerometry in assessing activities with limited vertical movement

Sosnoff, J. J., Weikert, M., Dlugonski, D., Smith, D. C., & Motl, R. W. (2011). Quantifying gait impairment in multiple sclerosis using GAITRite technology. Gait.Posture., 34, 145-147.

This pilot study investigated the validity of the functional ambulatory profile (FAP) score from the GAITRite electronic pathway in persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) who had onset of walking impairment. Thirteen PwMS who had Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores of 4.0-6.0 performed four trials on GAITRite pathway, and completed a multidimensional walking assessment including performance tests (timed 25 foot walk; T25FW, timed up and go; TUG), self reports of walking ability (Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12; MSWS-12) and function (Late Life Function and Disability Inventory; LL-FDI), and free-living walking behavior (accelerometry). The FAP score correlated strongly with neurological disability (EDSS, rho=-0.81), walking performance (T25FW, rho=-0.82; TUG, rho=-0.88) and self-reported walking function (LL-FDI, rho=0.81), and moderately with self-reported walking impairment (MSWS-12, rho=0.49) and free-living walking behavior (accelerometry, rho=0.52). This suggests that the FAP score is a valid marker of gait impairment in PwMS who have onset of walking impairment

Steptoe, A., Leigh, E. S., & Kumari, M. (2011). Positive affect and distressed affect over the day in older people. Psychology and Aging.

The purpose of this study was to assess patterns of affect over the day in a representative sample of older people, with particular emphasis on the impact of loneliness and depression. Momentary assessments of positive and distressed affect were obtained four times over a single day from 4,258 men and women aged 52Çô79 years from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Positive and distressed affect were only modestly correlated (r = êÆ0.23). Positive affect was low on waking and peaked in the early evening, while distressed affect decreased progressively over the day. The diurnal variation in positive affect was greater in participants <65 years compared with older individuals. Positive affect was greater in men, married participants and in healthy individuals, while distressed affect was higher among women, unmarried and lower socioeconomic status respondents, and in those with limiting longstanding illnesses. Depressed individuals experienced lower positive affect throughout the day, while differences in distressed affect were more pronounced in the morning. Loneliness was associated with lower positive affect and greater distressed affect independently of age, sex, marital status, paid employment, socioeconomic status, health, and depression. This study demonstrates that ecological momentary assessment of affect is feasible on a large scale in older individuals, and generates information about positive affect and distress that is complementary to standard questionnaire measures. The associations with loneliness highlight the everyday distress and reduced happiness and excitement experienced by lonely older men and women, and these may contribute to enhanced risks to physical and mental health.

Sweeney, C. K., Goldner, J., & Richards, M. H. (2011). Exposure to community violence and daily feeling states among urban African American youth. J Prev.Interv.Community, 39, 114-131.

This longitudinal study examined the relationships between exposure to community violence and daily feeling states among 175 6th- through 8th-grade African American students. The relationships were tested both cross-sectionally and longitudinally over the 3-year span. Four daily feeling state subscales: contented, hostile, anxious, and dysphoric were developed from a factor analysis of the 30 Experience Sampling Method (ESM) feeling states. Cross-sectionally, regression analyses indicated that exposure to violence individually predicted most feeling states and more variability in most feeling states in 7th and 8th grades. When feeling states were entered into regressions together, fewer predicted violence exposure. Longitudinally, regression analyses revealed that more variability in dysphoric feelings in 6th grade predicted exposure to violence in 7th grade, while 6th-grade hostile and anxious feelings predicted 8th-grade exposure change. Longitudinal analyses did not indicate that exposure to community violence predicted later daily feeling states. Preventive and intervention implications are addressed

Takano, K. & Tanno, Y. (2011). Diurnal variation in rumination. Emotion.

The present study investigated the daily fluctuation of ruminative thinking and its individual differences by using the experience sampling method. Participants recorded their thought contents and negative affect eight times a day for a week at semirandom intervals. High-trait ruminators showed high levels of self-focus, unpleasantness, and uncontrollability in their thoughts over the sampling course. These variables were interacted to predict the levels of concurrent negative affect: Self-focus was strongly associated with increased levels of negative affect when the thought was highly unpleasant and uncontrollable. A composite measure of rumination, including self-focus, unpleasantness, and uncontrollability, exhibited diurnal variation, which was assimilated by a quadratic function of time of day. However, there were differences in the estimated parameters of diurnal trajectories between high and low levels of depression, which indicated that individuals with higher levels of depression are more likely to engage in rumination in the evening, not in the morning, than those with lower levels of depression. These findings suggest that rumination in the evening would play an important role in the exacerbation and maintenance of depression.

Taylor, R. W., Farmer, V. L., Cameron, S. L., Meredith-Jones, K., Williams, S. M., & Mann, J. I. (2011). School playgrounds and physical activity policies as predictors of school and home time activity. Int J Behav.Nutr Phys.Act., 8, 38.

BACKGROUND: Previous work has suggested that the number of permanent play facilities in school playgrounds and school-based policies on physical activity can influence physical activity in children. However, few comparable studies have used objective measures of physical activity or have had little adjustment for multiple confounders. METHODS: Physical activity was measured by accelerometry over 5 recess periods and 3 full school days in 441 children from 16 primary schools in Dunedin, New Zealand. The number of permanent play facilities (swing, fort, slide, obstacle course, climbing wall etc) in each school playground was counted on three occasions by three researchers following a standardized protocol. Information on school policies pertaining to physical activity and participation in organized sport was collected by questionnaire. RESULTS: Measurement of school playgrounds proved to be reliable (ICC 0.89) and consistent over time. Boys were significantly more active than girls (P < 0.001), but little time overall was spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Boys engaged in MVPA for 32 (SD 17) minutes each day of which 17 (10) took place at school compared with 23 (14) and 11 (7) minutes respectively in girls. Each additional 10-unit increase in play facilities was associated with 3.2% (95% CI 0.0-6.4%) more total activity and 8.3% (0.8-16.3%) more MVPA during recess. By contrast, school policy score was not associated with physical activity in children. CONCLUSION: The number of permanent play facilities in school playgrounds is associated with higher physical activity in children, whereas no relationship was observed for school policies relating to physical activity. Increasing the number of permanent play facilities may offer a cost-effective long-term approach to increasing activity levels in children

Thewissen, V., Bentall, R. P., Oorschot, M., Campo, A., van, L. T., van, O. J., & Myin-Germeys, I. (2011). Emotions, self-esteem, and paranoid episodes: an experience sampling study. Br.J Clin Psychol., 50, 178-195.

OBJECTIVES. The evidence to date for a causal role of emotions in the generation of paranoid symptoms is scarce, mainly because of a lack of studies investigating the longitudinal association between emotional processes and paranoia. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether momentary emotional experiences (anxiety, depression, anger/irritability) and self-esteem predicted the onset and duration of a paranoid episode. We also studied whether levels of emotional experiences and self-esteem were respectively higher and lower during a paranoid episode. DESIGN. A 1-week, prospective momentary assessment study. METHODS. Data were collected using the experience sampling method, a structured self-assessment diary technique. The sample consisted of 158 individuals who ranged across the paranoia continuum. Participants with a psychotic disorder were recruited from in-patient and out-patient mental health services. Participants without psychotic disorder were sampled from the general population. RESULTS. Specific aspects of emotional experience were implicated in the onset and persistence of paranoid episodes. Both an increase in anxiety and a decrease in self-esteem predicted the onset of paranoid episodes. Cross-sectionally, paranoid episodes were associated with high levels of all negative emotions and low level of self-esteem. Initial intensity of paranoia and depression was associated with longer, and anger/irritability with shorter duration of paranoid episodes. CONCLUSIONS. Paranoid delusionality is driven by negative emotions and reductions in self-esteem, rather than serving an immediate defensive function against these emotions and low self-esteem. Clinicians need to be aware of the central role of emotion-related processes and especially self-esteem in paranoid thinking

Thompson, R. J., Mata, J., Jaeggi, S. M., Buschkuehl, M., Jonides, J., & Gotlib, I. H. (2011). Concurrent and prospective relations between attention to emotion and affect intensity: An experience sampling study. Emotion.

Theorists contend that emotional awareness is vital to being able to use emotional information adaptively. The extent to which individuals attend to and value their feelings, or attention to emotion, is a facet of emotional awareness. Little research, however, has examined whether attention to emotion affects the magnitude or intensity of emotional experiences. In the present study we examined the relations between attention to emotion and levels of affect in 53 healthy adults. Participants carried hand-held electronic devices for approximately 7 days and were randomly prompted eight times per day to answer a series of questions. At each prompt, participants reported attention to emotion, current negative affect (NA), and positive affect (PA). All findings presented were computed using multilevel modeling. Replicating findings obtained using trait-level measures, we found that attention to emotion was associated concurrently with higher levels of both NA and PA. We also found prospectively that attention to emotion at one prompt predicted a decrease in levels of NA, but no change in levels of PA, at the subsequent prompt. These findings suggest that emotional processes serve different functions over time and highlight the role of attention to emotion in affect regulation.

Tucker, J. M., Welk, G. J., & Beyler, N. K. (2011). Physical activity in U.S. adults: Compliance with the physical activity guidelines for Americans. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 40, 454-461.

Background: To date, no study has objectively measured physical activity levels among U.S. adults according to the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (PAGA). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess self-reported and objectively measured physical activity among U.S. adults according to the PAGA. Methods: Using data from the NHANES 2005Çô2006, the PAGA were assessed using three physical activity calculations: moderate plus vigorous physical activity ëÑ150 minutes/week (MVPA); moderate plus two instances of vigorous physical activity ëÑ150 minutes/week (M2VPA); and time spent above 3 METs ëÑ500 MET-minutes/week (METPA). Self-reported physical activity included leisure, transportation, and household activities. Objective activity was measured using Actigraph accelerometers that were worn for 7 consecutive days. Analyses were conducted in 2009 Çô2010. Results: U.S. adults reported 324.5 -¦ 18.6 minutes/week (M-¦SE) of moderate physical activity and 73.6 -¦ 3.9 minutes/week of vigorous physical activity, although accelerometry estimates were 45.1 -¦ 4.6 minutes/week of moderate physical activity and 18.6 -¦ 6.6 minutes/week of vigorous physical activity. The proportion of adults meeting the PAGA according to M2VPA was 62.0% for self-report and 9.6% for accelerometry. Conclusions: According to the NHANES 2005Çô2006, fewer than 10% of U.S. adults met the PAGA according to accelerometry. However, physical activity estimates vary substantially depending on whether self-reported or measured via accelerometer.

Tudor-Locke, C., Bassett, D. R., Shipe, M. F., & McClain, J. J. (2011). Pedometry methods for assessing free-living adults. J Phys.Act.Health, 8, 445-453.

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this review is to update the methodological aspects of pedometry to encourage the consistent use of pedometers for assessment, to decrease sources of error, and to facilitate comparison and interpretation of results. METHODS: The specific measurement topics addressed include: instrument choice, metric choice, validity, reliability, data collection and retrieval, time worn, day-to-day variability, monitoring time frame, reactivity, and data treatment. RESULTS: A wide variety of valid and reliable instruments are commercially available and we can expect continued evolutions in value-added features as supporting technology improves. Data collection and retrieval has been achieved through various methods, including face-to-face contact, fax, e-mail, website, and conventional mail, and sometimes a combination of these. Day-to-day variation is not random, as would be expected from inconsistent pedometer performance, but rather exposes true behavior instability that can be explained by other factors and described using a coefficient of variation. Data reduction should be conducted cautiously and only after a full discovery (and disclosure) of its impact on aggregated group statistics and their relationship with other parameters. CONCLUSIONS: We have no doubt that research with pedometers will continue to yield new and important insights in the coming years

Tudor-Locke, C., Johnson, W. D., & Katzmarzyk, P. T. (2011). Relationship between accelerometer-determined steps/day and other accelerometer outputs in US adults. J Phys.Act.Health, 8, 410-419.

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) accelerometer-determined steps/day and activity counts/day, and between steps/day and estimates of nonwear time (as an indicator of the unmonitored day) and time spent in sedentary behaviors as well as a range of physical activity intensities. METHODS: Linear regression models were used to characterize the relationship between steps/day, activity counts/day, estimates of wear time, and intensity categories. RESULTS: 1781 males (mean age = 46.5 years) and 1963 females (mean age = 47.7 years) wore accelerometers 14.0 +/- SEM0.06 hours/day. The relationship between steps/day and activity counts/day was positive and strong (R2 = .87). The relationship between steps/day and time spent in sedentary behaviors was inverse and moderate (R2 = .25). Stronger and positive relationships were apparent between steps/day and time in light (R2 = .69) and moderate (R2 = .63) intensity activities. There was no discernable relationship between steps/day and time spent in low or vigorous intensity activities or with wear time. CONCLUSIONS: Assessed by accelerometer, steps/day explains 87% of the variation in activity counts/day, 25% of the variation in time in sedentary behaviors, 69% of time in light intensity, and 63% of time in moderate intensity

van den Berg-Emons RJ, L’ortye, A. A., Buffart, L. M., Nieuwenhuijsen, C., Nooijen, C. F., Bergen, M. P., Stam, H. J., & Bussmann, J. B. (2011). Validation of the physical activity scale for individuals with physical disabilities. Arch Phys.Med Rehabil., 92, 923-928.

van den Berg-Emons RJ, L’Ortye AA, Buffart LM, Nieuwenhuijsen C, Nooijen CF, Bergen MP, Stam HJ, Bussmann JB. Validation of the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals With Physical Disabilities. OBJECTIVE: To determine the criterion validity of the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals With Physical Disabilities (PASIPD) by means of daily physical activity levels measured by using a validated accelerometry-based activity monitor in a large group of persons with a physical disability. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Participants’ home environment. PARTICIPANTS: Ambulatory and nonambulatory persons with cerebral palsy, meningomyelocele, or spinal cord injury (N=124). INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported physical activity level measured by using the PASIPD, a 2-day recall questionnaire, was correlated to objectively measured physical activity level measured by using a validated accelerometry-based activity monitor. RESULTS: Significant Spearman correlation coefficients between the PASIPD and activity monitor outcome measures ranged from .22 to .37. The PASIPD overestimated the duration of physical activity measured by using the activity monitor (mean +/- SD, 3.9+/-2.9 vs 1.5+/-0.9h/d; P<.01). Significant correlation (rho=-.74; P<.01) was found between average number of hours of physical activity per day measured by using the 2 methods and difference in hours between methods. This indicates larger overestimation for persons with higher activity levels. CONCLUSIONS: The PASIPD correlated poorly with objective measurements using an accelerometry-based activity monitor in people with a physical disability. However, similar low correlations between objective and subjective activity measurements have been found in the general population. Users of the PASIPD should be cautious about overestimating physical activity levels

Van, C. E., Gubbels, J., De, B., I, & Cardon, G. (2011). Feasibility and validity of accelerometer measurements to assess physical activity in toddlers. Int J Behav.Nutr Phys.Act., 8, 67.

BACKGROUND: Accelerometers are considered to be the most promising tool for measuring physical activity (PA) in free-living young children. So far, no studies have examined the feasibility and validity of accelerometer measurements in children under 3 years of age. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the feasibility and validity of accelerometer measurements in toddlers (1- to 3-year olds). METHODS: Forty-seven toddlers (25 boys; 20 +/- 4 months) wore a GT1M ActiGraph accelerometer for 6 consecutive days and parental perceptions of the acceptability of wearing the monitor were assessed to examine feasibility. To investigate the validity of the ActiGraph and the predictive validity of three ActiGraph cut points, accelerometer measurements of 31 toddlers (17 boys; 20 +/- 4 months) during free play at child care were compared to directly observed PA, using the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool (OSRAC-P). Validity was assessed using Pearson and Spearman correlations and predictive validity using area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (ROC-AUC). RESULTS: The feasibility examination indicated that accelerometer measurements of 30 toddlers (63.8%) could be included with a mean registration time of 564 +/- 62 min during weekdays and 595 +/- 83 min during weekend days. According to the parental reports, 83% perceived wearing the accelerometer as ‘not unpleasant and not pleasant’ and none as ‘unpleasant’. The validity evaluation showed that mean ActiGraph activity counts were significantly and positively associated with mean OSRAC-P activity intensity (r = 0.66; p < 0.001; n = 31). Further, the correlation among the ActiGraph activity counts and the OSRAC-P activity intensity level during each observation interval was significantly positive (rho = 0.52; p < 0.001; n = 4218). Finally, the three sedentary cut points exhibited poor to fair classification accuracy (ROC-AUC: 0.56 to 0.71) while the three light PA (ROC-AUC: 0.51 to 0.62) and the three moderate-to-vigorous PA cut points (ROC-AUC: 0.53 to 0.57) demonstrated poor classification accuracy with respect to detecting sedentary behavior, light PA and moderate-to-vigorous PA, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggest that ActiGraph accelerometer measurements are feasible and valid for quantifying PA in toddlers. However, further research is needed to accurately identify PA intensities in toddlers using accelerometry

Varese, F., Udachina, A., Myin-Germeys, I., Oorschot, M., & Bentall, R. P. (2011). The relationship between dissociation and auditory verbal hallucinations in the flow of daily life of patients with psychosis. Psychosis: Psychological, Social and Integrative Approaches, 3, 14-28.

Primary objectives: It has been proposed that dissociation plays a role in the aetiology of hallucinatory experiences. The present study examined the relationship between reports of auditory hallucinations and dissociative experiences in the daily lives of patients with psychosis. The influence of everyday stressors on dissociation and on the hypothesised relationship between dissociation and hallucinatory experiences was also investigated. Finally, this study examined the association between hallucinations and other non-dissociative dysfunctional strategies used to suppress unpleasant mental events (i.e. experiential avoidance). Method: Forty-two patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum disorder and 23 healthy controls were studied for six days using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM), a structured self-assessment diary technique. Results: Patients who hallucinated during the assessment period (n = 21) reported elevated levels of dissociation compared to non-hallucinating patients and healthy controls. Within the hallucinating patient group, auditory hallucinations were significantly predicted by both dissociation and experiential avoidance, although only the effect of dissociation remained significant after controlling for comorbid paranoia. Dissociation predicted the occurrence of auditory hallucinations especially under high stress. Hallucinating patients also reported a greater increase in dissociation in response to minor daily life stress compared to clinical and nonclinical controls. Conclusions: These results further support the link between auditory hallucinations and experiences of dissociative detachment, and might inform future investigations into the mechanisms underlying this association. Interventions designed to reduce dissociation should be studied as potential treatments for auditory hallucinations.

Vuilleumier, P. & Righart, R. (2011). Perception of dynamic facial expressions and gaze. In C.b.Curio, H. H. B++lthoff, M. A. Giese, C. b. Curio, H. H. B++lthoff, & M. A. Giese (Eds.), Dynamic faces: Insights from experiments and computation (pp. 141-159). Cambridge, MA US: MIT Press.

(from the chapter) Facial expressions have a quick onset and a brief duration, being produced and perceived with relative ease without much intentional planning in most everyday situations. This rapid and relative automatic activity is important because it serves to communicate efficiently with others in social situations and to allow rapid adaptation in potentially threatening situations. To allow such swift processing, it is possible that a specific pathway in the brain might be dedicated to facial expressions, separate from processing facial identity. Accordingly, separate pathways for face identity and expressions have been proposed by the most influential psychological and neural models of face recognition. In these models, invariant and variant (i.e., changeable) aspects of faces are represented differently. Variant aspects may include expressions (emotional or otherwise), as well as gaze shifts, speech-related mouth movements, or even head orientation changes. Early neuropsychological observations have revealed double dissociations in impairments for recognizing facial expressions, gaze, and identity, and numerous subsequent neuroimaging studies have likewise shown (at least partly) dissociable functional networks activated by expressions, gaze, and identity, providing convincing support for these models. However, it should be noted that both neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have mainly used static, “frozen” faces. To better understand the processing of facial expressions or gaze direction in an ecological manner, the use of dynamic images in which the temporal unfolding of the expression is visible seems necessary. What are the differences in information content between static and dynamic expressions? Static expressions are still images that imply a movement or an expression that has occurred or is occurring, whereas dynamic expressions are consecutive frames or clips in which there is an ongoing movement showing the characteristic visual features of the face changing over time. Thus, because of their implied meaning, static images may rely to some extent on imagery or more abstract knowledge in the observer, whereas dynamic expressions may involve more purely sensory-driven processing of moment-to-moment information. For certain facial expressions of emotion, it is known that subtle changes in the temporal unfolding of the expression over time are crucial for an appropriate recognition of the displayed emotion or for the interpretation of expressions that follow each other. Are dynamic expressions better recognized than static expressions? There is strong evidence that this is the case! Here we review recent studies in cognitive neuroscience that have used dynamic images of facial expressions and compare their results with those previously found with static expressions. In addition, we discuss the methodological challenges that researchers may face when using dynamic stimuli. These studies show that using dynamic images of facial expressions and gaze has increased the ecological validity of results, and resolved several ambiguous results that had previously been obtained with static images.

Weinland, S. R., Morris, C. B., Hu, Y., Leserman, J., Bangdiwala, S. I., & Drossman, D. A. (2011). Characterization of Episodes of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Using Ecological Momentary Assessment. Am J Gastroenterol..

OBJECTIVES:Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) report that symptoms occur as episodes. The nature and frequency of episodes have not been well studied.METHODS:Using modified ecological momentary assessment (EMA), we examined clinical factors attributed to IBS symptom episodes and compared them with nonsymptom episode periods in patients with IBS-D (N=21), IBS-C (N=18), or IBS-M (N=19), and healthy controls (N=19). Symptoms were rated over 14 days on a visual ordinal scale (VOS: 0-10) randomly in morning, midday, and evening, and at wake up, bedtime, prebowel movement, and postbowel movement. Scores were evaluated for total group and across subgroups and between EMA and daily diary cards on the same day.RESULTS:Subjects (n=57/59) reported symptom episodes 34% of the time. Episodes showed significantly higher pain levels (3.6 vs. 1.64, P<0.0001), bloating (4.57 vs. 3.02, P<0.0001), stress (3.54 vs. 2.59, P<0.0001), and decreased well-being (5.29 vs. 6.16, P<0.0001). Episode frequency/2 weeks was greatest for IBS-D (10.7+/-7.05) than IBS-C (8.4+/-5.76) and IBS-M (7.1+/-4.45) (P=nonsignificant). IBS-D also had shorter episodes (9 h 23 min) compared with IBS-M (15 h 01 min) and IBS-C (15 h 25 min) (P<0.04). Stool frequency and looser consistency were greater with IBS-D and similar between IBS-C and IBS-M. Abdominal pain was the greatest predictor of episode status. Diary card ratings of pain and stool frequency overestimate levels reported by EMA.CONCLUSIONS:Episodes of IBS are associated with greater pain (strongest relationship), bloating, and stress scores, and poorer global well-being. Compared with IBS-D, IBS-C and IBS-M are similar in clinical features. Patients overreport pain and stool frequency by diary compared with EMA.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 7 June 2011; doi:10.1038/ajg.2011.170

Wetter, D. W., McClure, J. B., Cofta-Woerpel, L., Costello, T. J., Reitzel, L. R., Businelle, M. S., & Cinciripini, P. M. (2011). A randomized clinical trial of a palmtop computer-delivered treatment for smoking relapse prevention among women. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 25, 365-371.

Relapse is the rule rather than the exception among smokers attempting to quit, and compared to men, women may have higher relapse rates. The current study was a randomized clinical trial testing a palmtop computer-delivered treatment (CDT) for smoking relapse prevention among women. The intervention was individualized based on key theoretical constructs that were measured using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). All participants (N = 302) received standard smoking cessation treatment consisting of nicotine replacement therapy and group counseling, and completed EMA procedures for one week after quitting. At the completion of the group counseling sessions and EMA procedures, participants were randomized to either CDT or no further computer-delivered treatment or assessment (EMA-Only). CDT participants received a palmtop computer-delivered relapse prevention treatment for one additional month. CDT did not improve abstinence rates relative to EMA-Only. Process analyses suggested that heavier smokers were more likely to use CDT and that greater use among CDT participants may be associated with more positive outcomes. The rapid pace of technological advances in mobile computer technology and the ubiquity of such devices provide a novel platform for developing new and potentially innovative treatments. However, the current study did not demonstrate the efficacy of such technology in improving treatment outcomes.

Whalen, C. K., Odgers, C. L., Reed, P. L., & Henker, B. (2011). Dissecting daily distress in mothers of children with ADHD: An electronic diary study. Journal of Family Psychology, 25, 402-411.

It is well known that parents of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience elevated levels of caregiver stress, but little is known about the ebb and flow of parental distress as it happens, or the degree of synchrony between short-term oscillations in child behaviors and maternal distress. Electronic diaries (eDiaries) were used to dissect daily distress in natural settings. Across 7 days during nonschool hours, half-hourly eDiaries were completed independently by mothers and their 8- to 12-year-old children (51 receiving medication for ADHD and 58 comparison peers). Diary items tapped behaviors, moods, and contexts, with children reporting their own behaviors and mothers reporting on themselves and their children. Maternal distress and child ADHD-type behaviors exhibited moderate to strong associations Ç£in the moment,ÇØ whether child behaviors were reported by mothers or children. This mother-child synchrony emerged for the comparison as well as the ADHD group, although the associations were stronger when the dyad included a child with ADHD. Because fixed-effects analyses were conducted, these patterns are not attributable to levels of psychopathology or other stable individual differences in mothers or children. Further moderation analyses revealed that the links between child behaviors and maternal distress were strengthened by maternal risk and attenuated by child behavioral self-esteem; these effects were modest but detectable. These findings can help guide not only interventions targeted on improving quality of life in families of children with ADHD, but also programs designed to help all parents identify and manage their own parenting stressors.

Wray, J. M., Godleski, S. A., & Tiffany, S. T. (2011). Cue-reactivity in the natural environment of cigarette smokers: The impact of photographic and in vivo smoking stimuli. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors.

The cue-reactivity paradigm has been used extensively in laboratory settings to study cue-specific craving responses to drug-related cues. However, this procedure has been used in only one study to assess craving in the drug user’s natural environment (Warthen & Tiffany, 2009). The present study combined cue-reactivity with ecological momentary assessment (CREMA) to evaluate smokers’ cue reactions in natural environments as a further validation and extension of this procedure. A total of 66 daily cigarette smokers carried a personal digital assistant (PDA) and had the opportunity to respond to 32 cue-reactivity sessions across 8 days. Cues were presented through in vivo and photographic modes. During in vivo sessions, participants handled and looked at a cigarette or neutral object, while during photographic sessions, participants looked at a smoking-related or neutral photograph on the PDA. Craving and mood were assessed before and after cue presentations. Cues were also presented in the laboratory both before (Lab I) and after (Lab II) the 8-day CREMA procedure. Participants completed over 90% of cue-reactivity sessions delivered with the CREMA procedure. Analyses revealed robust cue-reactivity in the natural environment and laboratory across both modes of presentation. Photographic cues elicited significantly stronger cue-reactivity effects than in vivo cues across all sessions. The CREMA procedure has been shown to elicit robust cue-reactivity effects across multiple modes of cue presentation. Results support the use of the CREMA procedure for examining cue-specific craving in the natural environment of smokers.

Zogg, J. B., Woods, S. P., Sauceda, J. A., Wiebe, J. S., & Simoni, J. M. (2011). The role of prospective memory in medication adherence: a review of an emerging literature. J Behav.Med.

Although neurocognitive impairment is an established risk factor for medication nonadherence, standard neurocognitive tests developed for clinical purposes may not fully capture the complexities of non-adherence behavior or effectively inform theory-driven interventions. Prospective memory, an innovative cognitive construct describing one’s ability to remember to do something at a later time, is an understudied factor in the detection and remediation of medication non-adherence. This review orients researchers to the construct of prospective memory, summarizes empirical evidence for prospective memory as a risk factor for non-adherence, discusses the relative merits of current measurement techniques, and highlights potential prospective memory-focused intervention strategies. A comprehensive literature review was conducted of published empirical studies investigating prospective memory and medication adherence. Overall, reviewed studies suggest that prospective memory is an important component of medication adherence, providing incremental ecological validity over established predictors. Findings indicate that prospective memory-based interventions might be an effective means of improving adherence

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